SUBROUTINE DGEEV( JOBVL, JOBVR, N, A, LDA, WR, WI, VL, LDVL, VR, \$ LDVR, WORK, LWORK, INFO ) * * -- LAPACK driver routine (version 3.1) -- * Univ. of Tennessee, Univ. of California Berkeley and NAG Ltd.. * November 2006 * * .. Scalar Arguments .. CHARACTER JOBVL, JOBVR INTEGER INFO, LDA, LDVL, LDVR, LWORK, N * .. * .. Array Arguments .. DOUBLE PRECISION A( LDA, * ), VL( LDVL, * ), VR( LDVR, * ), \$ WI( * ), WORK( * ), WR( * ) * .. * * Purpose * ======= * * DGEEV computes for an N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrix A, the * eigenvalues and, optionally, the left and/or right eigenvectors. * * The right eigenvector v(j) of A satisfies * A * v(j) = lambda(j) * v(j) * where lambda(j) is its eigenvalue. * The left eigenvector u(j) of A satisfies * u(j)**H * A = lambda(j) * u(j)**H * where u(j)**H denotes the conjugate transpose of u(j). * * The computed eigenvectors are normalized to have Euclidean norm * equal to 1 and largest component real. * * Arguments * ========= * * JOBVL (input) CHARACTER*1 * = 'N': left eigenvectors of A are not computed; * = 'V': left eigenvectors of A are computed. * * JOBVR (input) CHARACTER*1 * = 'N': right eigenvectors of A are not computed; * = 'V': right eigenvectors of A are computed. * * N (input) INTEGER * The order of the matrix A. N >= 0. * * A (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,N) * On entry, the N-by-N matrix A. * On exit, A has been overwritten. * * LDA (input) INTEGER * The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N). * * WR (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) * WI (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) * WR and WI contain the real and imaginary parts, * respectively, of the computed eigenvalues. Complex * conjugate pairs of eigenvalues appear consecutively * with the eigenvalue having the positive imaginary part * first. * * VL (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDVL,N) * If JOBVL = 'V', the left eigenvectors u(j) are stored one * after another in the columns of VL, in the same order * as their eigenvalues. * If JOBVL = 'N', VL is not referenced. * If the j-th eigenvalue is real, then u(j) = VL(:,j), * the j-th column of VL. * If the j-th and (j+1)-st eigenvalues form a complex * conjugate pair, then u(j) = VL(:,j) + i*VL(:,j+1) and * u(j+1) = VL(:,j) - i*VL(:,j+1). * * LDVL (input) INTEGER * The leading dimension of the array VL. LDVL >= 1; if * JOBVL = 'V', LDVL >= N. * * VR (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDVR,N) * If JOBVR = 'V', the right eigenvectors v(j) are stored one * after another in the columns of VR, in the same order * as their eigenvalues. * If JOBVR = 'N', VR is not referenced. * If the j-th eigenvalue is real, then v(j) = VR(:,j), * the j-th column of VR. * If the j-th and (j+1)-st eigenvalues form a complex * conjugate pair, then v(j) = VR(:,j) + i*VR(:,j+1) and * v(j+1) = VR(:,j) - i*VR(:,j+1). * * LDVR (input) INTEGER * The leading dimension of the array VR. LDVR >= 1; if * JOBVR = 'V', LDVR >= N. * * WORK (workspace/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK)) * On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK. * * LWORK (input) INTEGER * The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= max(1,3*N), and * if JOBVL = 'V' or JOBVR = 'V', LWORK >= 4*N. For good * performance, LWORK must generally be larger. * * If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine * only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns * this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error * message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA. * * INFO (output) INTEGER * = 0: successful exit * < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value. * > 0: if INFO = i, the QR algorithm failed to compute all the * eigenvalues, and no eigenvectors have been computed; * elements i+1:N of WR and WI contain eigenvalues which * have converged. * * ===================================================================== * * .. Parameters .. DOUBLE PRECISION ZERO, ONE PARAMETER ( ZERO = 0.0D0, ONE = 1.0D0 ) * .. * .. Local Scalars .. LOGICAL LQUERY, SCALEA, WANTVL, WANTVR CHARACTER SIDE INTEGER HSWORK, I, IBAL, IERR, IHI, ILO, ITAU, IWRK, K, \$ MAXWRK, MINWRK, NOUT DOUBLE PRECISION ANRM, BIGNUM, CS, CSCALE, EPS, R, SCL, SMLNUM, \$ SN * .. * .. Local Arrays .. LOGICAL SELECT( 1 ) DOUBLE PRECISION DUM( 1 ) * .. * .. External Subroutines .. EXTERNAL DGEBAK, DGEBAL, DGEHRD, DHSEQR, DLABAD, DLACPY, \$ DLARTG, DLASCL, DORGHR, DROT, DSCAL, DTREVC, \$ XERBLA * .. * .. External Functions .. LOGICAL LSAME INTEGER IDAMAX, ILAENV DOUBLE PRECISION DLAMCH, DLANGE, DLAPY2, DNRM2 EXTERNAL LSAME, IDAMAX, ILAENV, DLAMCH, DLANGE, DLAPY2, \$ DNRM2 * .. * .. Intrinsic Functions .. INTRINSIC MAX, SQRT * .. * .. Executable Statements .. * * Test the input arguments * INFO = 0 LQUERY = ( LWORK.EQ.-1 ) WANTVL = LSAME( JOBVL, 'V' ) WANTVR = LSAME( JOBVR, 'V' ) IF( ( .NOT.WANTVL ) .AND. ( .NOT.LSAME( JOBVL, 'N' ) ) ) THEN INFO = -1 ELSE IF( ( .NOT.WANTVR ) .AND. ( .NOT.LSAME( JOBVR, 'N' ) ) ) THEN INFO = -2 ELSE IF( N.LT.0 ) THEN INFO = -3 ELSE IF( LDA.LT.MAX( 1, N ) ) THEN INFO = -5 ELSE IF( LDVL.LT.1 .OR. ( WANTVL .AND. LDVL.LT.N ) ) THEN INFO = -9 ELSE IF( LDVR.LT.1 .OR. ( WANTVR .AND. LDVR.LT.N ) ) THEN INFO = -11 END IF * * Compute workspace * (Note: Comments in the code beginning "Workspace:" describe the * minimal amount of workspace needed at that point in the code, * as well as the preferred amount for good performance. * NB refers to the optimal block size for the immediately * following subroutine, as returned by ILAENV. * HSWORK refers to the workspace preferred by DHSEQR, as * calculated below. HSWORK is computed assuming ILO=1 and IHI=N, * the worst case.) * IF( INFO.EQ.0 ) THEN IF( N.EQ.0 ) THEN MINWRK = 1 MAXWRK = 1 ELSE MAXWRK = 2*N + N*ILAENV( 1, 