The BibNet Project archive

Last top-level updates: Sat Jan 6 14:54:26 2024 [but the bibliography archive files are updated often!]

This is an archive of freely-distributable bibliographic data in BibTeX format; see the sections below for more information on its contents, and how to mirror, and use, the data.

If you are unfamiliar with BibTeX, or bibliographic markup systems, and would like to learn more, visit this tutorial . It discusses many of the issues that are important for bibliographic work, and describes numerous software tools that can make such work easier and more productive.

You can jump from here directly to the BibNet Project download or mirror sections. Valid HTML 4.0!

Project history

The BibNet Project was created in August 1994 by Stefano Foresti (then at the University of Utah, now at the University of California, Merced), Eric Grosse (then at Bell Labs, now at Google), and Nelson H. F. Beebe (still at the University of Utah) with the intent of collecting, and making freely available on the Web, accurate and clean publication bibliographies in BibTeX format of well-known scientists working in numerical analysis.

The third co-founder (NHFB) is the author of numerous software tools for converting Web HTML pages and other data to BibTeX format, and for joining, merging, ordering, prettyprinting, searching, sorting, and validating BibTeX data; some of those tools are described in the papers A Bibliographer's Toolbox and Bibliography prettyprinting and syntax checking. He is responsible for almost all of the subsequent evolution and maintenance of the BibNet Project.

Many of those software tools are available at these sites: and

Project content highlights

Note: In the tables in the rest of this document, you can replace .html with .bib in any bibliography link to get the original BibTeX file. With similar changes, you can get DVI files (.dvi), LaTeX wrappers (.ltx), PDF files (.pdf), compressed PostScript files (.ps.gz or .ps.xz), spelling dictionaries (.sok), and titleword cross-reference files (.twx).

Since its founding, the archive has been expanded to include a few subject-specific bibliographies, and extensive bibliographies of important scientists in other fields of computing, as well as numerical analysis.

Computer scientists and numerical analysts
Charles Babbage Friedrich Ludwig Bauer Marsha Berger
Garrett Birkhoff Jonathan M. Borwein Achi Brandt
Charles W. Clenshaw William Cody Richard Crandall
Ingrid Daubechies Edsger W. Dijkstra Jack Dongarra
Ian Duff Ronald Aylmer Fisher George Forsythe
Leslie Fox Walter Gautschi David Gay
C. William Gear Wallace Givens Gene Golub
Richard W. Hamming Per Brinch Hansen Douglas R. Hartree
Peter Henrici Magnus R. Hestenes Nick Higham
Charles Antony Richard Hoare Alston Scott Householder Ilse C. F. Ipsen
William Kahan Baker Kearfott David Kincaid
Ada Augusta King Cornelius Lanczos Derrick Henry Lehmer
Benoît Mandelbrot George Marsaglia Nick Metropolis
Cleve Moler Ray Moore Frank W. J. Olver
Beresford Parlett Michael J. D. Powell John R. Rice
Axel Ruhe Heinz Rutishauser Yousef Saad
Claude Shannon Frank Stenger Eduard Stiefel
G. W. `Pete' Stewart Olga Taussky Todd John Todd
Nick Trefethen John Tukey Alan Turing
Henk Vandervorst Richard S. Varga Jim Wilkinson
Niklaus Wirth Henry Wolkowicz David Young

Two nineteenth-century pioneers in computing, Charles Babbage and Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, are also covered in a separate bibliography, adabooks.bib, in the TeX User Group bibliography archive. All of the entries in Parts 3 to 6 of adabooks.bib are included in Parts 1 and 2 of the Babbage and Lovelace bibliographies here.

The small number of publications by, and about, the 19th Century French mathematician Évariste Galois (1811–1832) are covered in Part 3 of Leopold Infeld's bibliography.

The archive also covers pioneers in quantum physics and quantum chemistry, several of them winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry or Physics, or the US National Medal of Science.

Quantum science pioneers
Hans Bethe Niels Bohr Max Born
Mario Bunge James Clerk Maxwell Paul Dirac
Louis de Broglie Freeman Dyson Albert Einstein
Enrico Fermi Richard Feynman Otto Robert Frisch
George Gamow Samuel Goudsmit Frank E. Harris
Douglas R. Hartree Werner Heisenberg Leopold Infeld
Per-Olov Löwdin Ettore Majorana Norman March
Lise Meitner Robert Oppenheimer Wolfgang Pauli
Rudolf Peierls Max Planck Ernest Rutherford
Erwin Schrödinger John Slater Arnold Sommerfeld
Leo Szilard Edward Teller George Uhlenbeck
Stan Ulam John von Neumann Eugene Wigner

There are bibliographies for dozens of other authors in the BibNet Project archive; consult the download section to find them.

