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Shared-memory MIMD machines

In Figure 1 already one subclass of this type of machines was shown. In fact, the single-processor vector machine discussed there was a special case of a more general type. The figure shows that more than one FPU and/or VPU may be possible in one system.

The main problem one is confronted with in shared-memory systems is that of the connection of the CPUs to each other and to the memory. As more CPUs are added, the collective bandwidth to the memory ideally should increase linearly with the number of processors, while each processor should preferably communicate directly with all others without the much slower alternative of having to use the memory in an intermediate stage. Unfortunately, full interconnection is quite costly, growing with O(n²) while increasing the number of processors with O(n). So, various alternatives have been tried. Figure 4 shows some of the interconnection structures that are (and have been) used.

As can be seen from the figure, a crossbar uses connections, an Ω-network uses nlog2n connections while, with the central bus, there is only one connection. This is reflected in the use of each connection path for the different types of interconnections: for a crossbar each datapath is direct and does not have to be shared with other elements. In case of the Ω-network there are log n switching stages and as many data items may have to compete for any path. For the central databus all data have to share the same bus, so n data items may compete at any time.

Figure of networks
Figure 4: Some examples of interconnection structures used in shared-memory MIMD systems.

The bus connection is the least expensive solution, but it has the obvious drawback that bus contention may occur thus slowing down the computations. Various intricate strategies have been devised using caches associated with the CPUs to minimise the bus traffic. This leads however to a more complicated bus structure which raises the costs. In practice it has proved to be very hard to design buses that are fast enough, especially where the speed of the processors have been increasing very quickly and it imposes an upper bound on the number of processors thus connected that in practice appears not to exceed a number of 10-20. In 1992, a new standard (IEEE P896) for a fast bus to connect either internal system components or to external systems has been defined. This bus, called the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) should provide a point-to-point bandwidth of 200-1,000 Mbyte/s. It is in fact used in the HP Exemplar systems, but also within a cluster of workstations as offered by SCALI. The SCI is much more than a simple bus and it can act as the hardware network framework for distributed computing, see [20].

A multi-stage crossbar is a network with a logarithmic complexity and it has a structure which is situated somewhere in between a bus and a crossbar with respect to potential capacity and costs. The Ω-network is as depicted in Figure 4 is an example. Commercially available machines like the IBM eServer p690, the SGI Origin3000, and the late Cenju-4 use such a network structure, but a number of experimental machines also have used this or a similar kind of interconnection. The BBN TC2000 that acted as a virtual shared-memory MIMD system used an analogous type of network (a Butterfly-network) and it is quite conceivable that new machines may use it, especially as the number of processors grows. For a large number of processors the nlog2n connections quickly become more attractive than the used in crossbars. Of course, the switches at the intermediate levels should be sufficiently fast to cope with the bandwidth required. Obviously, not only the structure but also the width of the links between the processors is important: a network using 16-bit parallel links will have a bandwidth which is 16 times higher than a network with the same topology implemented with serial links.

In all present-day multi-processor vectorprocessors crossbars are used. This is still feasible because the maximum number of processors in a system is still rather small (32 at most presently). When the number of processors would increase, however, technological problems might arise. Not only it becomes harder to build a crossbar of sufficient speed for the larger numbers of processors, the processors themselves generally also increase in speed individually, doubling the problems of making the speed of the crossbar match that of the bandwidth required by the processors.

Whichever network is used, the type of processors in principle could be arbitrary for any topology. In practice, however, bus structured machines do not have vector processors as the speeds of these would grossly mismatch with any bus that could be constructed with reasonable costs. All available bus-oriented systems use RISC processors. The local caches of the processors can sometimes alleviate the bandwidth problem if the data access can be satisfied by the caches thus avoiding references to the memory.

The systems discussed in this subsection are of the MIMD type and therefore different tasks may run on different processors simultaneously. In many cases synchronisation between tasks is required and again the interconnection structure is here very important. Most vectorprocessors employ special communication registers within the CPUs by which they can communicate directly with the other CPUs they have to synchronise with. The systems may also synchronise via the shared memory. Generally, this is much slower but may still be acceptable when the synchronisation occurs relatively seldom. Of course in bus-based systems communication also has to be done via a bus. This bus is mostly separated from the databus to assure a maximum speed for the synchronisation.

next up previous contents
Next: Distributed-memory MIMD machines Up: The Main Architectural Classes Previous: Distributed-memory SIMD machines

Aad van der Steen
Thu Oct 7 14:19:54 CEST 2004