%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.51",
%%%     date            = "16 July 2014",
%%%     time            = "17:25:15 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "tois.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "05871 20302 106760 1044552",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography, BibTeX, ACM Transactions on
%%%                        Information Systems",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "no",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        the journal ACM Transactions on Information
%%%                        Systems (CODEN ATISET, ISSN 1046-8188), for
%%%                        1989--date.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 7, number 1,
%%%                        in January 1989.  The journal appears
%%%                        quarterly, in January, April, July, and
%%%                        October.  Its predecessor, ACM Transactions
%%%                        on Office Information Systems (CODEN
%%%                        ATOSDO, ISSN 0734-2047), is covered in a
%%%                        companion bibliography, toois.bib.
%%%
%%%                        The two journals have a joint World-Wide
%%%                        Web site at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois
%%%
%%%                        Tables-of-contents of all issues are
%%%                        available at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.50, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             1989 (  19)    1998 (  15)    2007 (  25)
%%%                             1990 (  15)    1999 (  16)    2008 (  27)
%%%                             1991 (  18)    2000 (  11)    2009 (  18)
%%%                             1992 (  18)    2001 (  11)    2010 (  28)
%%%                             1993 (  20)    2002 (  16)    2011 (  16)
%%%                             1994 (  21)    2003 (  16)    2012 (  27)
%%%                             1995 (  19)    2004 (  20)    2013 (  22)
%%%                             1996 (  17)    2005 (  16)    2014 (  15)
%%%                             1997 (  15)    2006 (  19)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        479
%%%                             Proceedings:      1
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  480
%%%
%%%                        The initial draft of this bibliography was
%%%                        derived from data at the ACM Web site.  It
%%%                        was then augmented with data from the
%%%                        Compendex and OCLC Contents1st databases,
%%%                        and from the huge Karlsruhe computer
%%%                        science bibliography archive.  There were a
%%%                        surprisingly large number of discrepancies
%%%                        (in more than a third of the entries) in
%%%                        these sources, but they have been resolved
%%%                        by consulting the original journal issues.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.
%%%
%%%                        The bibsource keys in the bibliography
%%%                        entries below indicate the data sources.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
%%%
%%%                        Spelling has been verified with the UNIX
%%%                        spell and GNU ispell programs using the
%%%                        exception dictionary stored in the
%%%                        companion file with extension .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, using ``bibsort -byvolume.''
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================

@Preamble{
    "\input bibnames.sty"
  # "\hyphenation{Chem-u-du-gun-ta Kou-ba-ra-kis San-kar-a-na-ray-a-nan Yan-kel-o-vich}"
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TOIS                  = "ACM Transactions on Information Systems"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Publisher abbreviations:

@String{pub-ACM                 = "ACM Press"}

@String{pub-ACM:adr             = "New York, NY 10036, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Allen:1989:ENN,
  author =       "R. B. Allen",
  title =        "Editorial: a New Name --- {ACM Transactions on
                 Information Systems}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "With this issue the Transactions becomes the ACM
                 Transaction on Information Systems (TOIS). In addition,
                 TOIS' charter has been expanded to formally include the
                 field of Information Retrieval. These changes affirm
                 the broad scope that the journal has been pursuing in
                 recent years. As before, a wide variety of perspectives
                 on information systems will be considered, including
                 topics such as user and organizational interfaces, data
                 models, system organization, knowledge bases, and new
                 media. Of course, TOIS will also continue to examine
                 the uses and impact of information systems. Thus,
                 papers in areas such as electronic publishing,
                 interactive video services, large text archives, UIMSs,
                 intelligent tutoring systems, and cooperative work are
                 encouraged. TOIS is primarily a research journal with
                 an emphasis on quality and originality, as well as
                 relevance. Moreover, TOIS has a Practice and Experience
                 Section for papers that present novel insights without
                 the usual rigor of Research Contributions. Together,
                 the Associate Editors and I are committed to keeping
                 TOIS the premier publication in its field. We will also
                 strive to make TOIS a testbed for new information
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Stotts:1989:PNB,
  author =       "P. David Stotts and Richard Furuta",
  title =        "{Petri} Net Based Hypertext: Document Structure with
                 Browsing Semantics",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--29",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We present a formal definition of the Trellis model of
                 hypertext and describe an authoring and browsing
                 prototype called $\alpha$ Trellis that is based on the
                 model. The Trellis model not only represents the
                 relationships that tie individual pieces of information
                 together into a document (i.e., the adjacencies), but
                 specifies the browsing semantics to be associated with
                 the hypertext as well (i.e., the manner in which the
                 information is to be visited and presented). The model
                 is based on Petri nets, and is a generalization of
                 existing directed graph-based forms of hypertext. The
                 Petri net basis permits more powerful specification of
                 what is to be displayed when a hypertext is browsed and
                 permits application of previously developed Petri net
                 analysis techniques to verify properties of the
                 hypertext. A number of useful hypertext constructs,
                 easily described in the Trellis model, are presented.
                 These include the synchronization of simultaneous
                 traversals of separate paths through a hypertext, the
                 incorporation of access controls into a hypertext
                 (i.e., specifying nodes that can be proven to be
                 accessible only to certain classes of browsers), and
                 construction of multiple specialized (tailored)
                 versions from a single hypertext.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland",
  affiliationaddress = "College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Access controls; Browsing semantics; Browsing
                 Semantics; Computation by abstract devices; Database
                 Systems; Design; Formal models; Hypertext; Inf. storage
                 and retrieval; Information Retrieval; Information
                 Science; Languages; Miscellaneous; Models of
                 computation; Petri nets; Petri Nets; Synchronization;
                 Systems and software; Text processing; Theory; Trellis
                 Model; Trellis model of hypertext",
}

@Article{Egan:1989:FDE,
  author =       "Dennis E. Egan and Joel R. Remde and Louis M. Gomez
                 and Thomas K. Landauer and Jennifer Eberhardt and Carol
                 C. Lochbaum",
  title =        "Formative Design-Evaluation of {SuperBook}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "30--57",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "SuperBook is a hypertext browsing system designed to
                 improve the usability of conventional documents. This
                 work is a case study of formative design-evaluation.
                 Behavioral evaluation of the first version of SuperBook
                 showed how design factors and user strategies affected
                 search and established baseline performance measures
                 with printed text. The second version of SuperBook was
                 implemented with the goal of improving search accuracy
                 and speed. User strategies that had proved effective in
                 the first study were made very easy and attractive to
                 use. System response time for common operations was
                 greatly improved. Behavioral evaluation of the new
                 SuperBook demonstrated its superiority to printed text
                 and suggested additional improvements that were
                 incorporated into `MiteyBook,' a SuperBook
                 implementation for PC-size screens. Search with
                 MiteyBook proved to be approximately 25 percent faster
                 and 25 percent more accurate than that obtained with a
                 conventional printed book.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bellcore",
  affiliationaddress = "Morristown, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Database Systems; Documentation; Evaluation; Human
                 factors; Hypertext; Inf. storage and retrieval;
                 Information Retrieval; Information Retrieval Systems;
                 Information Science; Information search; Information
                 systems applications; Models and principles; Office
                 automation; SuperBook; Systems and software;
                 User/machine systems",
  wwwauthor =    "D. E. Egan and J. R. Remde and J. M. Gomez and T. K.
                 Landauer and J. Eberhardt and C. C. Lochbaum",
}

@Article{Utting:1989:COH,
  author =       "Kenneth Utting and Nicole Yankelovich",
  title =        "Context and Orientation in Hypermedia Networks",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "58--84",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The core of hypermedia's power lies in the complex
                 networks of links that can be created within and
                 between documents. However, these networks frequently
                 overwhelm the user and become a source of confusion.
                 Within Intermedia, we have developed the Web View --- a
                 tool for viewing and navigating such networks with a
                 minimum of user confusion and disorientation. The key
                 factors in the Web View's success are a display that
                 combines a record of the user's path through the
                 network with a map of the currently available links; a
                 scope line that summarizes the number of documents and
                 links in the network; and a set of commands that permit
                 the user to open documents directly from the Web
                 View.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Brown Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Providence, RI, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Database Systems; Human factors; Hypermedia Networks;
                 Hypermedia systems; Hypertext systems; Inf. storage and
                 retrieval; Information Retrieval; Information Science;
                 Network browsers; Sys. and software; Web View",
  wwwauthor =    "N. Yankelovich and K. Utting",
}

@Article{Tompa:1989:DMF,
  author =       "Frank Wm. Tompa",
  title =        "A Data Model for Flexible Hypertext Database Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "85--100",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Hypertext and other page-oriented databases cannot
                 be-schematized in the same manner as record-oriented
                 databases. As a result, most hypertext database
                 implicitly employ a data model based on a simple,
                 unrestricted graph. This paper presents a hypergraph
                 model for maintaining page-oriented database in such a
                 way that some of the functionality traditionally
                 provided by database schemes can be available to
                 hypertext database. In particular, the model formalizes
                 identification of commonality in the structure,
                 set-at-a-time database access, and definition of
                 user-specific views. An efficient implementation of the
                 model is also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Waterloo",
  affiliationaddress = "Waterloo, Ont, Can",
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data manipulation languages (DML); Data models; Data
                 Models; Database management; Database Systems; Design;
                 Directed Hypergraphs; Directed hypergraphs; Hypertext;
                 Information Retrieval; Information Science; Information
                 storage; Information storage and retrieval; Languages;
                 Logical design; Text Management; Text management;
                 Videotex databases",
}

@Article{Sciore:1989:OS,
  author =       "Edward Sciore",
  title =        "Object Specialization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "103--122",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Specialization hierarchies typically are treated as
                 type-level constructs and are used to define various
                 inheritance mechanisms. In this paper we consider
                 specialization at the level of objects. We show that
                 doing so creates a more flexible and powerful notion of
                 inheritance by allowing objects to define their own
                 inheritance path. Object specialization can also be
                 used to model certain forms of versioning, implement
                 data abstraction, and provide a `classless'
                 prototype-based language interface to the user.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Boston Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Boston, MA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Computer Interfaces; Computer
                 Programming Languages; Database management; Database
                 Systems; Deduction and theorem proving; Delegation;
                 Design; Inheritance; Language constructs; Language
                 Constructs; Languages; Object Oriented Database;
                 Object-oriented database; Programming languages;
                 Specialization Hierarchies; Theory",
  wwwpages =     "103--123",
}

@Article{Guting:1989:ASO,
  author =       "Ralf Hartmut Guting and Roberto Zicari and David M.
                 Choy",
  title =        "An Algebra for Structured Office Documents",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--157",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We describe a data model for structured office
                 information objects, which we generically call
                 `documents,' and a practically useful algebraic
                 language for the retrieval and manipulation of such
                 objects. Documents are viewed as hierarchical
                 structures; their layout (presentation) aspect is to be
                 treated separately. The syntax and semantics of the
                 language are defined precisely in terms of the formal
                 model, an extended relational algebra. The proposed
                 approach has several new features, some of which are
                 particularly useful for the management of office
                 information. The data model is based on nested
                 sequences of tuples rather than nested relations.
                 Therefore, sorting and sequence operations and the
                 explicit handling of duplicates can be described by the
                 model. Furthermore, this is the first model based on a
                 many-sorted instead of a one-sorted algebra, which
                 means that atomic data values as well as nested
                 structures are objects of the algebra. As a
                 consequence, arithmetic operations, aggregate
                 functions, and so forth can be treated inside the
                 model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Dortmund",
  affiliationaddress = "Dortmund, West Ger",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data models; Data Models; Database applications;
                 Database management; Database Systems; Extended
                 relational algebra; Forms processing; Information
                 systems applications; Languages; Logical design;
                 Management; Many-sorted algebra; Miscellaneous; Nested
                 relations; Office automation; Office Automation; Query
                 languages; Query Languages; Relational; Relational
                 Algebra; Structured document; Theory; Tuple sequences",
}

@Article{Lee:1989:PSF,
  author =       "Dik Lun Lee and Chun-Wu Leng",
  title =        "Partitioned Signature Files: Design Issues and
                 Performance Evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "158--180",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A signature file acts as a filtering mechanism to
                 reduce the amount of text that needs to be searched for
                 a query. Unfortunately, the signature file itself must
                 be exhaustively searched, resulting in degraded
                 performance for a large file size. We propose to use a
                 deterministic algorithm to divide a signature file into
                 partitions, each of which contains signatures with the
                 same `key.' The signature keys in a partition can be
                 extracted and represented as the partition's key. The
                 search can then be confined to the subset of partitions
                 whose keys match the query key. Our main concern here
                 is to study methods for obtaining the keys and their
                 performance in terms of their ability to reduce the
                 search space. We outline the criteria for evaluating
                 partitioning schemes. Three algorithms are described
                 and studied. An analytical study of the performance of
                 the algorithms is provided, and the results are
                 verified with simulation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Ohio State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Columbus, OH, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Access method; Access methods; Codes; Computer
                 Programming--Algorithms; Computer Simulation; Data
                 Processing--File Organization; Database management;
                 Database Systems; Design; Document retrieval; Inf.
                 storage and retrieval; Information retrieval;
                 Information Retrieval; Information Science; Information
                 systems applications; Library automation; Office
                 automation; Parallel search; Parallel Search;
                 Partitioned Signature Files; Performance; Performance
                 evaluation; Physical design; Superimposed coding;
                 Superimposed Coding; Surrogate file; Symbolic; Text
                 editing; Text processing; Text retrieval",
  wwwtitle =     "Partitioned Signature File: Design Issues and
                 Performance Evaluation",
}

@Article{Croft:1989:EIS,
  author =       "W. B. Croft",
  title =        "Editorial: Introduction to the Special Issue",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "181--182",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This Special Issue contains selected papers from the
                 SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval held at Cambridge, Massachusetts
                 in June, 1989. The papers were selected by the program
                 committee and revised for publication in TOIS.
                 Information retrieval is a diverse field of research,
                 and the areas covered at this conference include formal
                 models, search strategies, hypermedia, storage
                 structures, evaluation, natural language processing,
                 interfaces, and knowledge-based architectures. The
                 unifying goal of this research is the efficient and
                 effective retrieval of complex, multimedia objects,
                 with a primary focus on text documents.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Fuhr:1989:OPR,
  author =       "Norbert Fuhr",
  title =        "Optimum Polynomial Retrieval Functions Based on the
                 Probability Ranking Principle",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "183--204",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We show that any approach to developing optimum
                 retrieval functions is based on two kinds of
                 assumptions: first, a certain form of representation
                 for documents and requests, and second, additional
                 simplifying assumptions that predefine the type of the
                 retrieval function. We describe an approach for the
                 development of optimum polynomial retrieval functions.
                 We give experimental results for the application of
                 this approach to documents with weighted indexing as
                 well as to documents with complex representations. In
                 contrast to other probabilistic models, our approach
                 yields estimates of the actual probabilities, it can
                 handle very complex representations of documents and
                 requests, and it can be easily applied to multivalued
                 relevance scales.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Technische Hochschule Darmstadt",
  affiliationaddress = "Darmstadt, West Ger",
  classification = "903; 922",
  conference =   "SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Approximation; Complex Document Representation;
                 Complex document representation; Content analysis and
                 indexing; Indexing methods; Information Retrieval
                 Systems; Information Science --- Information Retrieval;
                 Information search and retrieval; Information storage
                 and retrieval; Least squares approximation; Linear
                 Retrieval Functions; Linear retrieval functions;
                 Multivalued Relevance Scales; Multivalued relevance
                 scales; Numerical analysis; Optimum Retrieval;
                 Probabilistic Indexing; Probabilistic indexing;
                 Probabilistic retrieval; Probability; Probability
                 Ranking Principle; Probability ranking principle;
                 Retrieval methods Experimentation; Theory",
  meetingaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/89",
  wwwtitle =     "Optimal Polynomial Retrieval Functions Based on the
                 Probability Ranking Principle",
}

@Article{Raghavan:1989:CIR,
  author =       "Vijay V. Raghavan and Gwang S. Jung and Peter
                 Bollmann",
  title =        "A Critical Investigation of Recall and Precision as
                 Measures of Retrieval System Performance",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "205--229",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Recall and precision are often used to evaluate the
                 effectiveness of information retrieval systems. They
                 are easy to define if there is a single query and if
                 the retrieval result generated for the query is a
                 linear ordering. However, when the retrieval results
                 are weakly ordered, in the sense that several documents
                 have an identical retrieval status value with respect
                 to a query, some probabilistic notion of precision has
                 to be introduced. We systematically investigate the
                 various problems and issues associated with the use of
                 recall and precision as measures of retrieval system
                 performance. Our motivation is to provide a comparative
                 analysis of methods available for defining precision in
                 a probabilistic sense and to promote a better
                 understanding of the various issues involved in
                 retrieval performance evaluation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Southwestern Louisiana",
  affiliationaddress = "Lafayette, LA, USA",
  classification = "903; 922",
  conference =   "SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Evaluation measures; Expected precision; Expected
                 Search Length; Expected search length; Experimentation;
                 Fallout; General; Generality; Inf. storage and
                 retrieval; Information Retrieval; Information
                 retrieval; Information Retrieval Systems ---
                 Evaluation; Information Science; Information search and
                 retrieval; Information storage and retrieval;
                 Measurement; Miscellaneous; Performance; Performance
                 measurement; Precision; Probabilistic Notion;
                 Probability; Probability of relevance; Recall;
                 Retrieval models; Retrieval Models; Retrieval System
                 Performance; Stopping criterion; Systems evaluation;
                 Theory",
  meetingaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/89",
}

@Article{Klein:1989:STR,
  author =       "Shmuel T. Klein and Abraham Bookstein and Scott
                 Deerwester",
  title =        "Storing Text Retrieval Systems on {CD-ROM}.
                 Compression and Encryption Considerations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "230--245",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The emergence of the CD-ROM as a storage medium for
                 full-text databases raises the question of the maximum
                 size database that can be contained by this medium. As
                 an example, the problem of storing the Tr{\'e}sor de la
                 Langue Fran{\c{c}}aise on a CD-ROM is examined.
                 Pertinent approaches to compression of the various
                 files are reviewed, and the compression of the text is
                 related to the problem of data encryption:
                 Specifically, it is shown that, under simple models of
                 text generation, Huffman encoding produces a bit-string
                 indistinguishable from a representation of coin
                 flips.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Chicago",
  affiliationaddress = "Chicago, IL, USA",
  classification = "723; 741; 903",
  conference =   "SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Arts and humanities; Bit-maps; cd-rom;
                 CD-ROM; Coding and information theory; Computer
                 applications; Cryptography; Data; Data encryption; Data
                 Encryption; Data Storage; Full-Text Storage; Full-text
                 storage; Huffman Coding; Huffman coding; Inf. storage
                 and retrieval; Information Retrieval Systems ---
                 Database Systems; Information storage; Information
                 Theory --- Data Compression; Optical; Security; Storage
                 Devices; Text Retrieval Systems",
  meetingaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/89",
  wwwtitle =     "String Text Retrieval Systems on {CD-ROM}: Compression
                 and Encryption Considerations",
}

@Article{Smith:1989:KBS,
  author =       "Philip J. Smith and Steven J. Shute and Deb Galdes and
                 Mark H. Chignell",
  title =        "Knowledge-Based Search Tactics for an Intelligent
                 Intermediary System",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "246--270",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Research on the nature of knowledge-based systems for
                 bibliographic information retrieval is summarized.
                 Knowledge-based search tactics are then considered in
                 terms of their role in the functioning of a
                 semantically based search system for bibliographic
                 information retrieval, EP-X. This system uses such
                 tactics to actively assist users in defining or
                 refining their topics of interest. It does so by
                 applying these tactics to a knowledge base describing
                 topics in a particular domain and to a database
                 describing the contents of individual documents in
                 terms of these topics. This paper, then, focuses on the
                 two central concepts behind EP-X: semantically based
                 search and knowledge-based search tactics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "The Ohio State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Columbus, OH, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  conference =   "SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial Intelligence; Artificial intelligence;
                 Bibliographic Information Retrieval; Bibliographic
                 information retrieval; Database Systems; Document
                 Retrieval; Document retrieval; Frames and scripts;
                 Human factors; Inf. storage and retrieval; Information
                 Retrieval; Information Retrieval Systems --- Computer
                 Aided Analysis; Information Science; Information search
                 and retrieval; Knowledge Representation; Knowledge
                 representation formalisms and methods; Knowledge-Based
                 Search; Knowledge-based search tactics; Knowledge-Based
                 Systems; Knowledge-based systems; Models and
                 principles; Search process; Semantically Based Search;
                 Semantically based search; User/machine systems",
  meetingaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/89",
  wwwtitle =     "Knowledge-Based Search Tactics for an Intelligent
                 Intermediary",
}

@Article{Campagnoni:1989:IRU,
  author =       "F. R. Campagnoni and Kate Ehrlich",
  title =        "Information Retrieval Using a Hypertext-Based Help
                 System",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "271--291",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A study was conducted on information retrieval using a
                 commercial hypertext-based help system. It was found
                 that the predominant search strategy was `browsing',
                 rather than employing the indexes. Individuals with
                 better spatial visualization skills were faster at
                 retrieving information than those with poorer spatial
                 visualization skills. These results support previous
                 studies that have found a strong preference by users
                 for browsing in hypertext systems and extend those
                 findings to a new domain (help), a different type of
                 user interface, and a different information
                 architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Sun Microsystems, Inc",
  affiliationaddress = "Billerica, MA, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  conference =   "SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer Graphics --- Interactive; Documentation;
                 Graphical User Interfaces; Help Systems; Help systems;
                 Human factors; Hypertext; Individual differences; Inf.
                 storage and retrieval; Information Retrieval;
                 Information Retrieval Systems --- Online Searching;
                 Information Science; Information Search; Information
                 search and retrieval; Models and principles; Search
                 process; Spatial Visualization; User/machine systems;
                 Visualization",
  meetingaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/89",
  wwwauthor =    "F. R. Campagnoi and K. Ehrlich",
}

@Article{Metzler:1989:COP,
  author =       "Douglas P. Metzler and Stephanie W. Haas",
  title =        "The Constituent Object Parser: Syntactic Structure
                 Matching for Information Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "292--316",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The Constituent Object Parser is a shallow syntactic
                 parser designed to produce dependency tree
                 representations of syntactic structure that can be used
                 to specify the intended meanings of a sentence more
                 precisely than can the key terms of the sentence alone.
                 It is intended to improve the precision/ recall
                 performance of information retrieval and similar text
                 processing applications by providing more powerful
                 matching procedures. The dependency tree representation
                 and the relationship between the intended use of this
                 parser and its design is described, and several
                 problems concerning the processing and ambiguous
                 structures are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Pittsburgh",
  affiliationaddress = "Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  classification = "721; 723; 903",
  conference =   "SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Automata Theory --- Grammars;
                 Content analysis and indexing; Dependency-based
                 parsing; Design; Inf. storage and retrieval;
                 Information Retrieval; Information Retrieval Systems;
                 Information Science; Information storage and retrieval;
                 Language Parsing; Language parsing and understanding;
                 Linguistic processing; Linguistic Processing; Natural
                 language processing; Natural Language Processing;
                 Precision; Query Formulation; Query formulation;
                 Relevancy judgments; Retrieval models; Search and
                 retrieval; Selection process; Syntactic Structure
                 Matching; Text Analysis; Text analysis",
  meetingaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/89",
}

@Article{Olson:1989:WHC,
  author =       "Margrethe H. Olson",
  title =        "Work at Home for Computer Professionals. Current
                 Attitudes and Future Prospects",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "317--338",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The article reports on two studies of work at home: a
                 quasi-experimental field study of organizational
                 telecommuting pilot programs, and an attitude survey
                 comparing computer professionals who work at home to
                 employees doing similar jobs in traditional office
                 settings. The results of the field study demonstrated
                 that working in the home had little impact on employee
                 performance; however, supervisors were not comfortable
                 with remote workers and preferred their employees to be
                 on site. In the survey, work in the home was related to
                 lower job satisfaction, lower organizational
                 commitment, and higher role conflict. The survey also
                 included computer professionals who worked at home in
                 addition to the regular work day. The author suggests
                 that performing additional unpaid work in the home
                 after regular work hours may be an important trend that
                 merits further investigation. The studies demonstrate
                 that while computer and communications technology have
                 the potential to relax constraints on information work
                 in terms of space and time, in today's traditional work
                 environments, corporate culture and management style
                 limit acceptance of telecommuting as a substitute for
                 office work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "New York Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "New York, NY, USA",
  classification = "716; 718; 723; 901; 912",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computers; Computers and society; Computing
                 Profession; Employment; Human factors; Management;
                 Occupations; Office Automation; Organizational impacts;
                 Performance; Personal; Personnel; Social issues;
                 Technology--Economic and Sociological Effects;
                 Telecommunication; Telecommuting; The computing
                 profession",
  wwwtitle =     "Remote Work and Information Technology: Impacts on
                 Organizations and Individuals",
}

@Article{Afsarmanesh:1989:EOO,
  author =       "Hamideh Afsarmanesh and Dennis McLeod",
  title =        "The {3DIS}: An Extensible, Object-Oriented Information
                 Management Environment",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "339--377",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The 3-Dimensional Information Space (3DIS) is an
                 extensible object-oriented framework for information
                 management. It is specifically oriented toward
                 supporting the database requirements for data-intensive
                 information system applications in which (1)
                 information objects of various levels of abstraction
                 and modalities must be accommodated, (2) descriptive
                 and structural information (metadata) is rich and
                 dynamic, and (3) users who are not database experts
                 must be able to design, manipulate, and evolve
                 databases. In response to these needs, the 3DIS
                 provides an approach in which data and the descriptive
                 information about data are handled uniformly in an
                 extensible framework. The 3DIS provides a simple,
                 geometric, and formal representation of data which
                 forms a basis for understanding, defining, and
                 manipulating databases. Several prototype
                 implementations based upon the 3DIS have been designed
                 and implemented and are in experimental use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "California State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Carson, CA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Data models; Database management; Database
                 Systems; Design; Extensible database systems;
                 Extensible Database Systems; Information Management;
                 Information systems applications; Knowledge
                 representation; Languages; Logical design; Management;
                 Object-oriented databases; Object-Oriented Databases;
                 Office automation; Office Automation; Office automation
                 systems; Office Information Systems; Schema and
                 subschema; Systems",
}

@Article{Pernici:1989:CTA,
  author =       "B. Pernici and F. Barbic and M. G. Fugini and R.
                 Maiocchi and J. R. Rames and C. Rolland",
  title =        "{C-TODOS}: An Automatic Tool for Office System
                 Conceptual Design",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "378--419",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Designers of office information systems, which share
                 various features with information systems and software
                 development, need to carefully consider special issues
                 such as document and communication flows, user roles,
                 user interfaces, and available technology. The ESPRIT
                 Project, Automatic Tools for Designing Office
                 Information Systems (TODOS), proposes an integrated
                 environment for office design with tools for
                 requirements collection and analysis, conceptual
                 design, rapid prototyping, and architecture selection.
                 C-TODOS, the conceptual design support tool developed
                 within TODOS, is presented in this paper. The purpose
                 of C-TODOS is to give the designer tools for supporting
                 conceptual modeling activities with the goal of
                 obtaining correct, consistent, and good quality
                 office-functional specifications. This paper presents
                 C-TODOS within the TODOS development environment and
                 describes the basic features of the tool: the TODOS
                 Conceptual Model, the Specification Database, and the
                 Modeling, Query and Consistency Checking Modules. The
                 use of C-TODOS, through illustration of the development
                 of a test case, and possible future research are
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Politecnico di Milano",
  affiliationaddress = "Milan, Italy",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Analysis and design of systems; C-TODOS; Computer
                 Software--Design; Database management; Design; Design
                 method; Design tool; Documentation; Information
                 Systems; Languages; Logical design; Management of
                 computing and information systems; Methodologies;
                 Office Automation; Office automation systems; Office
                 Information Systems; Query languages;
                 Requirements/specifications; Schema and subschema;
                 Semantic model; Semantic query language; Software
                 development; Software engineering; Software management;
                 Specification database; Tools",
}

@Article{Lee:1990:PSV,
  author =       "Jintae Lee and Thomas W. Malone",
  title =        "Partially Shared Views: a Scheme for Communicating
                 among Groups that Use Different Type Hierarchies",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--26",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Many computer systems are based on various types of
                 messages, forms, or other objects. When users of such
                 systems need to communicate with people who use
                 different object types, some kind of translation is
                 necessary. In this paper, we explore the space of
                 general solutions to this translation problem and
                 propose a scheme that synthesizes these solutions. A
                 key insight of the analysis is that partially shared
                 type hierarchies allow `foreign' object types to be
                 automatically translated into their nearest common
                 `ancestor' types. The partial interoperability attained
                 in this way makes possible flexible standards from
                 which people can benefit from whatever agreements they
                 do have without having to agree on everything. Even
                 though our examples deal primarily with extension to
                 the Object Lens system, the analysis suggests how other
                 kinds of systems, such as EDI applications, might
                 exploit specialization hierarchies of object types to
                 simplify the translation problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Massachusetts Inst of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Applications and expert systems; Artificial
                 intelligence; Communication; Communications
                 applications; Computer Software; Computer Supported
                 Cooperative Work; Computer supported cooperative work;
                 Computer Systems; Data; Design; Digital; Distributed;
                 Distributed systems; Electronic mail; Files; General;
                 Hierarchical systems; Information Lens; Information
                 systems; Information systems applications; Languages;
                 Management; Management of computing and information
                 systems; Modules and interfaces; Object Lens; Object
                 Lens System; Object Types; Office automation; Operating
                 systems; Organization and design; Organization and
                 structure; Partially Shared Views; Partially shared
                 views; Software configuration management; Software
                 engineering; Software libraries; Software management;
                 Standardization; System management; Tools and
                 techniques",
  wwwtitle =     "How Can Groups Communicate when They Use Different
                 Languages",
}

@Article{Bookstein:1990:CIT,
  author =       "Abraham Bookstein and Shmuel T. Klein",
  title =        "Compression, Information Theory, and Grammars: a
                 Unified Approach",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--49",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We propose the notion of a formal grammar as a
                 flexible model of text generation that encompasses most
                 of the models offered before as well as, in principle,
                 extending the possibility of compression to a much more
                 general class of languages. Assuming a general model of
                 text generation, a derivation is given of the well
                 known Shannon entropy formula, making possible a theory
                 of information based upon text representation rather
                 than on communication. The ideas are shown to apply to
                 a number of commonly used text models. Finally, we
                 focus on a Markov model of text generation, suggest an
                 information theoretic measure of similarity between two
                 probability distributions, and develop a clustering
                 algorithm based on this measure. This algorithm allows
                 us to cluster Markov states and thereby base our
                 compression algorithm on a smaller number of
                 probability distributions than would otherwise have
                 been required. A number of theoretical consequences of
                 this approach to compression are explored, and a
                 detailed example is given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Chicago",
  affiliationaddress = "Chicago, IL, USA",
  classification = "721; 723; 922",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Artificial intelligence; Automata
                 Theory--Grammars; Codes; Coding and information theory;
                 Computer Programming--Algorithms; Data; Data compaction
                 and compression; Data Compression; Huffman coding;
                 Huffman Coding; Information storage; Information
                 storage and retrieval; Information theory; Information
                 Theory; Language Generation; Markov model of language
                 generation; Markov Models; Models and principles;
                 Natural language processing; Probability--Random
                 Processes; Symbolic--Encoding; Systems and information
                 theory; Theory",
}

@Article{Hammainen:1990:DFM,
  author =       "Heikki Hammainen and Eero Eloranta and Jari
                 Alasuvanto",
  title =        "Distributed Form Management",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "50--76",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "An open architecture for distributed form management
                 is described. The model employs object-orientation in
                 describing organizational units as well as individual
                 users as entities with uniform external interfaces.
                 Each entity is represented by an autonomous user agent
                 which operates on local and migrating forms. The form
                 concept encapsulates data, layout, and rules into a
                 unified object which is the basic unit of presentation,
                 processing, storage, and communication. All
                 functionality of the system appears in rules of form
                 classes and all data in instances of these form
                 classes. This approach applies the techniques of
                 computer supported cooperative work to provide a
                 flexible mechanism for interpersonal, intraoffice, and
                 interoffice procedures. The main challenge is to
                 organize the collaboration without affecting the
                 autonomy of individual user agents. In this respect,
                 the contribution of the model is the mechanism for form
                 migration. The dynamic integration of forms into
                 different agents is solved with the coordinated
                 interchange of form classes. A specific inheritance
                 scheme provides the desired flexibility by separating
                 the interrelated private and public form operations
                 within each agent. The paper first describes the
                 architecture by starting from a single agent and moving
                 progressively towards a set of cooperating agents. Then
                 an agent implementation called PAGES is described,
                 experiences reported, and the open issues discussed. A
                 typical distributed ordering procedure is used as an
                 example throughout the text.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Helsinki Univ of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Espoo, Finl",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Communications applications; Computer Architecture;
                 Computer Supported Cooperative Work; Computer supported
                 cooperative work; Computer Systems;
                 Computer-communication networks; Database management;
                 Digital--Distributed; Distr. applications; Distr.
                 systems; Distributed Form Management; Electronic mail;
                 Form Management; Form management; Human factors;
                 Information systems applications; Management;
                 Object-orientation; Office automation; Office
                 Automation; Performance; Systems; User agent",
}