Subject-specific bibliographies include at least these:

Related bibliographies

The much larger TeX User Group bibliography archive contains bibliographies for about 890 journals, and about 90 subject-specific bibliographies. Of those, several could easily have been incorporated as part of the BibNet Project, but have not been. Here is a partial list of them, divided into several categories:

Journals on the history, philosophy, and popularization of mathematics and science
Almagest: International Journal for the History of Scientific Ideas
Ambix: Journal of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry
Annals of the History of Computing
Annals of Science
Antikythera [subject-specific: not journal]
Archimedes: New Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology (book series)
Archive for History of Exact Sciences
Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte [Reports on Science History]
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science (also includes Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science)
British Journal for the History of Mathematics (alsp includes coverage of the predecessor journals British Society for the History of Mathematics Newsletter and BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics)
British Journal for the History of Science (2020–2029) (also 1962–1989 , 1990–1999 , 2000–2009 , and 2010–2019 )
BJHS Themes
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
BSHM Bulletin: Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics
British Society for the History of Science monographs
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Bulletin for the History of Chemistry
Centaurus: an International Journal of the History of Science and its Cultural Aspects
Chymia: Annual Studies in the History of Chemistry
Contemporary Physics
Dialectica: International Review of Philosophy of Knowledge
European Physical Journal H: Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics
Foundations of Chemistry
Foundations of Physics
Foundations of Physics Letters
Foundations of Science
Historia Mathematica
Historia Scientiarum (International Journal of the History of Science Society of Japan)
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences
Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences
Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences
History of Geo- and Space Sciences
History of Science (UK)
History and Technology
HOPOS: Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science
Internet Histories
Isis (2020–2029) (also 1910–1919 , 1920–1929 , 1930–1939 , 1940–1949 , 1950–1959 , 1960–1969 , 1970–1979 , 1980–1969 , 1990–1999 , 2000–2009 and 2010–2019 )
Japanese Studies in the History of Science
Journal of Cold War Studies
Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie
Journal for the History of Astronomy
Journal of the History of Biology
Journal of Typographic Research
Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London [The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science]
The Natural Philosopher
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin
Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society
Osiris (both series 1 and 2)
Perspectives on Science
Philosophy of Science (2020–2029) (also 1930–1939 , 1940–1949 , 1950–1959 , 1960–1969 , 1970–1979 , 1980–1989 , 1990–1999 , 2000–2009 , and 2010–2019 )
Physis: Rivista Internazionale di Storia della Scienza (also the following, Nuova Serie)
Physics in Perspective (PIP)
Printing History (also the following New Series)
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society} (2000--2049) (also 1800–1849 , 1850–1899 , 1900–1949 , and 1950–1999 )
Revue d'Histoire des Mathématiques = Journal for the History of Mathematics
Revue d'Histoire des Sciences
Science & Education (Springer)
Rutherford Journal [the New Zealand Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology]
Science & Education (Springer)
Science and Public Policy (2020–2029) (also 1970–1979 , 1980–1989 , 1990–1999 , 2000–2009 , and 2010–2019 )
Science in Context
Science Studies
Scientific American (2010–2019) (also 1870–1879 , 1880–1889 , 1890–1899 , 1900–1909 , 1910–1919 , 1920–1929 , 1930–1939 , 1940–1949 , 1950–1959 , 1960–1969 , 1970–1979 , 1980–1989 , 1990–1999 , and 2000–2009 )
Scripta Mathematica: a Quarterly Journal Devoted to the Philosophy, History, and Expository Treatment of Mathematics
Smithsonian (2000–2009) (also 1980–1989 , 1990–1999 )
Social Studies of Science
Spontaneous Generations: a Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A
Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics [Part B]
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C
Sudhoffs Archiv: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftsgeschichte
Synthese (2020–2029) (also 1930–1939 , 1940–1949 , 1950–1959 , 1960–1969 , 1970–1979 , 1980–1969 , 1990–1999 , 2000–2009 ) and 2010–2019 )
Technology and Culture (2020–2019) (also 1950–1959 , 1960–1969 , 1970–1979 , 1980–1989 , 1990–1999 , 2000–2009 , and 2010–2019 )
Visible Language
Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie / Journal for General Philosophy of Science
General Topics
ACM Turing Awards Benford, Heaps, & Zipf's Laws
Bitcoin, digital currencies, and blockchains Classic Shell Scripting
Data compression Elementary and special functions
Electronic publishing Fast multipole method
Fibonacci Fonts in typography
Floating-point arithmetic Matrix Computations
Hash algorithms Interior point methods
Intel IA-64 architecture LAPACK Working Notes
lcc C compiler Literate programming
Lecture Notes in Computer Science Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering
Microprocessors Multithreading
Numerical analysis (1990–1999) Numerical analysis (2000–2009)
Numerical analysis (2010–2019) Numerical analysis (2020–2029)
O'Reilly computing books Google PageRank Algorithm
Pi (π) computations Pseudorandom numbers
Spelling error detection and correction Supercomputing
TeX used for books TeX used for journals
TeX with graphics Tree-drawing algorithms
Typography Typesetting
Unicode Utah mathematics books
Virtual machines Visual Instruction Sets
Internet and networking: 1969–1999 Internet and networking: 2000–2009
Internet and networking: 2010–2019 Internet and networking: 2020–2029
Internet FYI documents Internet Engineering Notes
Internet RFC documents Internet STD Documents
Markup, programming, scripting, and symbolic algebra languages and systems
Ada Axiom & Scratchpad
BMDP statistics software Common Lisp
C-sharp (C#) Data Explorer
Fortran (1956–1980) Fortran (1981–1989)
Fortran (1990--date) High-Performance Fortran
Icon Java (1995–1999)
Java (2000–2009) Java (2010–2019)
Java (2020–2029) MACSYMA, Maxima, and VAXIMA
Maple Mathematica
MuPAD PostScript & Portable Document Format (PDF)
PVM and MPI Python
R, S, and S-Plus Reduce
Reduce (more) REXX and NetReXX
SAS (Statistical Analysis System) SGML, HTML, and XML (1981–1999)
SGML, HTML, and XML (2000–2009) SGML, HTML, and XML (2010–2019)
SGML, HTML, and XML (2020–2029) SPSS
SQL (Structured Query Language) TeX
Operating and database systems
Mach operating system GNU (Gnu is Not Unix) system
GNU/Linux operating system MINIX operating system
Oracle database system Plan 9 distributed operating system
ANSI Standards ECMA Standards
IEC Standards ISO Standards for programming languages
Software standards

