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# --------------------------------- # Available SIMPLE DRIVER routines: # --------------------------------- file cgbsv.f cgbsv.f plus dependencies prec complex CGBSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is a band matrix of order N with KL subdiagonals and KU superdiagonals, and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The LU decomposition with partial pivoting and row interchanges is used to factor A as A = L * U, where L is a product of permutation and unit lower triangular matrices with KL subdiagonals, and U is upper triangular with KL+KU superdiagonals. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cgees.f cgees.f plus dependencies prec complex CGEES computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the eigenvalues, the Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vectors Z. This gives the Schur factorization A = Z*T*(Z**H). Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the Schur form so that selected eigenvalues are at the top left. The leading columns of Z then form an orthonormal basis for the invariant subspace corresponding to the selected eigenvalues. A complex matrix is in Schur form if it is upper triangular. file cgeev.f cgeev.f plus dependencies prec complex CGEEV computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right eigenvectors. The right eigenvector v(j) of A satisfies A * v(j) = lambda(j) * v(j) where lambda(j) is its eigenvalue. The left eigenvector u(j) of A satisfies u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H where u(j)**H denotes the conjugate transpose of u(j). The computed eigenvectors are normalized to have Euclidean norm equal to 1 and largest component real. file cgegs.f cgegs.f plus dependencies prec complex This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine CGGES. CGEGS computes the eigenvalues, Schur form, and, optionally, the left and or/right Schur vectors of a complex matrix pair (A,B). Given two square matrices A and B, the generalized Schur factorization has the form A = Q*S*Z**H, B = Q*T*Z**H where Q and Z are unitary matrices and S and T are upper triangular. The columns of Q are the left Schur vectors and the columns of Z are the right Schur vectors. If only the eigenvalues of (A,B) are needed, the driver routine CGEGV should be used instead. See CGEGV for a description of the eigenvalues of the generalized nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem (GNEP). file cgegv.f cgegv.f plus dependencies prec complex This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine CGGEV. CGEGV computes the eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right eigenvectors of a complex matrix pair (A,B). Given two square matrices A and B, the generalized nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem (GNEP) is to find the eigenvalues lambda and corresponding (non-zero) eigenvectors x such that A*x = lambda*B*x. An alternate form is to find the eigenvalues mu and corresponding eigenvectors y such that mu*A*y = B*y. These two forms are equivalent with mu = 1/lambda and x = y if neither lambda nor mu is zero. In order to deal with the case that lambda or mu is zero or small, two values alpha and beta are returned for each eigenvalue, such that lambda = alpha/beta and mu = beta/alpha. The vectors x and y in the above equations are right eigenvectors of the matrix pair (A,B). Vectors u and v satisfying u**H*A = lambda*u**H*B or mu*v**H*A = v**H*B are left eigenvectors of (A,B). Note: this routine performs "full balancing" on A and B -- see "Further Details", below. file cgels.f cgels.f plus dependencies prec complex CGELS solves overdetermined or underdetermined complex linear systems involving an M-by-N matrix A, or its conjugate-transpose, using a QR or LQ factorization of A. It is assumed that A has full rank. The following options are provided: 1. If TRANS = 'N' and m >= n: find the least squares solution of an overdetermined system, i.e., solve the least squares problem minimize || B - A*X ||. 2. If TRANS = 'N' and m < n: find the minimum norm solution of an underdetermined system A * X = B. 3. If TRANS = 'C' and m >= n: find the minimum norm solution of an undetermined system A**H * X = B. 4. If TRANS = 'C' and m < n: find the least squares solution of an overdetermined system, i.e., solve the least squares problem minimize || B - A**H * X ||. Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X. file cgelsd.f cgelsd.f plus dependencies prec complex CGELSD computes the minimum-norm solution to a real linear least squares problem: minimize 2-norm(| b - A*x |) using the singular value decomposition (SVD) of A. A is an M-by-N matrix which may be rank-deficient. Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X. The problem is solved in three steps: (1) Reduce the coefficient matrix A to bidiagonal form with Householder tranformations, reducing the original problem into a "bidiagonal least squares problem" (BLS) (2) Solve the BLS using a divide and conquer approach. (3) Apply back all the Householder tranformations to solve the original least squares problem. The effective rank of A is determined by treating as zero those singular values which are less than RCOND times the largest singular value. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file cgelss.f cgelss.f plus dependencies prec complex CGELSS computes the minimum norm solution to a complex linear least squares problem: Minimize 2-norm(| b - A*x |). using the singular value decomposition (SVD) of A. A is an M-by-N matrix which may be rank-deficient. Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X. The effective rank of A is determined by treating as zero those singular values which are less than RCOND times the largest singular value. file cgelsy.f cgelsy.f plus dependencies prec complex CGELSY computes the minimum-norm solution to a complex linear least squares problem: minimize || A * X - B || using a complete orthogonal factorization of A. A is an M-by-N matrix which may be rank-deficient. Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X. The routine first computes a QR factorization with column pivoting: A * P = Q * [ R11 R12 ] [ 0 R22 ] with R11 defined as the largest leading submatrix whose estimated condition number is less than 1/RCOND. The order of R11, RANK, is the effective rank of A. Then, R22 is considered to be negligible, and R12 is annihilated by unitary transformations from the right, arriving at the complete orthogonal factorization: A * P = Q * [ T11 0 ] * Z [ 0 0 ] The minimum-norm solution is then X = P * Z' [ inv(T11)*Q1'*B ] [ 0 ] where Q1 consists of the first RANK columns of Q. This routine is basically identical to the original xGELSX except three differences: o The permutation of matrix B (the right hand side) is faster and more simple. o The call to the subroutine xGEQPF has been substituted by the the call to the subroutine xGEQP3. This subroutine is a Blas-3 version of the QR factorization with column pivoting. o Matrix B (the right hand side) is updated with Blas-3. file cgesdd.f cgesdd.f plus dependencies prec complex CGESDD computes the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a complex M-by-N matrix A, optionally computing the left and/or right singular vectors, by using divide-and-conquer method. The SVD is written A = U * SIGMA * conjugate-transpose(V) where SIGMA is an M-by-N matrix which is zero except for its min(m,n) diagonal elements, U is an M-by-M unitary matrix, and V is an N-by-N unitary matrix. The diagonal elements of SIGMA are the singular values of A; they are real and non-negative, and are returned in descending order. The first min(m,n) columns of U and V are the left and right singular vectors of A. Note that the routine returns VT = V**H, not V. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file cgesv.f cgesv.f plus dependencies prec complex CGESV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The LU decomposition with partial pivoting and row interchanges is used to factor A as A = P * L * U, where P is a permutation matrix, L is unit lower triangular, and U is upper triangular. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cgesvd.f cgesvd.f plus dependencies prec complex CGESVD computes the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a complex M-by-N matrix A, optionally computing the left and/or right singular vectors. The SVD is written A = U * SIGMA * conjugate-transpose(V) where SIGMA is an M-by-N matrix which is zero except for its min(m,n) diagonal elements, U is an M-by-M unitary matrix, and V is an N-by-N unitary matrix. The diagonal elements of SIGMA are the singular values of A; they are real and non-negative, and are returned in descending order. The first min(m,n) columns of U and V are the left and right singular vectors of A. Note that the routine returns V**H, not V. file cgges.f cgges.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGES computes for a pair of N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, the generalized complex Schur form (S, T), and optionally left and/or right Schur vectors (VSL and VSR). This gives the generalized Schur factorization (A,B) = ( (VSL)*S*(VSR)**H, (VSL)*T*(VSR)**H ) where (VSR)**H is the conjugate-transpose of VSR. Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues so that a selected cluster of eigenvalues appears in the leading diagonal blocks of the upper triangular matrix S and the upper triangular matrix T. The leading columns of VSL and VSR then form an unitary basis for the corresponding left and right eigenspaces (deflating subspaces). (If only the generalized eigenvalues are needed, use the driver CGGEV instead, which is faster.) A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar w or a ratio alpha/beta = w, such that A - w*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable interpretation for beta=0, and even for both being zero. A pair of matrices (S,T) is in generalized complex Schur form if S and T are upper triangular and, in addition, the diagonal elements of T are non-negative real numbers. file cggev.f cggev.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGEV computes for a pair of N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, and optionally, the left and/or right generalized eigenvectors. A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar lambda or a ratio alpha/beta = lambda, such that A - lambda*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable interpretation for beta=0, and even for both being zero. The right generalized eigenvector v(j) corresponding to the generalized eigenvalue lambda(j) of (A,B) satisfies A * v(j) = lambda(j) * B * v(j). The left generalized eigenvector u(j) corresponding to the generalized eigenvalues lambda(j) of (A,B) satisfies u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H * B where u(j)**H is the conjugate-transpose of u(j). file cggglm.f cggglm.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGGLM solves a general Gauss-Markov linear model (GLM) problem: minimize || y ||_2 subject to d = A*x + B*y x where A is an N-by-M matrix, B is an N-by-P matrix, and d is a given N-vector. It is assumed that M <= N <= M+P, and rank(A) = M and rank( A B ) = N. Under these assumptions, the constrained equation is always consistent, and there is a unique solution x and a minimal 2-norm solution y, which is obtained using a generalized QR factorization of the matrices (A, B) given by A = Q*(R), B = Q*T*Z. (0) In particular, if matrix B is square nonsingular, then the problem GLM is equivalent to the following weighted linear least squares problem minimize || inv(B)*(d-A*x) ||_2 x where inv(B) denotes the inverse of B. file cgglse.f cgglse.