@Article{Watters:1990:THB,
  author =       "Carolyn Watters and Michael A. Shepherd",
  title =        "A Transient Hypergraph-based Model for Data Access",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "77--102",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Two major methods of accessing data in current
                 database systems are querying and browsing. The more
                 traditional query method returns an answer set that may
                 consist of data values (DBMS), items containing the
                 answer (full text), or items referring the user to
                 items containing the answer (bibliographic). Browsing
                 within a database, as best exemplified by hypertext
                 systems, consists of viewing a database item and
                 linking to related items on the basis of some attribute
                 or attribute value. A model of data access has been
                 developed that supports both query and browse access
                 methods. The model is based on hypergraph
                 representation of data instances. The hyperedges and
                 nodes are manipulated through a set of operators to
                 compose new nodes and to instantiate new links
                 dynamically, resulting in transient hypergraphs. These
                 transient hypergraphs are virtual structures created in
                 response to user queries, and lasting only as long as
                 the query session. The model provides a framework for
                 general data access that accommodates user-directed
                 browsing and querying, as well as traditional models of
                 information and data retrieval, such as the Boolean,
                 vector space, and probabilistic models. Finally, the
                 relational database model is shown to provide a
                 reasonable platform for the implementation of this
                 transient hypergraph-based model of data access.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Data access model; Data items; Data manipulation; Data
                 models; Data structures; Database management; Design;
                 Hypertext; Inf. storage and retrieval; Information
                 storage; Logic design; Transient hypergraphs; Virtual
                 structures",
  wwwauthor =    "C. Watters and M. A. Sheperd",
}

@Article{Moss:1990:DMP,
  author =       "J. Eliot B. Moss",
  title =        "Design of the {Mneme} Persistent Object Store",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "103--139",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  wwwtitle =     "Design of the Mmeme Persistent Object Store",
}

@Article{Shasha:1990:NTB,
  author =       "Dennis Shasha and Tsong-Li Wang",
  title =        "New Techniques for Best-Match Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "140--158",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A scheme to answer best-match queries from a file
                 containing a collection of objects is described. A
                 best-match query is to find the objects in the file
                 that are closest (according to some (dis)similarity
                 measure) to a given target. Previous work [5, 33]
                 suggests that one can reduce the number of comparisons
                 required to achieve the desired results using the
                 triangle inequality, starting with a data structure for
                 the file that reflects some precomputed intrafile
                 distances. We generalize the technique to allow the
                 optimum use of any given set of precomputed intrafile
                 distances. Some empirical results are presented which
                 illustrate the effectiveness of our scheme, and its
                 performance relative to previous algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Analysis of algorithms and problem
                 complexity; Artificial intelligence; Best match;
                 Database management; Distance metrics; File searching;
                 Heuristics; Information search and retrieval;
                 Information storage and retrieval; Lower bounds;
                 Matching; Miscellaneous; Nonnumerical algorithms and
                 problems; Performance; Query processing; Search
                 process; Sorting and searching; Systems; Theory;
                 Topology; Upper bounds",
}

@Article{Morrissey:1990:IIU,
  author =       "J. M. Morrissey",
  title =        "Imprecise Information and Uncertainty in Information
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "159--180",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Information systems exist to model, store, and
                 retrieve all types of data. Problems arise when some of
                 the data are missing or imprecisely known or when an
                 attribute is not applicable to a particular object. A
                 consistent and useful treatment of such exceptions is
                 necessary. The approach taken here is to allow any
                 attribute value to be a regular precise value, a string
                 denoting that the value is missing, a string denoting
                 that the attribute is not applicable, or an imprecise
                 value. The imprecise values introduce uncertainty into
                 query evaluation, since it is no longer obvious which
                 objects should be retrieved. To handle the uncertainty,
                 two set of objects are retrieved in response to every
                 query: the set of objects that are known to satisfy
                 with complete certainty and the set that possibly
                 satisfies the query with various degrees of
                 uncertainty. Two methods of estimating this
                 uncertainty, based on information theory, are proposed.
                 The measure of uncertainty is used to rank objects for
                 presentation to a user.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Database management; Design; Incomplete information;
                 Inf. theory; Management; Models and principles; Null
                 values; Query evaluation; Query processing; Sys. and
                 information theory; Systems; Uncertainty",
}

@Article{Hartson:1990:UUO,
  author =       "H. Rex Hartson and Antonio C. Siochi and Deborah Hix",
  title =        "The {UAN}: a User-Oriented Representation for Direct
                 Manipulation Interface Designs",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "181--203",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Many existing interface representation techniques,
                 especially those associated with UIMS, are
                 constructional and focused on interface implementation,
                 and therefore do not adequately support a user-centered
                 focus. But it is in the behavioral domain of the user
                 that interface designers and evaluators do their work.
                 We are seeking to complement constructional methods by
                 providing a tool-supported technique capable of
                 specifying the behavioral aspects of an interactive
                 system-the tasks and the actions a user performs to
                 accomplish those tasks. In particular, this paper is a
                 practical introduction to use of the User Action
                 Notation (UAN), a task- and user-oriented notation for
                 behavioral representation of asynchronous, direct
                 manipulation interface designs. Interfaces are
                 specified in UAN as a quasihierarchy of asynchronous
                 tasks. At the lower levels, user actions are associated
                 with feedback and system state changes. The notation
                 makes use of visually onomatopoeic symbols and is
                 simple enough to read with little instruction. UAN is
                 being used by growing numbers of interface developers
                 and researchers. In addition to its design role,
                 current research is investigating how UAN can support
                 production and maintenance of code and documentation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Behavioral design; Constructional design; Design;
                 Human factors; Human-computer interface; Languages;
                 Representation; Representation of interfaces;
                 Requirements/specifications; Software engineering; Task
                 analysis; Tools and techniques; User interface; User
                 interfaces",
}

@Article{Wiecha:1990:TRD,
  author =       "Charles Wiecha and William Bennett and Stephen Boies
                 and John Gould and Sharon Greene",
  title =        "{ITS}: a Tool for Rapidly Developing Interactive
                 Applications",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "204--236",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The ITS architecture separates applications into four
                 layers. The action layer implements back-end
                 application functions. The dialog layer defines the
                 content of the user interface, independent of its
                 style. Content specifies the objects included in each
                 frame of the interface, the flow of control among
                 frames, and what actions are associated with each
                 object. The style rule layer defines the presentation
                 and behavior of a family of interaction techniques.
                 Finally, the style program layer implements primitive
                 toolkit objects that are composed by the rule layer
                 into complete interaction techniques. This paper
                 describes the architecture in detail, compares it with
                 previous User Interface Management Systems and
                 toolkits, and describes how ITS is being used to
                 implement the visitor information system for EXPO'92.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Design; Device independence;
                 Ergonomics; General; Human factors; Information systems
                 applications; Interaction techniques; Languages;
                 Management; Management of computing and information
                 systems; Management systems; Methodology and
                 techniques; Models and principles; Project and people
                 management; Software development; Software engineering;
                 Software libraries; Software maintenance; Software
                 management; Standardization; Systems analysis and
                 design; Systems development; Tools and techniques; User
                 interface; User interfaces; User/machine systems",
}

@Article{Vlissides:1990:UFB,
  author =       "John M. Vlissides and Mark A. Linton",
  title =        "{Unidraw}: a Framework for Building Domain-Specific
                 Graphical Editors",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "237--268",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Unidraw is a framework for creating graphical editors
                 in domains such as technical and artistic drawing,
                 music composition, and circuit design. The Unidraw
                 architecture simplifies the construction of these
                 editors by providing programming abstractions that are
                 common across domains. Unidraw defines four basic
                 abstractions: components encapsulate the appearance and
                 behavior of objects, tools support direct manipulation
                 of components, commands define operations on
                 components, and external representations define the
                 mapping between components and the file format
                 generated by the editor. Unidraw also supports multiple
                 views, graphical connectivity, and dataflow between
                 components. This paper describes the Unidraw design,
                 implementation issues, and three experimental
                 domain-specific editors we have developed with Unidraw:
                 a drawing editor, a user interface builder, and a
                 schematic capture system. Our results indicate a
                 substantial reduction in implementation time and effort
                 compared with existing tools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Application packages; Computer applications; Computer
                 graphics; Computer-aided design (CAD); Computer-aided
                 engineering; Design; Direct manipulation user
                 interfaces; Graphical constraints; Graphics utilities;
                 Human factors; Object-oriented graphical editors;
                 Software engineering; Software libraries; Tools and
                 techniques; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Hudson:1990:ISF,
  author =       "Scott E. Hudson and Shamim P. Mohamed",
  title =        "Interactive Specification of Flexible User Interface
                 Displays",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "269--288",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "One of the problems with conventional UIMSs is that
                 very often there is no graphical way to specify
                 interfaces. This paper describes OPUS, the user
                 interface editor of the Penguims UIMS. This system
                 allows the presentation component of graphical user
                 interfaces to be specified interactively in a graphical
                 notation without explicit programming. The Penguims
                 UIMS supports an underlying model of computation based
                 loosely on spreadsheets. In particular, it supports
                 incremental computations based on a system of equations
                 (one-way constraints) over a set of named values
                 (spreadsheet cells). These equations are used to
                 provide immediate feedback at all levels of the
                 interface. They are used to incrementally determine the
                 position and dynamic appearance of the individual
                 interactor objects that make up the interface. They are
                 also used to connect the presentation directly to
                 underlying application data thereby supporting semantic
                 feedback. The OPUS user interface editor employs a
                 special graphical notation for specifying the
                 presentation component of a user interface. This
                 notation allows the power of the underlying
                 computational model to be expressed simply and quickly.
                 The resulting presentations are very flexible in
                 nature. They can automatically respond to changes in
                 the size and position of display objects and can
                 directly support derivation of their appearance from
                 application data objects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Constraint systems; Direct
                 manipulation; End-user programming; Human factors;
                 Interactive; Interface builders; Languages; Methodology
                 and techniques; Miscellaneous; Programming
                 environments; Rapid prototyping; Software engineering;
                 Tools and techniques; User interface management
                 systems; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Myers:1990:NMH,
  author =       "Brad A. Myers",
  title =        "A New Model for Handling Input",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "289--320",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Although there has been important progress in models
                 and packages for the output of graphics to computer
                 screens, there has been little change in the way that
                 input from the mouse, keyboard, and other input devices
                 is handled. New graphics standards are still using a
                 fifteen-year-old model even though it is widely
                 accepted as inadequate, and most modern window managers
                 simply return a stream of low-level, device-dependent
                 input events. This paper presents a new model that
                 handles input devices for highly interactive, direct
                 manipulation, graphical user interfaces, which could be
                 used in future toolkits, window managers, and graphics
                 standards. This model encapsulates interactive
                 behaviors into a few ``Interactor'' object types.
                 Application programs can then create instances of these
                 Interactor objects which hide the details of the
                 underlying window manager events. In addition,
                 Interactors allow a clean separation between the input
                 handling, the graphics, and the application programs.
                 This model has been extensively used as part of the
                 Garnet system and has proven to be convenient,
                 efficient, and easy to learn.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Direct manipulation; Human factors;
                 Input devices; Interaction; Interaction techniques;
                 Methodology and techniques; Model-view controller;
                 Object-oriented design; Software engineering; Tools and
                 techniques; User interface management systems; User
                 interfaces",
}

@Article{Mylopoulos:1990:TRK,
  author =       "John Mylopoulos and Alex Borgida and Matthias Jarke
                 and Manolis Koubarakis",
  title =        "Telos: Representing Knowledge About Information
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "325--362",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We describe Telos, a language intended to support the
                 development of information systems. The design
                 principles for the language are based on the premise
                 that information system development is knowledge
                 intensive and that the primary responsibility of any
                 language intended for the task is to be able to
                 formally represent the relevant knowledge. Accordingly,
                 the proposed language is founded on concepts from
                 knowledge representation. Indeed, the language is
                 appropriate for representing knowledge about a variety
                 of worlds related to an information system, such as the
                 subject world (application domain), the usage world
                 (user models, environments), the system world (software
                 requirements, design), and the development world
                 (teams, methodologies). We introduce the features of
                 the language through examples, focusing on those
                 provided for describing metaconcepts that can then be
                 used to describe knowledge relevant to a particular
                 information system. Telos' features include an
                 object-centered framework which supports aggregation,
                 generalization, and classification; a novel treatment
                 of attributes; an explicit representation of time; and
                 facilities for specifying integrity constraints and
                 deductive rules. We review actual applications of the
                 language through further examples, and we sketch a
                 formalization of the language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Belief time; Class; Deductive
                 rules; Design; General; History time; Instance;
                 Integrity constraints; Knowledge base; Knowledge
                 representation formalisms and methods; Languages;
                 Management of computing and information systems;
                 Metaclass; Methodologies; Models and principles;
                 Predicate logic; Proposition; Representation;
                 Representation languages; Requirements/specifications;
                 Semantic networks; Software development; Software
                 engineering; Software management; Temporal knowledge",
  wwwpages =     "363--386",
  wwwtitle =     "{Telos}: a Language for Representing Knowledge About
                 Information Systems",
}

@Article{Kwok:1990:ECT,
  author =       "K. L. Kwok",
  title =        "Experiments with a Component Theory of Probabilistic
                 Information Retrieval Based on Single Terms as Document
                 Components",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "363--386",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A component theory of information retrieval using
                 single content terms as component for queries and
                 documents was reviewed and experimented with. The
                 theory has the advantages of being able to (1)
                 bootstrap itself, that is, define initial term weights
                 naturally based on the fact that items are
                 self-relevant; (2) make use of within-item term
                 frequencies; (3) account for query-focused and
                 document-focused indexing and retrieval strategies
                 cooperatively; and (4) allow for component-specific
                 feedback if such information is available. Retrieval
                 results with four collections support the effectiveness
                 of all the first three aspects, except for predictive
                 retrieval. At the initial indexing stage, the retrieval
                 theory performed much more consistently across
                 collections than Croft's model and provided results
                 comparable to Salton's tf*idf approach. An inverse
                 collection term frequency (ICTF) formula was also
                 tested that performed much better than the inverse
                 document frequency (IDF). With full feedback
                 retrospective retrieval, the component theory performed
                 substantially better than Croft's, because of the
                 highly specific nature of document-focused feedback.
                 Repetitive retrieval results with partial relevance
                 feedback mirrored those for the retrospective. However,
                 for the important case of predictive retrieval using
                 residual ranking, results were not unequivocal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Content analysis and indexing; Document-focused and
                 query-focused relevance feedback; Experimentation;
                 Indexing and retrieval; Indexing methods; Inf. storage
                 and retrieval; Information search and retrieval;
                 Information storage and retrieval; Inverse collection
                 term frequency weighting; Inverse document frequency
                 weighting; Probabilistic indexing; Probabilistic
                 retrieval; Ranking and weighting of composite objects;
                 Retrieval models; Theory",
  wwwpages =     "325-362",
}

@Article{Straube:1990:QQP,
  author =       "Dave D. Straube and M. Tamer {\"O}zsu",
  title =        "Queries and Query Processing in Object-Oriented
                 Database Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "387--430",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Object-oriented database management systems (OODBMS)
                 combine the data abstraction and computational models
                 of object-oriented programming languages with the query
                 and performance capabilities of database management
                 systems. A concise, formal data model for OODBMS has
                 not been universally accepted, preventing detailed
                 investigation of various system issues such as query
                 processing. We define a data model that captures the
                 essence of classification-based object-oriented systems
                 and formalize concepts such as object identity,
                 inheritance, and methods. The main topic of the paper
                 is the presentation of a query processing methodology
                 complete with an object calculus and a closed object
                 algebra. Query processing issues such as query safety
                 and object calculus to object algebra translation are
                 discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a
                 discussion of equivalence-preserving transformation
                 rules for object algebra expressions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Abstract data types; Algorithms; Data models; Data
                 types and structures; Database management; Design;
                 Language constructs; Languages; Logical design; Modules
                 and packages; Object algebra; Object calculus;
                 Object-oriented databases; Programming languages; Query
                 languages; Query processing; Query transformation
                 rules; Systems",
  wwwauthor =    "D. D. Straube and M. T. Ozsu",
  wwwpages =     "387-428",
  wwwtitle =     "Queriers and Query Processing in Object-Oriented
                 Database Systems",
}

@Article{Ford:1991:OPH,
  author =       "Daniel Alexander Ford and Stavros Christodoulakis",
  title =        "Optimal Placement of High Probability Randomly
                 Retrieved Blocks on {CLV} Optical Discs",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Optimal data placement on a CLV (Constant Linear
                 Velocity) format optical disc has as an objective the
                 minimization of the expected access cost of data
                 retrieval from the disc when the probabilities of
                 access of data items may be different. The problem of
                 optimal data placement for optical discs is both more
                 important and more difficult than the corresponding
                 problem on magnetic disks. A good data placement on
                 optical discs is more important because data sets on
                 optical discs such as WORM and CD ROM cannot be
                 modified or moved once they are placed on the disc.
                 Currently, even rewritable optical discs are best
                 suited for applications that are archival in nature.
                 The problem of optimal data placement on CLV format
                 optical discs is more difficult, mainly because the
                 useful storage space is not uniformly distributed
                 across the disc surface (along a radius). This leads to
                 a complicated positional performance trade-off not
                 present for magnetic disks. We present a model that
                 encompasses all the important aspects of the placement
                 problem on CLV format optical discs. The model takes
                 into account the nonuniform distribution of useful
                 storage, the dependency of the rotational delay on disc
                 position, a parameterized seek cost function for
                 optical discs, and the varying access probabilities of
                 data items. We show that the optimal placement of
                 high-probability blocks satisfies a unimodality
                 property. Based on this observation, we solve the
                 optimal placement problem. We then study the impact of
                 the relative weights of the problem parameters and show
                 that the optimal data placement may be very different
                 from the optimal data placement on magnetic disks. We
                 also validate our model and analysis and give an
                 algorithm for computing the placement of disc
                 sectors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Access methods; CD-ROM; Clustering; CLV; Constant
                 linear velocity; Data placement; Database management;
                 Design; Design styles; Information search and
                 retrieval; Information storage and retrieval;
                 Management; Mass storage; MCAV; MCLV; Memory
                 structures; Operating systems; Optical discs; Optical
                 disks; Performance; Physical database design; Physical
                 design; Retrieval performance; Secondary storage
                 devices; Storage management",
  wwwauthor =    "S. Christodoulakis and D. A. Ford",
}

@Article{Kim:1991:DOO,
  author =       "Won Kim and Nat Ballou and Jorge F. Garza and Darrell
                 Woelk",
  title =        "A Distributed Object-Oriented Database System
                 Supporting Shared and Private Databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--51",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "ORION-2 is a commercially available, federated,
                 object-oriented database management system designed and
                 implemented at MCC. One major architectural innovation
                 in ORION-2 is the coexistence of a shared database and
                 a number of private databases. The shared database is
                 accessible to all authorized users of the system, while
                 each private database is accessible to only the user
                 who owns it. A distributed database system with a
                 shared database and private databases for individual
                 users is a natural architecture for data-intensive
                 application environments on a network of workstations,
                 notably computer-aided design and engineering systems.
                 This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of
                 such a system and explores the impact of such an
                 architecture on the semantics and implementation of
                 some of the key functions of a database system, notably
                 queries, database schema, and versions. Although the
                 issues are discussed in the context of an
                 object-oriented data model, the results (at least
                 significant portions thereof) are applicable to
                 database systems supporting other data models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Client-server architecture; Database management;
                 Design; Distr. systems; Experimentation; Federated
                 databases; Object-oriented databases; Sys.",
  wwwauthor =    "W. Kim and N. Ballou and J. F. Garza and D. Woelk",
}

@Article{Mak:1991:EPP,
  author =       "Victor Wing-Kit Mak and Chu Lee Kuo and Ophir
                 Frieder",
  title =        "Exploiting Parallelism in Pattern Matching: An
                 Information Retrieval Application",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--74",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We propose a document-searching architecture based on
                 high-speed hardware pattern matching to increase the
                 throughput of an information retrieval system. We also
                 propose a new parallel VLSI pattern-matching algorithm
                 called the Data Parallel Pattern Matching (DPPM)
                 algorithm, which serially broadcasts and compares the
                 pattern to a block of data in parallel. The DPPM
                 algorithm utilizes the high degree of integration of
                 VLSI technology to attain very high-speed processing
                 through parallelism. Performance of the DPPM has been
                 evaluated both analytically and by simulation. Based on
                 the simulation statistics and timing analysis on the
                 hardware design, a search rate of multiple gigabytes
                 per second is achievable using
                 2-$\lbrace$micro$\rbrace$m CMOS technology. The
                 potential performance of the proposed
                 document-searching architecture is also analyzed using
                 the simulation statistics of the DPPM algorithm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Algorithms implemented in hardware;
                 Analysis of algorithms and problem complexity;
                 Arithmetic and logic structures; Computer systems
                 organization; Data; Design; Design studies; Design
                 styles; DPPM; Files; Information search and retrieval;
                 Information storage and retrieval; Integrated circuits;
                 Modeling techniques; Multiple data stream architecture;
                 Nonnumerical algorithms and problems; Parallel; Pattern
                 matcher; Pattern matching; Performance; Performance of
                 systems; Processor architectures; Search process;
                 Selection process; SIMD; Sorting and searching;
                 Sorting/searching; Types and design styles; VLSI",
}

@Article{Aiken:1991:IES,
  author =       "Milam W. Aiken and Olivia R. Liu Sheng and Douglas R.
                 Vogel",
  title =        "Integrating Expert Systems With Group Decision Support
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--95",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Expert systems are powerful tools that serve as
                 adjuncts to decision making and have found wide
                 applicability in a variety of areas. Integrating expert
                 systems with group decision support systems has the
                 potential to enhance the quality and efficiency of
                 group communication, negotiation, and collaborative
                 work. This paper examines possible synergies between
                 the two technologies and provides a survey of current
                 partially-integrated systems. Finally, a prototype
                 design of a highly-integrated system is described with
                 directions for further research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Applications and expert systems; Artificial
                 intelligence; Communications applications; Expert
                 systems; Group decision support systems; Inf. systems
                 applications; Knowledge-based systems",
}

@Article{Allen:1991:ECH,
  author =       "Robert B. Allen",
  title =        "Editorial: Computer-Human Interaction and {ACM TOIS}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "97--98",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Human Interaction.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Card:1991:MAD,
  author =       "Stuart K. Card and Jock D. Mackinlay and George G.
                 Robertson",
  title =        "A Morphological Analysis of the Design Space of Input
                 Devices",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--122",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Human Interaction.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The market now contains a bewildering variety of input
                 devices for communication from humans to computers.
                 This paper discusses a means to systematize these
                 devices through morphological design space analysis, in
                 which different input device designs are taken as
                 points in a parametrically described design space. The
                 design space is characterized by finding methods to
                 generate and test design points. In a previous paper,
                 we discussed a method for generating the space of input
                 device designs using primitive and compositional
                 movement operators. This allowed us to propose a
                 taxonomy of input devices. In this paper, we summarize
                 the generation method and explore the use of device
                 footprint and Fitts's law as a test. We then use
                 calculations to reason about the design space.
                 Calculations are used to show why the mouse is a more
                 effective device than the headmouse and where in the
                 design space there is likely to be a more effective
                 device than the mouse.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Computer applications; Computer-aided design;
                 Computer-aided engineering; Design; Design knowledge
                 systematization; Design rationale; Design space; Human
                 factors; Input devices; Models and principles;
                 Morphological analysis; Semantics; User/machine
                 systems",
  wwwtitle =     "The Design Space of Input Devices",
}

@Article{Fischer:1991:RCC,
  author =       "Gerhard Fischer and Andreas C. Lemke and Thomas
                 Mastaglio and Anders I. Morch",
  title =        "The Role of Critiquing in Cooperative Problem
                 Solving",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--151",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Human Interaction.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Cooperative problem-solving systems help users design
                 solutions themselves as opposed to having solutions
                 designed for them. Critiquing -- presenting a reasoned
                 opinion about a user's product or action -- is a major
                 activity of a cooperative problem-solving system.
                 Critics make the constructed artifact ``talk back'' to
                 the user. Conditions under which critics are more
                 appropriate than autonomous expert systems are
                 discussed. Critics should be embedded in integrated
                 design environments along with other components, such
                 as an argumentative hypertext system, a specification
                 component, and a catalog. Critics support learning as a
                 by-product of problem solving. The major subprocesses
                 of critiquing are goal acquisition, product analysis,
                 critiquing strategies, adaptation capability,
                 explanation and argumentation, and advisory capability.
                 The generality of the critiquing approach is
                 demonstrated by discussing critiquing systems developed
                 in our group and elsewhere. Limitations of many current
                 critics include their inability to learn about specific
                 user goals and their intervention strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Computer applications; Computer uses in education;
                 Computer-aided design; Computer-aided engineering;
                 Computers and education; Cooperative problem-solving
                 systems; Critics; Critiquing; Design; Design
                 environments; High-functionality computer systems;
                 Human factors; Inf. storage and retrieval; Information
                 search and retrieval; Intelligent support systems;
                 Models and principles; User/machine systems",
}

@Article{Jacob:1991:UEM,
  author =       "Robert J. K. Jacob",
  title =        "The Use of Eye Movements in Human-Computer Interaction
                 Techniques: What You Look At Is What You Get",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "152--169",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Human Interaction.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In seeking hitherto-unused methods by which users and
                 computers can communicate, we investigate the
                 usefulness of eye movements as a fast and convenient
                 auxiliary user-to-computer communication mode. The
                 barrier to exploiting this medium has not been
                 eye-tracking technology but the study of interaction
                 techniques that incorporate eye movements into the
                 user-computer dialogue in a natural and unobtrusive
                 way. This paper discusses some of the human factors and
                 technical considerations that arise in trying to use
                 eye movements as an input medium, describes our
                 approach and the first eye movement-based interaction
                 techniques that we have devised and implemented in our
                 laboratory, and reports our experiences and
                 observations on them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Design; Eye movements; Eye tracking; Human factors;
                 Human-computer interaction; Information interfaces and
                 presentation; Input; Input devices and strategies;
                 Interaction styles; Models and principles; Software
                 engineering; State transition diagram; Tools and
                 techniques; UIMS; User interface management system;
                 User interfaces; User/machine systems",
}

@Article{Tang:1991:VVI,
  author =       "John C. Tang and Scott L. Minneman",
  title =        "{VideoDraw}: a Video Interface for Collaborative
                 Drawing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "170--184",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Human Interaction.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This paper describes VideoDraw, a shared drawing tool,
                 and the process by which it is being designed and
                 developed. VideoDraw is a video-based prototype tool
                 that provides a shared ``virtual sketchbook'' among two
                 or more collaborators. It not only allows the
                 collaborators to see each others' drawings, but also
                 conveys the accompanying hand gestures and the process
                 of creating and using those drawings. Its design stems
                 from studying how people collaborate using shared
                 drawing spaces. Design implications raised by those
                 studies were embodied in a prototype, which was
                 subsequently observed in use situations. Further
                 research studying the use of VideoDraw (in comparison
                 with other collaborative media) will lead to a better
                 understanding of collaborative drawing activity and
                 inform the continued technical development of tools to
                 support collaborative drawing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Collaborative systems; Communications applications;
                 Computer graphics; Computer-communication networks;
                 Design; Distr. applications; Distr. systems;
                 Distributed/network graphics; Gestural interfaces;
                 Graphics systems; Information systems applications;
                 Shared drawing; Teleconferencing; User interface; Video
                 technology; Work practice analysis",
}

@Article{Croft:1991:E,
  author =       "W. Bruce Croft",
  title =        "Editorial",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "185--186",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Turtle:1991:EIN,
  author =       "Howard Turtle and W. Bruce Croft",
  title =        "Evaluation of an Inference Network=based Retrieval
                 Model",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "187--222",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The use of inference networks to support document
                 retrieval is introduced. A network-based retrieval
                 model is described and compared to conventional
                 probabilistic and Boolean models. The performance of a
                 retrieval system based on the inference network model
                 is evaluated and compared to performance with
                 conventional retrieval models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Document retrieval; Experimentation; General; Inf.
                 storage and retrieval; Inference networks; Information
                 search and retrieval; Information storage and
                 retrieval; Miscellaneous; Network retrieval models;
                 Performance; Retrieval models; Theory",
}

@Article{Fuhr:1991:PLA,
  author =       "Norbert Fuhr and Chris Buckley",
  title =        "A Probabilistic Learning Approach for Document
                 Indexing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "223--248",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We describe a method for probabilistic document
                 indexing using relevance feedback data that has been
                 collected from a set of queries. Our approach is based
                 on three new concepts: (1) Abstraction from specific
                 terms and documents, which overcomes the restriction of
                 limited relevance information for parameter estimation.
                 (2) Flexibility of the representation, which allows the
                 integration of new text analysis and knowledge-based
                 methods in our approach as well as the consideration of
                 document structures or different types of terms. (3)
                 Probabilistic learning or classification methods for
                 the estimation of the indexing weights making better
                 use of the available relevance information. Our
                 approach can be applied under restrictions that hold
                 for real applications. We give experimental results for
                 five test collections which show improvements over
                 other methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Approximation; Artificial intelligence; Complex
                 document representation; Content analysis and indexing;
                 Experimentation; Indexing methods; Information search
                 and retrieval; Information storage and retrieval;
                 Learning; Least squares approximation; Linear indexing
                 functions; Linear retrieval functions; Numerical
                 analysis; Parameter learning; Probabilistic indexing;
                 Probabilistic retrieval; Relevance descriptions;
                 Retrieval models; Theory",
}

@Article{Gauch:1991:SIA,
  author =       "Susan Gauch and John B. Smith",
  title =        "Search Improvement via Automatic Query Reformulation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "249--280",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Users of online retrieval systems experience many
                 difficulties, particularly with search tactics. User
                 studies have indicated that searchers use vocabulary
                 incorrectly and do not take full advantage of iteration
                 to improve their queries. To address these problems, an
                 expert system for online search assistance was
                 developed. This prototype augments the searching
                 capabilities of novice users by providing automatic
                 query reformulation to improve the search results, and
                 automatic ranking of the retrieved passages to speed
                 the identification of relevant information. Users'
                 search performance using the expert system was compared
                 with their search performance on their own, and their
                 search performance using an online thesaurus. The
                 following conclusions were reached: (1) the expert
                 system significantly reduced the number of queries
                 necessary to find relevant passages compared with the
                 user searching alone or with the thesaurus. (2) The
                 expert system produced marginally significant
                 improvements in precision compared with the user
                 searching on their own. There was no significant
                 difference in the recall achieved by the three system
                 configurations. (3) Overall, the expert system ranked
                 relevant passages above irrelevant passages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Applications and expert systems; Artificial
                 intelligence; Expert systems; Full-text information
                 retrieval; Human factors; Inf. storage and retrieval;
                 Information search and retrieval; Models and
                 principles; Online search assistance; Query
                 reformulation; Search process; Textbases; User/machine
                 system",
}

@Article{Fox:1991:OPM,
  author =       "Edward A. Fox and Qi Fan Chen and Amjad M. Daoud and
                 Lenwood S. Heath",
  title =        "Order Preserving Minimal Perfect Hash Functions and
                 Information Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--308",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Rapid access to information is essential for a wide
                 variety of retrieval systems and applications. Hashing
                 has long been used when the fastest possible direct
                 search is desired, but is generally not appropriate
                 when sequential or range searches are also required.
                 This paper describes a hashing method, developed for
                 collections that are relatively static, that supports
                 both direct and sequential access. The algorithms
                 described give hash functions that are optimal in terms
                 of time and hash table space utilization, and that
                 preserve any a priori ordering desired. Furthermore,
                 the resulting order-preserving minimal perfect hash
                 functions (OPMPHFs) can be found using time and space
                 that are linear in the number of keys involved; this is
                 close to optimal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Access methods; Algorithms; Content analysis and
                 indexing; Data; Data storage representations; Database
                 management; Dictionary structure; Experimentation; File
                 organization; Hash table representations; Indexing;
                 Indexing methods; Information storage; Information
                 storage and retrieval; Inverted file structures;
                 Minimal perfect hashing; Perfect hashing; Physical
                 design; Random graph",
}