Two other large BibTeX-format bibliography archives of note are the Karlsruhe Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies (3 million entries in early 2013), and the Universität Trier DBLP Computer Science Bibliography (2.1 million entries in early 2013).

The Karlsruhe archive mirrors the Utah archives, possibly with some rearrangement into subject-specific directories.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory also mirror the Utah archives, without rearrangement: see links in the mirror section of this document.

Archive file types

Each BibTeX bibliography has the standard file extension .bib. It is accompanied by a LaTeX file with extension .ltx that is used to typeset all of the entries in the BibTeX file to demonstrate that they are free of TeX-markup errors, and show how they might appear in a reference list in one particular bibliography style. Each bibliography file also has a spelling exception list file with extension .sok. Those three files are the only ones created by humans. The remaining files for each bibliography are created by software, and are automatically updated as new versions of the bibliography are released on the BibNet Project Web site. Their file extensions are:

In a Web browser, the .bib and .html files should be visually identical, allowing cut-and-paste operations from either, but the HTML file is enriched with hypertext links that in many cases lead to online documents. The BiBTeX file is the critical file, and is needed if you wish to incorporate multiple references from a given bibliography file in your document.

Archive organization

The BibNet Project archive is divided into two main directory trees: authors and subjects . The first is further subdivided into subdirectories named by the first letter of its files. The second is a flat directory, with no subdirectories.

Author-specific files are named with the family name first, in lowercase letters: dirac-p-a-m, shannon-claude-elwood, von-neumann-john, and so on. However, Albert Einstein's bibliography is just called einstein.

Downloading archive files

You can find top-level indexes of BibNet Project archive files in authors and subjects, and initial-letter indexes for authors in a,    b,    c,    d,    e,    f,    g,    h,    i,    j,    k,    l,    m,    n,    o,    p,    q,    r,    s,    t,    u,    v,    w,    x,    y,    z.

Mirroring the archive

If you are willing, and have adequate disk space (about 250MB), we strongly urge you to consider mirroring the project archive from its home site to your site, either for local-use only, or made available to the public at your Web site. Librarians have a good acronym for that practice: LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe).

If you succeed in creating a stable up-to-date mirror that you believe will be able to exist for a long time, please send e-mail to the maintainers with a request for it to be added to a list of BibNet Project mirrors.