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGLSE solves the linear equality-constrained least squares (LSE) problem: minimize || c - A*x ||_2 subject to B*x = d where A is an M-by-N matrix, B is a P-by-N matrix, c is a given M-vector, and d is a given P-vector. It is assumed that P <= N <= M+P, and rank(B) = P and rank( (A) ) = N. ( (B) ) These conditions ensure that the LSE problem has a unique solution, which is obtained using a generalized RQ factorization of the matrices (B, A) given by B = (0 R)*Q, A = Z*T*Q. file cggsvd.f cggsvd.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGSVD computes the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of an M-by-N complex matrix A and P-by-N complex matrix B: U'*A*Q = D1*( 0 R ), V'*B*Q = D2*( 0 R ) where U, V and Q are unitary matrices, and Z' means the conjugate transpose of Z. Let K+L = the effective numerical rank of the matrix (A',B')', then R is a (K+L)-by-(K+L) nonsingular upper triangular matrix, D1 and D2 are M-by-(K+L) and P-by-(K+L) "diagonal" matrices and of the following structures, respectively: If M-K-L >= 0, K L D1 = K ( I 0 ) L ( 0 C ) M-K-L ( 0 0 ) K L D2 = L ( 0 S ) P-L ( 0 0 ) N-K-L K L ( 0 R ) = K ( 0 R11 R12 ) L ( 0 0 R22 ) where C = diag( ALPHA(K+1), ... , ALPHA(K+L) ), S = diag( BETA(K+1), ... , BETA(K+L) ), C**2 + S**2 = I. R is stored in A(1:K+L,N-K-L+1:N) on exit. If M-K-L < 0, K M-K K+L-M D1 = K ( I 0 0 ) M-K ( 0 C 0 ) K M-K K+L-M D2 = M-K ( 0 S 0 ) K+L-M ( 0 0 I ) P-L ( 0 0 0 ) N-K-L K M-K K+L-M ( 0 R ) = K ( 0 R11 R12 R13 ) M-K ( 0 0 R22 R23 ) K+L-M ( 0 0 0 R33 ) where C = diag( ALPHA(K+1), ... , ALPHA(M) ), S = diag( BETA(K+1), ... , BETA(M) ), C**2 + S**2 = I. (R11 R12 R13 ) is stored in A(1:M, N-K-L+1:N), and R33 is stored ( 0 R22 R23 ) in B(M-K+1:L,N+M-K-L+1:N) on exit. The routine computes C, S, R, and optionally the unitary transformation matrices U, V and Q. In particular, if B is an N-by-N nonsingular matrix, then the GSVD of A and B implicitly gives the SVD of A*inv(B): A*inv(B) = U*(D1*inv(D2))*V'. If ( A',B')' has orthnormal columns, then the GSVD of A and B is also equal to the CS decomposition of A and B. Furthermore, the GSVD can be used to derive the solution of the eigenvalue problem: A'*A x = lambda* B'*B x. In some literature, the GSVD of A and B is presented in the form U'*A*X = ( 0 D1 ), V'*B*X = ( 0 D2 ) where U and V are orthogonal and X is nonsingular, and D1 and D2 are ``diagonal''. The former GSVD form can be converted to the latter form by taking the nonsingular matrix X as X = Q*( I 0 ) ( 0 inv(R) ) file chbev.f chbev.f plus dependencies prec complex CHBEV computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian band matrix A. file chbevd.f chbevd.f plus dependencies prec complex CHBEVD computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian band matrix A. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide and conquer algorithm. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file chbgv.f chbgv.f plus dependencies prec complex CHBGV computes all the eigenvalues, and optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite banded eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian and banded, and B is also positive definite. file chbgvd.f chbgvd.f plus dependencies prec complex CHBGVD computes all the eigenvalues, and optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite banded eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian and banded, and B is also positive definite. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide and conquer algorithm. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file cheev.f cheev.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEEV computes all eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix A. file cheevd.f cheevd.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEEVD computes all eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix A. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide and conquer algorithm. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file cheevr.f cheevr.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEEVR computes selected eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix A. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be selected by specifying either a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. CHEEVR first reduces the matrix A to tridiagonal form T with a call to CHETRD. Then, whenever possible, CHEEVR calls CSTEMR to compute the eigenspectrum using Relatively Robust Representations. CSTEMR computes eigenvalues by the dqds algorithm, while orthogonal eigenvectors are computed from various "good" L D L^T representations (also known as Relatively Robust Representations). Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is avoided as far as possible. More specifically, the various steps of the algorithm are as follows. For each unreduced block (submatrix) of T, (a) Compute T - sigma I = L D L^T, so that L and D define all the wanted eigenvalues to high relative accuracy. This means that small relative changes in the entries of D and L cause only small relative changes in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The standard (unfactored) representation of the tridiagonal matrix T does not have this property in general. (b) Compute the eigenvalues to suitable accuracy. If the eigenvectors are desired, the algorithm attains full accuracy of the computed eigenvalues only right before the corresponding vectors have to be computed, see steps c) and d). (c) For each cluster of close eigenvalues, select a new shift close to the cluster, find a new factorization, and refine the shifted eigenvalues to suitable accuracy. (d) For each eigenvalue with a large enough relative separation compute the corresponding eigenvector by