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# Rational Krylov Subspace Method A. Ruhe

The rational Krylov subspace method computes eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a regular pencil, (230)

It is a generalization of the shift-and-invert Arnoldi algorithm, in which several factorizations with different shifts are used in one run. This way we get good approximations to all the eigenvalues in a union of regions around the shifts chosen; see . A typical application is model reduction of a linear dynamical system, where one wants to get the response over a prescribed range of frequencies; see, e.g.,  or .

Rational Krylov starts as a shifted and inverted Arnoldi iteration with shift and starting vector . It computes an orthonormal basis using the basic recursion, (231)

(The subscripts indicate sizes of matrices, is , and is a matrix of columns each of full length .) We may compute Ritz values from and Ritz approximate eigenvectors from in the usual way. Solve the small-sized eigenvalue problem (232)

and get the Ritz values and Ritz vectors for . We get good approximations after a moderate number of steps to those eigenvalues that are closest to the shift .

Now the idea behind the rational Krylov algorithm is to continue with a new shift , when we want to get approximations to the eigenvalues close to that new shift. The tricky thing is to avoid throwing away all the information gathered in the basis , computed using the old shift . This is indeed possible if we replace the basis with a new basis , which spans the same subspace as but can be interpreted as the orthogonal basis of an Arnoldi recursion (8.18) with the new shift . At the same time the trapezoidal (Hessenberg) matrix is replaced by a new matrix of the same form, .

Rewrite the recursion (8.18) as Add a matrix to the left-hand side, so that is replaced by the new shift in the right-hand side, and note that is the only large matrix in the left-hand side, The matrix in the left-hand side is trapezoidal with the same pattern of nonzeros as , and we may come back to an expression similar to the recursion (8.18) by premultiplying with to get It remains to get rid of the factor on the left-hand side, and this is done in the following way. Make a QR decomposition of and get Multiply from the right with the inverse of the triangular matrix , which we know is nonsingular if the Hessenberg matrix is unreduced, (233)

Introduce the new orthogonal basis and note that the pencil (8.17) is represented by the full matrix, in this new basis. We may transform this into trapezoidal (upper Hessenberg) form by applying the Householder algorithm from the bottom upwards (see ), Multiply the recursion (8.20) by the orthogonal from the right and get or an Arnoldi recursion (8.18) with the new shift , the new orthogonal basis, and the new trapezoidal (upper Hessenberg) matrix .

We once again stress that all these transformations are effected without actually performing any operations on the large matrices and . We may even accumulate all the and factors and avoid forming explicitly, thus avoiding all extra work on long vectors. Also note that even if we get an Arnoldi recursion, it does not start at the original starting vector but at , which is a linear combination of all the vectors computed during the whole rational Krylov algorithm.

In a practical implementation, this is combined with locking, purging, and implicit restart. First run shifted and inverted Arnoldi with the first shift . When an appropriate number of eigenvalues around have converged, say after steps, lock these converged eigenvalues and purge those that are altogether outside the interesting region, leaving a -step Arnoldi recursion (8.18). Then introduce the new shift and follow the description in this section to get a new basis which replaces . Start at the new shift by operating on the last vector of this new basis and get the next basis vector in the Arnoldi recursion (8.18) with the new shift . Continue until we get convergence for a set of eigenvalues around , and repeat the same procedure with new shifts until either all interesting eigenvalues have converged or all the shifts in the prescribed frequency range have been used. Notice that in step (3) we make just operations with the shifted and inverted matrix, the first basis vectors are those saved from the previous shift . The lock, purge, and deflation operations in step (4) are very similar to those for implicitly restarted Arnoldi as described in §7.6; we have actually used a nonhermitian version of thick restart . In step (5) we choose the new shift as a value in the complex plane where we are interested in studying the behavior of the matrix pencil (8.17). However, a choice too close to an eigenvalue will result in a nearly singular matrix . Moreover, a new shift at a nearly converged Ritz value will make the upper triangular factor in step (6) close to singular.

When the second matrix in the original pencil (8.17) is positive definite, we may choose to make the basis  orthogonal. If then is also Hermitian, so is , and we may work with tridiagonal matrices; see .

This formulation of rational Krylov is different from the one used earlier , where the same set of basis vectors is used throughout and the pencil (8.17) is transformed into two Hessenberg matrices. We have found that this new formulation gives a more natural way to continue with a new shift and signal when we risk losing accuracy due to linear dependence.

See the report  for a numerical example from model reduction.     Next: Symmetric Indefinite Lanczos Method Up: Generalized Non-Hermitian Eigenvalue Problems Previous: Numerical Example   Contents   Index
Susan Blackford 2000-11-20