One brute-force way to pull the entire archive to your system is a recursive retrieval with either of two popular Unix utilities:

% ncftpget -R

% wget --recursive

A better way is to exploit the fact that the master host FTP server can return entire directory trees in any of several archive formats:

% wget

% curl -o bibnet.tar.gz

% ncftpget

% wget

% wget

% wget

You can use those same URLs in most Web browsers, and then unpack the just-downloaded archive file in a suitable location. The unpacking normally preserves file protections and file timestamps.

The preferred way, however, is to use the rsync utility, which uses a clever algorithm on both sides of the connection to transfer only the changes between files, dramatically reducing transfer times when the two archives have similar contents.

# Find out what collections are available to rsync:
% rsync rsync://
CTAN            all of (huge)
bib             TeX User Group bibliography archive (large)
bibnet          BibNet Project bibliography archive
texlive         all of (huge)

# Fetch one of them (the -a option preserves important timestamp
# information, and the -z option turns on compression to reduce
# network traffic; add the -v option for verbose output):
% rsync -a -z rsync:// .

# See how long a subsequent update might take
% time rsync -a -z rsync:// .
0.004u 0.013s 0:00.34 2.9%      0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

rsync can be used to populate an initial copy of a mirror

The rsync utility should now be standard in most Unix distributions, but if your machine does not have it, you can find it at There is a separate project that wraps the command-line version in a graphical user interface for common Unix, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows systems: Prebuilt versions of grsync are installable from some Unix package distributions. The grsync program remembers your settings, so once you have used it to configure and run a mirror update, you can run it manually from time to time and get updates with a single click.

Once you have a copy of the archive on your system, use a regularly-scheduled cron job to keep your copy up-to-date. We recommend at least weekly updates if your copy is for local use only, and nightly (our winter time is GMT/UCT - 7 hours) if your copy is a mirror on a public Web site.

There are public mirrors of the BibNet Project archives at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and at Sandia National Laboratory (Albuquerque, NM, USA).

Searching archive files

There are several ways to search the archive files, apart from Web search engines whose own copies of the data are likely to be several weeks out of date. If you know which bibliography has the entry you want, then just visit the file in your favorite text editor and use its search commands.

The Unix grep command-line utility family is one common approach to search in multiple files:

% grep -B 4 '^ *title *= .*Einstein.*Berlin' *.bib

Its limitation is that it is line based, and search strings must match a single line.

The bibsearch provides a much faster way, and it eliminates the line-boundary constraint because each BibTeX entry is treated as a single block of text:

% bibsearch
> title & einstein & berlin & 2003

A more powerful way to search is first to convert the data to SQL (Structured Query Language) with bibtosql, and then to use the bibsql front end, or the sqlite3 program directly, and enter SQL commands for selective searching and display of specified fields, or even entire BibTeX entries:

# create the SQLite3 database (once only)
% bibtosql --create -database sqlite *.bib | sqlite3 bibnet.db

# search the SQLite3 database
% sqlite3 bibnet.db

-- how many BibTeX entries are in the database?

sqlite> select count(*) from bibtab;

-- which entries are about Einstein's years in Berlin?

sqlite> select filename, label from bibtab
        where (title like '%Einstein%Berlin%')
        order by filename, year, label;

-- get the most recent entry about Einstein in Berlin

sqlite> select entry from bibtab
     where (label = 'vanDongen:2012:MIM');

  author =       "Jeroen van Dongen",
  title =        "Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: {Albert and Carl
                 Einstein}, {Leiden} and {Berlin}, {Relativity} and

The sqlite3 program is public-domain software. It is extremely portable, and its database files do not depend on the host operating system or the host CPU's memory byte order; once created, those files can be copied and used everywhere. Prebuilt versions are available for common desktop platforms, and even for some mobile telephones!

Because most BibTeX entries in the archives carry a time stamp field that records when the entry was created or modified, you can use that field to find recently-added material:

-- change output format to aligned column

sqlite> .mode columns

-- find the most recent Einstein entries

sqlite> select label, bibtimestamp, substr(title, 1, 40) from bibtab
        where (filename = 'einstein.bib')
          and (bibtimestamp > '2013.01.01 00:00:00 AAA')
        order by bibtimestamp;
Lanouette:1994:AS  2013.01.11 06:50:11 ???  Atomic Spies
Walker:1997:PUD    2013.01.11 09:28:10 MST  Prompt and utter des
Buchwald:2001:HEB  2013.01.11 12:08:33 MST  Histories of the Ele
Walker:2004:TMI    2013.01.11 12:17:42 ???  Three Mile Island: N
Thackray:1977:BRB  2013.01.12 11:56:22 MST  Book Review: booktit

The paper at the bibsql Web site gives numerous examples of how the data can be mined in many more ways that are simply infeasible without the added structure of SQL fields.