forming a rank revealing twisted factorization. Go back to (c) for any clusters that remain. The desired accuracy of the output can be specified by the input parameter ABSTOL. For more details, see DSTEMR's documentation and: - Inderjit S. Dhillon and Beresford N. Parlett: "Multiple representations to compute orthogonal eigenvectors of symmetric tridiagonal matrices," Linear Algebra and its Applications, 387(1), pp. 1-28, August 2004. - Inderjit Dhillon and Beresford Parlett: "Orthogonal Eigenvectors and Relative Gaps," SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications, Vol. 25, 2004. Also LAPACK Working Note 154. - Inderjit Dhillon: "A new O(n^2) algorithm for the symmetric tridiagonal eigenvalue/eigenvector problem", Computer Science Division Technical Report No. UCB/CSD-97-971, UC Berkeley, May 1997. Note 1 : CHEEVR calls CSTEMR when the full spectrum is requested on machines which conform to the ieee-754 floating point standard. CHEEVR calls SSTEBZ and CSTEIN on non-ieee machines and when partial spectrum requests are made. Normal execution of CSTEMR may create NaNs and infinities and hence may abort due to a floating point exception in environments which do not handle NaNs and infinities in the ieee standard default manner. file chegv.f chegv.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEGV computes all the eigenvalues, and optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x, A*Bx=(lambda)*x, or B*A*x=(lambda)*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian and B is also positive definite. file chegvd.f chegvd.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEGVD computes all the eigenvalues, and optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x, A*Bx=(lambda)*x, or B*A*x=(lambda)*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian and B is also positive definite. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide and conquer algorithm. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file chesv.f chesv.f plus dependencies prec complex CHESV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**H, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is Hermitian and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file chpev.f chpev.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPEV computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix in packed storage. file chpevd.f chpevd.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPEVD computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix A in packed storage. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide and conquer algorithm. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file chpgv.f chpgv.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPGV computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x, A*Bx=(lambda)*x, or B*A*x=(lambda)*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian, stored in packed format, and B is also positive definite. file chpgvd.f chpgvd.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPGVD computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x, A*Bx=(lambda)*x, or B*A*x=(lambda)*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian, stored in packed format, and B is also positive definite. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide and conquer algorithm. The divide and conquer algorithm makes very mild assumptions about floating point arithmetic. It will work on machines with a guard digit in add/subtract, or on those binary machines without guard digits which subtract like the Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Cray C-90, or Cray-2. It could conceivably fail on hexadecimal or decimal machines without guard digits, but we know of none. file chpsv.f chpsv.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**H, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, D is Hermitian and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cpbsv.f cpbsv.f plus dependencies prec complex CPBSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite band matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The Cholesky decomposition is used to factor A as A = U**H * U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular band matrix, and L is a lower triangular band matrix, with the same number of superdiagonals or subdiagonals as A. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cposv.f cposv.f plus dependencies prec complex CPOSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The Cholesky decomposition is used to factor A as A = U**H* U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix and L is a lower triangular matrix. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cppsv.f cppsv.f plus dependencies prec complex CPPSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The Cholesky decomposition is used to factor A as A = U**H* U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix and L is a lower triangular matrix. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cspsv.f cspsv.f plus dependencies prec complex CSPSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. file cstemr.f cstemr.f plus dependencies prec complex CSTEMR computes selected eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a real symmetric tridiagonal matrix T. Any such unreduced matrix has a well defined set of pairwise different real eigenvalues, the corresponding real eigenvectors are pairwise orthogonal. The spectrum may be computed either completely or partially by specifying either an interval (VL,VU] or a range of indices IL:IU for the desired eigenvalues. Depending on the number of desired eigenvalues, these are computed either by bisection or the dqds algorithm. Numerically orthogonal eigenvectors are computed by the use of various suitable L D L^T factorizations near clusters of close eigenvalues (referred to as