@Article{Siochi:1991:CAU,
  author =       "Antonio C. Siochi and Roger W. Ehrich",
  title =        "Computer Analysis of User Interfaces Based on
                 Repetition in Transcripts of User Sessions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "309--335",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "It is generally acknowledged that the production of
                 quality user interfaces requires a thorough
                 understanding of the user and that this involves
                 evaluating the interface by observing the user working
                 with the system, or by performing human factors
                 experiments. Such methods traditionally involve the use
                 of videotape, protocol analysis, critical incident
                 analysis, etc. These methods require time consuming
                 analyses and may be invasive. In addition, the data
                 obtained through such methods represent a relatively
                 small portion of the use of a system. An alternative
                 approach is to record all user input and system output
                 (i.e., log the user session). Such transcripts can be
                 collected automatically and noninvasively over a long
                 period of time. Unfortunately this produces voluminous
                 amounts of data. There is therefore a need for tools
                 and techniques that allow an evaluator to identify
                 potential performance and usability problems from such
                 data. It is hypothesized that repetition of user
                 actions is an important indicator of potential user
                 interface problems. This research reports on the use of
                 the repetition indicator as a means of studying user
                 session transcripts in the evaluation of user
                 interfaces. The paper discusses the interactive tool
                 constructed, the results of an extensive application of
                 the technique in the evaluation of a large
                 image-processing system, and extensions and refinements
                 to the technique. Evidence suggests that the hypothesis
                 is justified and that such a technique is convincingly
                 useful.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Evaluation/methodology; Human factors; Inf. interfaces
                 and presentation; Maximal repeating patterns;
                 Measurement; Repeated usage patterns; Software
                 engineering; Tools and techniques; Transcript analysis;
                 Usability; User interface evaluation; User interface
                 management systems; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Zezula:1991:DPS,
  author =       "P. Zezula and F. Rabitti and P. Tiberio",
  title =        "Dynamic Partitioning of Signature Files",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "336--369",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The signature file access method has proved to be a
                 convenient indexing technique, in particular for text
                 data. Because it can deal with unformatted data, many
                 application domains have shown interest in signature
                 file techniques, e.g., office information systems,
                 statistical and logic databases. We argue that
                 multimedia databases should also take advantage of this
                 method, provided convenient storage structures for
                 organizing signature files are available. Our main
                 concern here is the dynamic organization of signatures
                 based on a partitioning paradigm called Quick Filter. A
                 signature file is partitioned by a hashing function and
                 the partitions are organized by linear hashing.
                 Thorough performance evaluation of the new scheme is
                 provided, and it is compared with single-level and
                 multilevel storage structures. Results show that quick
                 filter is economical in space and very convenient for
                 applications dealing with large files of dynamic data,
                 and where user queries result in signatures with high
                 weights. These characteristics are particularly
                 interesting for multimedia databases, where integrated
                 access to attributes, text and images must be
                 provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Access methods; Data; Database management; Design;
                 Dynamic data; File organization; Files; Hashing;
                 Information retrieval; Information storage; Information
                 storage and retrieval; Information systems
                 applications; Multimedia data; Office automation;
                 Organization / structure; Performance; Performance
                 evaluation; Physical design; Signature file
                 partitioning",
}

@Article{Hart:1991:ION,
  author =       "Paul Hart and Deborah Estrin",
  title =        "Inter-Organization Networks, Computer Integration, and
                 Shifts in Interdependence: The Case of the
                 Semiconductor Industry",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "370--398",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Inter-organization computer networks (IONs) provide
                 significant opportunities for improving coordination
                 between firms engaged in mutually dependent activities.
                 A field study of the use and impact of IONs in the
                 semiconductor industry is presented in this paper.
                 Eighty-two interviews were conducted in twelve firms
                 (seven semiconductor producers and five merchant mask
                 shops) providing data on current as well as anticipated
                 ION use. We found that greater efficiencies are
                 possible when IONs are used as substitutes for
                 conventional media. But more effective ION use is
                 achievable when internal computer integration within
                 participating firms is implemented. The implication of
                 this otherwise straightforward observation is that
                 firms using computer networks only as a substitute for
                 conventional methods of exchange will not achieve the
                 degree of inter-organization coordination IONs can
                 support. However, while IONs improve coordination and
                 reduce some production and transaction costs, they
                 simultaneously increase certain costs associated with
                 establishing and maintaining contracts with customers.
                 These costs are new dependencies. Dependencies emerge
                 from using IONs to access computer resources, and
                 information generated by those resources, located in
                 other firms. In this way IONs increase
                 interorganization coordination and vulnerability
                 simultaneously. The long term implication of ION
                 adoption is that their use shifts the nature of
                 interdependence between participating firms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Communications applications; Computer applications;
                 Computer integration; Computer system implementation;
                 Computer-communication networks; Computers and society;
                 Computers in other systems; Consumer products;
                 Electronic mail; Gate arrays; Information systems
                 applications; Integrated circuits; Inter-organization
                 computer networks; Inter-organization relationships;
                 Management; Management of computing and information
                 systems; Miscellaneous; Network management; Network
                 operations; Organizational impacts; Performance;
                 Project and people management; Standard cells; Systems
                 development; Types and design styles",
  wwwpages =     "399-419",
  wwwtitle =     "Inter-Organization Networks, Computer Integration,
                 Shift in Interdependence: The Case of the Semiconductor
                 Industry",
}

@Article{Kacmar:1991:PPO,
  author =       "Charles J. Kacmar and John J. Leggett",
  title =        "{PROXHY}: a Process-Oriented Extensible Hypertext
                 Architecture",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "399--419",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Database/Graefe.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the design and prototypical
                 implementation of an architecture for hypertext systems
                 which is based on the process and object-oriented
                 models of computation. Hypertext services are provided
                 to applications through object-based distributed
                 processes which interact using interprocess
                 communication facilities. By merging the process,
                 object-oriented, and hypertext models, hypertext data
                 and functionality can be separated from applications
                 and distributed across a network. This architecture
                 allows links to cross application boundaries and
                 diverse applications to be integrated under a common
                 hypertext model. The paper describes the architecture
                 and application requirements for operating in this
                 environment. PROXHY, a prototypical implementation of
                 the architecture, is also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Computer-communication networks; Database management;
                 Design; Distr. applications; Distr. systems;
                 Distributed systems; Document preparation; Hypermedia
                 system architecture; Hypertext navigation and maps;
                 Hypertext/hypermedia; Information interfaces and
                 presentation; Information storage and retrieval;
                 Interactive system; Management; Multimedia information
                 systems; Object-oriented programming; Operating
                 systems; Organization and design; Programming
                 techniques; Systems; Systems and software; Text
                 processing",
}

@Article{Jarke:1992:DEE,
  author =       "M. Jarke and J. Mylopoulos and J. W. Schmidt and Y.
                 Vassiliou",
  title =        "{DAIDA}: An Environment for Evolving Information
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--50",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We present a framework for the development of
                 information systems based on the premise that the
                 knowledge that influences the development process needs
                 to somehow be captured, represented, and managed if the
                 development process is to be rationalized. Experiences
                 with a prototype environment developed in ESPRIT
                 project DAIDA demonstrate the approach. The project has
                 implemented an environment based on state-of-the-art
                 languages for requirements modeling, design and
                 implementation of information systems. In addition, the
                 environment offers tools for aiding the mapping process
                 from requirements to design and then to implementation,
                 also for representing decisions reached during the
                 development process. The development process itself is
                 represented explicitly within the system, thus making
                 the DAIDA development framework easier to comprehend,
                 use, and modify.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "RWTH Aachen",
  affiliationaddress = "Aachen, Ger",
  classification = "723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computational methods; Computer aided software
                 engineering; Computer programming languages; Computer
                 software; Computer software selection and evaluation;
                 Conformal mapping; Data dictionary; Data structures;
                 Database systems; Design languages; Information
                 retrieval systems; Information science; Knowledge based
                 systems; Management information systems; Mapping
                 assistant; Multilevel specification; Quality assurance;
                 Repository; Software information system; Software
                 process model; Software quality assurance",
  wwwtitle =     "{DAIDA}: a Knowledge-Based Environment for Developing
                 Information Systems",
}

@Article{Gemmell:1992:PDS,
  author =       "Jim Gemmell and Stavros Christodoulakis",
  title =        "Principles of Delay Sensitive Multi-media Data Storage
                 and Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--90",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This paper establishes some fundamental principles for
                 the retrieval and storage of delay-sensitive multimedia
                 data. Delay-sensitive data include digital audio,
                 animations, and video. Retrieval of these data types
                 from secondary storage has to satisfy certain time
                 constraints in order to be acceptable to the user. The
                 presentation is based on digital audio in order to
                 provide intuition to the reader, although the results
                 are applicable to all delay-sensitive data. A
                 theoretical framework is developed for the real-time
                 requirements of digital audio playback. We show how to
                 describe these requirements in terms of the consumption
                 rate of the audio data and the nature of the
                 data-retrieval rate from secondary storage. Making use
                 of this framework, bounds are derived for buffer space
                 requirements for certain common retrieval scenarios.
                 Storage placement strategies for multichannel
                 synchronized data are then categorized and examined.
                 The results presented in this paper are basic to any
                 playback of delay-sensitive data and should assist the
                 multimedia system designer in estimating hardware
                 requirements and in evaluating possible design
                 choices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Simon Fraser Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Burnaby, BC, Can",
  classification = "716.1; 723.2; 723.3; 741.3; 752.2; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Continuous media; Data processing; Data recording;
                 Data storage equipment; Database systems; Delay
                 sensitive data; Digital audio playback; Digital signal
                 processing; Image processing; Information retrieval
                 systems; Multimedia information systems; Parameter
                 estimation; Real time systems; Stereophonic
                 recordings",
}

@Article{Want:1992:ABL,
  author =       "Roy Want and Andy Hopper and Veronica Falcao and
                 Jonathan Gibbons",
  title =        "The Active Badge Location System",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--102",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A novel system for the location of people in an office
                 environment is described. Members of staff wear badges
                 that transmit signals providing information about their
                 location to a centralized location service, through a
                 network of sensors. The paper also examines alternative
                 location techniques, system design issues and
                 applications, particularly relating to telephone call
                 routing. Location systems raise concerns about the
                 privacy of an individual, and these issues are also
                 addressed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Olivetti Research Ltd",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, Engl",
  classification = "716.1; 718.1; 722.3; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Active badges; Computer networks; Data communication
                 equipment; Data communication systems; Database
                 systems; Digital communication systems; Information
                 retrieval systems; Location; Location systems;
                 Multiplexing equipment; Office automation; Privacy
                 issues; Security of data; Sensors; Tagging systems",
}

@Article{Grudin:1992:CSF,
  author =       "Jonathan Grudin",
  title =        "Consistency, Standards, and Formal Approaches to
                 Interface Development and Evaluation: a Note on
                 {Wiecha}, {Bennett}, {Boies}, {Gould}, And {Greene}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--111",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Wiecha:1992:UIC,
  author =       "Charles Wiecha",
  title =        "{ITS} and User Interface Consistency: a Response to
                 {Grudin}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "112--114",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Krovetz:1992:LAI,
  author =       "Robert Krovetz and W. Bruce Croft",
  title =        "Lexical Ambiguity and Information Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--141",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Lexical ambiguity is a pervasive problem in natural
                 language processing. However, little quantitative
                 information is available about the extent of the
                 problem or about the impact that it has on information
                 retrieval systems. We report on an analysis of lexical
                 ambiguity in information retrieval test collections and
                 on experiments to determine the utility of word
                 meanings for separating relevant from nonrelevant
                 documents. The experiments show that there is
                 considerable ambiguity even in a specialized database.
                 Word senses provide a significant separation between
                 relevant and nonrelevant documents, but several factors
                 contribute to determining whether disambiguation will
                 make an improvement in performance. For example,
                 resolving lexical ambiguity was found to have little
                 impact on retrieval effectiveness for documents that
                 have many words in common with the query. Other uses of
                 word sense disambiguation in an information retrieval
                 context are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Massachusetts",
  affiliationaddress = "Amherst, MA, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.4; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Computational linguistics;
                 Data processing; Disambiguation; Indexing (of
                 information); Information retrieval systems; Lexical
                 ambiguity; Linguistics; Natural language processing
                 systems; Semantically based search; Terminology; Word
                 senses",
}

@Article{Botafogo:1992:SAH,
  author =       "Rodrigo A. Botafogo and Ehud Rivlin and Ben
                 Shneiderman",
  title =        "Structural Analysis of Hypertexts: Identifying
                 Hierarchies and Useful Metrics",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "142--180",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Hypertext users often suffer from the `lost in
                 hyperspace' problem: disorientation from too many jumps
                 while traversing a complex network. One solution to
                 this problem is improved authoring to create more
                 comprehensible structures. This paper proposes several
                 authoring tools, based on hypertext structure analysis.
                 In many hypertext systems authors are encouraged to
                 create hierarchical structures, but when writing, the
                 hierarchy is lost because of the inclusion of
                 cross-reference links. The first part of this paper
                 looks at ways of recovering lost hierarchies and
                 finding new ones, offering authors different views of
                 the same hypertext. The second part helps authors by
                 identifying properties of the hypertext document.
                 Multiple metrics are developed including compactness
                 and stratum. Compactness indicates the intrinsic
                 connectedness of the hypertext, and stratum reveals to
                 what degree the hypertext is organized so that some
                 nodes must be read before others. Several existing
                 hypertexts are used to illustrate the benefits of each
                 technique. The collection of techniques provides a
                 multifaceted view of the hypertext, which should allow
                 authors to reduce undesired structural complexity and
                 create documents that readers can traverse more
                 easily.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland",
  affiliationaddress = "College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 723.2; 903.3; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer networks; Data reduction; Data structures;
                 Graph theory; Hierarchical systems; Human engineering;
                 Hypertext systems; Information retrieval; Man machine
                 systems; Metrics; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Carroll:1992:GAT,
  author =       "John M. Carroll and Mary Beth Rosson",
  title =        "Getting Around the Task-Artifact Cycle: How to Make
                 Claims and Design by Scenario",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "181--212",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We are developing an `action science' approach to
                 human-computer interaction (HCI), seeking to better
                 integrate activities directed at understanding with
                 those directed at design. The approach leverages
                 development practices of current HCI with methods and
                 concepts to support a shift toward using broad and
                 explicit design rationale to reify where we are in a
                 design process, why we are there, and to guide
                 reasoning about where we might go from there. We
                 represent a designed artifact as the set of user
                 scenarios supported by that artifact and more finely by
                 causal schemas detailing the underlying psychological
                 rationale. These schemas, called claims, unpack
                 wherefores and whys of the scenarios. In this paper, we
                 stand back from several empirical projects to clarify
                 our commitments and practices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Cent",
  affiliationaddress = "Yorktown Heights, NY, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 723.5; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer aided software engineering; Design rationale;
                 Human computer interaction (HCI); Human engineering;
                 Man machine systems; Mathematical models; Software
                 engineering; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Blake:1992:SOE,
  author =       "G. Elizabeth Blake and Tim Bray and Frank Wm. Tompa",
  title =        "Shortening the {OED}: {Experience} with a
                 Grammar-Defined Database",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "213--232",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Textual databases with highly variable structure can
                 be usefully described by a grammar-defined model. One
                 example of such a text is the Oxford English
                 Dictionary. This paper describes a first attempt to
                 apply technology based on this model to a real problem.
                 A language called GOEDEL, which is a partial
                 implementation of a set of grammar-defined database
                 operators, was used to extract and alter a subset of
                 the OED in order to assist the editors in their
                 production of The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.
                 The implementation of the pstring data structure to
                 describe a piece of text and the functions that operate
                 on this pstring are illustrated with some detailed
                 examples. The project was judged a success and the
                 resulting program used in production by the Oxford
                 University Press.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Waterloo",
  affiliationaddress = "Waterloo, Ont, Can",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computational grammars; Computational linguistics;
                 Data structures; Database systems; Formal languages;
                 Goedel formal language; Grammar defined model; Oxford
                 English Dictionary; Parsed string; Pstring data
                 structure; Shorter Oxford English Dictionary;
                 Terminology; Text databases",
}

@Article{Palaniappan:1992:EFO,
  author =       "Murugappan Palaniappan and Nicole Yankelovich and
                 George Fitzmaurice and Anne Loomis and Bernard Haan and
                 James Coombs and Norman Meyrowitz",
  title =        "The Envoy Framework: An Open Architecture for Agents",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "233--264",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The Envoy Framework addresses a need for
                 computer-based assistants or agents that operate in
                 conjunction with users' existing applications, helping
                 them perform tedious, repetitive, or time-consuming
                 tasks more easily and efficiently. Envoys carry out
                 missions for users by invoking envoy-aware applications
                 called operatives and inform users of mission results
                 via envoy-aware applications called informers. The
                 distributed, open architecture developed for Envoys is
                 derived from an analysis of the best characteristics of
                 existing agent systems. This architecture has been
                 designed as a model for how agent technology can be
                 seamlessly integrated into the electronic desktop. It
                 defines a set of application programmer's interfaces so
                 that developers may convert their software to
                 envoy-aware applications. A subset of the architecture
                 described in this paper has been implemented in an
                 Envoy Framework prototype.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Brown Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Providence, RI, USA",
  classification = "722.4; 723.1; 903.2; 903.3; 912.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Application programmer interface (api); Computer
                 architecture; Computer software; Computer systems
                 programming; Distributed computer systems; Distributed
                 open architecture; Envoy Framework; Information
                 dissemination; Information management; Information
                 retrieval; Software engineering; User agents; User
                 envoys; User informers; User interfaces; User
                 operatives; Work simplification",
  wwwauthor =    "M. Palaniappan and G. Fitzmaurice and N. Yankelovich
                 and George Fitzmaurice and Anne Loomis and Bernard Haan
                 and James Coombs and Norman Meyrowitz",
  wwwtitle =     "The {Envoy} System: An Open Architecture for Agents",
}

@Article{Ioannidis:1992:CLD,
  author =       "Yannis E. Ioannidis and Tomas Saulys and Andrew J.
                 Whitsitt",
  title =        "Conceptual Learning in Database Design",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--293",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This paper examines the idea of incorporating machine
                 learning algorithms into a database system for
                 monitoring its stream of incoming queries and
                 generating hierarchies with the most important concepts
                 expressed in those queries. The goal is for these
                 hierarchies to provide valuable input to the database
                 administrator for dynamically modifying the physical
                 and external schemas of a database for improved system
                 performance and user productivity. The criteria for
                 choosing the appropriate learning algorithms are
                 analyzed, and based on them, two such algorithms,
                 UNIMEM and COBWEB, are selected as the most suitable
                 ones for the task. Standard UNIMEM and COBWEB
                 implementations have been modified to support queries
                 as input. Based on the results of experiments with
                 these modified implementations, the whole approach
                 appears to be quite promising, especially if the
                 concept hierarchy from which the learning algorithms
                 start their processing is initialized with some of the
                 most obvious concepts captured in the database.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Wisconsin",
  affiliationaddress = "Madison, WI, USA",
  classification = "723.1; 723.3; 723.4; 921.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Adaptive database systems; Adaptive systems;
                 Algorithms; cobweb algorithm; Database schemas;
                 Database systems; Hierarchical systems; Learning
                 algorithms; Learning from examples; Learning systems;
                 Optimization; Performance; Query languages; UNIMEM
                 algorithm",
  wwwauthor =    "Y. E. Ioannidis and T. Saulys and A. J. Whittsitt",
}

@Article{Rada:1992:CTH,
  author =       "Roy Rada",
  title =        "Converting a Textbook to Hypertext",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "294--315",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Traditional documents may be transformed into
                 hypertext by first reflecting the document's logical
                 markup in the hypertext (producing first-order
                 hypertext) and then by adding links not evident in the
                 document markup (producing second-order hypertext). In
                 our transformation of a textbook to hypertext, the
                 textbook is placed in an intermediate form based on a
                 semantic net and is then placed into the four hypertext
                 systems: Emacs-Info, Guide, HyperTies, and SuperBook.
                 The first-order Guide and SuperBook hypertexts reflect
                 a depth-first traversal of the semantic net, and the
                 Emacs-Info and HyperTies hypertexts reflect a
                 breadth-first traversal. The semantic net is augmented
                 manually, and then new traversal programs automatically
                 generate alternate outlines. An index based on word
                 patterns in the textbook is also automatically
                 generated for the second-order hypertext. Our suite of
                 programs has been applied to a published textbook, and
                 the resulting hypertexts are publicly available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Liverpool",
  affiliationaddress = "Liverpool, Engl",
  classification = "461.4; 723.2; 723.5; 903.1; 903.2; 903.3; C6130D
                 (Document processing techniques); C6160Z (Other DBMS);
                 C7250 (Information storage and retrieval)",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer applications; Computer software; Data
                 processing; Document markup; Hierarchical systems;
                 Human computer interaction; Human engineering;
                 Hypermedia models; Hypertext; Indexing (of
                 information); Information dissemination; Information
                 retrieval systems; Man machine systems; Semantic net;
                 Software package Emacs Info; Software package Guides;
                 Software package HyperTies; Software package Superbook;
                 Textbooks",
  wwwtitle =     "Converting a Text to {Guide}, {HyperTies}, and
                 {Superbook}: Practice and Principles",
}

@Article{Mackinlay:1992:EUI,
  author =       "Jock Mackinlay and Jim Rhyne",
  title =        "Editorial: User Interface Software and Technology",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "317--319",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Pausch:1992:LLS,
  author =       "Randy Pausch and Matthew Conway and Robert DeLine",
  title =        "Lessons Learned from {SUIT}, the {Simple User
                 Interface Toolkit}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "320--344",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In recent years, the computer science community has
                 realized the advantages of GUIs (Graphical User
                 Interfaces). Because high-quality GUIs are difficult to
                 build, support tools such as UIMSs, UI Toolkits, and
                 Interface Builders have been developed. Although these
                 tools are powerful, they typically make two
                 assumptions: first, that the programmer has some
                 familiarity with the GUI model, and second, that he is
                 willing to invest several weeks becoming proficient
                 with the tool. These tools typically operate only on
                 specific platforms, such as DOS, the Macintosh, or
                 UNIX/X-windows. The existing tools are beyond the reach
                 of most undergraduate computer science majors, or
                 professional programmers who wish to quickly build GUIs
                 without investing the time to become specialists in GUI
                 design. For this class of users, we developed SUIT, the
                 Simple User Interface Toolkit. SUIT is an attempt to
                 distill the fundamental components of an interface
                 builder and GUI toolkit, and to explain those concepts
                 with the tool itself, all in a short period of time. We
                 have measured that college juniors with no previous GUI
                 programming experience can use SUIT productively after
                 less than three hours. SUIT is a C subroutine library
                 which provides an external control UIMS, an interactive
                 layout editor, and a set of standard `widgets,' such as
                 sliders, buttons, and check boxes. SUIT-based
                 applications run transparently across the Macintosh,
                 DOS, and UNIX/X platforms. SUIT has been exported to
                 hundreds of external sites on the Internet. This paper
                 describes SUIT's architecture, the design decisions we
                 made during its development, and the lessons we learned
                 from extensive observations of over 120 users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Virginia",
  affiliationaddress = "Charlottesville, VA, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 722.4; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "C (programming language); Computer graphics; Computer
                 operating systems; Computer programming; Computer
                 science; Computer software; Computer software
                 portability; Graphical user interfaces; Human
                 engineering; Interactive computer systems;
                 Learnability; Learning systems; Pedagogy; Rapid
                 prototyping; Simple user interface toolkit (suit);
                 Software engineering; Software tools; User interface
                 toolkit; User interfaces",
  wwwauthor =    "R. Pausch and M. Conway and R. Deline",
}

@Article{Dewan:1992:HLF,
  author =       "Prasun Dewan and Rajiv Choudhary",
  title =        "A High-Level and Flexible Framework for Implementing
                 Multiuser User Interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "345--380",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We have developed a high-level and flexible framework
                 for supporting the construction of multiuser user
                 interfaces. The framework is based on a generalized
                 editing interaction model, which allows users to view
                 programs as active data that can be concurrently edited
                 by multiple users. It consists of several novel
                 components including a refinement of both the Seeheim
                 UIMS architecture and the distributed graphics
                 architecture that explicitly addresses multiuser
                 interaction; the abstractions of shared active
                 variables and interaction variables, which allow users
                 and applications to exchange information; a set of
                 default collaboration rules designed to keep the
                 collaboration-awareness low in multiuser programs; and
                 a small but powerful set of primitives for overriding
                 these rules. The framework allows users to be
                 dynamically added and removed from a multiuser session,
                 different users to use different user interfaces to
                 interact with an application, the modules interacting
                 with a particular user to execute on the local
                 workstation, and programmers to incrementally trade
                 automation for flexibility. We have implemented the
                 framework as part of a system called Suite. This paper
                 motivates, describes, and illustrates the framework
                 using the concrete example of Suite, discusses how it
                 can be implemented in other kinds of systems, compares
                 it with related work, discusses its shortcomings, and
                 suggests directions for future work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Purdue Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "West Lafayette, IN, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 722.4; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Administrative data processing; Computer architecture;
                 Computer graphics; Computer networks; Computer
                 programming languages; Computer supported cooperative
                 work; Distributed computer systems; Distributed
                 database systems; File editors; Flexibility; Groupware;
                 Human engineering; Interactive computer systems;
                 Multiprocessing systems; Multiuser user interfaces;
                 Text editing; User interface management systems; User
                 interfaces",
  wwwtitle =     "Coupling the User Interfaces of a Multi-User Program",
}

@Article{Bier:1992:ESB,
  author =       "Eric A. Bier",
  title =        "{EmbeddedButtons}: Supporting Buttons in Documents",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--407",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "EmbeddedButtons is a library of routines and a runtime
                 kernel that support the integration of buttons into
                 document media, including text and graphics. Existing
                 document editors can be modified to participate in this
                 open architecture with the addition of a few simple
                 routines. Unlike many button systems that insert
                 special button objects into document media, this system
                 supports turning existing document objects into
                 buttons. As a consequence, buttons inherit all of the
                 attributes of normal document objects, and the
                 appearance of buttons can be edited using operations
                 already familiar to users. Facilities are provided for
                 linking buttons to application windows so that
                 documents can serve as application control panels.
                 Hence, user interface designers can lay out control
                 panels using familiar document editors rather than
                 special-purpose tools. Three classes of buttons have
                 been implemented, including buttons that pop up a menu
                 and buttons that store and display the value of a
                 variable. New button classes, editors, and applications
                 can be added at run time. Two editors, one for text and
                 one for graphics, currently participate in the
                 architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Xerox Palo Alto Research Cent",
  affiliationaddress = "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 722; 722.4; 723.1; 723.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Active documents; Computer architecture; Computer
                 graphics; Computer software; EmbeddedButtons; File
                 editors; Human engineering; Interaction techniques;
                 Interactive computer systems; Man machine systems;
                 Rapid prototyping; Software engineering; Subroutines;
                 Text editing; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Matsuoka:1992:GFB,
  author =       "Satoshi Matsuoka and Shin Takahashi and Tomihisa
                 Kamada and Akinori Yonezawa",
  title =        "A General Framework for Bidirectional Translation
                 between Abstract and Pictorial Data",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "408--437",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The merits of direct manipulation are now widely
                 recognized. However, direct manipulation interfaces
                 incur high cost in their creation. To cope with this
                 problem, we present a model of bidirectional
                 translation between pictures and abstract application
                 data, and a prototype system, TRIP2, based on this
                 model. Using this model, general mapping from abstract
                 data to pictures and from pictures to abstract data is
                 realized merely by giving declarative mapping rules,
                 allowing fast and easy creation of direct manipulation
                 interfaces. We apply the prototype system to the
                 generation of the interfaces for kinship diagrams,
                 Graph Editors, E-R diagrams, and an Othello game.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Tokyo",
  affiliationaddress = "Tokyo, Jpn",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.2; 723.5; 741.3; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Abstract application data; Algorithms; Bidirectional
                 translation; Computational methods; Computer graphics;
                 Data processing; Direct manipulation; File editors;
                 Human engineering; Human information processing;
                 Humanities computing; Image processing; Interactive
                 computer systems; Mathematical models; Prototype system
                 trip2; Software engineering; User interface management
                 systems; User interfaces; Visualization",
  wwwauthor =    "S. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka and A. Yonezawa and T.
                 Kamada",
  wwwtitle =     "A General Framework for Bi-directional Translation
                 between Abstract and Pictorial Data",
}

@Article{Kataoka:1992:MIO,
  author =       "Yutaka Kataoka and Masato Morisaki and Hiroshi
                 Kuribayashi and Hiroyoshi Ohara",
  title =        "A Model for Input and Output of Multilingual Text in a
                 Windowing Environment",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "438--451",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The layered multilingual input\slash output (I/O)
                 system we designed, based on typological studies of
                 major-language writing conventions, unifies common
                 features of such conventions to enable international
                 and local utilization. The internationalization layer
                 input module converts keystroke sequences to phonograms
                 and ideograms. The corresponding output module displays
                 position-independent and dependent characters. The
                 localization layer positions language-specific
                 functions outside the structure, integrating them as
                 tables used by finite automaton interpreters and
                 servers to add new languages and code sets without
                 recompilation. The I/O system generates and displays
                 stateful and stateless code sets, enabling interactive
                 language switching. Going beyond POSIX locale model
                 bounds, the system generates ISO 2022, ISO\slash DIS
                 10646 (1990), and Compound Text, defined for the
                 interchange encoding format in X11 protocols, for basic
                 polyglot text communication and processing. Able to
                 generate multilingual code sets, the I/O system clearly
                 demonstrates that code sets should be selected by
                 applications which have purposes beyond selecting one
                 element from a localization set. Functionality and
                 functions related to text manipulation in an operating
                 system (OS) must also be determined by such
                 applications. A subset of this I/O system was
                 implemented in the X window system as a basic use of
                 X11R5 I/O by supplying basic code set generation and
                 string manipulation to eliminate OS interference. To
                 ensure polyglot string manipulation, the I/O system
                 must clearly be implemented separately from an OS and
                 its limitations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Waseda Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Tokyo, Jpn",
  classification = "722.4; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 902.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Codes (symbols); Computer operating systems; Computer
                 programming languages; Data processing; Data
                 structures; Encoding (symbols); Input output programs;
                 Interactive computer systems; Internationalization; iso
                 2022 standard; iso/dis 10646 (1990) standard;
                 Linguistics; Localization; Multilingual; Multiwindow;
                 Network protocols; Polyglot text; POSIX locale code;
                 Program interpreters; Standardization; X window
                 systems; X11 protocols",
}

@Article{Garzotto:1993:HMB,
  author =       "Franca Garzotto and Paolo Paolini and Daniel Schwabe",
  title =        "{HDM} --- {A} Model Based Approach to Hypertext
                 Application Design",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--26",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Hypertext development should benefit from a
                 systematic, structured development, especially in the
                 case of large and complex applications. A structured
                 approach to hypertext development suggests the notion
                 of authoring-in-the-large. Authoring-in-the-large
                 allows the description of overall classes of
                 information elements and navigational structures of
                 complex applications without much concern with
                 implementation details, and in a system-independent
                 manner. The paper presents HDM (Hypertext Design
                 Model), a first step towards defining a general purpose
                 model for authoring-in-the-large. Some of the most
                 innovative features of HDM are: the notion of
                 perspective; the identification of different categories
                 of links (structural links, application links, and
                 perspective links) with different representational
                 roles; the distinction between hyperbase and access
                 structures; and the possibility of easily integrating
                 the structure of a hypertext application with its
                 browsing semantics. HDM can be used in different
                 manners: as a modeling device or as an implementation
                 device. As a modeling device, it supports producing
                 high level specifications of existing or
                 to-be-developed applications. As an implementation
                 device, it is the basis for designing tools that
                 directly support application development. One of the
                 central advantages of HDM in the design and practical
                 construction of hypertext applications is that the
                 definition of a significant number of links can be
                 derived automatically from a conceptual-design level
                 description. Examples of usage of HDM are also
                 included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Politecnico di Milano",
  classification = "723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data models; Database systems; Hypertext; Information
                 retrieval systems; Office automation",
}

