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We get the following algorithm.

\begin{algorithm}{Lanczos Method for HEP
...}\> \> compute approximate eigenvectors $X=V_j\,S$\end{tabbing}}

Let us comment on some of the steps of Algorithm 4.6:

If a good guess for the wanted eigenvector is available, use it. For instance, if, for a discretized partial differential equation, it is known that the wanted eigenvector is smooth with respect to the grid, one could start with a vector with all ones. In other cases choose a random direction, for instance, one consisting of normally distributed random numbers.

This matrix-vector operation is most often the CPU-dominating work. Any routine that performs a matrix-vector multiplication can be used. In the shift-and-invert case, solve systems with the factored matrix. There is, as of now, little solid experience of using iterative equation solvers in the inverted case.

When computing in finite precision, orthogonality is lost as soon as one eigenvalue converges. The choices for reorthogonalization are:

  1. Full: Simple to implement; see §4.4.4 below. Iterations will need successively more work as $j$ increases. This is the preferred choice in the shift-and-invert case, when several eigenvalues converge in few steps $j$.

  2. Selective: The most elaborate scheme, necessary when convergence is slow and several eigenvalues are sought. This option is also discussed later in §4.4.4.

  3. Local: Used for huge matrices, when it is difficult to store the whole basis $V_j$. We make sure that $v_{j+1}$ is orthogonal to $v_{j-1}$ and $v_j$ by doing an extra orthogonalization against these two vectors, subtracting $r=r-v_{j-1}(v_{j-1}^{\ast} r)$ and $r=r-v_j(v_j^{\ast} r)\,$ once in this step. Still we need to detect and discard spurious eigenvalue approximations using the Cullum device; see §4.4.4.

For each step $j$, or at appropriate intervals, compute the eigenvalues $\theta_i^{(j)}$ and eigenvectors $s_i^{(j)}$ of the tridiagonal matrix $T_{j}$ (4.9).

If fast convergence is expected, as for shift-and-invert problems, $j$ will be much smaller than $n$; then this computation is very fast and standard software from, e.g., LAPACK [12] is recommended.

If the Lanczos algorithm is applied directly to $A$ and a large tridiagonal matrix is computed, there are special tridiagonal eigenvalue algorithms based on bisection and a Givens recursion for eigenvectors; see [356,358,128] and §4.2.

The algorithm is stopped when a sufficiently large basis $V_j$ has been found, so that eigenvalues $\theta_i^{(j)}$ of the tridiagonal matrix $T_{j}$ (4.9) give good approximations to all the eigenvalues of $A$ sought.

The estimate $\beta_{j,i}$ (4.13) for the residual may be too optimistic if the basis $V_j$ is not fully orthogonal. Then the Ritz vector $x_i^{(j)}$ (4.12) may have a norm smaller than $1$, and we have to replace the estimate ([*]) by

\begin{displaymath}\Vert r_i^{(j)}\Vert=\vert\beta_js_{i,j}^{(j)}\vert/\Vert V_js_i^{(j)}\Vert\;.\end{displaymath}

The eigenvectors of the original matrix $A$ are computed only when the test in step (12) has indicated that they have converged. Then the basis $V_j$ is used in a matrix-vector multiplication to get the eigenvector (4.12),


for each $i$ that is flagged as having converged.

The great beauty of this type of algorithm is that the matrix $A$ is accessed only in a matrix-vector operation in step (5) in Algorithm 4.6. Any type of sparsity and any storage scheme can be taken advantage of.

It is necessary to keep only three vectors, $r$, $v_j$, and $v_{j-1}$, readily accessible; older vectors can be left on backing storage. There is even a variant where only two vectors are needed (see [353, Chap. 13.1]), but it demands some dexterity to code it. Except for the matrix-vector multiplication, only scalar products and additions of a multiple of a vector to another are needed. We recommend using Level 1 BLAS routines; see §10.2.

next up previous contents index
Next: Convergence Properties Up: Lanczos Method   A. Previous: Lanczos Method   A.   Contents   Index
Susan Blackford 2000-11-20