RRRs, Relatively Robust Representations). An informal sketch of the algorithm follows. For each unreduced block (submatrix) of T, (a) Compute T - sigma I = L D L^T, so that L and D define all the wanted eigenvalues to high relative accuracy. This means that small relative changes in the entries of D and L cause only small relative changes in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The standard (unfactored) representation of the tridiagonal matrix T does not have this property in general. (b) Compute the eigenvalues to suitable accuracy. If the eigenvectors are desired, the algorithm attains full accuracy of the computed eigenvalues only right before the corresponding vectors have to be computed, see steps c) and d). (c) For each cluster of close eigenvalues, select a new shift close to the cluster, find a new factorization, and refine the shifted eigenvalues to suitable accuracy. (d) For each eigenvalue with a large enough relative separation compute the corresponding eigenvector by forming a rank revealing twisted factorization. Go back to (c) for any clusters that remain. For more details, see: - Inderjit S. Dhillon and Beresford N. Parlett: "Multiple representations to compute orthogonal eigenvectors of symmetric tridiagonal matrices," Linear Algebra and its Applications, 387(1), pp. 1-28, August 2004. - Inderjit Dhillon and Beresford Parlett: "Orthogonal Eigenvectors and Relative Gaps," SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications, Vol. 25, 2004. Also LAPACK Working Note 154. - Inderjit Dhillon: "A new O(n^2) algorithm for the symmetric tridiagonal eigenvalue/eigenvector problem", Computer Science Division Technical Report No. UCB/CSD-97-971, UC Berkeley, May 1997. Further Details 1.CSTEMR works only on machines which follow IEEE-754 floating-point standard in their handling of infinities and NaNs. This permits the use of efficient inner loops avoiding a check for zero divisors. 2. LAPACK routines can be used to reduce a complex Hermitean matrix to real symmetric tridiagonal form. (Any complex Hermitean tridiagonal matrix has real values on its diagonal and potentially complex numbers on its off-diagonals. By applying a similarity transform with an appropriate diagonal matrix diag(1,e^{i \phy_1}, ... , e^{i \phy_{n-1}}), the complex Hermitean matrix can be transformed into a real symmetric matrix and complex arithmetic can be entirely avoided.) While the eigenvectors of the real symmetric tridiagonal matrix are real, the eigenvectors of original complex Hermitean matrix have complex entries in general. Since LAPACK drivers overwrite the matrix data with the eigenvectors, CSTEMR accepts complex workspace to facilitate interoperability with CUNMTR or CUPMTR. file csysv.f csysv.f plus dependencies prec complex CSYSV computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. The diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B. # --------------------------------- # Available EXPERT DRIVER routines: # --------------------------------- file cgbsvx.f cgbsvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGBSVX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, A**T * X = B, or A**H * X = B, where A is a band matrix of order N with KL subdiagonals and KU superdiagonals, and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed by this subroutine: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: TRANS = 'N': diag(R)*A*diag(C) *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N') or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C'). 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = L * U, where L is a product of permutation and unit lower triangular matrices with KL subdiagonals, and U is upper triangular with KL+KU superdiagonals. 3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cgbsvxx.f cgbsvxx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGBSVXX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds are returned. CGBSVXX will return a solution with a tiny guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are calculated and returned. CGBSVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options. Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous CGBSVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps) errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they differ from what CGBSVXX would itself produce. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: TRANS = 'N': diag(R)*A*diag(C) *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N') or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C'). 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = P * L * U, where P is a permutation matrix, L is a unit lower triangular matrix, and U is upper triangular. 3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero), the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at least twice the working precision. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cgeesx.f cgeesx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGEESX computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the eigenvalues, the Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vectors Z. This gives the Schur factorization A = Z*T*(Z**H). Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the Schur form so that selected eigenvalues are at the top left; computes a reciprocal condition number for the average of the selected eigenvalues (RCONDE); and computes a reciprocal condition number for the right invariant subspace corresponding to the selected eigenvalues (RCONDV). The leading columns of Z form an orthonormal basis for this invariant subspace. For further explanation of the reciprocal condition numbers RCONDE and RCONDV, see Section 4.10 of the LAPACK Users' Guide (where these quantities are called s and sep respectively). A complex matrix is in Schur form if it is upper triangular. file cgeevx.f cgeevx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGEEVX computes for an N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrix A, the eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right eigenvectors. Optionally also, it computes a balancing transformation to improve the conditioning of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (ILO, IHI, SCALE, and ABNRM), reciprocal condition numbers for the eigenvalues (RCONDE), and reciprocal condition numbers for the right eigenvectors (RCONDV). The right eigenvector v(j) of A satisfies A * v(j) = lambda(j) * v(j) where lambda(j) is its eigenvalue. The left eigenvector u(j) of A satisfies u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H where u(j)**H denotes the conjugate transpose of u(j). The computed eigenvectors are normalized to have Euclidean norm equal to 1 and largest component real. Balancing a matrix means permuting the rows and columns to make it more nearly upper triangular, and applying a diagonal similarity transformation D * A * D**(-1), where D is a diagonal matrix, to make its rows and columns closer in norm and the condition numbers of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors smaller. The computed reciprocal condition numbers correspond to the balanced matrix. Permuting rows and columns will not change the condition numbers (in exact arithmetic) but diagonal scaling will. For further explanation of balancing, see section 4.10.2 of the LAPACK Users' Guide. file cgelsx.f cgelsx.f plus dependencies prec complex This routine is deprecated and has been replaced by routine CGELSY. CGELSX computes the minimum-norm solution to a complex linear least squares problem: minimize || A * X - B || using a complete orthogonal factorization of A. A is an M-by-N matrix which may be rank-deficient. Several right hand side vectors b and solution vectors x can be handled in a single call; they are stored as the columns of the M-by-NRHS right hand side matrix B and the N-by-NRHS solution matrix X. The routine first computes a QR factorization with column pivoting: A * P = Q * [ R11 R12 ] [ 0 R22 ] with R11 defined as the largest leading submatrix whose estimated condition number is less than 1/RCOND. The order of R11, RANK, is the effective rank of A. Then, R22 is considered to be negligible, and R12 is annihilated by unitary transformations from the right, arriving at the complete orthogonal factorization: A * P = Q * [ T11 0 ] * Z [ 0 0 ] The minimum-norm solution is then X = P * Z' [ inv(T11)*Q1'*B ] [ 0 ] where Q1 consists of the first RANK columns of Q. file cgesvx.f cgesvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGESVX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: TRANS = 'N': diag(R)*A*diag(C) *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N') or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C'). 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = P * L * U, where P is a permutation matrix, L is a unit lower triangular matrix, and U is upper triangular. 3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cgesvxx.f cgesvxx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGESVXX uses the LU factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds are returned. CGESVXX will return a solution with a tiny guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are calculated and returned. CGESVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options. Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous CGESVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps) errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they differ from what CGESVXX would itself produce. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: TRANS = 'N': diag(R)*A*diag(C) *inv(diag(C))*X = diag(R)*B TRANS = 'T': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**T *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B TRANS = 'C': (diag(R)*A*diag(C))**H *inv(diag(R))*X = diag(C)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(R)*A*diag(C) and B by diag(R)*B (if TRANS='N') or diag(C)*B (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C'). 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = P * L * U, where P is a permutation matrix, L is a unit lower triangular matrix, and U is upper triangular. 3. If some U(i,i)=0, so that U is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero), the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at least twice the working precision. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(C) (if TRANS = 'N') or diag(R) (if TRANS = 'T' or 'C') so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cggesx.f cggesx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGESX computes for a pair of N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, the complex Schur form (S,T), and, optionally, the left and/or right matrices of Schur vectors (VSL and VSR). This gives the generalized Schur factorization (A,B) = ( (VSL) S (VSR)**H, (VSL) T (VSR)**H ) where (VSR)**H is the conjugate-transpose of VSR. Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues so that a selected cluster of eigenvalues appears in the leading diagonal blocks of the upper triangular matrix S and the upper triangular matrix T; computes a reciprocal condition number for the average of the selected eigenvalues (RCONDE); and computes a reciprocal condition number for the right and left deflating subspaces corresponding to the selected eigenvalues (RCONDV). The leading columns of VSL and VSR then form an orthonormal basis for the corresponding left and right eigenspaces (deflating subspaces). A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar w or a ratio alpha/beta = w, such that A - w*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable interpretation for beta=0 or for both being zero. A pair of matrices (S,T) is in generalized complex Schur form if T is upper triangular with non-negative diagonal and S is upper triangular. file cggevx.f cggevx.f plus dependencies prec complex CGGEVX computes for a pair of N-by-N complex nonsymmetric matrices (A,B) the generalized eigenvalues, and optionally, the left and/or right generalized eigenvectors. Optionally, it also computes a balancing transformation to improve the conditioning of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (ILO, IHI, LSCALE, RSCALE, ABNRM, and BBNRM), reciprocal condition numbers for the eigenvalues (RCONDE), and reciprocal condition numbers for the right eigenvectors (RCONDV). A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar lambda or a ratio alpha/beta = lambda, such that A - lambda*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable interpretation for beta=0, and even for both being zero. The right eigenvector v(j) corresponding to the eigenvalue lambda(j) of (A,B) satisfies A * v(j) = lambda(j) * B * v(j) . The left eigenvector u(j) corresponding to the eigenvalue lambda(j) of (A,B) satisfies u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H * B. where u(j)**H is the conjugate-transpose of u(j). file chbevx.f chbevx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHBEVX computes selected eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian band matrix A. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be selected by specifying either a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. file chbgvx.f chbgvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHBGVX computes all the eigenvalues, and optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite banded eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian and banded, and B is also positive definite. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be selected by specifying either all eigenvalues, a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. file cheevx.f cheevx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEEVX computes selected eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix A. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be selected by specifying either a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. file chegvx.f chegvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHEGVX computes selected eigenvalues, and optionally, eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x, A*Bx=(lambda)*x, or B*A*x=(lambda)*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian and B is also positive definite. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be selected by specifying either a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. file chesvx.f chesvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHESVX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'N', the diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A. The form of the factorization is A = U * D * U**H, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is Hermitian and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 2. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 3. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 4. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. file chesvxx.f chesvxx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHESVXX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds are returned. CHESVXX will return a solution with a tiny guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are calculated and returned. CHESVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options. Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous CHESVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps) errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they differ from what CHESVXX would itself produce. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S)*A*diag(S) *inv(diag(S))*X = diag(S)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 3. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero), the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at least twice the working precision. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(R) so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file chpevx.f chpevx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPEVX computes selected eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex Hermitian matrix A in packed storage. Eigenvalues/vectors can be selected by specifying either a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. file chpgvx.f chpgvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPGVX computes selected eigenvalues and, optionally, eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite eigenproblem, of the form A*x=(lambda)*B*x, A*Bx=(lambda)*x, or B*A*x=(lambda)*x. Here A and B are assumed to be Hermitian, stored in packed format, and B is also positive definite. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be selected by specifying either a range of values or a range of indices for the desired eigenvalues. file chpsvx.f chpsvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CHPSVX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization A = U*D*U**H or A = L*D*L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'N', the diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**H, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices and D is Hermitian and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 2. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 3. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 4. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. file cpbsvx.f cpbsvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CPBSVX uses the Cholesky factorization A = U**H*U or A = L*L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite band matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S) * A * diag(S) * inv(diag(S)) * X = diag(S) * B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the Cholesky decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U**H * U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular band matrix, and L is a lower triangular band matrix. 3. If the leading i-by-i principal minor is not positive definite, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(S) so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cposvx.f cposvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CPOSVX uses the Cholesky factorization A = U**H*U or A = L*L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S) * A * diag(S) * inv(diag(S)) * X = diag(S) * B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the Cholesky decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U**H* U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**H, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix and L is a lower triangular matrix. 3. If the leading i-by-i principal minor is not positive definite, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(S) so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cposvxx.f cposvxx.f plus dependencies prec complex CPOSVXX uses the Cholesky factorization A = U**T*U or A = L*L**T to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric positive definite matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds are returned. CPOSVXX will return a solution with a tiny guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are calculated and returned. CPOSVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options. Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous CPOSVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps) errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they differ from what CPOSVXX would itself produce. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S)*A*diag(S) *inv(diag(S))*X = diag(S)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the Cholesky decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U**T* U, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix and L is a lower triangular matrix. 3. If the leading i-by-i principal minor is not positive definite, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero), the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at least twice the working precision. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(S) so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cppsvx.f cppsvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CPPSVX uses the Cholesky factorization A = U**H*U or A = L*L**H to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N Hermitian positive definite matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S) * A * diag(S) * inv(diag(S)) * X = diag(S) * B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the Cholesky decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U'* U , if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * L', if UPLO = 'L', where U is an upper triangular matrix, L is a lower triangular matrix, and ' indicates conjugate transpose. 3. If the leading i-by-i principal minor is not positive definite, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(S) so that it solves the original system before equilibration. file cspsvx.f cspsvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CSPSVX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix stored in packed format and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'N', the diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 2. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 3. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 4. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. file csysvx.f csysvx.f plus dependencies prec complex CSYSVX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. Error bounds on the solution and a condition estimate are also provided. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'N', the diagonal pivoting method is used to factor A. The form of the factorization is A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 2. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A. If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, INFO = N+1 is returned as a warning, but the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 3. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 4. Iterative refinement is applied to improve the computed solution matrix and calculate error bounds and backward error estimates for it. file csysvxx.f csysvxx.f plus dependencies prec complex CSYSVXX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS matrices. If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds are returned. CSYSVXX will return a solution with a tiny guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine precision) unless the matrix is very ill-conditioned, in which case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are calculated and returned. CSYSVXX accepts user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options. Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous CSYSVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps) errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general user-provided factorizations and equilibration factors if they differ from what CSYSVXX would itself produce. Description =========== The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S)*A*diag(S) *inv(diag(S))*X = diag(S)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks. 3. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero), the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at least twice the working precision. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(R) so that it solves the original system before equilibration.