@Article{Schnase:1993:SDM,
  author =       "John L. Schnase and John J. Leggett and David L. Hicks
                 and Ron L. Szabo",
  title =        "Semantic Data Modeling of Hypermedia Associations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--50",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Many important issues in the design and implementation
                 of hypermedia system functionality focus on the way
                 interobject connections are represented, manipulated,
                 and stored. A prototypic system called HB1 is being
                 designed to meet the storage needs of next-generation
                 hypermedia system architectures. HB1 is referred to as
                 a hyperbase management systems (HBMS) because it
                 supports, not only the storage and manipulation of
                 information, but the storage and manipulation of the
                 connectivity data that link information together to
                 form hypermedia. Among HB1's distinctions is its use of
                 a semantic network database system to manage physical
                 storage. Here, basic semantic modeling concepts as they
                 apply to hypermedia systems are reviewed, and
                 experiences using a semantic database system in HB1 are
                 discussed. Semantic data models attempt to provide more
                 powerful mechanisms for structuring objects than are
                 provided by traditional approaches. In HB1, it was
                 necessary to abstract interobject connectivity,
                 behaviors, and information for hypermedia. Building on
                 top pf a semantic database system facilitated such a
                 separation and made the structural aspects of
                 hypermedia conveniently accessible to manipulation.
                 This becomes particularly important in the
                 implementation of structure-related operations such as
                 structural queries. Our experience suggests that an
                 intergrated semantic object-oriented database paradigm
                 appears to be superior to purely relational, semantic,
                 or object-oriented methodologies for representing the
                 structurally complex interrelationships that arise in
                 hypermedia.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "CRSS Architects, Inc",
  classification = "723.1; 723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data models; Database systems; Information retrieval
                 systems; Management information systems; Object
                 oriented programming",
}

@Article{Rama:1993:ICR,
  author =       "D. V. Rama and Padmini Srinivasan",
  title =        "An Investigation of Content Representation Using Text
                 Grammars",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--75",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We extend prior work on a model for natural language
                 text representation and retrieval using a linguistic
                 device called text grammar. We demonstrate the value of
                 this approach in accessing relevant items from a
                 collection of empirical abstracts in a medical domain.
                 The advantage, when compared to traditional keyword
                 retrieval, is that this approach is a significant move
                 towards knowledge representation and retrieval. Text
                 representation in this model includes keywords and
                 their conceptual roles in the text. In particular, it
                 involves extracting TOPIC predicates representing the
                 research issue addressed and DESIGN predicates
                 representing important methodological features of the
                 empirical study. Preliminary experimentation shows that
                 keywords exhibit a variety of text-grammar roles in a
                 test database. Second, as intuitively expected,
                 retrieval using TOPIC predicates identifies a smaller
                 subset of texts than Boolean retrieval does. These
                 empirical results along with the theoretical work
                 indicate that the representation and retrieval
                 strategies proposed have a significant potential.
                 Finally, EMPIRICIST,a prototype system, is described.
                 In it the text representation predicates are
                 implemented as a network while retrieval is through
                 constrained-spreading activation strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bentley Coll",
  classification = "723.5; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Indexing (of information); Information retrieval
                 systems; Natural language processing systems; Text
                 analysis",
}

@Article{Szczur:1993:TPT,
  author =       "Martha R. Szczur and Sylvia B. Sheppard",
  title =        "{TAE} Plus: Transportable Applications Environment
                 Plus: a User Interface Development Environment",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "76--101",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The Transportable Applications Environment Plus (TAE
                 Plus${}^{TM}$) is a NASA-developed user interface
                 development environment (UIDE) for the rapid
                 prototyping, evaluation, implementation, and management
                 of user interfaces. TAE Plus provides an intuitive What
                 You see Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) WorkBench for
                 designing an application's user interface. The
                 WorkBench supports the creation and sequencing of
                 displays, including real-time, data-driven display
                 objects. Users can define context-sensitive help for a
                 target application. They can rehearse the user
                 interface and also generate code automatically. In
                 addition, TAE Plus contains application services for
                 the runtime manipulation and management of the user
                 interface. Based on Motif${}^{TM}$ and the MIT X Window
                 System${}^{TM}$, TAE Plus runs on a variety of Unix-or
                 VMS-based workstations. TAE Plus is an evolving system.
                 User-defined requirements and new technology guide the
                 development of each new version. Advances in virtual
                 operating systems, human factors, computer graphics,
                 command language design, standardization, and software
                 portability are monitored and incorporated as they
                 become available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "NASA",
  classification = "461.4; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Human engineering; Interfaces (computer); Prototyping;
                 Software development; Software engineering; User
                 interfaces",
  wwwauthor =    "M. R. Szezur and S. B. Sheppard",
  wwwtitle =     "{TAE Plus: Transportable Applications Environment
                 Plus}",
}

@Article{King:1993:DDI,
  author =       "Roger King and Michael Novak",
  title =        "Designing Database Interfaces with {DBface}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "105--132",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "DBface is a toolkit for designing interfaces to
                 object-oriented databases. It provides users with a set
                 of tools for building custom interfaces with minimal
                 programming. This is accomplished by combining
                 techniques from User Interface Management Systems
                 (UIMS) with a built-in knowledge about the specific
                 kinds of techniques used by object-oriented databases.
                 DBface allows users to create graphical constructs and
                 interactive techniques by taking advantage of an
                 object-oriented database environment and tools. Not
                 only can database tools be used for creating an
                 interface, but information about the interface being
                 built is stored within a database schema and is
                 syntactically consistent with all other schema
                 information. Thus, an interface can deal with data and
                 schema information, including information about another
                 interface. This allows for easy reusability of
                 graphical constructs such as data representations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Colorado",
  classification = "722; 723.1; 723.3; 723.4.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer programming; Database interfaces; Database
                 systems; Graphical interfaces; Interactive computer
                 graphics; Interfaces (computer); Knowledge based
                 systems; Object-oriented databases; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Ciaccia:1993:EAP,
  author =       "Paulo Ciaccia and Pavel Zezula",
  title =        "Estimating Accesses in Partitioned Signature File
                 Organizations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--142",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We show that performance of some basic methods for the
                 partitioning of signature files, namely Quick Filter
                 and Fixed Prefix, can be easily evaluated by means of a
                 closed formula. The approximation is based on
                 well-known results from probability theory, and, as
                 shown by simulations, introduces no appreciable errors
                 when compared with the exact, cumbersome formulas used
                 so far. Furthermore, we prove that the exact formulas
                 for the two methods coincide. Although this does not
                 imply that the two methods behave in the same way, it
                 sheds light on the way they could be compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Bologna",
  affiliationaddress = "Italy",
  classification = "721.1; 723.5; 903.3; 922.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Access estimation; Codes (symbols); Computer
                 simulation; File organization; Information retrieval;
                 Partitioned signature files; Probability; Probability
                 theory; Signature files",
  wwwauthor =    "P. Zezula and P. Ciaccia",
}

@Article{Can:1993:ICD,
  author =       "Fazli Can",
  title =        "Incremental Clustering for Dynamic Information
                 Processing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "143--164",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Clustering of very large document databases is useful
                 for both searching and browsing. The periodic updating
                 of clusters is required due to the dynamic nature of
                 databases. An algorithm for incremental clustering is
                 introduced. The complexity and cost analysis of the
                 algorithm together with an investigation of its
                 expected behavior are presented. Through empirical
                 testing it is shown that the algorithm achieves cost
                 effectiveness and generates statistically valid
                 clusters that are compatible with those of
                 reclustering. The experimental evidence shows that the
                 algorithm creates an effective and efficient retrieval
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Miami Univ",
  classification = "723.2; 723.3; 903.3; 911.1; 922.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Browsing; Clustering; Cost accounting;
                 Cost effectiveness; Data processing; Database systems;
                 Document databases; Dynamic information processing;
                 Incremental clustering; Information retrieval;
                 Statistical methods; Statistically valid clusters",
}

@Article{Bansler:1993:RSA,
  author =       "J{\o}rgen P. Bansler and Keld B{\o}dker",
  title =        "A Reappraisal of Structured Analysis: Design in an
                 Organizational Context",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "165--193",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We review Structured Analysis as presented by Yourdon
                 and DeMarco. First, we examine the implicit assumptions
                 embodied in the method about the nature of
                 organizations, work processes, and design. Following
                 this we present the results of an exploratory study,
                 conducted to find out how the method is applied in
                 practice. This study reveals that while some of the
                 tools of Structured Analysis --- notably the data flow
                 diagram --- are used and combined with other tools, the
                 designers do not follow the analysis and design
                 procedures prescribed by the method. Our findings
                 suggest that there is a gap between the way systems
                 development is portrayed in the normative technical
                 literature and the way in which is carried out.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Copenhagen",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer programming; Computer software; Data flow
                 diagrams; Data processing; Structured analysis;
                 Structured programming; Work processes",
  wwwtitle =     "A Reappraisal of Structured Analysis",
}

@Article{Feiner:1993:EVW,
  author =       "Steven K. Feiner and Simon J. Gibbs",
  title =        "Editorial: Virtual Worlds",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--196",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Virtual Worlds.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Fitzmaurice:1993:VRP,
  author =       "George W. Fitzmaurice and Shumin Zhai and Mark H.
                 Chignell",
  title =        "Virtual Reality for Palmtop Computers",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--218",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Virtual Worlds.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We are exploring how virtual reality theories can be
                 applied toward palmtop computers, In our prototype,
                 called the Cameleon, a small 4-inch hand-held monitor
                 acts as a palmtop computer with the capabilities of a
                 Silicon graphics workstation. A 6D input device and a
                 response button are attached to the small monitor to
                 detect user gestures and input selections for issuing
                 commands. An experiment was conducted to evaluate our
                 design and to see how well depth could be perceived in
                 the small screen compared to a large 21-inch screen,
                 and the extent to which movement of the small display (
                 in a palmtop virtual reality condition) could improve
                 depth perception.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Toronto",
  affiliationaddress = "Can",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer workstations; Computers; Depth perception
                 improvement; Palmtop virtual reality condition; Silicon
                 graphics workstation; Virtual reality theories; Virtual
                 storage",
}

@Article{Sturman:1993:DMW,
  author =       "David J. Sturman and David Zeltzer",
  title =        "A Design Method for ``Whole Hand'' Human-Computer
                 Interaction",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "219--238",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Virtual Worlds.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A disciplined investigation of whole-hand interfaces
                 (often glove based, currently) and their appropriate
                 use for the control of complex task domains by the
                 design method for whole-hand input. This is a series of
                 procedures --- including a common basis for the
                 description, design, and evaluation of whole-hand
                 input, together with an accompanying taxonomy --- that
                 enumerates key issues and points for consideration in
                 the development of whole-hand input. The method helps
                 designers focus on task requirements, isolate problem
                 areas, and choose appropriate whole-hand input
                 strategies for their specified tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Massachusetts Inst of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  classification = "723; 723.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Computers; Input devices;
                 Interaction techniques; Man machine systems; Virtual
                 environments; Whole hand human computer interaction",
}

@Article{Arthur:1993:ETP,
  author =       "Kevin W. Arthur and Kellogg S. Booth and Colin Ware",
  title =        "Evaluating {3D} Task Performance for Fish Tank Virtual
                 Worlds",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "239--265",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Virtual Worlds.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "'Fish tank virtual reality' refers to the use of a
                 standard graphics workstation to achieve real-time
                 display of 3D scenes using stereopsis and dynamic
                 head-coupled perspective. Fish tank VR has a number of
                 advantages over head-mounted immersion VR which makes
                 it more practical for many applications. After
                 discussing the characteristics of fish tank VR, we
                 describe a set of three experiments conducted to study
                 the benefits of fish tank VR over a traditional
                 workstation graphics display. These experiments tested
                 user performance under two conditions: (a) whether or
                 not stereoscopic display was used and (b) whether or
                 not the perspective display was coupled dynamically to
                 the positions of a user's eyes. Subjects using a
                 comparison protocol consistently preferred head
                 coupling without stereo over stereo without head
                 coupling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of British Columbia",
  affiliationaddress = "Can",
  classification = "723; 723.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Computer workstations; Computers;
                 Fish tank virtual worlds; Head-coupled display;
                 Standard graphics workstation; Three-dimensional
                 graphics; Virtual storage; Virtual worlds",
  wwwauthor =    "K. Arthur and K. Booth and C. Ware",
}

@Article{Koike:1993:RAS,
  author =       "Hideki Koike",
  title =        "The Role of Another Spatial Dimension in Software
                 Visualization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "266--286",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Virtual Worlds.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The primary objective of this article is to
                 demonstrate the use of 3D-computer graphics in
                 visualizing shapeless software information by focusing
                 on performance monitoring of parallel-concurrent
                 computer systems. Issues are addressed from two
                 different perspectives: expressiveness of output media
                 and user cognition. The former describes the
                 limitations of 2D output media. The latter refers to a
                 user's cognitive load when using 2D representations in
                 a multiple-window environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Electro-Communications",
  affiliationaddress = "Jpn",
  classification = "723; 723.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Computer software; Electric power
                 control system; Multiple-window environment; Parallel
                 manipulator; Parallel-concurrent computer system;
                 Prototype visualization system vogue; Shapeless
                 software visualization; User's cognitive load",
  wwwtitle =     "The Roles of Another Spatial Dimension in Software
                 Visualization",
}

@Article{Shaw:1993:DSV,
  author =       "Chris Shaw and Mark Green and Jiandong Liang and Yunqi
                 Sun",
  title =        "Decoupled Simulation in Virtual Reality with the {MR}
                 Toolkit",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "287--317",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Virtual Worlds.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The Virtual Reality (VR) user interface style allows
                 natural hand and body motions to manipulate virtual
                 objects in 3D environments using one or more 3D input
                 devices. This style is best suited to application
                 areas",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Alberta",
  affiliationaddress = "Can",
  classification = "723; 723.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer software; Decoupled simulation model (dsm);
                 Interactive computer graphics; Interactive three
                 dimensional graphics; User interface software; Virtual
                 object manipulations; Virtual reality (VR) user
                 interface style; Virtual storage",
}

@Article{Malone:1993:GE,
  author =       "Thomas Malone and Norbert Streitz",
  title =        "Guest Editorial",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "319--320",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
                 (CSCW).",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Olson:1993:GCC,
  author =       "Judith S. Olson and Gary M. Olson and Marianne
                 Storrosten and Mark Carter",
  title =        "Groupwork Close Up: a Comparison of the Group Design
                 Process With and Without a Simple Group Editor",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--348",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
                 (CSCW).",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A simple collaborative tool, a shared text editor
                 called ShrEdit, changed the way groups of designers
                 performed their work, and changed it for the better.
                 First, the designs produced by the 19 groups of three
                 designers were of higher quality than those of the 19
                 groups who worked with conventional whiteboard, paper
                 and pencil. The groups with the new tool reported
                 liming their work process a little less, probably
                 because they had to adapt their work style to a new
                 tool. We expected, from the brainstorming literature
                 and recent work on Group Support Systems, that the
                 reason the designs were of better quality was that the
                 supported groups generated more ideas. To our surprise,
                 the groups working with ShrEdit generated fewer design
                 ideas, but apparently better ones. It appears that the
                 tool helped the supported groups keep more focused on
                 the core issues in the emerging design, to waste less
                 time on less important topics, and to capture what was
                 said as they went. This suggests that small workgroups
                 can capitalize on the free access they have to a shared
                 workspace, without requiring a facilitator or a work
                 process embedded in the software.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Michigan",
  affiliationaddress = "Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer software; Concurrent editing; Decision
                 support systems; Design; Group behavior; Group support
                 system; Groupwork; Information science; Management
                 information systems",
}

@Article{Ishii:1993:IIS,
  author =       "Hiroshi Ishii and Minoru Kobayashi and Jonathan
                 Grudin",
  title =        "Integration of Interpersonal Space and Shared
                 Workspace; {ClearBoard} Design and {Experiments}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "349--375",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
                 (CSCW).",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We describe the evolution of the novel shared drawing
                 medium clearBoard which was designed to seamlessly
                 integrate an intrapersonal space and a shared
                 workspace. ClearBoard permits coworkers in two
                 locations to draw with color markers or with electronic
                 pens and software tools while maintaining direct eye
                 contact and the ability to employ natural gestures. The
                 ClearBoard design is based on the key metaphor of
                 `talking through and drawing on a transparent glass
                 window'. We describe the evolution from ClearBoard-1
                 (which enables shared video drawing) to ClearBoard-2
                 (which incorporates TeamPaint, a multiuser paint
                 editor). Initial observations and findings gained
                 through the experimental use of the prototype,
                 including the feature of `gaze awareness', are
                 discussed. Further experiments are conducted with
                 ClearBoard-0 (a simple mockup), ClearBoard-1, and an
                 actual desktop as a control. IN the settings we
                 examined, the ClearBoard environment led to more eye
                 contact and potential awareness of collaborator's gaze
                 direction over the traditional desktop environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "NTT Human Interface Laboratories",
  classification = "723; 903",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer software; Decision support systems; Gaze
                 awareness; Groupware; Information science; Interfaces
                 (computer); Interpersonal space; management information
                 systems; Shared workspace; Teleconferencing",
}

@Article{Hindus:1993:CSR,
  author =       "Debby Hindus and Chris Schmandt and Chris Horner",
  title =        "Capturing, Structuring, and Representing Ubiquitous
                 Audio",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "376--400",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
                 (CSCW).",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Although talking is an integral part of collaboration,
                 there has been little computer support for acquiring
                 and accessing the contents of conversations. Our
                 approach has focused on ubiquitous audio, or the
                 unobtrusive capture of speech interactions in everyday
                 work environments. Speech recognition technology cannot
                 yet transcribe fluent conversational speech, so the
                 words themselves are not available for organizing the
                 captured interactions. Instead, the structure of an
                 interaction is derived from acoustical information
                 inherent in the stored speech and augmented by user
                 interaction during or after capture. This article
                 describes applications for capturing and structuring
                 audio from office discussions and telephone calls, and
                 mechanisms for later retrieval of these stored
                 interactions. An important aspect of retrieval is
                 choosing an appropriate visual representation, and this
                 article describes the evolution of a family of
                 representations across a range of applications.
                 Finally, this work is placed within the broader context
                 of desktop audio, mobile audio applications, and social
                 implications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Interval Research Corporation",
  affiliationaddress = "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  classification = "723; 752; 903",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Audio systems; Collaborative work; Computer software;
                 Decision support systems; Information retrieval
                 systems; Interfaces (computer); Multimedia workstation;
                 Software telephony; Teleconferencing; Ubiquitous
                 audio",
}

@Article{Resnick:1993:PBC,
  author =       "Paul Resnick",
  title =        "Phone-Based {CSCW}: Tools and Trials",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "401--424",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
                 (CSCW).",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Telephones are the most ubiquitous, best-networked,
                 and simplest computer terminals available today. They
                 have been used for voice mail but largely overlooked as
                 a platform for asynchronous cooperative-work
                 applications such as event calendars, issue
                 discussions, and question-and-answer gathering.
                 HyperVoice is a software toolkit for constructing such
                 applications. Its building blocks are high-level
                 presentation formats for collections of structured
                 voice messages. The presentation formats can themselves
                 be presented and manipulated, enabling significant
                 customization of applications by phone. Results of two
                 field trials suggest social-context factors that will
                 influence the success or failure of phone-based
                 cooperative work applications in particular settings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "716; 723; 903",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Asynchronous cooperative work; Computer networks;
                 Computer programming; Computer software; Phone based
                 interface; Software toolkit; Telephone systems; User
                 interfaces; Voice/data communication systems",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1993:AI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "1993 Author Index",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "425--426",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Allen:1994:E,
  author =       "Robert B. Allen",
  title =        "Editorial",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1994:TC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{TOIS} Charter",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Marchionini:1994:EHL,
  author =       "Gary Marchionini and Gregory Crane",
  title =        "Evaluating Hypermedia and Learning: Methods and
                 Results from the {Perseus Project}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--34",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The Perseus Project has developed a hypermedia corpus
                 of materials related to the ancient Greek world. The
                 materials include a variety of texts and images, and
                 tools for using these materials and navigating the
                 system. Results from a three-year evaluation of Perseus
                 use in a variety of college settings are described. The
                 evaluation assessed both this particular system and the
                 application of the technological genre to information
                 management and to learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland",
  affiliationaddress = "College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "403.2; 461.4; 723.5; 912.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer milieux; Human computer interaction; Human
                 engineering; Human information processing; Hypermedia;
                 Information science; Learning systems; Logic design;
                 Machine systems; Navigation systems",
}

@Article{Poulovassilis:1994:NGM,
  author =       "Alexandra Poulovassilis and Mark Levene",
  title =        "A Nested-Graph Model for the Representation and
                 Manipulation of Complex Objects",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--68",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Three recent trends in database research are
                 object-oriented and deductive databases and graph-based
                 user interfaces. We draw these trends together in a
                 data model we call the Hypernode Model. The single data
                 structure of this model is the hypernode, a graph whose
                 nodes can themselves be graphs. Hypernodes are typed,
                 and types, too, are nested graphs. We give the
                 theoretical foundations of hypernodes and types, and we
                 show that type checking is tractable. We show also how
                 conventional type-forming operators can be simulated by
                 our graph types, including cyclic types. The Hypernode
                 Model comes equipped with a rule-based query language
                 called Hyperlog, which is complete with respect to
                 computation and update. We define the operational
                 semantics of Hyperlog and show that the evaluation of
                 Hyperlog programs is intractable in the general
                 case--we identify cases when evaluation can be
                 performed efficiently.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "King's College",
  affiliationaddress = "London, Engl",
  classification = "721.2; 723.2; 723.4; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer graphics; Computer networks; Computer
                 programming; Data processing; Database browsing;
                 Database management; Expert systems; Hyperlog programs;
                 Hypernode project; Logic design; Nested graph",
}

@Article{Schauble:1994:EPQ,
  author =       "Peter Schauble and Beat Wuthrich",
  title =        "On the Expressive Power of Query Languages",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--91",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Two main topics are addressed. First, an algebraic
                 approach is presented to define a general notion of
                 expressive power. Heterogeneous algebras represent
                 information systems and morphisms represent the
                 correspondences between the instances of databases, the
                 correspondences between answers, and the
                 correspondences between queries. An important feature
                 of this new notion of expressive power is that query
                 languages of different types can be compared with
                 respect to their expressive power.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Swiss Federal of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Zurich, Switz",
  classification = "721.1; 721.2; 723.4; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Abstract data; Artificial intelligence; Computation
                 theory; Computer programming; Datalog; Heterogeneous
                 algebra; Information science; Logic design; Query
                 correspondence; Query languages; Recursion",
}

@Article{Fuhr:1994:PIR,
  author =       "Norbert Fuhr and Ulrich Pfeifer",
  title =        "Probabilistic Information Retrieval as a Combination
                 of Abstraction, Inductive Learning, and Probabilistic
                 Assumptions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "92--115",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We show that former approaches in probabilistic
                 information retrieval are based on one or two of the
                 three concepts abstraction, inductive learning, and
                 probabilistic assumptions, and we propose a new
                 approach which combines all three concepts. This
                 approach is illustrated for the case of indexing with a
                 controlled vocabulary. For this purpose, we describe a
                 new probabilistic model first, which is then combined
                 with logistic regression, thus yielding a
                 generalization of the original model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Dortmund",
  affiliationaddress = "Dortmund, Ger",
  classification = "721.2; 723.2; 723.4; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Abstraction; Artificial intelligence; Data feedback;
                 Data storage equipment; Information science;
                 Interactive devices; Learning systems; Logic design;
                 Logistic regression; Probabilistic information;
                 Probabilistic retrieval",
  wwwtitle =     "Probabilistic Information Retrieval as Combination of
                 Abstraction, Inductive Learning and Probabilistic
                 Assumptions",
}

@Article{Kling:1994:ISI,
  author =       "R. Kling",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on Social Science
                 Perspectives on {IS}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "117--118",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Markus:1994:FHM,
  author =       "M. L. Markus",
  title =        "Finding a Happy Medium: Explaining the Negative
                 Effects of Electronic Communication on Social Life at
                 Work",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "119--149",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The sometimes observed negative social effects of
                 electronic communication technology are often
                 attributed to the characteristics of the technology
                 itself. Electronic mail, for instance, filters out
                 personal and social cues and provides new capabilities
                 not found in traditional media,and it has been argued
                 that these factors have consequences such as `flaming'
                 and depersonalization. Alternative theoretical
                 perspectives on the impacts of information technology
                 suggest that our ability to explain these outcomes
                 might be enhanced by attending to user's intentional
                 choices about how to use technology and to the
                 unpredictable technology usage patterns that emerge
                 when users interact with the technology and each other.
                 These alternative perspectives are examined in the
                 context of an exploratory case study of a complex
                 organization in which electronic mail was heavily
                 used.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "The Calemont Graduate School",
  affiliationaddress = "Claremont, CA, USA",
  classification = "718.1; 903.2; 903.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Depersonalization; Electronic communication;
                 Electronic mail; Information services; Negative
                 effects; Social life at work; Telecommunication
                 systems",
  wwwtitle =     "Finding a Happy Medium: Explaining the Effects of
                 Electronic Mail on Social Life at Work",
}

@Article{Walsham:1994:ISS,
  author =       "G. Walsham and T. Waema",
  title =        "Information Systems Strategy and Implementation: a
                 Case Study of a Building Society",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "150--173",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The formation and implementation of strategy with
                 respect to computer-based information systems (IS) are
                 important issues in many contemporary organizations,
                 including those in the financial services sector. This
                 paper describes and analyzes an in-depth case study of
                 the strategy formation and implementation process in
                 one such organization, a medium-sized UK building
                 society, and relates the process to its organizational
                 and broader contexts; the organization is examined over
                 a period of several years and under the contrasting
                 leadership of two different chief executives. The case
                 study is used to develop some general implications on
                 IS strategy and implementation, which can be taken as
                 themes for debate in any new situation. The paper
                 provides an example of a more detailed perspective on
                 processes in IS strategy and implementation than
                 typically available in the literature. In addition, a
                 new framework for further research in this area is
                 developed, which directs the researcher toward
                 exploring the dynamic interplay of strategic content,
                 multilevel contexts, and cultural and political
                 perspectives on the process of change.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Cambridge",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, Engl",
  classification = "723.5; 903.2; 903.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer applications; Implementation; Information
                 dissemination; Information services; Information
                 systems strategy; Multilevel context",
}

@Article{Orlikowski:1994:TFM,
  author =       "Wanda J. Orlikowski and Debra C. Gash",
  title =        "Technological Frames: Making Sense of Information
                 Technology in Organizations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "174--207",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In this article, we build on and extend research into
                 the cognitions and values of users and designers by
                 proposing a systematic approach for examining the
                 underlying assumptions. expectations, and knowledge
                 that people have about technology. Such interpretations
                 of technology (which we call technological (frames))
                 are central to understanding technological development,
                 use, and change in organizations. We suggest that where
                 the technological frames of key groups in
                 organizations---such as managers, technologists, and
                 change of technology may result. We use the findings of
                 an empirical study to illustrate how the nature, value,
                 and use of a groupware technology were interpreted by
                 various organizational stakeholders, resulting in
                 outcomes that deviated from those expected. We argue
                 that technological frames offer an interesting and
                 useful analytic perspective for explaining and
                 anticipating actions and meanings that are not easily
                 obtained with other theoretical lenses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  classification = "716.1; 723.5; 903.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Human factors; Information science; Information
                 services; Organizations; Technological frames;
                 Technology",
}

@Article{Ruhleder:1994:RLR,
  author =       "Karen Ruhleder",
  title =        "Rich and Lean Representations of Information for
                 Knowledge Work: The Role of Computing Packages in the
                 Work of Classical Scholars",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "208--230",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Applying information systems to complex intellectual
                 tasks requires the representation and codification of
                 ambiguous and fragmentary forms of data. This
                 application effects changes not only in representation
                 of this data, but in the relationships between users
                 and tools, techniques, or systems for data
                 interpretation. It also affects the complex
                 infrastructures that support this process. This article
                 uses a package metaphor to examine the impact on one
                 domain of knowledge work, classical scholarship, of the
                 `computerization' of a key data source, the textual
                 edition. The construction of one on-line textual
                 databank, the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG), has
                 altered the traditional relationships between text
                 `owners' and `users', has changed the role of the text
                 as a conduit for social and historical information, and
                 has disrupted traditional patterns of transmitting
                 domain expertise. A rich information resource has
                 become lean in its electronic form.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Worcester Polytechnic Institute",
  affiliationaddress = "Worcester, MA, USA",
  classification = "723.5; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Classical scholars; Computer applications; Computing
                 packages; Information retrieval systems; Information
                 science; Lean representation; Rich representation",
}

@Article{Lewis:1994:GE,
  author =       "D. D. Lewis and P. J. Hayes",
  title =        "Guest Editorial",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "231--233",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Text Categorization.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Apte:1994:ALD,
  author =       "Chidanand Apte and Fred Damerau and Sholom M. Weiss",
  title =        "Automated Learning of Decision Rules for Text
                 Categorization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "233--251",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Text Categorization.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We describe the results of extensive experiments using
                 optimized rule-based induction methods on large
                 document collections. The goal of these methods is to
                 discover automatically classification patterns that can
                 be used for general document categorization or
                 personalized filtering of free text. Previous reports
                 indicate that human-engineered rule-based systems,
                 requiring many man-years of developmental efforts, have
                 been successfully built to `read' documents and assign
                 topics to them. We show that machine-generated decision
                 rules appear comparable to human performance, while
                 using the identical rule-based representation. In
                 comparison with other machine-learning techniques,
                 results on a key benchmark from the Reuters collection
                 show a large gain in performance, from a previously
                 reported 67\% recall\slash precision breakeven point to
                 80.5\%. In the context of a very high-dimensional
                 feature space, several methodological alternatives are
                 examined, including universal versus local
                 dictionaries, and binary versus frequency-related
                 features.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM T. J. Watson Research Cent",
  affiliationaddress = "Yorktown Heights, NY, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 722.1; 723.4; 901.1.1; 902.2; 903.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Classification (of information); Data acquisition;
                 Data storage equipment; Decision support systems; Human
                 engineering; Information retrieval systems; Knowledge
                 based systems; Learning systems; Man machine systems;
                 Performance; Reuters collection; Societies and
                 institutions; Standards; Terminology; Text
                 categorization",
}

@Article{Yang:1994:EBM,
  author =       "Yiming Yang and Christopher G. Chute",
  title =        "An Example-Based Mapping Method for Text
                 Categorization and Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "252--277",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Text Categorization.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A unified model for text categorization and text
                 retrieval is introduced. We use a training set of
                 manually categorized documents to learn word-category
                 associations, and use these associations to predict the
                 categories of arbitrary documents. Similarly, we use a
                 training set of queries and their related documents to
                 obtain empirical associations between query words and
                 indexing terms of documents, and use these associations
                 to predict the related documents of arbitrary queries.
                 A Linear Least Squares Fit (LLSF) technique is employed
                 to estimate the likelihood of these associations.
                 Document collections from the MEDLINE database and Mayo
                 patient records are used for studies on the
                 effectiveness of our approach, and on how much the
                 effectiveness depends on the choices of training data,
                 indexing language, word-weighting scheme, and
                 morphological canonicalization. Alternative methods are
                 also tested on these data collections for comparison.
                 It is evident that the LLSF approach uses the relevance
                 information effectively within human decisions of
                 categorization and retrieval, and achieves a semantic
                 mapping of free texts to their representations in an
                 indexing language. Such a semantic mapping leads to a
                 significant improvement in categorization and
                 retrieval, compared to alternative approaches.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Mayo Clinic\slash Foundation",
  affiliationaddress = "Rochester, MN, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.1; 903.3; 921.6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Classification (of information); Computational
                 linguistics; Data acquisition; Database systems; Human
                 engineering; Indexing (of information); Information
                 analysis; Information retrieval; Learning systems;
                 Least squares approximations; Mapping; Mathematical
                 models; Morphological canonicalization; Query
                 languages; Text categorization; Text retrieval",
}