'DGEHRD', ' ', N, 1, N, 0 ) IF( WANTVL ) THEN MINWRK = 4*N MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, 2*N + ( N - 1 )*ILAENV( 1, \$ 'DORGHR', ' ', N, 1, N, -1 ) ) CALL DHSEQR( 'S', 'V', N, 1, N, A, LDA, WR, WI, VL, LDVL, \$ WORK, -1, INFO ) HSWORK = WORK( 1 ) MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, N + 1, N + HSWORK ) MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, 4*N ) ELSE IF( WANTVR ) THEN MINWRK = 4*N MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, 2*N + ( N - 1 )*ILAENV( 1, \$ 'DORGHR', ' ', N, 1, N, -1 ) ) CALL DHSEQR( 'S', 'V', N, 1, N, A, LDA, WR, WI, VR, LDVR, \$ WORK, -1, INFO ) HSWORK = WORK( 1 ) MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, N + 1, N + HSWORK ) MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, 4*N ) ELSE MINWRK = 3*N CALL DHSEQR( 'E', 'N', N, 1, N, A, LDA, WR, WI, VR, LDVR, \$ WORK, -1, INFO ) HSWORK = WORK( 1 ) MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, N + 1, N + HSWORK ) END IF MAXWRK = MAX( MAXWRK, MINWRK ) END IF WORK( 1 ) = MAXWRK * IF( LWORK.LT.MINWRK .AND. .NOT.LQUERY ) THEN INFO = -13 END IF END IF * IF( INFO.NE.0 ) THEN CALL XERBLA( 'DGEEV ', -INFO ) RETURN ELSE IF( LQUERY ) THEN RETURN END IF * * Quick return if possible * IF( N.EQ.0 ) \$ RETURN * * Get machine constants * EPS = DLAMCH( 'P' ) SMLNUM = DLAMCH( 'S' ) BIGNUM = ONE / SMLNUM CALL DLABAD( SMLNUM, BIGNUM ) SMLNUM = SQRT( SMLNUM ) / EPS BIGNUM = ONE / SMLNUM * * Scale A if max element outside range [SMLNUM,BIGNUM] * ANRM = DLANGE( 'M', N, N, A, LDA, DUM ) SCALEA = .FALSE. IF( ANRM.GT.ZERO .AND. ANRM.LT.SMLNUM ) THEN SCALEA = .TRUE. CSCALE = SMLNUM ELSE IF( ANRM.GT.BIGNUM ) THEN SCALEA = .TRUE. CSCALE = BIGNUM END IF IF( SCALEA ) \$ CALL DLASCL( 'G', 0, 0, ANRM, CSCALE, N, N, A, LDA, IERR ) * * Balance the matrix * (Workspace: need N) * IBAL = 1 CALL DGEBAL( 'B', N, A, LDA, ILO, IHI, WORK( IBAL ), IERR ) * * Reduce to upper Hessenberg form * (Workspace: need 3*N, prefer 2*N+N*NB) * ITAU = IBAL + N IWRK = ITAU + N CALL DGEHRD( N, ILO, IHI, A, LDA, WORK( ITAU ), WORK( IWRK ), \$ LWORK-IWRK+1, IERR ) * IF( WANTVL ) THEN * * Want left eigenvectors * Copy Householder vectors to VL * SIDE = 'L' CALL DLACPY( 'L', N, N, A, LDA, VL, LDVL ) * * Generate orthogonal matrix in VL * (Workspace: need 3*N-1, prefer 2*N+(N-1)*NB) * CALL DORGHR( N, ILO, IHI, VL, LDVL, WORK( ITAU ), WORK( IWRK ), \$ LWORK-IWRK+1, IERR ) * * Perform QR iteration, accumulating Schur vectors in VL * (Workspace: need N+1, prefer N+HSWORK (see comments) ) * IWRK = ITAU CALL DHSEQR( 'S', 'V', N, ILO, IHI, A, LDA, WR, WI, VL, LDVL, \$ WORK( IWRK ), LWORK-IWRK+1, INFO ) * IF( WANTVR ) THEN * * Want left and right eigenvectors * Copy Schur vectors to VR * SIDE = 'B' CALL DLACPY( 'F', N, N, VL, LDVL, VR, LDVR ) END IF * ELSE IF( WANTVR ) THEN * * Want right eigenvectors * Copy Householder vectors to VR * SIDE = 'R' CALL DLACPY( 'L', N, N, A, LDA, VR, LDVR ) * * Generate orthogonal matrix in VR * (Workspace: need 3*N-1, prefer 2*N+(N-1)*NB) * CALL DORGHR( N, ILO, IHI, VR, LDVR, WORK( ITAU ), WORK( IWRK ), \$ LWORK-IWRK+1, IERR ) * * Perform QR iteration, accumulating Schur vectors in VR * (Workspace: need N+1, prefer N+HSWORK (see comments) ) * IWRK = ITAU CALL DHSEQR( 'S', 'V', N, ILO, IHI, A, LDA, WR, WI, VR, LDVR, \$ WORK( IWRK ), LWORK-IWRK+1, INFO ) * ELSE * * Compute eigenvalues only * (Workspace: need N+1, prefer N+HSWORK (see comments) ) * IWRK = ITAU CALL DHSEQR( 'E', 'N', N, ILO, IHI, A, LDA, WR, WI, VR, LDVR, \$ WORK( IWRK ), LWORK-IWRK+1, INFO ) END IF * * If INFO > 0 from DHSEQR, then quit * IF( INFO.GT.0 ) \$ GO TO 50 * IF( WANTVL .OR. WANTVR ) THEN * * Compute left and/or right eigenvectors * (Workspace: need 4*N) * CALL DTREVC( SIDE, 'B', SELECT, N, A, LDA, VL, LDVL, VR, LDVR, \$ N, NOUT, WORK( IWRK ), IERR ) END IF * IF( WANTVL ) THEN * * Undo balancing of left eigenvectors * (Workspace: need N) * CALL DGEBAK( 'B', 'L', N, ILO, IHI, WORK( IBAL ), N, VL, LDVL, \$ IERR ) * * Normalize left eigenvectors and make largest component real * DO 20 I = 1, N IF( WI( I ).EQ.ZERO ) THEN SCL = ONE / DNRM2( N, VL( 1, I ), 1 ) CALL DSCAL( N, SCL, VL( 1, I ), 1 ) ELSE IF( WI( I ).GT.ZERO ) THEN SCL = ONE / DLAPY2( DNRM2( N, VL( 1, I ), 1 ), \$ DNRM2( N, VL( 1, I+1 ), 1 ) ) CALL DSCAL( N, SCL, VL( 1, I ), 1 ) CALL DSCAL( N, SCL, VL( 1, I+1 ), 1 ) DO 10 K = 1, N WORK( IWRK+K-1 ) = VL( K, I )**2 + VL( K, I+1 )**2 10 CONTINUE K = IDAMAX( N, WORK( IWRK ), 1 ) CALL DLARTG( VL( K, I ), VL( K, I+1 ), CS, SN, R ) CALL DROT( N, VL( 1, I ), 1, VL( 1, I+1 ), 1, CS, SN ) VL( K, I+1 ) = ZERO END IF 20 CONTINUE END IF * IF( WANTVR ) THEN * * Undo balancing of right eigenvectors * (Workspace: need N) * CALL DGEBAK( 'B', 'R', N, ILO, IHI, WORK( IBAL ), N, VR, LDVR, \$ IERR ) * * Normalize right eigenvectors and make largest component real * DO 40 I = 1, N IF( WI( I ).EQ.ZERO ) THEN SCL = ONE / DNRM2( N, VR( 1, I ), 1 ) CALL DSCAL( N, SCL, VR( 1, I ), 1 ) ELSE IF( WI( I ).GT.ZERO ) THEN SCL = ONE / DLAPY2( DNRM2( N, VR( 1, I ), 1 ), \$ DNRM2( N, VR( 1, I+1 ), 1 ) ) CALL DSCAL( N, SCL, VR( 1, I ), 1 ) CALL DSCAL( N, SCL, VR( 1, I+1 ), 1 ) DO 30 K = 1, N WORK( IWRK+K-1 ) = VR( K, I )**2 + VR( K, I+1 )**2 30 CONTINUE K = IDAMAX( N, WORK( IWRK ), 1 ) CALL DLARTG( VR( K, I ), VR( K, I+1 ), CS, SN, R ) CALL DROT( N, VR( 1, I ), 1, VR( 1, I+1 ), 1, CS, SN ) VR( K, I+1 ) = ZERO END IF 40 CONTINUE END IF * * Undo scaling if necessary * 50 CONTINUE IF( SCALEA ) THEN CALL DLASCL( 'G', 0, 0, CSCALE, ANRM, N-INFO, 1, WR( INFO+1 ), \$ MAX( N-INFO, 1 ), IERR ) CALL DLASCL( 'G', 0, 0, CSCALE, ANRM, N-INFO, 1, WI( INFO+1 ), \$ MAX( N-INFO, 1 ), IERR ) IF( INFO.GT.0 ) THEN CALL DLASCL( 'G', 0, 0, CSCALE, ANRM, ILO-1, 1, WR, N, \$ IERR ) CALL DLASCL( 'G', 0, 0, CSCALE, ANRM, ILO-1, 1, WI, N, \$ IERR ) END IF END IF * WORK( 1 ) = MAXWRK RETURN * * End of DGEEV * END