@Article{Liddy:1994:TCM,
  author =       "Elizabeth D. Liddy and Woojin Paik and Edmund S. Yu",
  title =        "Text Categorization for Multiple Users Based on
                 Semantic Features from a Machine-Readable Dictionary",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "278--295",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Text Categorization.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The text categorization module described here provides
                 a front-end filtering function for the larger DR-LINK
                 text retrieval system [Liddy and Myaeng 1993]. The
                 module evaluates a large incoming stream of documents
                 to determine which documents are sufficiently similar
                 to a profile at the broad subject level to warrant more
                 refined representation and matching. To accomplish this
                 task, each substantive word in a text is first
                 categorized using a feature set based on the semantic
                 Subject Field Codes (SFCs) assigned to individual word
                 senses in a machine-readable dictionary. When tested on
                 50 user profiles and 550 megabytes of documents,
                 results indicate that the feature set that is the basis
                 of the text categorization module and the algorithm
                 that establishes the boundary of categories of
                 potentially relevant documents accomplish their tasks
                 with a high level of performance. This means that the
                 category of potentially relevant documents for most
                 profiles would contain at least 80\% of all documents
                 later determined to be relevant to the profile. The
                 number of documents in this set would be uniquely
                 determined by the system's category-boundary predictor,
                 and this set is likely to contain less than 5\% of the
                 incoming stream of documents.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Syracuse Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Syracuse, NY, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Abstracting; Algorithms; Classification (of
                 information); Codes (symbols); Computational
                 linguistics; Encoding (symbols); Indexing (of
                 information); Information retrieval systems; Machine
                 readable dictionary; Performance; Semantic features;
                 Semantic vectors; Subject field coding; Terminology;
                 Text categorization; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Riloff:1994:IEB,
  author =       "Ellen Riloff and Wendy Lehnert",
  title =        "Information Extraction as a Basis for High-Precision
                 Text Classification",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "296--333",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Text Categorization.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "We describe an approach to text classification that
                 represents a compromise between traditional word-based
                 techniques and in-depth natural language processing.
                 Our approach uses a natural language processing task
                 called `information extraction' as a basis for
                 high-precision text classification. We present three
                 algorithms that use varying amounts of extracted
                 information to classify texts. The relevancy signatures
                 algorithm uses linguistic phrases; the augmented
                 relevancy signatures algorithm uses phrases and local
                 context; and the case-based text classification
                 algorithm uses larger pieces of context. Relevant
                 phrases and contexts are acquired automatically using a
                 training corpus. We evaluate the algorithms on the
                 basis of two test sets from the MUC-4 corpus. All three
                 algorithms achieved high precision on both test sets,
                 with the augmented relevancy signatures algorithm and
                 the case-based algorithm reaching 100\% precision with
                 over 60\% recall on one set. Additionally, we compare
                 the algorithms on a larger collection of 1700 texts and
                 describe an automated method for empirically deriving
                 appropriate threshold values. The results suggest that
                 information extraction techniques can support
                 high-precision text classification and, in general,
                 that using more extracted information improves
                 performance. As a practical matter, we also explain how
                 the text classification system can be easily ported
                 across domains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Massachusetts",
  affiliationaddress = "Amherst, MA, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 903.1; 903.3; 922.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Augmented relevancy signatures algorithms;
                 Case based text classification; Classification (of
                 information); Computational linguistics; Data
                 acquisition; Indexing (of information); Information
                 analysis; Information extraction; Information
                 retrieval; Natural language processing systems; Online
                 searching; Phrases; Statistical methods; Training
                 corpus",
  wwwpages =     "296--337",
  wwwtitle =     "Information Extraction as a Basis for High-Precision
                 Text",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1994:IA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Information for Authors",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "333--337",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 18 12:02:07 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Merz:1994:DQF,
  author =       "Ulla Merz and Roger King",
  title =        "{DIRECT}: a Query Facility for Multiple Databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "339--359",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The subject of this research project is the
                 architecture and design of a multidatabase query
                 facility. These databases contain structured data,
                 typical for business applications. Problems addressed
                 are: presenting a uniform interface for retrieving data
                 from multiple databases, providing autonomy for the
                 component databases, and defining an architecture for
                 semantic services. DIRECT is a query facility for
                 heterogeneous databases. The databases and their
                 definitions can differ in their data models, names,
                 types, and encoded values. Instead of creating a global
                 schema, descriptions of different databases are allowed
                 to coexist. A multidatabase query language provides a
                 uniform interface for retrieving data from different
                 databases. DIRECT has been exercised with operational
                 databases that are part of an automated business
                 system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Colorado",
  affiliationaddress = "Boulder, CO, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computational linguistics; Computer architecture; Data
                 models; Data structures; direct query facility;
                 Heterogeneous databases; Information retrieval;
                 Interfaces (computer); Multiple databases; Query
                 languages",
}

@Article{Chang:1994:SAB,
  author =       "Man Kit Chang and Carson C. Woo",
  title =        "A Speech Act Based Negotiation Protocol: Design,
                 Implementation, and Test Use",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "360--382",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Existing negotiation protocols used in Distributed
                 Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems rarely take into
                 account the results from negotiation research. We
                 propose a negotiation protocol, SANP (Speech-Act-based
                 Negotiation Protocol), which is based on Ballmer and
                 Brennenstuhl's speech act classification and on
                 negotiation analysis literature. The protocol is
                 implemented as a domain-independent system using
                 Strudel, which is an electronic mail toolkit. A small
                 study tested the potential use of the protocol.
                 Although a number of limitations were found in the
                 study, the protocol appears to have potential in
                 domains without these limitations, and it can serve as
                 a building block to design more general negotiation
                 protocols.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Hong Kong Baptist Coll",
  affiliationaddress = "Hong Kong",
  classification = "722.3; 722.4; 723.1; 723.4; 723.5; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Data communication systems;
                 Data structures; Distributed artificial intelligence;
                 Distributed computer systems; Electronic mail; Expert
                 systems; Information retrieval systems; Network
                 protocols; Office automation; Organizational computing
                 systems; Societies and institutions; Speech act based
                 negotiation protocol",
}

@Article{Chimera:1994:EET,
  author =       "Richard Chimera and Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "An Exploratory Evaluation of Three Interfaces for
                 Browsing Large Hierarchical Tables of Contents",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "383--406",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Three different interfaces were used to browse a large
                 (1296 items) table of contents. A fully expanded stable
                 interface, expand\slash contract interface, and
                 multipane interface were studied in a between-groups
                 experiment with 41 novice participants. Nine timed fact
                 retrieval tasks were performed; each task is analyzed
                 and discussed separately. We found that both the
                 expand\slash contract and multipane interfaces produced
                 significantly faster times than the stable interface
                 for many tasks using this large hierarchy; other
                 advantages of the expand\slash contract and multipane
                 interfaces over the stable interface are discussed. The
                 animation characteristics of the expand\slash contract
                 interface appear to play a major role. Refinements to
                 the multipane and expand\slash contract interfaces are
                 suggested. A predictive model for measuring navigation
                 effort of each interface is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland",
  affiliationaddress = "College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 722.2; 723.2; 903.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Expand/contract interfaces; Hierarchical systems;
                 Hierarchical tables of contents; Human engineering; Man
                 machine systems; Multipane interfaces; Online
                 searching; User interfaces",
  wwwauthor =    "B. Shneiderman and R. Chimera",
  wwwtitle =     "Evaluation of Three Interfaces for Browsing
                 Hierarchical Tables of Contents",
}

@Article{Wong:1994:PBD,
  author =       "Stephen T. C. Wong",
  title =        "Preference-Based Decision Making for Cooperative
                 Knowledge-Based Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "407--435",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Recent advances in cooperative knowledge-based systems
                 (CKBS) offer significant promise for intelligent
                 interaction between multiple AI systems for solving
                 larger, more complex problems. In this paper, we
                 propose a logical, qualitative problem-solving scheme
                 for CKBS that uses social choice theory as a formal
                 basis for making joint decisions and promoting conflict
                 resolution. This scheme consists of three steps: (1)
                 the selection of decision criteria and competing
                 alternatives, (2) the formation of preference profiles
                 and collective choices, and (3) the negotiation among
                 agents as conflicts arise in group decision making. In
                 this paper, we focus on the computational mechanisms
                 developed to support steps (2) and (3) of the scheme.
                 In addition, the practicality of the scheme is
                 illustrated with examples taken from a working
                 prototype dealing with collaborative structural design
                 of buildings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Inst for New Generation Computer Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Tokyo, Jpn",
  classification = "461.4; 723.2; 723.4; 723.4.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Cooperative knowledge based
                 systems; Decision support systems; Distributed
                 artificial intelligence; Heuristic methods; Human
                 engineering; Information retrieval systems; Knowledge
                 based systems; Preference based decision making; Social
                 choice theory",
  wwwtitle =     "Cooperative Decision Making Based on Preferences",
}

@Article{Isakowitz:1995:TLP,
  author =       "Tom{\'a}s Isakowitz and Shimon Schocken and Henry C.
                 {Lucas, Jr.}",
  title =        "Toward a Logical\slash Physical Theory of Spreadsheet
                 Modeling",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--37",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In spite of the increasing sophistication and power of
                 commercial spreadsheet packages, we still lack a formal
                 theory or a methodology to support the construction and
                 maintenance of spreadsheet models. Using a dual
                 logical\slash physical perspective, we identify four
                 principal components that characterize any spreadsheet
                 model: schema, data, editorial, and binding. We present
                 a factoring algorithm for identifying and extracting
                 these components from conventional spreadsheets with
                 minimal user intervention, and a synthesis algorithm
                 that assists users in the construction of executable
                 spreadsheets from reusable model components. This
                 approach opens new possibilities for applying
                 object-oriented and model management techniques to
                 support the construction, sharing, and reuse of
                 spreadsheet models in organizations. Importantly, our
                 approach to model management and the Windows-based
                 prototype that we have developed are designed to
                 coexist with, rather than replace, traditional
                 spreadsheet programs. In other words, the users are not
                 required to learn a new modeling language; instead,
                 their logical models and data sets are extracted from
                 their spreadsheets transparently, as a side-effect of
                 using standard spreadsheet programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "New York Univ",
  classification = "723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Computer programming languages; Computer
                 simulation; Computer software; Data reduction; Data
                 structures; Factoring algorithm; Model management;
                 Spreadsheet modeling theory; Spreadsheets",
}

@Article{Wong:1995:MIR,
  author =       "S. K. M. Wong and Y. Y. Yao",
  title =        "On Modeling Information Retrieval with Probabilistic
                 Inference",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "38--68",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This article examines and extends the logical models
                 of information retrieval in the context of probability
                 theory. The fundamental notions of term weights and
                 relevance are given probabilistic interpretations. A
                 unified framework is developed for modeling the
                 retrieval process with probabilistic inference. This
                 new approach provides a common conceptual and
                 mathematical basis for many retrieval models, such as
                 the Boolean, fuzzy set, vector space, and conventional
                 probabilistic models. Within this framework, the
                 underlying assumptions employed by each model are
                 identified, and the inherent relationships between
                 these models are analyzed. Although this article is
                 mainly a theoretical analysis of probabilistic
                 inference for information retrieval, practical methods
                 for estimating the required probabilities are provided
                 by simple examples.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Regina",
  affiliationaddress = "Regina, Sask, Can",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 903.1; 903.3; 921.1; 921.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Boolean algebra; Data structures; Document
                 representation; Fuzzy sets; Indexing (of information);
                 Information retrieval; Information theory; Mathematical
                 models; Maximum entropy principle; Minimum entropy
                 principle; Probabilistic logics; Probability;
                 Similarity measures; Theorem proving; Vector space
                 model",
}

@Article{Salminen:1995:THI,
  author =       "Airi Salminen and Jean Tague-Sutcliffe and Charles
                 McClellan",
  title =        "From Text to Hypertext by Indexing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--99",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A model is presented for converting a collection of
                 documents to hypertext by means of indexing. The
                 documents are assumed to be semistructured, i.e., their
                 text is a hierarchy of parts, and some of the parts
                 consist of natural language. The model is intended as a
                 framework for specifying hypertextual reading
                 capabilities for specific application areas and for
                 developing new automated tools for the conversion of
                 semistructured text to hypertext. In the model, two
                 well-known paradigms --- formal grammars and document
                 indexing --- are combined. The structure of the source
                 text is defined by a schema that is a constrained
                 context-free grammar. The hierarchic structure of the
                 source may thus be modeled by a parse tree for the
                 grammar. The effect of indexing is described by grammar
                 transformations. The new grammar, called an indexing
                 schema, is associated with a new parse tree where some
                 text parts are index elements. The indexing schema may
                 hide some parts of the original documents or the
                 structure of some parts. For information retrieval,
                 parts of the indexed text are considered to be nodes of
                 a hypergraph. In the hypergraph-based information
                 access, the navigation capabilities of hypertext
                 systems are combined with the querying capabilities of
                 information retrieval systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Jyvaskyla",
  affiliationaddress = "Jyvaskyla, Finl",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Automata theory; Constraint theory; Content analysis;
                 Context free grammars; Data structures; Formal logic;
                 Hypertext; Indexing (of information); Information
                 retrieval systems; Structured text; Text entities;
                 Transient hypergraphs",
  wwwpages =     "69--111",
}

@Article{Cooper:1995:SIM,
  author =       "William S. Cooper",
  title =        "Some Inconsistencies and Misidentified Modeling
                 Assumptions in Probabilistic Information Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "100--111",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Research in the probabilistic theory of information
                 retrieval involves the construction of mathematical
                 models based on statistical assumptions. One of the
                 hazards inherent in this kind of theory construction is
                 that the assumptions laid down may be inconsistent in
                 unanticipated ways with the data to which they are
                 applied. Another hazard is that the stated assumptions
                 may not be those on which the derived modeling
                 equations or resulting experiments are actually based.
                 Both kinds of mistakes have been made in past research
                 on probabilistic information retrieval. One consequence
                 of these errors is that the statistical character of
                 certain probabilistic IR models, including the
                 so-called Binary Independence model, has been seriously
                 misapprehended.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California",
  affiliationaddress = "Berkeley, CA, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 722.4; 723.2; 903.3; 922.1; 922.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Bibliographic retrieval systems; Bibliographic
                 searching; Binary independence model; Data structures;
                 Document retrieval; Hazards and race conditions;
                 Information retrieval; Online searching; Probabilistic
                 logics; Probability; Statistical methods",
  wwwtitle =     "Some Inconsistencies and Misidentified Modelling
                 Assumptions in Probabilistic Information Retrieval",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1995:AR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Acknowledgment to Referees",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "112--113",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Gudivada:1995:DEA,
  author =       "Venkat N. Gudivada and Vijay V. Raghavan",
  title =        "Design and Evaluation of Algorithms for Image
                 Retrieval by Spatial Similarity",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--144",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "An algorithm for computing the spatial similarity
                 between two symbolic images is proposed. This
                 algorithms is simple in the sense that it can deal with
                 translation, scale and rotational variances in images.
                 The idea of quantifying a system's retrieval quality by
                 having an expert specify the expected rank ordering
                 with respect to each query for a set of test queries is
                 also introduced. Finally, a comparison of the
                 characteristics of the proposed algorithm with those of
                 the previously available algorithms revealed that the
                 proposed algorithm is more efficient and it provides a
                 rank ordering of images that consistently matches with
                 the expert's expected rank ordering.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Ohio Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Athens, OH, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 722.2; 723.1; 723.3; 903.3; 921.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Computational complexity; Database
                 systems; Expert systems; Graph theory; Image databases;
                 Image retrieval; Image retrieval systems; Information
                 retrieval; Information retrieval systems; Query
                 languages; Rotational invariance; Spatial similarity;
                 User interfaces",
  wwwtitle =     "An Experimental Evaluation of Algorithms for Retrieval
                 by Spatial Similarity",
}

@Article{Rangan:1995:FTC,
  author =       "P. Venkat Rangan and Srinivas Ramanathan and Srihari
                 Sampathkumar",
  title =        "Feedback Techniques for Continuity and Synchronization
                 in Multimedia Information Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--176",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "The development of techniques for supporting
                 continuous and synchronous retrieval from multimedia
                 servers is discussed. Several feedback techniques that
                 remain robust even in the presence of playback rate
                 mismatches and network delay jitter are presented. In
                 general, the constant rate feedback techniques
                 developed in this study form the basis of a prototype
                 on-demand information server developed at the UCSD
                 Multimedia Laboratory.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California at San Diego",
  affiliationaddress = "La Jolla, CA, USA",
  classification = "722.3; 723.3; 723.5; 903.3; 903.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer networks; Computer simulation; Feedback;
                 Information retrieval; Information retrieval systems;
                 Information services; Intermedia synchronization;
                 Intramedia continuity; Multimedia; Multimedia
                 information retrieval; Synchronization",
  wwwauthor =    "P. V. Rangan and S. Ramanathan",
}

@Article{Malone:1995:EOR,
  author =       "Thomas W. Malone and Kum-Yew Lai and Christopher Fry",
  title =        "Experiments with Oval: a Radically Tailorable Tool for
                 Cooperative Work",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "177--205",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "This article describes a series of tests of the
                 generality of a `radically tailorable' tool for
                 cooperative work. Users of this system can create
                 applications by combining and modifying four kinds of
                 building blocks: objects, views, agents, and links. We
                 found that user-level tailoring of these primitives can
                 provide most of the functionality found in well-known
                 cooperative work systems such as gIBIS, Coordinator,
                 Lotus Notes, and Information Lens. These primitives,
                 therefore, appear to provide an elementary `tailoring
                 language' out of which a wide variety of integrated
                 information management and collaboration applications
                 can be constructed by end users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "MIT Cent for Coordination Science",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  classification = "722.2; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.3; 723.5; 903",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer aided software engineering; Computer
                 programming; Computer simulation; Computer supported
                 cooperative work; End user programming; High level
                 languages; Human engineering; Information management;
                 Information retrieval systems; Radical tailorability;
                 User interfaces",
}

@Article{Strong:1995:EEH,
  author =       "Diane M. Strong and Steven M. Miller",
  title =        "Exceptions and Exception Handling in Computerized
                 Information Processes",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "206--233",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Exceptions, situations that cannot be correctly
                 processed by computer systems, occur frequently in
                 computer-based information processes. Five perspectives
                 on exceptions provide insights into why exceptions
                 occur and how they might be eliminated or more
                 efficiently handled. We investigate these perspectives
                 using an in-depth study of an operating information
                 process that has frequent exceptions. Our results
                 support the use of a total quality management (TQM)
                 approach of eliminating exceptions for some exceptions,
                 in particular, those caused by computer systems that
                 are poor matches to organizational processes. However,
                 some exceptions are explained better by a political
                 system perspective of conflicting goals between
                 subunits. For these exceptions and several other types,
                 designing an integrated human-computer process will
                 provide better performance than will eliminating
                 exceptions and moving toward an entirely automated
                 process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Boston Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Boston, MA, USA",
  classification = "722.2; 722.4; 723.2; 723.5; 912.2; 913.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Administrative data processing; Computer applications;
                 Computer systems; Computerized information processes;
                 Data handling; Data processing; Exception handling;
                 Exceptions; Human computer interaction; Office
                 automation; Performance; Process design; Quality
                 assurance; Total quality management",
}

@Article{Celentano:1995:KBD,
  author =       "Augusto Celentano and Maria Grazia Fugini and Silvano
                 Pozzi",
  title =        "Knowledge-Based Document Retrieval in Office
                 Environments: The {Kabiria} System",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "237--268",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In the office environment, the retrieval of documents
                 is performed using the concepts contained in the
                 documents, information about the procedural context
                 where the documents are used, and information about the
                 regulations and laws that discipline the life of
                 documents within a given application domain. To fulfill
                 the requirements of such a sophisticated retrieval, we
                 propose a document retrieval model and system based on
                 the representation of knowledge describing the semantic
                 contents of documents, the way in which the documents
                 are managed by procedures and by people in the office,
                 and the application domain where the office operates.
                 The article describes the knowledge representation
                 issues needed for the document retrieval system and
                 presents a document retrieval model that captures these
                 issues. The effectiveness of the approach is
                 illustrated by describing a system, named Kabiria,
                 built on top of such model. The article describes the
                 querying and browsing environments, and the
                 architecture of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Politecnico di Milano",
  affiliationaddress = "Milano, Italy",
  classification = "722.1; 722.4; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.4.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Administrative data processing; Browser; Computational
                 linguistics; Computer programming languages; Data
                 reduction; Data structures; Expert systems; Hypertext;
                 Information retrieval systems; Kabiria system;
                 Knowledge based document retrieval; Knowledge based
                 systems; Object orientation; Office automation; Systems
                 analysis; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Tuzhilin:1995:TKB,
  author =       "Alexander Tuzhilin",
  title =        "{Templar}: a Knowledge-Based Language for Software
                 Specifications Using Temporal Logic",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "269--304",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "A software specification language Templar is defined
                 in this article. The development of the language was
                 guided by the following objectives: requirements
                 specifications written in Templar should have a clear
                 syntax and formal semantics, should be easy for a
                 systems analyst to develop and for an end-user to
                 understand, and it should be easy to map them into a
                 broad range of design specifications. Templar is based
                 on temporal logic and on the
                 Activity-Event-Condition-Activity model of a rule which
                 is an extension of the Event-Condition-Activity model
                 in active databases. The language supports a rich set
                 of modeling primitives, including rules, procedures,
                 temporal logic operators, events, activities,
                 hierarchical decomposition of activities, parallelism,
                 and decisions combined together into a cohesive
                 system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "New York Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "New York, NY, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1.1; 723.4.1; 921.6; 922.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computational linguistics; Computer hardware
                 description languages; Computer programming languages;
                 Database systems; Decision making; Formal logic;
                 Hierarchical systems; Knowledge based language Templar;
                 Knowledge based systems; Mathematical operators;
                 Natural languages; Software engineering; Temporal
                 logic",
}

@Article{Koike:1995:FVF,
  author =       "Hideki Koike",
  title =        "Fractal Views: a Fractal-Based Method for Controlling
                 Information Display",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "305--323",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Computer users often must view large amounts of
                 information through video displays which are physically
                 limited in size. Although some methods, which
                 automatically display\slash erase information units
                 based on their degrees of importance, have been
                 proposed, they lack an ability to keep the total amount
                 of displayed information nearly constant. We propose a
                 new method for information display based on fractal
                 theory. By regarding the information structures used in
                 computers as complex objects, we can abstract these
                 objects as well as control their amount. Using our
                 method, (1) the total amount of information is kept
                 nearly constant even when users change their focuses of
                 attention and (2) this amount can be set flexibly.
                 Through mathematical analysis, we show our method's
                 ability to control the amount. An application to
                 program display is also shown. When this method is
                 applied to the display of structured programs, it
                 provides fisheye-like views which integrate local
                 details around the focal point and major landmarks
                 further away.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Electro-Communications",
  affiliationaddress = "Tokyo, Jpn",
  classification = "722.2; 723.1; 723.2; 723.5; 903.1; 921.6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer systems programming; Data structures;
                 Fractals; Information analysis; Information
                 visualization; Program display; Software engineering;
                 Systems analysis; UI theory; User interfaces",
  wwwpages =     "305--324",
}

@Article{Kwok:1995:NAP,
  author =       "K. L. Kwok",
  title =        "A Network Approach to Probabilistic Information
                 Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "324--353",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In this article we show how probabilistic information
                 retrieval based on document components may be
                 implemented as a feedforward (feedbackward) artificial
                 neural network. The network supports adaptation of
                 connection weights as well as the growing of new edges
                 between queries and terms based on user relevance
                 feedback data for training, and it reflects query
                 modification and expansion in information retrieval. A
                 learning rule is applied that can also be viewed as
                 supporting sequential learning using a harmonic
                 sequence learning rate. Experimental results with four
                 standard small collections and a large Wall Street
                 Journal collection (173,219 documents) show that
                 performance of feedback improves substantially over no
                 feedback, and further gains are obtained when queries
                 are expanded with terms from the feedback documents.
                 The effect is much more pronounced in small collections
                 than in the large collection. Query expansion may be
                 considered as a tool for both precision and recall
                 enhancement. In particular, small query expansion
                 levels of about 30 terms can achieve most of the gains
                 at the low-recall high-precision region, while larger
                 expansion levels continue to provide gains at the
                 high-recall low-precision region of a precision recall
                 curve.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "City Univ of New York",
  affiliationaddress = "Flushing, NY, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.4; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data reduction; Data structures; Document focused
                 relevance feedback; Feedback; Feedforward neural
                 networks; Indexing (of information); Information
                 retrieval; Learning systems; Probabilistic information
                 retrieval; Probabilistic logics; Query expansion; Query
                 focused relevance feedback",
  wwwpages =     "325-354",
}

@Article{Kong:1995:DDI,
  author =       "Q. Kong and G. Chen",
  title =        "On Deductive Databases with Incomplete Information",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "354--369",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "In order to extend the ability to handle incomplete
                 information in a definite deductive database, a Horn
                 clause-based system representing incomplete information
                 as incomplete constants is proposed. By using the
                 notion of incomplete constants the deductive database
                 system handles incomplete information in the form of
                 sets of possible values, thereby giving more
                 information than null values. The resulting system
                 extends Horn logic to express a restricted form of
                 indefiniteness. Although a deductive database with this
                 kind of incomplete information is, in fact, a subset of
                 an indefinite deductive database system, it represents
                 indefiniteness in terms of value incompleteness, and
                 therefore it can make use of the existing Horn logic
                 computation rules. The inference rules for such a
                 system are presented, its model theory discussed, and a
                 model theory of indefiniteness proposed. The theory is
                 consistent with minimal model theory and extends its
                 expressive power.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Queensland",
  affiliationaddress = "Queensland, Aust",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 723.4.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data structures; Database systems; Formal logic; Horn
                 clause; Incomplete information; Inference engines;
                 Prolog (programming language); Query evaluation; Query
                 languages; Systems analysis",
  wwwpages =     "355--369",
  wwwtitle =     "On Deductive Database with Incomplete Information",
}

@Article{Stevens:1995:ISI,
  author =       "Scott Stevens and Thomas Little",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on Video Information
                 Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "371--372",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  wwwauthor =    "Tom Little and Scott Stevens",
  wwwtitle =     "Guest Editors' Introduction",
}

@Article{Chua:1995:VRS,
  author =       "Tat-Seng Chua and Li-Qun Ruan",
  title =        "A Video Retrieval and Sequencing System",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--407",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Video Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Video is an effective medium for capturing the events
                 in the real world around us, and a vast amount of video
                 materials exists, covering a wide range of
                 applications. However, widespread use of video in
                 computer applications is often impeded by the lack of
                 effective tools to manage video information
                 systematically. This article discusses the design and
                 implementation of a frame-based video retrieval and
                 sequencing system (VRSS). The system is designed to
                 support the entire process of video information
                 management: segmenting, indexing, retrieving, and
                 sequencing of video data. A semiautomatic tool is
                 developed to divide video sequences into meaningful
                 shots. Each video shot is logged using text
                 descriptions, audio dialogue, and cinematic attributes.
                 A two-layered, concept-based model is used as the basis
                 for accurately retrieving relevant video shots based on
                 users' free-text queries. A cinematic, rule-based,
                 virtual editing tool is also developed to sequence the
                 video shots retrieved for presentation within a
                 specified time constraint. The system has been tested
                 on a video documentary on the NUS (National University
                 of Singapore) engineering faculty. The results of video
                 retrieval experiments are encouraging.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Natl Univ of Singapore",
  affiliationaddress = "Singapore, Singapore",
  classification = "722.2; 723.2; 723.3; 723.4.1; 723.5; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Cinematic rules; Computer simulation; Data structures;
                 Frame based modeling; Image segmentation; Indexing (of
                 information); Information management; Information
                 retrieval; Information retrieval systems; Knowledge
                 based systems; Knowledge representation; Multimedia;
                 Query languages; Systems analysis; User interfaces;
                 Video; Video retrieval; Video retrieval and sequencing
                 system; Video signal processing; Virtual editing",
}

@Article{Dimitrova:1995:MRV,
  author =       "Nevenka Dimitrova and Forouzan Golshani",
  title =        "Motion Recovery for Video Content Classification",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "408--439",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Video Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "Like other types of digital information, video
                 sequences must be classified based on the semantics of
                 their contents. A more-precise and completer extraction
                 of semantic information will result in a more-effective
                 classification. The most-discernible difference between
                 still images and moving pictures stems from movements
                 and variations. Thus, to go from the realm of
                 still-image repositories to video databases, we must be
                 able to deal with motion. Particularly, we need the
                 ability to classify objects appearing in a video
                 sequence based on their characteristics and features
                 such as shape or color, as well as their movements. By
                 describing the movements that we derive from the
                 process of motion analysis, we introduce a dual
                 hierarchy consisting of spatial and temporal parts for
                 video sequence representation. This gives us the
                 flexibility to examine arbitrary sequences of frames at
                 various levels of abstraction and to retrieve the
                 associated temporal information (say, object
                 trajectories) in addition to the spatial
                 representation. Our algorithm for motion detection uses
                 the motion compensation component of the MPEG
                 video-encoding scheme and then computes trajectories
                 for objects of interest. The specification of a
                 language for retrieval of video based on the spatial as
                 well as motion characteristics is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Arizona State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Tempe, AZ, USA",
  classification = "723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Classification (of information); Computer
                 hardware description languages; Database systems;
                 Feature extraction; Image analysis; Image coding;
                 Information retrieval; Motion pictures; Motion
                 recovery; mpeg; Object recognition; Video analysis;
                 Video content classification; Video databases; Video
                 retrieval; Video sequence; Video signal processing",
}

@Article{Bulterman:1995:EVH,
  author =       "Dick C. A. Bulterman",
  title =        "Embedded Video in Hypermedia Documents: Supporting
                 Integration and Adaptive Control",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "440--470",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Video Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  abstract =     "As the availability of digital video becomes
                 commonplace, a shift in application focus will occur
                 from merely accessing video as an independent data
                 stream to embedding video with other multimedia data
                 types into coordinated hypermedia presentations. The
                 migration to embedded video will present new demands on
                 application and support environments: processing of any
                 one piece of video data will depend on how that data
                 relates to other data streams active within the same
                 presentation. This article describes presentation,
                 synchronization, and interaction control issues for
                 manipulating embedded video. First we describe the
                 requirements for embedded video, contrasted against
                 other forms of video use. Next we consider mechanisms
                 for describing and implementing the behavior of
                 embedded-video segments relative to other data items in
                 a document; these relationships form the basis of
                 implementing cooperative control among the events in a
                 presentation. Finally we consider extending the
                 possibilities for tailoring embedded video to the
                 characteristics of the local runtime environment; this
                 forms the basis for adaptive, application-level
                 quality-of-service control of a presentation. In all
                 cases, we describe a mechanism to externalize the
                 behavior of hypermedia presentations containing
                 resource-intensive data requirements so that effective
                 control can be implemented by low-level system
                 facilities based on application-specific requirements.
                 We present our results in terms of the CMIFed
                 authoring\slash presentation system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica",
  affiliationaddress = "Amsterdam, Neth",
  classification = "723.1; 723.2; 731.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Adaptive control systems; Algorithms; Data processing;
                 Embedded video; Hypermedia documents; Information
                 retrieval systems; Multimedia; Synchronization; Systems
                 analysis; Video presentation; Video signal processing",
}

@Article{Keller:1995:XAI,
  author =       "Ralf Keller and Wolfgang Effelsberg and Bernd
                 Lamparter",
  title =        "{XMovie}: Architecture and Implementation of a
                 Distributed Movie System",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "471--499",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Video Information Retrieval.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1996:MGS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "In Memoriam: {Gerard Salton}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 17:28:08 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Lucarella:1996:VRE,
  author =       "Dario Lucarella and Antonella Zanzi",
  title =        "A Visual Retrieval Environment for Hypermedia
                 Information Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--29",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/lucarella.html",
  abstract =     "A graph-based object model that may be used as a
                 uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia
                 information is presented. After motivating the need for
                 abstraction and structuring mechanisms in hypermedia
                 systems, the notion of perspective is introduced, which
                 is a form of data abstraction that acts as a user
                 interface to the system, providing control over the
                 visibility of the objects and their properties.
                 Presented is a visual retrieval environment that
                 effectively combines filtering, browsing, and
                 navigation to provide an integrated view of the
                 retrieval problem. Design and implementation issues are
                 outlined for MORF (Multimedia Object Retrieval
                 Environment), a prototype system relying on the
                 proposed model. The focus is on the main user interface
                 functionalities. Actual interaction sessions are
                 presented including schema creation, information
                 loading, and information retrieval.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Centro Ricerca di Automatica",
  affiliationaddress = "Milano, Italy",
  classification = "722.2; 723.2; 723.3; 723.5; 903.3; 903.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Abstracting; Browsing; Computer simulation; Data
                 structures; Database systems; Graphical user
                 interfaces; Hypermedia information systems; Hypertext;
                 Information filtering; Information retrieval systems;
                 Information services; Information technology;
                 Interactive computer graphics; Multimedia; Multimedia
                 object retrieval environment; Pattern matching; Schema
                 graph; Subgraph; Systems analysis; Visual retrieval
                 environment; Visualization",
}

@Article{Robey:1996:SPI,
  author =       "Daniel Robey and Michael Newman",
  title =        "Sequential Patterns in Information Systems
                 Development: An Application of a Social Process Model",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "30--63",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/robey.html",
  abstract =     "We trace the process of developing and implementing a
                 materials management system in one company over a
                 15-year period. Using a process research model
                 developed by Newman and Robey, we identify 44 events in
                 the process and define them as either encounters or
                 episodes. Encounters are concentrated events, such as
                 meetings and announcements, that separate episodes,
                 which are events of longer duration. By examining the
                 sequence of events over the 15 years of the case, we
                 identify a pattern of repeated failure, followed by
                 success. Our discussion centers on the value of
                 detecting and displaying such patterns and the need for
                 theoretical interpretation of recurring sequences of
                 events. Five alternative theoretical perspectives,
                 originally proposed by Kling, are used to interpret the
                 sequential patterns identified by the model. We
                 conclude that the form of the process model allows
                 researchers who operate from different perspectives to
                 enrich their understanding of the process of system
                 development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Georgia State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Atlanta, GA, USA",
  classification = "722.4; 723.2; 723.3; 723.5; 903.3; 912.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Administrative data processing; Computer systems; Data
                 structures; Database systems; Information retrieval
                 systems; Management information systems; Materials
                 management system; Process research model; Sequential
                 patterns; Social process model; System implementation;
                 Systems analysis",
  wwwtitle =     "Sequential Patterns in Information Systems
                 Development: An Application of a Process Model",
}

@Article{Taghva:1996:EMB,
  author =       "Kazem Taghva and Julie Borsack and Allen Condit",
  title =        "Evaluation of Model-Based Retrieval Effectiveness with
                 {OCR} Text",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "64--93",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/taghva.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
}

@Article{Berghel:1996:EUE,
  author =       "Hal Berghel and David Roach",
  title =        "An Extension of {Ukkonen}'s Enhanced Dynamic
                 Programming {ASM} Algorithm",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "94--106",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/berghel.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
}

@Article{Lee:1996:DRW,
  author =       "Dik Lun Lee and Liming Ren",
  title =        "Document Ranking on Weight-Partitioned Signature
                 Files",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "109--137",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/lee.html",
  abstract =     "A signature file organization, called the
                 weight-partitioned signature file, for supporting
                 document ranking is proposed. It employs multiple
                 signature files, each of which corresponds to one term
                 frequency, to represent terms with different term
                 frequencies. Words with the same term frequency in a
                 document are grouped together and hashed into the
                 signature file corresponding to that term frequency.
                 This eliminates the need to record the term frequency
                 explicitly for each word. We investigate the effect of
                 false drops on retrieval effectiveness if they are not
                 eliminated in the search process. We have shown that
                 false drops introduce insignificant degradation on
                 precision and recall when the false-drop probability is
                 below a certain threshold. This is an important result
                 since false-drop elimination could become the
                 bottleneck in systems using fast signature file search
                 techniques. We perform an analytical study on the
                 performance of the weight-partitioned signature file
                 under different search strategies and configurations.
                 An optimal formula is obtained to determine for a fixed
                 total storage overhead the storage to be allocated to
                 each partition in order to minimize the effect of false
                 drops on document ranks. Experiments were performed
                 using a document collection to support the analytical
                 results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Ohio State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Columbus, OH, USA",
  classification = "722.1; 723.2; 723.5; 903.3; 922.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Access method; Computer simulation; Document ranking;
                 Document retrieval; Encoding (symbols); File
                 organization; Information retrieval; Information
                 retrieval systems; Performance; Probability; Storage
                 allocation (computer); Superimposed coding; Text
                 retrieval; Weight partitioned signature files",
}

@Article{Rowe:1996:ULO,
  author =       "Neil C. Rowe",
  title =        "Using Local Optimality Criteria for Efficient
                 Information Retrieval with Redundant Information
                 Filters",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "138--174",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/rowe.html",
  abstract =     "We consider information retrieval when the data ---
                 for instance, multimedia --- is computationally
                 expensive to fetch. Our approach uses `information
                 filters' to considerably narrow the universe of
                 possibilities before retrieval. We are especially
                 interested in redundant information filters that save
                 time over more general but more costly filters.
                 Efficient retrieval requires that decisions must be
                 made about the necessity, order, and concurrent
                 processing of proposed filters (an `execution plan').
                 We develop simple polynomial-time local criteria for
                 optimal execution plans and show that most forms of
                 concurrency are suboptimal with information filters.
                 Although the general problem of finding an optimal
                 execution plan is likely to be exponential in the
                 number of filters, we show experimentally that our
                 local optimality criteria, used in a polynomial-time
                 algorithm, nearly always find the global optimum with
                 15 filters or less, a sufficient number of filters for
                 most applications. Our methods require no special
                 hardware and avoid the high processor idleness that is
                 characteristic of massive-parallelism solutions to this
                 problem. We apply our ideas to an important
                 application, information retrieval of captioned data
                 using natural-language understanding, a problem for
                 which the natural-language processing can be the
                 bottleneck if not implemented well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Naval Postgraduate Sch",
  affiliationaddress = "Monterey, CA, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3; 921.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Boolean algebra; Concurrency control;
                 Conjunction; Information retrieval; Information
                 retrieval systems; Natural language processing systems;
                 Optimization; Performance; Query languages; Redundant
                 information filters",
}

@Article{Jungclaus:1996:TLO,
  author =       "Ralf Jungclaus and Gunter Saake and Thorsten Hartmann
                 and Cristina Sernadas",
  title =        "{TROLL} --- {A} Language for Object-Oriented
                 Specification of Information Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "175--211",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/hartmann.html",
  abstract =     "TROLL is a language particularly suited for the early
                 stages of information system development, when the
                 universe of discourse must be described. In TROLL the
                 descriptions of the static and dynamic aspects of
                 entities are integrated into object descriptions.
                 Sublanguages for data terms, for first-order and
                 temporal assertions, and for processes, are used to
                 describe respectively the static properties, the
                 behavior, and the evolution over time of objects. TROLL
                 organizes system design through object-orientation and
                 the support of abstractions such as classification,
                 specialization, roles, and aggregation. Language
                 features for state interactions and dependencies among
                 components support the composition of the system from
                 smaller modules, as does the facility of defining
                 interfaces on top of object descriptions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Deutsche Telekom",
  affiliationaddress = "Bonn, Ger",
  classification = "723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer hardware description languages; Computer
                 programming languages; Data processing; Language
                 classifications; Language constructs and features;
                 Management information systems; Object oriented
                 specification; Software engineering; Systems analysis",
}

@Article{Grant:1996:CPM,
  author =       "Rebecca A. Grant and Chris A. Higgins",
  title =        "Computerized Performance Monitors as Multidimensional
                 Systems: Derivation and Application",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "212--235",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/grant.html",
  abstract =     "An increasing number of companies are introducing
                 computer technology into more aspects of work.
                 Effective use of information systems to support office
                 and service work can improve staff productivity,
                 broaden a company's market, or dramatically change its
                 business. It can also increase the extent to which work
                 is computer mediated and thus within the reach of
                 software known as Computerized Performance Monitoring
                 and Control Systems (CPMCSs). Virtually all research
                 has studied CPMCSs as unidimensional systems. Employees
                 are described as `monitored' or `unmonitored' or as
                 subject to `high,' `moderate,' or `low' levels of
                 monitoring. Research that does not clearly distinguish
                 among possible monitor design cannot explain how
                 designs may differ in effect. Nor can it suggest how to
                 design better monitors. A multidimensional view of
                 CPMCSs describes monitor designs in terms of object of
                 measurements, tasks measured, recipient of data,
                 reporting period, and message content. This view is
                 derived from literature in control systems,
                 organizational behavior, and management information
                 systems. The multidimensional view can then be
                 incorporated into causal models to explain
                 contradictory results of earlier CPMCS research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Victoria",
  affiliationaddress = "Victoria, BC, Can",
  classification = "723.1; 723.2; 723.5; 731.1; 912.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer applications; Computer software; Computerized
                 performance evaluation; Computerized performance
                 monitoring and control systems; Computerized work
                 monitoring; Control systems; Management information
                 systems; Monitoring; Personnel rating; Productivity;
                 Systems analysis; Work monitoring system design",
}

@Article{Guglielmo:1996:NLR,
  author =       "Eugene J. Guglielmo and Neil C. Rowe",
  title =        "Natural-Language Retrieval of Images Based on
                 Descriptive Captions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "237--267",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/guglielmo.html",
  abstract =     "We describe a prototype intelligent information
                 retrieval system that uses natural-language
                 understanding to efficiently locate captioned data.
                 Multimedia data generally require captions to explain
                 their features and significance. Such descriptive
                 captions often rely on long nominal compounds (strings
                 of consecutive nouns) which create problems of
                 disambiguating word sense. In our system, captions and
                 user queries are parsed and interpreted to produce a
                 logical form, using a detailed theory of the meaning of
                 nominal compounds. A fine-grain match can then compare
                 the logical form of the query to the logical forms for
                 each caption. To improve system efficiency, we first
                 perform a coarse-grain match with index files, using
                 nouns and verbs extracted from the query. Our
                 experiments with randomly selected queries and captions
                 from an existing image library show an increase of 30\%
                 in precision and 50\% in recall over the keyphrase
                 approach currently used. Our processing times have a
                 media of seven seconds as compared to eight minutes for
                 the existing system, and our system is much easier to
                 use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst (MBARI)",
  affiliationaddress = "Moss Landing, CA, USA",
  classification = "723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 723.4.1; 741; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Coarse grain match; Computational
                 linguistics; Database systems; Descriptive captions;
                 Fine grain match; Formal logic; Image processing;
                 Information retrieval systems; Intelligent information
                 retrieval system; Knowledge based systems; Knowledge
                 representation; Multimedia; Natural language processing
                 systems; Query languages",
}

@Article{Gottlob:1996:EOO,
  author =       "Georg Gottlob and Michael Schrefl and Brigitte Rock",
  title =        "Extending Object-Oriented Systems with Roles",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "268--296",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/gottlob.html",
  abstract =     "This article shows how class-based object-oriented
                 systems can be extended to handle evolving objects
                 well. Class hierarchies are complemented by role
                 hierarchies, whose nodes represent role types an object
                 classified in the root may take on. At any point in
                 time, an entity is represented by an instance of the
                 root and an instance of every role type whose role it
                 currently plays. In a natural way, the approach extends
                 traditional object-oriented concepts, such as
                 classification, object identity, specialization,
                 inheritance, and polymorphism in a natural way. The
                 practicability of the approach is demonstrated by an
                 implementation in Smalltalk. Smalltalk was chosen
                 because it is widely known, which is not true for any
                 particular class-based object-oriented database
                 programming language. Roles can be provided in
                 Smalltalk by adding a few classes. There is no need to
                 modify the semantics of Smalltalk itself. Role
                 hierarchies are mapped transparently onto ordinary
                 classes. The presented implementation can easily be
                 ported to object-oriented database programming
                 languages based on Smalltalk, such as Gemstone's
                 OPAL.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Vienna Univ of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Wien, Austria",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Class hierarchies; Computational linguistics; Computer
                 programming languages; Data structures; Database
                 systems; Object oriented databases; Object oriented
                 programming; Role hierarchies; Semantics; Smalltalk
                 programming language; Software engineering",
}

@Article{Gulla:1996:GEC,
  author =       "Jon Atle Gulla",
  title =        "A General Explanation Component for Conceptual
                 Modeling in {CASE} Environments",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "297--329",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/gulla.html",
  abstract =     "In information systems engineering, conceptual models
                 are constructed to assess existing information systems
                 and work out requirements for new ones. As these models
                 serve as a means for communication between customers
                 and developers, it is paramount that both parties
                 understand the models, as well as that the models form
                 a proper basis for the subsequent design and
                 implementation of the systems. New CASE environments
                 are now experimenting with formal modeling languages
                 and various techniques for validating conceptual
                 models, though it seems difficult to come up with a
                 technique that handles the linguistic barriers between
                 the parties involved in a satisfactory manner. In this
                 article, we discuss the theoretical basis of an
                 explanation component implemented for the PPP CASE
                 environment. This component integrates other validation
                 techniques and provides a very flexible
                 natural-language interface to complex model
                 information. It describes properties of the modeling
                 language and the conceptual models in terms familiar to
                 users, and the explanations can be combined with
                 graphical model views. When models are executed, it can
                 justify requested inputs and explain computed outputs
                 by relating trace information to properties of the
                 models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Computational linguistics;
                 Computer aided software engineering; Computer graphics;
                 Computer simulation; Computer simulation languages;
                 Conceptual modeling; Database systems; Formal
                 languages; Information systems engineering; Natural
                 language processing systems; Program documentation;
                 Validation techniques",
  wwwtitle =     "A General Explanation Component for Conceptual
                 Modeling in {CASE} Environment",
}

@Article{Friedman:1996:BCS,
  author =       "Batya Friedman and Helen Nissenbaum",
  title =        "Bias in Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "330--347",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/friedman.html",
  abstract =     "From an analysis of actual cases, three categories of
                 bias in computer systems have been developed:
                 preexisting, technical, and emergent. Preexisting bias
                 has its roots in social institutions, practices, and
                 attitudes. Technical bias arises from technical
                 constraints or considerations. Emergent bias arises in
                 a context of use. Although others have pointed to bias
                 in particular computer systems and have noted the
                 general problem, we know of no comparable work that
                 examines this phenomenon comprehensively and which
                 offers a framework for understanding and remedying it.
                 We conclude by suggesting that freedom from bias should
                 be counted among the select set of criteria ---
                 including reliability, accuracy, and efficiency ---
                 according to which the quality of systems in use in
                 society should be judged.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Colby Coll",
  affiliationaddress = "Waterville, ME, USA",
  classification = "461.4; 722.4; 723.2; 901.1; 901.1.1; 901.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer ethics; Computer systems; Human values; Man
                 machine systems; Philosophical aspects; Reliability;
                 Social aspects; Social computing; Social impact; Social
                 sciences computing; Societies and institutions;
                 Software engineering; Standards; Systems analysis",
  wwwpages =     "330--346",
  wwwtitle =     "Bias in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Moffat:1996:SII,
  author =       "Alistair Moffat and Justin Zobel",
  title =        "Self-Indexing Inverted Files for Fast Text Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "349--379",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/moffat.html",
  abstract =     "Query-processing costs on large text databases are
                 dominated by the need to retrieve and scan the inverted
                 list of each query term. Retrieval time for inverted
                 lists can be greatly reduced by the use of compression,
                 but this adds to the CPU time required. Here we show
                 that the CPU component of query response time for
                 conjunctive Boolean queries and for informal ranked
                 queries can be similarly reduced, at little cost in
                 terms of storage, by the inclusion of an internal index
                 in each compressed inverted list. This method has been
                 applied in a retrieval system for a collection of
                 nearly two million short documents. Our experimental
                 results show that the self-indexing strategy adds less
                 than 20\% to the size of the compressed inverted file,
                 which itself occupies less than 10\% of the indexed
                 text, yet can reduce processing time for Boolean
                 queries of 5-10 terms to under one fifth of the
                 previous cost. Similarly, ranked queries of 40-50 terms
                 can be evaluated in as little as 25\% of the previous
                 time, with little or no loss of retrieval
                 effectiveness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Melbourne",
  affiliationaddress = "Parkville, Aust",
  classification = "716.1; 722.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Boolean queries; Data compression; Data storage
                 equipment; File organization; Full text retrieval;
                 Index compression; Indexing (of information);
                 Information retrieval; Information retrieval systems;
                 Inverted file; Query languages; Query processing; Self
                 indexing",
}

@Article{Oberweis:1996:ISB,
  author =       "Andreas Oberweis and Peter Sander",
  title =        "Information System Behavior Specification by
                 High-Level {Petri} Nets",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--420",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/oberweis.html",
  abstract =     "The specification of an information system should
                 include a description of structural system aspects as
                 well as a description of the system behavior. In this
                 article, we show how this can be achieved by high-level
                 Petri nets --- namely, the so-called NR/T-nets
                 (Nested-Relation\slash Transition Nets). In NR/T-nets,
                 the structural part is modeled by nested relations, and
                 the behavioral part is modeled by a novel Petri net
                 formalism. Each place of a net represents a nested
                 relation scheme, and the marking of each place is given
                 as a nested relation of the respective type. Insert and
                 delete operations in a nested relational database
                 (NF2-database) are expressed by transitions in a net.
                 These operations may operate not only on whole tuples
                 of a given relation, but also on `subtuples' of
                 existing tuples. The arcs of a net are inscribed with
                 so-called Filter Tables, which allow (together with an
                 optional logical expression as transition inscription)
                 conditions to be formulated on the specified (sub-)
                 tuples. The occurrence rule for NR/T-net transitions is
                 defined by the operations union, intersection, and
                 `negative' in lattices of nested relations. The
                 structure of an NR/T-net, together with the occurrence
                 rule, defines classes of possible information system
                 procedures, i.e., sequences of (possibly concurrent)
                 operations in an information system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Universitaet Karlsruhe",
  affiliationaddress = "Karlsruhe, Ger",
  classification = "721.2; 723.1.1; 723.3; 723.5; 903.3; 921.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Behavior specification; Complex objects; Computer
                 aided logic design; Computer hardware description
                 languages; Conceptual design; Data manipulation
                 languages; Data structures; Information retrieval
                 systems; Nested relations; Petri nets; Query languages;
                 Transition nets",
}

@Article{Cheung:1996:MAG,
  author =       "Waiman Cheung and Cheng Hsu",
  title =        "The Model-Assisted Global Query System for Multiple
                 Databases in Distributed Enterprises",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "421--470",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/cheung.html",
  abstract =     "Today's enterprises typically employ multiple
                 information systems, which are independently developed,
                 locally administered, and different in logical or
                 physical designs. Therefore, a fundamental challenge in
                 enterprise information management is the sharing of
                 information for enterprise users across organizational
                 boundaries; this requires a global query system capable
                 of providing on-line intelligent assistance to users.
                 Conventional technologies, such as schema-based query
                 languages and hard-coded schema integration, are not
                 sufficient to solve this problem. This article develops
                 a new approach, a `model-assisted global query system,'
                 that utilizes an on-line repository of enterprise
                 metadata --- the Metadatabase --- to facilitate global
                 query formulation and processing with certain desirable
                 properties such as adaptiveness and open-systems
                 architecture. A definitional model characterizing the
                 various classes and roles of the required metadata as
                 knowledge for the system is presented. The significance
                 of possessing this knowledge (via a Metadatabase)
                 toward improving the global query capabilities
                 available previously is analyzed. On this basis, a
                 direct method using model traversal and a query
                 language using global model constructs are developed
                 along with other new methods required for this
                 approach. It is then tested through a prototype system
                 in a computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
                 settings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Chinese Univ of Hong Kong",
  affiliationaddress = "Shatin, Hong Kong",
  classification = "721.2; 722.2; 722.4; 723.1.1; 723.3; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data storage equipment; Distributed database systems;
                 Enterprise information management; Global query system;
                 Hard coded schema integration; Information retrieval;
                 Logic design; Mathematical models; Metadatabases; Model
                 traversal; Multiple information systems; Online
                 intelligent assistance; Online systems; Query
                 languages; User interfaces",
  wwwtitle =     "The Model-Assisted Global Query System for Multiple
                 Databases in Distributed Enterprise",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1996:AI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "1996 Author Index",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "471--472",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 16:21:56 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/cheung.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Wiil:1997:HHS,
  author =       "Uffe K. Wiil and John J. Leggett",
  title =        "{Hyperform}: a Hypermedia System Development
                 Environment",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--31",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/wiil.html",
  abstract =     "Development of hypermedia systems is a complex matter.
                 The current trend toward open, extensible, and
                 distributed multiuser hypermedia systems adds
                 additional complexity to the development process. As a
                 means of reducing this complexity, there has been an
                 increasing interest in hyperbase management systems
                 that allow hypermedia system developers to abstract
                 from the intricacies and complexity of the hyperbase
                 layer and fully attend to application and user
                 interface issues. Design, development, and deployment
                 experiences of a dynamic, open, and distributed
                 multiuser hypermedia system development environment
                 called Hyperform is presented. Hyperform is based on
                 the concepts of extensibility, tailorability, and rapid
                 prototyping of hypermedia system services. Open,
                 extensible hyperbase management systems permit
                 hypermedia system developers to tailor hypermedia
                 functionality for specific applications and to serve as
                 a platform for research. The Hyperform development
                 environment is comprised of multiple instances of four
                 component types: (1) a hyperbase management system
                 server, (2) a tool integrator, (3) editors, and (4)
                 participating tools. Hyperform has been deployed in
                 Unix environments, and experiments have shown that
                 Hyperform greatly reduces the effort required to
                 provide customized hyperbase management system support
                 for distributed multiuser hypermedia systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Aalborg Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Den",
  classification = "722.4; 723.1; 723.2; 723.3; 723.5; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Advanced hypermedia system architecture; Computational
                 complexity; Computer architecture; Data structures;
                 Database systems; Extensible hyperbase management
                 system; Hyperform; Information retrieval systems;
                 Object oriented extension language; Object oriented
                 programming; Rapid prototyping; System theory",
}

@Article{Fuhr:1997:PRA,
  author =       "Norbert Fuhr and Thomas R{\"o}lleke",
  title =        "A Probabilistic Relational Algebra for the Integration
                 of Information Retrieval and Database Systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "32--66",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/fuhr.html",
  abstract =     "We present a probabilistic relational algebra (PRA)
                 which is a generalization of standard relational
                 algebra. In PRA, tuples are assigned probabilistic
                 weights giving the probability that a tuple belongs to
                 a relation. Based on intensional semantics, the tuple
                 weights of the result of a PRA expression always
                 conform to the underlying probabilistic model. We also
                 show for which expressions extensional semantics yields
                 the same results. Furthermore, we discuss complexity
                 issues and indicate possibilities for optimization.
                 With regard to databases, the approach allows for
                 representing imprecise attribute values, whereas for
                 information retrieval, probabilistic document indexing
                 and probabilistic search term weighting can be modeled.
                 We introduce the concept of vague predicates which
                 yield probabilistic weights instead of Boolean values,
                 thus allowing for queries with vague selection
                 conditions. With these features, PRA implements
                 uncertainty and vagueness in combination with the
                 relational model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Dortmund",
  affiliationaddress = "Ger",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3; 921.5; 922.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computational complexity; Computational linguistics;
                 Computer simulation; Data structures; Hypertext
                 retrieval; Imprecise data; Indexing (of information);
                 Information retrieval; Logical retrieval model;
                 Optimization; Probabilistic relational algebra;
                 Probabilistic retrieval; Probability; Query languages;
                 Relational data model; Relational database systems;
                 Uncertain data; Vague predicates",
  wwwauthor =    "N. Fuhr and T. Rolleke",
}

@Article{Rus:1997:CIC,
  author =       "Daniela Rus and Devika Subramanian",
  title =        "Customizing Information Capture and Access",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--101",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/rus.html",
  abstract =     "This article presents a customizable architecture for
                 software agents that capture and access information in
                 large, heterogeneous, distributed electronic
                 repositories. The key idea is to exploit underlying
                 structure at various levels of granularity to build
                 high-level indices with task-specific interpretations.
                 Information agents construct such indices and are
                 configured as a network of reusable modules called
                 structure detectors and segmenters. We illustrate our
                 architecture with the design and implementation of
                 smart information filters in two contexts: retrieving
                 stock market data from Internet newsgroups and
                 retrieving technical reports from Internet FTP sites.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dartmouth Coll",
  affiliationaddress = "NH, USA",
  classification = "716.1; 722.3; 722.4; 723.1; 723.2; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer architecture; Computer networks; Computer
                 software; Data acquisition; Information gathering;
                 Information retrieval systems; Information theory;
                 Software agents; Table recognition",
}

@Article{Entlich:1997:MDL,
  author =       "Richard Entlich and Lorrin Garson and Michael Lesk and
                 Lorraine Normore and Jan Olsen and Stuart Weibel",
  title =        "Making a Digital Library: The Contents of the {CORE}
                 Project",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "103--123",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/entlich.html",
  abstract =     "The CORE (Chemical Online Retrieval Experiment)
                 project is a library of primary journal articles in
                 chemistry. Any library has an inside and an outside; in
                 this article we describe the inside of the library and
                 the methods for building the system and accumulating
                 the database. A later article will describe the outside
                 (user experiences). Among electronic-library projects,
                 the CORE project is unusual in that it has both ASCII
                 derived from typesetting and image data for all its
                 pages, and among experimental electronic-library
                 projects, it is unusually large. We describe here (a)
                 the processes of scanning and analyzing about 400,000
                 pages of primary journal material, (b) the conversion
                 of a similar amount of textual database material, (c)
                 the linking of these two data sources, and (d) the
                 indexing of the text material.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Cornell Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "NY, USA",
  classification = "722.2; 723.3; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Chemical online retrieval experiment (core) project;
                 Database systems; Indexing (of information);
                 Information retrieval systems; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Manber:1997:TCS,
  author =       "Udi Manber",
  title =        "A Text Compression Scheme That Allows Fast Searching
                 Directly in the Compressed File",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "124--136",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/manber.html",
  abstract =     "A new text compression scheme is presented in this
                 article. The main purpose of this scheme is to speed up
                 string matching by searching the compressed file
                 directly. The scheme requires no modification of the
                 string-matching algorithm, which is used as a black
                 box; any string-matching procedure can be used.
                 Instead, the pattern is modified; only the outcome of
                 the matching of the modified pattern against the
                 compressed file is decompressed. Since the compressed
                 file is smaller than the original file, the search is
                 faster both in terms of I/O time and processing time
                 than a search in the original file. For typical text
                 files, we achieve about 30\% reduction of space and
                 slightly less of search time. A 30\% space saving is
                 not competitive with good text compression schemes, and
                 thus should not be used where space is the predominant
                 concern. The intended applications of this scheme are
                 files that are searched often, such as catalogs,
                 bibliographic files, and address books. Such files are
                 typically not compressed, but with this scheme they can
                 remain compressed indefinitely, saving space while
                 allowing faster search at the same time. A particular
                 application to an information retrieval system that we
                 developed is also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Arizona",
  affiliationaddress = "Tucson, AZ, USA",
  classification = "723; 723.2; 723.5; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Data compression; Information retrieval
                 systems; Pattern recognition; String matching
                 algorithms",
}

@Article{Dunlop:1997:EAN,
  author =       "Mark D. Dunlop",
  title =        "The Effect of Accessing Nonmatching Documents on
                 Relevance Feedback",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "137--153",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/dunlop.html",
  abstract =     "Traditional information retrieval (IR) systems only
                 allow users access to documents that match their
                 current query, and therefore, users can only give
                 relevance feedback on matching documents (or those with
                 a matching strength greater than a set threshold). This
                 article shows that, in systems that allow access to
                 nonmatching documents (e.g., hybrid hypertext and
                 information retrieval systems), the strength of the
                 effect of giving relevance feedback varies between
                 matching and nonmatching documents. For positive
                 feedback the results shown here are encouraging, as
                 they can be justified by an intuitive view of the
                 process. However, for negative feedback the results
                 show behavior that cannot easily be justified and that
                 varies greatly depending on the model of feedback
                 used.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Glasgow",
  affiliationaddress = "Glasgow, UK",
  classification = "731.1; 903.3; 921; 921.1; 922.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Feedback; Free text information retrieval; Information
                 retrieval systems; Mathematical models; Probability;
                 Vectors",
}

@Article{Gladney:1997:ACL,
  author =       "H. M. Gladney",
  title =        "Access Control for Large Collections",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "154--194",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/gladney.html",
  abstract =     "Efforts to place vast information resources at the
                 fingertips of each individual in large user populations
                 must be balanced by commensurate attention to
                 information protection. For centralized operational
                 systems in controlled environments, external
                 administrative controls may suffice. For distributed
                 systems with less-structured tasks, more-diversified
                 information, and a heterogeneous user set, the
                 computing system must administer enterprise-chosen
                 access control policies. One kind of resource is a
                 digital library that emulates massive collections of
                 paper and other physical media for clerical,
                 engineering, and cultural applications. This article
                 considers the security requirements for such libraries
                 and proposes an access control method that mimics
                 organizational practice by combining a subject tree
                 with ad hoc role granting that controls privileges for
                 many operations independently, that treats (all but
                 one) privileged roles (e.g., auditor, security officer)
                 like every other individual authorization, and that
                 binds access control information to objects indirectly
                 for scaling, flexibility, and reflexive protection. We
                 sketch a realization and show that it will perform
                 well, generalizes many deployed proposed access control
                 policies, and permits individual data centers to
                 implement other models economically and without
                 disruption.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Almaden Research Cent",
  affiliationaddress = "San Jose, CA, USA",
  classification = "722.4; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Access control; Digital library; Distributed computer
                 systems; Distributed database systems; Information
                 retrieval systems; Security of data",
}

@Article{Dreilinger:1997:ESS,
  author =       "Daniel Dreilinger and Adele E. Howe",
  title =        "Experiences with Selecting Search Engines Using
                 Metasearch",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--222",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/dreilinger.html",
  abstract =     "Search engines are among the most useful and
                 high-profile resources on the Internet. The problem of
                 finding information on the Internet has been replaced
                 with the problem of knowing where search engines are,
                 what they are designed to retrieve, and how to use
                 them. This article describes and evaluates SavvySearch,
                 a metasearch engine designed to intelligently select
                 and interface with multiple remote search engines. The
                 primary metasearch issue examined is the importance of
                 carefully selecting and ranking remote search engines
                 for user queries. We studied the efficacy of
                 SavvySearch's incrementally acquired metaindex approach
                 to selecting search engines by analyzing the effect of
                 time and experience on performance. We also compared
                 the metaindex approach to the simpler categorical
                 approach and showed how much experience is required to
                 surpass the simple scheme.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "MIT Media Lab",
  affiliationaddress = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  classification = "722.2; 722.3; 723.3; 723.4; 723.4.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Inference engines; Information retrieval systems;
                 Interfaces (computer); Internet; Learning algorithms;
                 Learning systems; Query languages; Search engines;
                 Software package SavvySearch; Wide area networks",
}

@Article{Tomasic:1997:DSE,
  author =       "Anthony Tomasic and Luis Gravano and Calvin Lue and
                 Peter Schwarz and Laura Haas",
  title =        "Data Structures for Efficient Broker Implementation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "223--253",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/tomasic.html",
  abstract =     "With the profusion of text databases on the Internet,
                 it is becoming increasingly hard to find the most
                 useful databases for a given query. To attack this
                 problem, several existing and proposed systems employ
                 brokers to direct user queries, using a local database
                 of summary information about the available databases.
                 This summary information must effectively distinguish
                 relevant databases and must be compact while allowing
                 efficient access. We offer evidence that one broker,
                 GlOSS, can be effective at locating databases of
                 interest even in a system of hundreds of databases and
                 can examine the performance of accessing the GlOSS
                 summaries for two promising storage methods: the grid
                 file and partitioned hashing. We show that both methods
                 can be tuned to provide good performance for a
                 particular workload (within a broad range of
                 workloads), and we discuss the tradeoffs between the
                 two data structures. As a side effect of our work, we
                 show that grid files are more broadly applicable than
                 previously thought; in particular, we show that by
                 varying the policies used to construct the grid file we
                 can provide good performance for a wide range of
                 workloads even when storing highly skewed data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "INRIA Rocquencourt",
  affiliationaddress = "Le Chesnay, Fr",
  classification = "722.1; 722.2; 723.2; 723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Data storage equipment; Data structures; Distributed
                 database systems; Grid files; Information retrieval;
                 Internet; Partitioned hashing; Query languages; Text
                 databases; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Bookstein:1997:MWO,
  author =       "A. Bookstein and S. T. Klein and T. Raita",
  title =        "Modeling Word Occurrences for the Compression of
                 Concordances",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "254--290",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/bookstein.html",
  abstract =     "An earlier paper developed a procedure for compressing
                 concordances, assuming that all elements occurred
                 independently. The models introduced in that paper are
                 extended here to take the possibility of clustering
                 into account. The concordance is conceptualized as a
                 set of bitmaps, in which the bit locations represent
                 documents, and the one-bits represent the occurrence of
                 given terms. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are used to
                 describe the clustering of the one-bits. However, for
                 computational reasons, the HMM is approximated by
                 traditional Markov models. A set of criteria is
                 developed to constrain the allowable set of n-state
                 models, and a full inventory is given for n less than
                 or equal 4. Graph-theoretic reduction and
                 complementation operations are defined among the
                 various models and are used to provide a structure
                 relating the models studied. Finally, the new methods
                 were tested on the concordances of the English Bible
                 and of two of the world's largest full-text retrieval
                 system: the Tr{\'e}sor de la Langue Fran{\c{c}}aise and
                 the Responsa Project.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Chicago",
  affiliationaddress = "Chicago, IL, USA",
  classification = "723.2; 903.3; 921; 921.4; 921.6; 922.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Approximation theory; Classification (of information);
                 Computational methods; Data compression; Data storage
                 equipment; Data structures; Full text retrieval
                 systems; Graph theory; Hidden Markov models (HMM);
                 Information retrieval systems; Markov processes;
                 Mathematical models",
  wwwpages =     "254--291",
}

@Article{Cohen:1997:RHF,
  author =       "Jonathan D. Cohen",
  title =        "Recursive Hashing Functions for $n$-Grams",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "291--320",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/tois/toc.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/tois/abstracts/cohen.html",
  abstract =     "Many indexing, retrieval, and comparison methods are
                 based on counting or cataloguing n-grams in streams of
                 symbols. The fastest method of implementing such
                 operations is through the use of hash tables. Rapid
                 hashing of consecutive n-grams is best done using a
                 recursive hash function, in which the hash value of the
                 current n-gram is derived from the hash value of its
                 predecessor. This article generalizes recursive hash
                 functions found in the literature and proposes new
                 methods offering superior performance. Experimental
                 results demonstrate substantial speed improvement over
                 conventional approaches, while retaining near-ideal
                 hash value distribution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Natl Security Agency",
  affiliationaddress = "Fort Meade, MD, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computational complexity; Data structures; Indexing
                 (of information); Information retrieval; Recursive
                 functions; Recursive hashing functions",
}

@Article{Kimbrough:1997:AMP,
  author =       "Steven O. Kimbrough and Scott A. Moore",
  title =        "On Automated Message Processing in Electronic Commerce
                 and Work Support Systems: Speech Act Theory and
                 Expressive Felicity",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--367",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Electronic messaging, whether in an office environment
                 or for electronic commerce, is normally carried out in
                 natural language, even when supported by information
                 systems. For a variety of reasons, it would be useful
                 if electronic messaging systems could have semantic
                 access to, that is, access to the meanings and contents
                 of, the messages they process. Given that natural
                 language understanding is not a practicable
                 alternative, there remain three approaches to
                 delivering systems with semantic access: electronic
                 data interchange (EDI), tagged messages, and the
                 development of a formal language for business
                 communication (FLBC). We favor the latter approach. In
                 this article we compare and contrast these three
                 approaches, present a theoretical basis for an FLBC
                 (using speech act theory), and describe a prototype
                 implementation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Pennsylvania",
  affiliationaddress = "Philadelphia, PA, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 722.3; 723.1; 723.4; 751.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Data communication systems;
                 Electronic commerce; Formal language for business
                 communication; Formal languages; Knowledge
                 representation; Software prototyping; Speech act
                 theory; Speech processing",
}

@Article{Mostafa:1997:MAI,
  author =       "J. Mostafa and S. Mukhopadhyay and W. Lam and M.
                 Palakal",
  title =        "A Multilevel Approach to Intelligent Information
                 Filtering: Model, System, and Evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "368--399",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In information-filtering environments, uncertainties
                 associated with changing interests of the user and the
                 dynamic document stream must be handled efficiently. In
                 this article, a filtering model is proposed that
                 decomposes the overall task into subsystem
                 functionalities and highlights the need for multiple
                 adaptation techniques to cope with uncertainties. A
                 filtering system, SIFTER, has been implemented based on
                 the model, using established techniques in information
                 retrieval and artificial intelligence. These techniques
                 include document representation by a vector-space
                 model, document classification by unsupervised
                 learning, and user modeling by reinforcement learning.
                 The system can filter information based on content and
                 a user's specific interests. The user's interests are
                 automatically learned with only limited user
                 intervention in the form of optional relevance feedback
                 for documents. We also describe experimental studies
                 conducted with SIFTER to filter computer and
                 information science documents collected from the
                 Internet and commercial database services. The
                 experimental results demonstrate that the system
                 performs very well in filtering documents in a
                 realistic problem setting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Indiana Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Bloomington, IN, USA",
  classification = "723.2; 723.3; 723.4; 723.5; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Computer simulation; Data
                 processing; Database systems; Information retrieval
                 systems; Intelligent information filtering; Learning
                 systems; Reinforcement learning; Unsupervised
                 learning",
}

@Article{Navarro:1997:PNM,
  author =       "Gonzalo Navarro and Ricardo {Baeza- Yates}",
  title =        "Proximal Nodes: a Model to Query Document Databases by
                 Content and Structure",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "400--435",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "A model to query document databases by both their
                 content and structure is presented. The goal is to
                 obtain a query language that is expressive in practice
                 while being efficiently implementable, features not
                 present at the same time in previous work. The key
                 ideas of the model are a set-oriented query language
                 based on operations on nearby structure elements of one
                 or more hierarchies, together with content and
                 structural indexing and bottom-up evaluation. The model
                 is evaluated in regard to expressiveness and
                 efficiency, showing that it provides a good trade-off
                 between both goals. Finally, it is shown how to include
                 in the model other media different from text.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Chile",
  affiliationaddress = "Santiago, Chile",
  classification = "461.4; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Computer programming languages; Data
                 processing; Data structures; Hierarchical documents;
                 Human engineering; Man machine systems; Performance;
                 Query languages; Structured text; Text algebras",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1997:AI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "1997 Author Index",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "436--437",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:02:45 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Stotts:1998:HAV,
  author =       "P. David Stotts and Richard Furuta and Cyrano {Ruiz
                 Cabarrus}",
  title =        "Hyperdocuments as Automata: Verification of
                 Trace-Based Browsing Properties by Model Checking",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a view of hyperdocuments in which each
                 document encodes its own browsing semantics in its
                 links. This requires a mental shift in how a
                 hyperdocument is thought of abstractly. Instead of
                 treating the links of a document as defining a static
                 directed graph, they are thought of as defining an
                 abstract program, termed the links automaton of the
                 document. A branching temporal logic notation, termed
                 HTL<sup>*</sup>, is introduced for specifying
                 properties a document should exhibit during browsing.
                 An automated program verification technique called
                 model checking is used to verify that browsing
                 specifications in a subset of HTL<sup>*</sup> are met
                 by the behavior defined in the links automaton. We
                 illustrate the generality of these techniques by
                 applying them first to several Trellis documents and
                 then to a Hyperties document.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of North Carolina",
  affiliationaddress = "Chapel Hill, NC, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 921.4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Automata theory; Browsing semantics; Computation
                 theory; Encoding (symbols); Graph theory;
                 Hyperdocuments; Hypermedia; Model checking",
}

@Article{Vujovic:1998:EAF,
  author =       "N. Vujovic and D. Brzakovic",
  title =        "Evaluation of an Algorithm for Finding a Match of a
                 Distorted Texture Pattern in a Large Image Database",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--60",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Evaluation of an algorithm for finding a match for a
                 random texture pattern in a large image database is
                 presented. The algorithm was designed assuming that the
                 random pattern may be subject to misregistration
                 relative to its representation in the database and
                 assuming that it may have missing parts. The potential
                 applications involve authentication of legal documents,
                 bank notes, or credit cards, where thin fibers are
                 embedded randomly into the document medium during
                 medium fabrication. The algorithm achieves image
                 matching by a three-step hierarchical procedure, which
                 starts by matching parts of fiber patterns while
                 solving the misregistration problem and ends up by
                 matching complete fiber patterns. Performance of the
                 algorithm is studied both theoretically and
                 experimentally. Theoretical analysis includes the
                 study. of the probability that two documents have the
                 same pattern, and the probability of the algorithm
                 establishing a wrong match, as well as the algorithm's
                 performance in terms of processing time. Experiments
                 involving over 250,000 trials using databases of
                 synthetic documents, containing up to 100,000
                 documents, were used to confirm theoretical
                 predictions. In addition, experiments involving a
                 database containing real images were conducted in order
                 to confirm that the algorithm has potential in real
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Lehigh Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Bethlehem, PA, USA",
  classification = "723.3; 731.1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Database systems; Identification (control
                 systems); Image database; Image matching; Image
                 processing",
}

@Article{Xu:1998:CBS,
  author =       "Jinxi Xu and W. Bruce Croft",
  title =        "Corpus-Based Stemming Using Cooccurrence of Word
                 Variants",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "61--81",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Stemming is used in many information retrieval (IR)
                 systems to reduce variant word forms to common roots.
                 It is one of the simplest applications of natural
                 language processing to IR and is one of the most
                 effective in terms of user acceptance and consistency,
                 though small retrieval improvements. Current stemming
                 techniques do not, however, reflect the language use in
                 specific corpora, and this can lead to occasional
                 serious retrieval failures. We propose a technique for
                 using corpus-based word variant cooccurrence statistics
                 to modify or create a stemmer. The experimental results
                 generated using English newspaper and legal text and
                 Spanish text demonstrate the viability of this
                 technique and its advantages relative to conventional
                 approaches that only employ morphological rules.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Massachusetts",
  affiliationaddress = "Amherst, MA, USA",
  classification = "723.3; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Cooccurrence; Corpus analysis; Database
                 systems; Failure analysis; Information retrieval;
                 Stemming",
}

@Article{Romm:1998:EMC,
  author =       "Celia T. Romm and Nava Pliskin",
  title =        "Electronic Mail as a Coalition-Building Information
                 Technology",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "82--100",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "One of the most intriguing lines of research within
                 the literature on diffusion of information technologies
                 (IT) is the study of the power and politics of this
                 process. The major objective of this article is to
                 build on the work of Kling and Markus on power and IT,
                 by extending their perspective to email. To demonstrate
                 how email can be used for political purposes within an
                 organizational context, a case study is presented. The
                 case study describes a series of events which took
                 place in a university. In the case, email was used by a
                 group of employees to stage a rebellion against the
                 university president. The discussion demonstrates that
                 email features make it amenable to a range of political
                 uses. The article is concluded with a discussion of the
                 implications from this case to email research and
                 practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Wollongong",
  affiliationaddress = "Wollongong, Aust",
  classification = "903; 903.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Coalition building information technology; Electronic
                 mail; Information dissemination; Information science;
                 Information technology",
}

@Article{Wilbur:1998:KMH,
  author =       "W. John Wilbur",
  title =        "The Knowledge in Multiple Human Relevance Judgments",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--126",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We show first that the pooling of multiple human
                 judgments of relevance provides a predictor of
                 relevance that is superior to that obtained from a
                 single human's relevance judgments. A learning
                 algorithm applied to a set of relevance judgments
                 obtained from a single human would be expected to
                 perform on new material at a level somewhat below that
                 human. However, we examine two learning methods which
                 when trained on the superior source of pooled human
                 relevance judgments are able to perform at the level of
                 a single human on new material. All performance
                 comparisons are based on an independent human judge.
                 Both algorithms function by producing term weights ---
                 one by a log odds calculation and the other by
                 producing a least-squares fit to human relevance
                 ratings. Some characteristics of the algorithms are
                 examined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Natl Cent for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)",
  affiliationaddress = "Bethesda, MD, USA",
  classification = "903; 903.3; 921.6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Information retrieval; Information
                 technology; Inverse document frequency weights; Least
                 squares approximations",
}

@Article{Hicks:1998:HVC,
  author =       "David L. Hicks and John J. Leggett and Peter J.
                 Nurnberg and John L. Schnase",
  title =        "A Hypermedia Version Control Framework",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "127--160",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The areas of application of hypermedia technology,
                 combined with the capabilities that hypermedia provides
                 for manipulating structure, create an environment in
                 which version control is very important. A hypermedia
                 version control framework has been designed to
                 specifically address the version control problem in
                 open hypermedia environments. One of the primary
                 distinctions of the framework is the partitioning of
                 hypermedia version control functionality into intrinsic
                 and application-specific categories. The version
                 control framework has been used as a model for the
                 design of version control services for a hyperbase
                 management system that provides complete version
                 support for both data and structural entities. In
                 addition to serving as a version control model for open
                 hypermedia environments, the framework offers a
                 clarifying and unifying context in which to examine the
                 issues of version control in hypermedia.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Knowledge Systems",
  affiliationaddress = "Export, PA, USA",
  classification = "723.2; 723.3; 912.2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Computer operating systems; Database systems;
                 Hipermedia; Hyperbase management systems; Management;
                 Management information systems",
}

@Article{Belussi:1998:SSJ,
  author =       "Alberto Belussi and Christos Faloutsos",
  title =        "Self-Spatial Join Selectivity Estimation Using Fractal
                 Concepts",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "161--201",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 16 19:04:41 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The problem of selectivity estimation for queries of
                 nontraditional databases is still an open issue. In
                 this article, we examine the problem of selectivity
                 estimation for some types of spatial queries in
                 databases containing real data. We have shown earlier
                 [Faloutsos and Kamel 1994] that real point sets
                 typically have a non-uniform distribution, violating
                 consistently the uniformity and independence
                 assumptions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the theory
                 of fractals can help to describe real point sets. In
                 this article we show how the concept of fractal
                 dimension, i.e., (non-integer) dimension, can lead to
                 the solution for the selectivity estimation problem in
                 spatial databases. Among the infinite family of fractal
                 dimensions, we consider here the Hausdorff fractal
                 dimension D<sub>0</sub> and the `Correlation' fractal
                 dimension D<sub>2</sub>. Specifically, we show that (a)
                 the average number of neighbors for a given point set
                 follows a power law, with D<sub>2</sub> as exponent,
                 and (b) the average number of nonempty range queries
                 follows a power law with E --- D<sub>0</sub> as
                 exponent (E is the dimension of the embedding space).
                 We present the formulas to estimate the selectivity for
                 `biased' range queries, for self-spatial joins, and for
                 the average number of nonempty range queries. The
                 result of some experiments on real and synthetic point
                 sets are shown. Our formulas achieve very low relative
                 errors, typically about 10\%, versus 40\%-100\% of the
                 formulas that are based on the uniformity and
                 independence assumptions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Politecnico di Milano",
  affiliationaddress = "Milan, Italy",
  classification = "722; 723.3; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  journalabr =   "ACM Trans Inf Syst",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Computer selection and evaluation;
                 Database systems; Fractal dimension; Fractals;
                 Selectivity estimation",
}

@Article{Ackerman:1998:AOM,
  author =       "Mark S. Ackerman",
  title =        "Augmenting Organizational Memory: a Field Study of
                 {Answer Garden}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "203--224",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-3/p203-ackerman/",
  abstract =     "A growing concern for organizations and groups has
                 been to augment their knowledge and expertise. One such
                 augmentation is to provide an organizational memory,
                 some record of the organization's knowledge. However,
                 relatively little is known about how computer systems
                 might enhance organizational, group, or community
                 memory. This article presents Answer Garden, a system
                 for growing organizational memory. The article
                 describes the system and its underlying implementation.
                 It then presents findings from a field study of Answer
                 Garden. The article discusses the usage data and
                 qualitative evaluations from the field study, and then
                 draws a set of lessons for next-generation
                 organizational memory systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "performance; reliability",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization
                 Interfaces. {\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed applications. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems.
                 {\bf H.3.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval. {\bf
                 H.4.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Communications Applications. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces. {\bf I.7.2} Computing
                 Methodologies, DOCUMENT AND TEXT PROCESSING, Document
                 Preparation, Hypertext/hypermedia. {\bf K.4.3}
                 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY,
                 Organizational Impacts.",
}

@Article{Crestani:1998:SPK,
  author =       "F. Crestani and C. J. {Van Rijsbergen}",
  title =        "A Study of Probability Kinematics in Information
                 Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "225--255",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-3/p225-crestani/",
  abstract =     "We analyze the kinematics of probabilistic term
                 weights at retrieval time for different Information
                 Retrieval models. We present four models based on
                 different notions of probabilistic retrieval. Two of
                 these models are based on classical probability theory
                 and can be considered as prototypes of models long in
                 use in Information Retrieval, like the Vector Space
                 Model and the Probabilistic Model. The two other models
                 are based on a logical technique of evaluating the
                 probability of a conditional called imaging; one is a
                 generalization of the other. We analyze the transfer of
                 probabilities occurring in the term space at retrieval
                 time for these four models, compare their retrieval
                 performance using classical test collections, and
                 discuss the results. We believe that our results
                 provide useful suggestions on how to improve existing
                 probabilistic models of Information Retrieval by taking
                 into consideration term-term similarity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "experimentation; performance; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.3.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval,
                 Retrieval models. {\bf F.1.2} Theory of Computation,
                 COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Modes of Computation,
                 Probabilistic computation.",
}

@Article{Moffat:1998:ACR,
  author =       "Alistair Moffat and Radford M. Neal and Ian H.
                 Witten",
  title =        "Arithmetic Coding Revisited",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "256--294",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-3/p256-moffat/",
  abstract =     "Over the last decade, arithmetic coding has emerged as
                 an important compression tool. It is now the method of
                 choice for adaptive coding on multisymbol alphabets
                 because of its speed, low storage requirements, and
                 effectiveness of compression. This article describes a
                 new implementation of arithmetic coding that
                 incorporates several improvements over a widely used
                 earlier version by Witten, Neal, and Cleary, which has
                 become a {\em de facto\/} standard. These improvements
                 include fewer multiplicative operations, greatly
                 extended range of alphabet sizes and symbol
                 probabilities, and the use of low-precision arithmetic,
                 permitting implementation by fast shift/add operations.
                 We also describe a modular structure that separates the
                 coding, modeling, and probability estimation components
                 of a compression system. To motivate the improved
                 coder, we consider the needs of a word-based text
                 compression program. We report a range of experimental
                 results using this and other models. Complete source
                 code is available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "algorithms; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf E.4} Data, CODING AND INFORMATION THEORY, Data
                 compaction and compression. {\bf E.1} Data, DATA
                 STRUCTURES.",
}

@Article{Egenhofer:1998:MDN,
  author =       "Max J. Egenhofer and A. Rashid B. M. Shariff",
  title =        "Metric details for natural-language spatial
                 relations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "295--321",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-4/p295-egenhofer/",
  abstract =     "Spatial relations often are desired answers that a
                 geographic information system (GIS) should generate in
                 response to a user's query. Current GIS's provide only
                 rudimentary support for processing and interpreting
                 natural-language-like spatial relations, because their
                 models and representations are primarily quantitative,
                 while natural-language spatial relations are usually
                 dominated by qualitative properties. Studies of the use
                 of spatial relations in natural language showed that
                 topology accounts for a significant portion of the
                 geometric properties. This article develops a formal
                 model that captures {\em metric details\/} for the
                 description of natural-language spatial relations. The
                 metric details are expressed as refinements of the
                 categories identified by the 9-intersection, a model
                 for topological spatial relations, and provide a more
                 precise measure than does topology alone as to whether
                 a geometric configuration matches with a spatial term
                 or not. Similarly, these measures help in identifying
                 the spatial term that describes a particular
                 configuration. Two groups of metric details are
                 derived: {\em splitting ratios\/} as the normalized
                 values of lengths and areas of intersections; and {\em
                 closeness measures\/} as the normalized distances
                 between disjoint object parts. The resulting model of
                 topological and metric properties was calibrated for 64
                 spatial terms in English, providing values for the best
                 fit as well as value ranges for the significant
                 parameters of each term. Three examples demonstrate how
                 the framework and its calibrated values are used to
                 determine the best spatial term for a relationship
                 between two geometric objects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.8} Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Database Applications, Spatial databases and GIS. {\bf
                 H.2.3} Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Languages, Query languages. {\bf H.3.3} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information
                 Search and Retrieval, Query formulation. {\bf H.3.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL,
                 Information Search and Retrieval, Search process. {\bf
                 H.3.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval, Selection
                 process. {\bf I.2.1} Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Applications and Expert
                 Systems, Cartography. {\bf I.2.7} Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Natural
                 Language Processing, Language parsing and
                 understanding. {\bf I.5.1} Computing Methodologies,
                 PATTERN RECOGNITION, Models, Geometric.",
}

@Article{Kolda:1998:SMD,
  author =       "Tamara G. Kolda and Dianne P. O'Leary",
  title =        "A semidiscrete matrix decomposition for latent
                 semantic indexing information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "322--346",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-4/p322-kolda/",
  abstract =     "The vast amount of textual information available today
                 is useless unless it can be effectively and efficiently
                 searched. The goal in information retrieval is to find
                 documents that are relevant to a given user query. We
                 can represent and document collection by a matrix whose
                 $(i, j)$ entry is nonzero only if the $i$th term
                 appears in the {\em j\/}th document; thus each document
                 corresponds to a column vector. The query is also
                 represented as a column vector whose $i$th term is
                 nonzero only if the $i$th term appears in the query. We
                 score each document for relevancy by taking its inner
                 product with the query. The highest-scoring documents
                 are considered the most relevant. Unfortunately, this
                 method does not necessarily retrieve all relevant
                 documents because it is based on literal term matching.
                 Latent semantic indexing (LSI) replaces the document
                 matrix with an approximation generated by the truncated
                 singular-value decomposition (SVD). This method has
                 been shown to overcome many difficulties associated
                 with literal term matching. In this article we propose
                 replacing the SVD with the semidiscrete decomposition
                 (SDD). We will describe the SDD approximation, show how
                 to compute it, and compare the SDD-based LSI method to
                 the SVD-based LSI methods. We will show that SDD-based
                 LSI does as well as SVD-based LSI in terms of document
                 retrieval while requiring only one-twentieth the
                 storage and one-half the time to compute each query. We
                 will also show how to update the SDD approximation when
                 documents are added or deleted from the document
                 collection.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; performance; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.3.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval. {\bf
                 G.1.2} Mathematics of Computing, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS,
                 Approximation. {\bf H.2.2} Information Systems,
                 DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Physical Design.",
}

@Article{Ram:1998:CCS,
  author =       "Sudha Ram and V. Ramesh",
  title =        "Collaborative conceptual schema design: a process
                 model and prototype system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "347--371",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-4/p347-ram/",
  abstract =     "Recent years have seen an increased interest in
                 providing support for collaborative activities among
                 groups of users participating in various information
                 systems design tasks such as, requirements
                 determination and process modeling. However, little
                 attention has been paid to the collaborative conceptual
                 database design process. In this article, we develop a
                 model of the collaborative conceptual schema
                 development process and describe the design and
                 implementation of a graphical multiuser conceptual
                 schema design tool that is based on the model. The
                 system we describe allows a group of users to work
                 collaboratively on the creation of database schemas in
                 synchronous (same-time) mode (either in a face-to-face
                 or distributed setting). Extensive modeling support is
                 provided to assist users in creating semantically
                 correct conceptual schemas. The system also provides
                 users with several graphical facilities such as, a
                 large drawing workspace with the ability to scroll or
                 ``jump'' to any portion of this workspace, zooming
                 capabilities, and the ability to move object(s) to any
                 portion of the workspace. The unique component of the
                 system, however, is its built-in support for
                 collaborative schema design. The system supports a
                 relaxed WYSIWIS environment, i.e., each user can
                 control the graphical layout of the same set of schema
                 objects. The system ensures that changes/additions made
                 by any user are consistent. Any conflicts that may
                 compromise to the integrity of the shared schema are
                 flagged and resolved by the system. The results from a
                 preliminary experiment suggest that the use of our
                 system in a collaborative mode improved information
                 sharing among users, minimized conflicts, and led to a
                 more comprehensive schema definition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "design; management",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.1} Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Schema and subschema. {\bf K.6.3}
                 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Software Management. {\bf H.5.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces,
                 Collaborative computing.",
}

@Article{Wang:1998:SHD,
  author =       "Weigang Wang and Roy Rada",
  title =        "Structured hypertext with domain semantics",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "372--412",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-4/p372-wang/",
  abstract =     "One important facet of current hypertext research
                 involves using knowledge-based techniques to develop
                 and maintain document structures. A semantic net is one
                 such technique. However, most semantic-net-based
                 hypertext systems leave the linking consistency of the
                 net to individual users. Users without guidance may
                 accidentally introduce structural and relational
                 inconsistencies in the semantic nets. The relational
                 inconsistency hinders the creation of domain
                 information models. The structural inconsistency leads
                 to unstable documents, especially when a document is
                 composed by computation with traversal algorithms. This
                 work tackles to above problems by integrating logical
                 structure and domain semantics into a semantic net. A
                 semantic-net-based structured-hypertext model has been
                 formalized. The model preserves structural and
                 relational consistency after changes to the semantic
                 net. The hypertext system (RICH) based on this model
                 has been implemented and tested. The RICH system can
                 define and enforce a set of rules to maintain to
                 integrity of the semantic net and provide particular
                 support for creating multihierarchies with the reuse of
                 existing contents and structures. Users have found such
                 flexible but enforceable semantics to be helpful.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "design; documentation; management",
  subject =      "{\bf I.7.2} Computing Methodologies, DOCUMENT AND TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Document Preparation, Hypertext/hypermedia.
                 {\bf E.1} Data, DATA STRUCTURES, Graphs and networks.
                 {\bf H.2.1} Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Data models. {\bf H.3.4} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Systems and
                 Software. {\bf H.5.0} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, General.",
}

@Article{Croft:1998:AI,
  author =       "W. Bruce Croft",
  title =        "Author Index",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "413--414",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:33:55 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1998-16-4/p413-croft/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  subject =      "{\bf A.0} General Literature, GENERAL.",
}

@Article{Chang:1999:PRT,
  author =       "Chen-Chuan K. Chang and H{\'e}ctor Garcia-Molina and
                 Andreas Paepcke",
  title =        "Predicate rewriting for translating {Boolean} queries
                 in a heterogeneous information system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--39",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-1/p1-chang/",
  abstract =     "Searching over heterogeneous information sources is
                 difficult in part because of the nonuniform query
                 languages. Our approach is to allow users to compose
                 Boolean queries in one rich front-end language. For
                 each user query and target source, we transform the
                 user query into a subsuming query that can be supported
                 by the source but that may return extra documents. The
                 results are then processed by a filter query to yield
                 the correct final results. In this article we introduce
                 the architecture and associated mechanism for query
                 translation. In particular, we discuss techniques for
                 rewriting predicates in Boolean queries into native
                 subsuming forms, which is a basis of translating
                 complex queries. In addition, we present experimental
                 results for evaluating the cost of postfiltering. We
                 also discuss the drawbacks of this approach and cases
                 when it may not be effective. We have implemented
                 prototype versions of these mechanisms and demonstrated
                 them on heterogeneous Boolean systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Experimentation; Languages; Measurement",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Boolean queries; content-based retrieval; filtering;
                 predicate rewriting; query subsumption; query
                 translation",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Languages (H.2.3): {\bf Query languages}; Information
                 Systems --- Database Management --- Heterogeneous
                 Databases (H.2.5); Information Systems --- Information
                 Storage and Retrieval --- Information Search and
                 Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Query formulation}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Search
                 process}; Information Systems --- Information Storage
                 and Retrieval --- Digital Libraries (H.3.7): {\bf
                 Systems issues}",
}

@Article{Hawking:1999:MIS,
  author =       "David Hawking and Paul Thistlewaite",
  title =        "Methods for information server selection",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "40--76",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-1/p40-hawking/",
  abstract =     "The problem of using a broker to select a subset of
                 available information servers in order to achieve a
                 good trade-off between document retrieval effectiveness
                 and cost is addressed. Server selection methods which
                 are capable of operating in the absence of global
                 information, and where servers have no knowledge of
                 brokers, are investigated. A novel method using
                 Lightweight Probe queries (LWP method) is compared with
                 several methods based on data from past query
                 processing, while Random and Optimal server rankings
                 serve as controls. Methods are evaluated, using TREC
                 data and relevance judgments, by computing ratios, both
                 empirical and ideal, of recall and early precision for
                 the subset versus the complete set of available
                 servers. Estimates are also made of the best-possible
                 performance of each of the methods. LWP and Topic
                 Similarity methods achieved best results, each being
                 capable of retrieving about 60\% of the relevant
                 documents for only one-third of the cost of querying
                 all servers. Subject to the applicable cost model, the
                 LWP method is likely to be preferred because it is
                 suited to dynamic environments. The good results
                 obtained with a simple automatic LWP implementation
                 were replicated using different data and a larger set
                 of query topics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "information servers; Lightweight Probe queries;
                 network servers; server ranking; server selection; text
                 retrieval",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4): {\bf Distributed databases}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Search
                 process}; Information Systems --- Information Storage
                 and Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval
                 (H.3.3): {\bf Selection process}; Information Systems
                 --- Information Storage and Retrieval --- Systems and
                 Software (H.3.4): {\bf Information networks};
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Library Automation (H.3.6): {\bf Large
                 text archives}",
}

@Article{Tan:1999:EIG,
  author =       "Bernard C. Y. Tan and Kwok-kee Wei and Richard T.
                 Watson",
  title =        "The equalizing impact of a group support system on
                 status differentials",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "77--100",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-1/p77-tan/",
  abstract =     "This study investigates the impact of the electronic
                 communication capability of a group support system
                 (GSS) on status differentials in small groups. A
                 laboratory experiment was used to answer the research
                 questions. Three support levels were studied: manual,
                 face-to-face GSS, and dispersed GSS. Two task types
                 were examined: intellective and preference. Five
                 dependent variables reflecting different aspects of
                 status differentials were measured: status influence,
                 sustained influence, residual disagreement, perceived
                 influence, and decision confidence. The results show
                 that manual groups had higher status influence,
                 sustained influence, and decision confidence, but lower
                 residual disagreement than face-to-face GSS and
                 dispersed GSS groups. Preference task groups also
                 produced higher status influence and sustained
                 influence, but lower residual disagreement compared to
                 intellective task groups. In addition, manual groups
                 working on the preference task reported higher
                 perceived influence than face-to-face GSS and dispersed
                 GSS groups working on the same task. These findings
                 suggest that when groups are engaged in activities for
                 which status differentials are undesirable, a GSS can
                 be used in both face-to-face and dispersed settings to
                 dampen status differentials. Moreover, when a task
                 amplifies status differentials, the use of a GSS tends
                 to produce corresponding stronger dampening effects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Management; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "electronic communication; group support systems;
                 status differentials; task type",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Systems
                 Applications --- Communications Applications (H.4.3);
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3); Computer Applications --- Social and
                 Behavioral Sciences (J.4)",
}

@Article{Bertino:1999:FAM,
  author =       "Elisa Bertino and Sushil Jajodia and Pierangela
                 Samarati",
  title =        "A flexible authorization mechanism for relational data
                 management systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--140",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-2/p101-bertino/",
  abstract =     "In this article, we present an authorization model
                 that can be used to express a number of discretionary
                 access control policies for relational data management
                 systems. The model permits both positive and negative
                 authorizations and supports exceptions at the same
                 time. The model is flexible in that the users can
                 specify, for each authorization they grant, whether the
                 authorization can allow for exceptions or whether it
                 must be strongly obeyed. It provides authorization
                 management for groups with exceptions at any level of
                 the group hierarchy, and temporary suspension of
                 authorizations. The model supports ownership together
                 with decentralized administration of authorizations.
                 Administrative privileges can also be restricted so
                 that owners retain control over their tables.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Security; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "access control mechanism; access control policy;
                 authorization; data management system; group management
                 support; relational database",
  subject =      "Software --- Operating Systems --- Security and
                 Protection (D.4.6): {\bf Access controls}; Information
                 Systems --- Database Management --- Database
                 Administration (H.2.7): {\bf Security, integrity, and
                 protection}; Information Systems --- Database
                 Management --- General (H.2.0): {\bf Security,
                 integrity, and protection**}",
}

@Article{Cohen:1999:CSL,
  author =       "William W. Cohen and Yoram Singer",
  title =        "Context-sensitive learning methods for text
                 categorization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "141--173",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-2/p141-cohen/",
  abstract =     "Two recently implemented machine-learning algorithms,
                 {\em RIPPER\/} and {\em sleeping-experts for phrases},
                 are evaluated on a number of large text categorization
                 problems. These algorithms both construct classifiers
                 that allow the ``context'' of a word {\em w\/} to
                 affect how (or even whether) the presence or absence of
                 {\em w\/} will contribute to a classification. However,
                 RIPPER and sleeping-experts differ radically in many
                 other respects: differences include different notions
                 as to what constitutes a context, different ways of
                 combining contexts to construct a classifier, different
                 methods to search for a combination of contexts, and
                 different criteria as to what contexts should be
                 included in such a combination. In spite of these
                 differences, both RIPPER and sleeping-experts perform
                 extremely well across a wide variety of categorization
                 problems, generally outperforming previously applied
                 learning methods. We view this result as a confirmation
                 of the usefulness of classifiers that represent
                 contextual information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Experimentation",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "context-sensitive models; mistake-driven algorithms;
                 on-line learning; rule learning; text categorization",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3);
                 Computing Methodologies --- Artificial Intelligence ---
                 Learning (I.2.6): {\bf Concept learning}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Artificial Intelligence --- Learning
                 (I.2.6): {\bf Parameter learning}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Pattern Recognition --- Applications
                 (I.5.4): {\bf Text processing}; Computing Methodologies
                 --- Artificial Intelligence --- Natural Language
                 Processing (I.2.7): {\bf Text analysis}",
}

@Article{El-Kwae:1999:RFC,
  author =       "Essam A. El-Kwae and Mansur R. Kabuka",
  title =        "A robust framework for content-based retrieval by
                 spatial similarity in image databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "174--198",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-2/p174-el-kwae/",
  abstract =     "A framework for retrieving images by spatial
                 similarity (FRISS) in image databases is presented. In
                 this framework, a robust retrieval by spatial
                 similarity (RSS) algorithm is defined as one that
                 incorporates both directional and topological spatial
                 constraints, retrieves similar images, and recognized
                 images even after they undergo translation, scaling,
                 rotation (both perfect and multiple), or any arbitrary
                 combination of transformations. The FRISS framework is
                 discussed and used as a base for comparing various
                 existing RSS algorithms. Analysis shows that none of
                 them satisfies all the FRISS specifications. An
                 algorithm, {\em SIM dtc}, is then presented. {\em SIM
                 dtc\/} introduces the concept of a {\em rotation
                 correction angle\/} (RCA) to align objects in one image
                 spatially closer to matching objects in another image
                 for more accurate similarity assessment. Similarity
                 between two images is a function of the number of
                 common objects between them and the closeness of
                 directional and topological spatial relationships
                 between object pairs in both images. The {\em SIM
                 dtc\/} retrieval is invariant under translation,
                 scaling, and perfect rotation, and the algorithm is
                 able to rank multiple rotation variants. The algorithm
                 was tested using synthetic images and the TESSA image
                 database. Analysis shows the robustness of the {\em SIM
                 dtc\/} algorithm over current algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Design; Experimentation; Measurement",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "content-based retrieval; image databases; multimedia
                 databases; query formulation; retrieval models;
                 similarity retrieval; spatial similarity",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Retrieval models}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Query formulation}",
}

@Article{Shipman:1999:IFH,
  author =       "Frank M. Shipman and Raymond J. McCall",
  title =        "Incremental formalization with the hyper-object
                 substrate",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "199--227",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-2/p199-shipman/",
  abstract =     "Computers require formally represented information to
                 perform computations that support users; yet users who
                 have needed such support have often proved to be unable
                 or unwilling to formalize it. To address this problem,
                 this article introduces an approach called incremental
                 formalization, in which, first, users express
                 information informally and then the system aids them in
                 formalizing it. Incremental formalization requires a
                 system architecture the (1) integrates formal and
                 informal representations and (2) supports progressive
                 formalization of information. The system should have
                 both tools to capture naturally available informal
                 information and techniques to suggest possible
                 formalizations of this information. The hyper-object
                 substrate (HOS) was developed to satisfy these
                 requirements. HOS has been applied to a number of
                 problem domains, including network design,
                 archaeological site analysis, and neuroscience
                 education. Users have been successful in adding
                 informal information and then later formalizing it
                 incrementally with the aid of the system. Our
                 experience with HOS has reaffirmed the need for
                 information spaces to evolve during use and has
                 identified additional considerations in the design and
                 instantiation of systems enabling and supporting
                 incremental formalization",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Computing Methodologies
                 --- Artificial Intelligence --- Knowledge
                 Representation Formalisms and Methods (I.2.4)",
}

@Article{Fuhr:1999:DTA,
  author =       "Norbert Fuhr",
  title =        "A decision-theoretic approach to database selection in
                 networked {IR}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "229--229",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-3/p229-fuhr/",
  abstract =     "In networked IR, a client submits a query to a broker,
                 which is in contact with a large number of databases.
                 In order to yield a maximum number of documents at
                 minimum cost, the broker has to make estimates about
                 the retrieval cost of each database, and then decide
                 for each database whether or not to use it for the
                 current query, and if, how many documents to retrieve
                 from it. For this purpose, we develop a general
                 decision-theoretic model and discuss different cost
                 structures. Besides cost for retrieving relevant versus
                 nonrelevant documents, we consider the following
                 parameters for each database: expected retrieval
                 quality, expected number of relevant documents in the
                 database and cost factors for query processing and
                 document delivery. For computing the overall optimum, a
                 divide-and-conquer algorithm is given. If there are
                 several brokers knowing different databases, a
                 preselection of brokers can only be performed
                 heuristically, but the computation of the optimum can
                 be done similarly to the single-broker case. In
                 addition, we derive a formula which estimates the
                 number of relevant documents in a database based on
                 dictionary information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "networked retrieval; probabilistic retrieval;
                 probability ranking principle; resource discovery",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Retrieval models}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Systems and
                 Software (H.3.4): {\bf Information networks}",
}

@Article{Gauch:1999:CAA,
  author =       "Susan Gauch and Jianying Wang and Satya Mahesh
                 Rachakonda",
  title =        "A corpus analysis approach for automatic query
                 expansion and its extension to multiple databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "250--250",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-3/p250-gauch/",
  abstract =     "Searching online text collections can be both
                 rewarding and frustrating. While valuable information
                 can be found, typically many irrelevant documents are
                 also retrieved, while many relevant ones are missed.
                 Terminology mismatches between the user's query and
                 document contents are a main cause of retrieval
                 failures. Expanding a user's query with related words
                 can improve search performances, but finding and using
                 related words is an open problem. This research uses
                 corpus analysis techniques to automatically discover
                 similar words directly from the contents of the
                 databases which are not tagged with part-of-speech
                 labels. Using these similarities, user queries are
                 automatically expanded, resulting in conceptual
                 retrieval rather than requiring exact word matches
                 between queries and documents. We are able to achieve a
                 7.6\% improvement for TREC 5 queries and up to a 28.5\%
                 improvement on the narrow-domain Cystic Fibrosis
                 collection. This work has been extended to
                 multidatabase collections where each subdatabase has a
                 collection-specific similarity matrix associated with
                 it. If the best matrix is selected, substantial search
                 improvements are possible. Various techniques to select
                 the appropriate matrix for a particular query are
                 analyzed, and a 4.8\% improvement in the results is
                 validated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Experimentation",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "query expansion",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1):
                 {\bf Linguistic processing}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Content Analysis
                 and Indexing (H.3.1): {\bf Thesauruses}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Query
                 formulation}",
}

@Article{Goh:1999:CIN,
  author =       "Cheng Hian Goh and St{\'e}phane Bressan and Stuart
                 Madnick and Michael Siegel",
  title =        "Context interchange: new features and formalisms for
                 the intelligent integration of information",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "270--270",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-3/p270-goh/",
  abstract =     "The {\em Context Interchange strategy\/} presents a
                 novel perspective for mediated data access in which
                 semantic conflicts among heterogeneous systems are not
                 identified a priori, but are detected and reconciled by
                 a {\em context mediator\/} through comparison of {\em
                 contexts axioms\/} corresponding to the systems engaged
                 in data exchange. In this article, we show that queries
                 formulated on shared views, export schema, and shared
                 ``ontologies'' can be mediated in the same way using
                 the {\em Context Interchange framework}. The proposed
                 framework provides a logic-based object-oriented
                 formalism for representing and reasoning about data
                 semantics in disparate systems, and has been validated
                 in a prototype implementation providing mediated data
                 access to both traditional and web-based information
                 sources.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "abductive reasoning; information integration;
                 mediators; semantic heterogeneity; semantic
                 interoperability",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Systems (H.2.4): {\bf Query processing}; Information
                 Systems --- Database Management --- Heterogeneous
                 Databases (H.2.5): {\bf Data translation**};
                 Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Heterogeneous Databases (H.2.5)",
}

@Article{Lim:1999:HDQ,
  author =       "Ee-Peng Lim and Ying Lu",
  title =        "{Harp}: a distributed query system for legacy public
                 libraries and structured databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "294--294",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-3/p294-lim/",
  abstract =     "The main purpose of a digital library is to facilitate
                 users easy access to enormous amount of globally
                 networked information. Typically, this information
                 includes preexisting public library catalog data,
                 digitized document collections, and other databases. In
                 this article, we describe the distributed query system
                 of a digital library prototype system known as HARP. In
                 the HARP project, we have designed and implemented a
                 distributed query processor and its query front-end to
                 support integrated queries to preexisting public
                 library catalogs and structured databases. This article
                 describes our experiences in the design of an extended
                 Sequel (SQL) query language known as HarpSQL. It also
                 presents the design and implementation of the
                 distributed query system. Our experience in distributed
                 query processor and user interface design and
                 development will be highlighted. We believe that our
                 prototyping effort will provide useful lessons to the
                 development of a complete digital library
                 infrastructure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design; Languages",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "digital libraries; Internet databases; interoperable
                 databases",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval (H.3); Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf User interface management systems
                 (UIMS)}",
}

@Article{Plaisant:1999:IDA,
  author =       "Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman and Khoa Doan
                 and Tom Bruns",
  title =        "Interface and data architecture for query preview in
                 networked information systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "320--320",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-3/p320-plaisant/",
  abstract =     "There are numerous problems associated with
                 formulating queries on networked information systems.
                 These include increased data volume and complexity,
                 accompanied by slow network access. This article
                 proposes a new approach to a network query user
                 interfaces that consists of two phases: query preview
                 and query refinement. This new approach is based on the
                 concepts of dynamic queries and query previews, which
                 guides users in rapidly and dynamically eliminating
                 undesired records, reducing the data volume to a
                 manageable size, and refining queries locally before
                 submission over a network. Examples of two applications
                 are given: a Restaurant Finder and a prototype for
                 NASA's Earth Observing Systems Data Information Systems
                 (EOSDIS). Data architecture is discussed, and user
                 feedback is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "direct manipulation; dynamic query; EOSDIS; graphical
                 user interface; query preview; query refinement;
                 science data",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Query formulation}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2)",
}

@Article{Chen:1999:IGL,
  author =       "Hao Chen and Jianying Hu and Richard W. Sproat",
  title =        "Integrating geometrical and linguistic analysis for
                 email signature block parsing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "343--366",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/1999-17-4/p343-chen/p343-chen.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-4/p343-chen/",
  abstract =     "The signature block is a common structured component
                 found in email messages. Accurate identification and
                 analysis of signature blocks is important in many
                 multimedia messaging and information retrieval
                 applications such as email text-to-speech rendering,
                 automatic construction of personal address databases,
                 and interactive message retrieval. It is also a very
                 challenging task, because signature blocks often appear
                 in complex two-dimensional layouts which are guided
                 only by loose conventions. Traditional text analysis
                 methods designed to deal with sequential text cannot
                 handle two-dimensional structures, while the highly
                 unconstrained nature of signature blocks makes the
                 application of two-dimensional grammars very difficult.
                 In this article, we describe an algorithm for signature
                 block analysis which combines two-dimensional
                 structural segmentation with one-dimensional
                 grammatical constraints. The information obtained from
                 both layout and linguistic analysis is integrated in
                 the form of weighted finite-state transducers. The
                 algorithm is currently implemented as a component in a
                 preprocessing system for email text-to-speech
                 rendering.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "email signature block; finite-state transducer;
                 geometrical analysis; linguistic analysis;
                 text-to-speech rendering",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Selection process}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Systems Applications --- Communications
                 Applications (H.4.3): {\bf Electronic mail}",
}

@Article{Greiff:1999:PMC,
  author =       "Warren R. Greiff and W. Bruce Croft and Howard
                 Turtle",
  title =        "{PIC} matrices: a computationally tractable class of
                 probabilistic query operators",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "367--405",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-4/p367-greiff/",
  abstract =     "The inference network model of information retrieval
                 allows a probabilistic interpretation of query
                 operators. In particular, Boolean query operators are
                 conveniently modeled as link matrices of the Bayesian
                 Network. Prior work has shown, however, that these
                 operators do not perform as well as the {\em pnorm\/}
                 operators used for modeling query operators in the
                 context of the vector space model. This motivates the
                 search for alternative probabilistic formulations for
                 these operators. The design of such alternatives must
                 contend with the issue of computational tractability,
                 since the evaluation of an arbitrary operator requires
                 exponential time. We define a flexible class of link
                 matrices that are natural candidates for the
                 implementation of query operators and an {\em O\/} (
                 {\em n\/} 2 ) algorithm ( {\em n\/} = the number of
                 parent nodes) for the computation of probabilities
                 involving link matrices of this class. We present
                 experimental results indicating that Boolean operators
                 implemented in terms of link matrices from this class
                 perform as well as {\em pnorm\/} operators in the
                 context of the INQUERY inference network.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Performance; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Bayesian networks; Boolean queries; computational
                 complexity; inference networks; link matrices;
                 piecewise linear functions; pnorm; probabilistic
                 information retrieval; query operators",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Query formulation}",
}

@Article{Kaszkiel:1999:EPR,
  author =       "Marcin Kaszkiel and Justin Zobel and Ron Sacks-Davis",
  title =        "Efficient passage ranking for document databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "406--439",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-4/p406-kaszkiel/",
  abstract =     "Queries to text collections are resolved by ranking
                 the documents in the collection and returning the
                 highest-scoring documents to the user. An alternative
                 retrieval method is to rank passages, that is, short
                 fragments of documents, a strategy that can improve
                 effectiveness and identify relevant material in
                 documents that are too large for users to consider as a
                 whole. However, ranking of passages can considerably
                 increase retrieval costs. In this article we explore
                 alternative query evaluation techniques, and develop
                 new techniques for evaluating queries on passages. We
                 show experimentally that, appropriately implemented,
                 effective passage retrieval is practical in limited
                 memory on a desktop machine. Compared to passage
                 ranking with adaptations of current document ranking
                 algorithms, our new ``DO-TOS'' passage-ranking
                 algorithm requires only a fraction of the resources, at
                 the cost of a small loss of effectiveness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "inverted files; passage retrieval; query evaluation;
                 text databases; text retrieval",
  subject =      "Data --- Files (E.5); Information Systems --- Database
                 Management --- Physical Design (H.2.2); Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3)",
}

@Article{Sanderson:1999:IRE,
  author =       "Mark Sanderson and C. J. {Van Rijsbergen}",
  title =        "The impact on retrieval effectiveness of skewed
                 frequency distributions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "440--465",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/1999-17-4/p440-sanderson/",
  abstract =     "We present an analysis of word senses that provides a
                 fresh insight into the impact of word ambiguity on
                 retrieval effectiveness with potential broader
                 implications for other processes of information
                 retrieval. Using a methodology of forming artificially
                 ambiguous words, known as pseudowords, and through
                 reference to other researchers' work, the analysis
                 illustrates that the distribution of the frequency of
                 occurrence of the senses of a word plays a strong role
                 in ambiguity's impact of effectiveness. Further
                 investigation shows that this analysis may also be
                 applicable to other processes of retrieval, such as
                 Cross Language Information Retrieval, query expansion,
                 retrieval of OCR'ed texts, and stemming. The analysis
                 appears to provide a means of explaining, at least in
                 part, reasons for the processes' impact (or lack of it)
                 on effectiveness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Experimentation; Measurement",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "pseudowords; word sense ambiguity; word sense
                 disambiguation",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1):
                 {\bf Linguistic processing}; Computing Methodologies
                 --- Artificial Intelligence --- Natural Language
                 Processing (I.2.7): {\bf Text analysis}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Simulation and Modeling --- Model
                 Validation and Analysis (I.6.4); Information Systems
                 --- Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Search process}",
}

@Article{Cahoon:2000:EPD,
  author =       "Brendon Cahoon and Kathryn S. McKinley and Zhihong
                 Lu",
  title =        "Evaluating the performance of distributed
                 architectures for information retrieval using a variety
                 of workloads",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--43",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-1/p1-cahoon/",
  abstract =     "The information explosion across the Internet and
                 elsewhere offers access to an increasing number of
                 document collections. In order for users to effectively
                 access these collections, information retrieval (IR)
                 systems must provide coordinated, concurrent, and
                 distributed access. In this article, we explore how to
                 achieve scalable performance in a distributed system
                 for collection sizes ranging from 1GB to 128GB. We
                 implement a fully functional distributed IR system
                 based on a multithreaded version of the Inquery
                 simulation model. We measure performance as a function
                 of system parameters such as client command rate,
                 number of document collections, ter ms per query, query
                 term frequency, number of answers returned, and command
                 mixture. Our results show that it is important to model
                 both query and document commands because the
                 heterogeneity of commands significantly impacts
                 performance. Based on our results, we recommend simple
                 changes to the prototype and evaluate the changes using
                 the simulator. Because of the significant resource
                 demands of information retrieval, it is not difficult
                 to generate workloads that overwhelm system resources
                 regardless of the architecture. However under some
                 realistic workloads, we demonstrate system
                 organizations for which response time gracefully
                 degrades as the workload increases and performance
                 scales with the number of processors. This scalable
                 architecture includes a surprisingly small number of
                 brokers through which a large number of clients and
                 servers communicate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "distributed information retrieval architectures",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4); Computer Systems Organization --- Performance
                 of Systems (C.4); Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Performance of Systems (C.4): {\bf Performance
                 attributes}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Storage and Retrieval --- Systems and Software
                 (H.3.4)",
}

@Article{Clarke:2000:SSR,
  author =       "Charles L. A. Clarke and Gordon V. Cormack",
  title =        "Shortest-substring retrieval and ranking",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "44--78",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-1/p44-clarke/",
  abstract =     "We present a model for arbitrary passage retrieval
                 using Boolean queries. The model is applied to the task
                 of ranking documents, or other structural elements, in
                 the order of their expected relevance. Features such as
                 phrase matching, truncation, and stemming integrate
                 naturally into the model. Properties of Boolean algebra
                 are obeyed, and the exact-match semantics of Boolean
                 retrieval are preserved. Simple inverted-list file
                 structures provide an efficient implementation.
                 Retrieval effectiveness is comparable to that of
                 standard ranking techniques. Since global statistics
                 are not used, the method is of particular value in
                 distributed environments. Since ranking is based on
                 arbitrary passages, the structural elements to be
                 ranked may be specified at query time and do not need
                 to be restricted to predefined elements.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Boolean retrieval model; passage retrieval; relevance
                 ranking",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3);
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Systems and Software (H.3.4); Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Systems and Software (H.3.4): {\bf Performance
                 evaluation (efficiency and effectiveness)}",
}

@Article{Xu:2000:IEI,
  author =       "Jinxi Xu and W. Bruce Croft",
  title =        "Improving the effectiveness of information retrieval
                 with local context analysis",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--112",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-1/p79-xu/",
  abstract =     "Techniques for automatic query expansion have been
                 extensively studied in information research as a means
                 of addressing the word mismatch between queries and
                 documents. These techniques can be categorized as
                 either global or local. While global techniques rely on
                 analysis of a whole collection to discover word
                 relationships, local techniques emphasize analysis of
                 the top-ranked documents retrieved for a query. While
                 local techniques have shown to be more effective that
                 global techniques in general, existing local techniques
                 are not robust and can seriously hurt retrieved when
                 few of the retrieval documents are relevant. We propose
                 a new technique, called {\em local context analysis,\/}
                 which selects expansion terms based on cooccurrence
                 with the query terms within the top-ranked documents.
                 Experiments on a number of collections, both English
                 and non-English, show that local context analysis
                 offers more effective and consistent retrieval
                 results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "cooccurrence; document analysis; feedback; global
                 techniques; information retrieval; local context
                 analysis; local techniques",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1);
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1):
                 {\bf Indexing methods}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Content Analysis
                 and Indexing (H.3.1): {\bf Thesauruses}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1): {\bf Linguistic
                 processing}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Storage and Retrieval --- Information Search and
                 Retrieval (H.3.3); Information Systems --- Information
                 Storage and Retrieval --- Information Search and
                 Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Query formulation}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Search
                 process}; Information Systems --- Information Storage
                 and Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval
                 (H.3.3): {\bf Relevance feedback}",
}

@Article{SilvadeMoura:2000:FFW,
  author =       "Edleno {Silva de Moura} and Gonzalo Navarro and Nivio
                 Ziviani and Ricardo Baeza-Yates",
  title =        "Fast and flexible word searching on compressed text",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "113--139",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-2/p113-silva_de_moura/",
  abstract =     "We present a fast compression technique for natural
                 language texts. The novelties are that (1)
                 decompression of arbitrary portions of the text can be
                 done very efficiently, (2) exact search for words and
                 phrases can be done on the compressed text directly,
                 using any known sequential pattern-matching algorithm,
                 and (3) word-based approximate and extended search can
                 also be done efficiently without any decoding. The
                 compression scheme uses a semistatic word-based model
                 and a Huffman code where the coding alphabet is
                 byte-oriented rather than bit-oriented. We compress
                 typical English texts to about 30\% of their original
                 size, against 40\% and 35\% for {\em Compress\/} and
                 {\em Gzip}, respectively. Compression time is close to
                 that of {\em Compress\/} and approximately half of the
                 time of {\em Gzip}, and decompression time is lower
                 than that of {\em Gzip\/} and one third of that of {\em
                 Compress}. We present three algorithms to search the
                 compressed text. They allow a large number of
                 variations over the basic word and phrase search
                 capability, such as sets of characters, arbitrary
                 regular expressions, and approximate matching.
                 Separators and stopwords can be discarded at search
                 time without significantly increasing the cost. When
                 searching for simple words, the experiments show that
                 running our algorithms on a compressed text is twice as
                 fast as running the best existing software on the
                 uncompressed version of the same text. When searching
                 complex or approximate patterns, our algorithms are up
                 to 8 times faster than the search on uncompressed text.
                 We also discuss the impact of our technique in inverted
                 files pointing to logical blocks and argue for the
                 possibility of keeping the text compressed all the
                 time, decompressing only for displaying purposes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "compressed pattern matching; natural language text
                 compression; word searching; word-based Huffman
                 coding",
  subject =      "Data --- Coding and Information Theory (E.4): {\bf
                 Data compaction and compression}; Information Systems
                 --- Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Search process}",
}

@Article{Dourish:2000:EDM,
  author =       "Paul Dourish and W. Keith Edwards and Anthony LaMarca
                 and John Lamping and Karin Petersen and Michael
                 Salisbury and Douglas B. Terry and James Thornton",
  title =        "Extending document management systems with
                 user-specific active properties",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "140--170",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-2/p140-dourish/",
  abstract =     "Document properties are a compelling infrastructure on
                 which to develop document management applications. A
                 property-based approach avoids many of the problems of
                 traditional hierarchical storage mechanisms, reflects
                 document organizations meaningful to user tasks,
                 provides a means to integrate the perspectives of
                 multiple individuals and groups, and does this all
                 within a uniform interaction framework. Document
                 properties can reflect not only categorizations of
                 documents and document use, but also expressions of
                 desired system activity, such as sharing criteria,
                 replication management, and versioning. Augmenting
                 property-based document management systems with active
                 properties that carry executable code enables the
                 provision of document-based services on a property
                 infrastructure. The combination of document properties
                 as a uniform mechanism for document management, and
                 active properties as a way of delivering document
                 services, represents a new paradigm for document
                 management infrastructures. The Placeless Documents
                 system is an experimental prototype developed to
                 explore this new paradigm. It is based on the seamless
                 integration of user-specific, active properties. We
                 present the fundamental design approach, explore the
                 challenges and opportunities it presents, and show our
                 architectures deals with them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "active properties; component software; document
                 management systems; document services; user
                 experience",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4): {\bf Distributed databases}; Software ---
                 Operating Systems --- File Systems Management (D.4.3):
                 {\bf Distributed file systems}; Data --- Files (E.5):
                 {\bf Organization/structure}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Storage (H.3.2): {\bf File organization}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Systems and Software (H.3.4): {\bf Distributed
                 systems}; Information Systems --- Information Storage
                 and Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval
                 (H.3.3): {\bf Search process}",
}

@Article{El-Kwae:2000:ECB,
  author =       "Essam A. El-Kwae and Mansur R. Kabuka",
  title =        "Efficient content-based indexing of large image
                 databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--210",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 09:34:01 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-2/p171-el-kwae/",
  abstract =     "Large image databases have emerged in various
                 applications in recent years. A prime requisite of
                 these databases is the means by which their contents
                 can be indexed and retrieved. A multilevel signature
                 file called the Two Signature Multi-level Signature
                 File ( {\em 2SMLSF\/} ) is introduced as an efficient
                 access structure for large image databases. The {\em
                 2SMLSF\/} encodes image information into binary
                 signatures and creates a tree structures can be
                 efficiently searched to satisfy a user's query. Two
                 types of signatures are generated. Type {\em I\/}
                 signatures are used at all tree levels except the leaf
                 level and are based only on the domain objects included
                 in the image. Type {\em II\/} signatures, on the other
                 hand, are stored at the leaf level and are based on the
                 included domain objects and their spatial
                 relationships. The {\em 2SMLSF\/} was compared
                 analytically to existing signature file techniques. The
                 {\em 2SMLSF\/} significantly reduces the storage
                 requirements; the index structure can answer more
                 queries; and the {\em 2SMLSF\/} performance
                 significantly improves over current techniques. Both
                 storage reduction and performance improvement increase
                 with the number of objects per image and the number of
                 images in the database. For an example large image
                 database, a storage reduction of 78\% may be achieved
                 while the performance improvement may reach 98\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "content analysis and indexing; document managing;
                 image databases; index generation; multimedia
                 databases",
}

@Article{Anderson:2000:CHH,
  author =       "Kenneth M. Anderson and Richard N. Taylor and E. James
                 Whitehead",
  title =        "{Chimera}: hypermedia for heterogeneous software
                 development enviroments",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "211--245",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:10:03 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-3/p211-anderson/",
  abstract =     "Emerging software development environments are
                 characterized by heterogeneity: they are composed of
                 diverse object stores, user interfaces, and tools. This
                 paper presents an approach for providing hypermedia
                 services in this heterogeneous setting. Central notions
                 of the approach include the following: anchors are
                 established with respect to interactive {\em views\/}
                 of objects, rather than the objects themselves;
                 composable, $n$-ary links can be established between
                 anchors on different views of objects which may be
                 stored in distinct object bases; viewers may be
                 implemented in different programming languages; and,
                 hypermedia services are provided to multiple,
                 concurrently active, viewers. The paper describes the
                 approach, supporting architecture, and lessons learned.
                 Related work in the areas of supporting heterogeneity
                 and hypermedia data modeling is discussed. The system
                 has been employed in a variety of contexts including
                 research, development, and education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "heterogeneous hypermedia; hypermedia system
                 architectures; link servers; open hypermedia systems;
                 software development environments",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Multimedia Information Systems
                 (H.5.1); Software --- Software Engineering --- Design
                 Tools and Techniques (D.2.2); Computing Methodologies
                 --- Document and Text Processing --- Document
                 Preparation (I.7.2): {\bf Hypertext/hypermedia};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4)",
}

@Article{Greiff:2000:MEA,
  author =       "Warren R. Greiff and Jay M. Ponte",
  title =        "The maximum entropy approach and probabilistic {IR}
                 models",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "246--287",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:10:03 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-3/p246-greiff/",
  abstract =     "This paper takes a fresh look at modeling approaches
                 to information retrieval that have been the basis of
                 much of the probabilistically motivated IR research
                 over the last 20 years. We shall adopt a subjectivist
                 Bayesian view of probabilities and argue that classical
                 work on probabilistic retrieval is best understood from
                 this perspective. The main focus of the paper will be
                 the ranking formulas corresponding to the Binary
                 Independence Model (BIM), presented originally by
                 Roberston and Sparck John [1977] and the Combination
                 Match Model (CMM), developed shortly thereafter by
                 Croft and Harper [1979]. We will show how these same
                 ranking formulas can result from a probabilistic
                 methodology commonly known as Maximum Entropy
                 (MAXENT).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Retrieval models}",
}

@Article{Cohen:2000:DIU,
  author =       "William W. Cohen",
  title =        "Data integration using similarity joins and a
                 word-based information representation language",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "288--321",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:10:03 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-3/p288-cohen/",
  abstract =     "The integration of distributed, heterogeneous
                 databases, such as those available on the World Wide
                 Web, poses many problems. Herer we consider the problem
                 of integrating data from sources that lack common
                 object identifiers. A solution to this problem is
                 proposed for databases that contain informal,
                 natural-language ``names'' for objects; most Web-based
                 databases satisfy this requirement, since they usually
                 present their information to the end-user through a
                 veneer of text. We describe WHIRL, a ``soft'' database
                 management system which supports ``similarity joins,''
                 based on certain robust, general-purpose similarity
                 metrics for text. This enables fragments of text (e.g.,
                 informal names of objects) to be used as keys. WHIRL
                 includes textual objects as a built-in type, similarity
                 reasoning as a built-in predicate, and answers every
                 query with a list of answer substitutions that are
                 ranked according to an overall score. Experiments show
                 that WHIRL is much faster than naive inference methods,
                 even for short queries, and efficient on typical
                 queries to real-world databases with tens of thousands
                 of tuples. Inferences made by WHIRL are also
                 surprisingly accurate, equaling the accuracy of
                 hand-coded normalization routines on one benchmark
                 problem, and outperforming exact matching with a
                 plausible global domain on a second.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Reliability",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Heterogeneous Databases (H.2.5); Information Systems
                 --- Database Management --- Languages (H.2.3): {\bf
                 Data manipulation languages (DML)}; Information Systems
                 --- Database Management --- Languages (H.2.3): {\bf
                 Query languages}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Storage and Retrieval --- Information Search and
                 Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Retrieval models}",
}

@Article{Fraternali:2000:MDD,
  author =       "Piero Fraternali and Paolo Paolini",
  title =        "Model-driven development of {Web} applications: the
                 {AutoWeb} system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--382",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:10:03 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-4/p323-fraternali/",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a methodology for the development
                 of WWW applications and a tool environment specifically
                 tailored for the methodology. The methodology and the
                 development environment are based upon models and
                 techniques already used in the hypermedia, information
                 systems, and software engineering fields, adapted and
                 blended in an original mix. The foundation of the
                 proposal is the conceptual design of WWW applications,
                 using HDM-lite, a notation for the specification of
                 structure, navigation, and presentation semantics. The
                 conceptual schema is then translated into a
                 ``traditional'' database schema, which describes both
                 the organization of the content and the desired
                 navigation and presentation features. The WWW pages can
                 therefore be dynamically generated from the database
                 content, following the navigation requests of the user.
                 A CASE environment, called AutoWeb System, offers a set
                 of software tools, which assist the design and the
                 execution of a WWW application, in all its different
                 aspects, Real-life experiences of the use of the
                 methodology and of the AutoWeb System in both the
                 industrial and academic context are reported.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "application; development; HTML; intranet; modeling;
                 WWW",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Software
                 --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2)",
}

@Article{Katzenstein:2000:BSO,
  author =       "Gary Katzenstein and F. Javier Lerch",
  title =        "Beneath the surface of organizational processes: a
                 social representation framework for business process
                 redesign",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "383--422",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:10:03 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2000-18-4/p383-katzenstein/",
  abstract =     "This paper raises the question, ``What is an effective
                 representation framework for organizational process
                 design?'' By combining our knowledge of existing
                 process models with data from a field study, the paper
                 develops criteria for an effective process
                 representation. Using these criteria and the case
                 study, the paper integrates the process redesign and
                 information system literatures to develop a
                 representation framework that captures a process'
                 social context. The paper argues that this social
                 context framework, which represents people's
                 motivations, social relationships, and social
                 constraints, gives redesigners a richer sense of the
                 process and allows process redesigners to
                 simultaneously change social and logistic systems. The
                 paper demonstrates the framework and some of its
                 benefits and limitations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Design; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "business process redesign; organizational change;
                 process representation",
  subject =      "Computing Milieux --- Computers and Society ---
                 Organizational Impacts (K.4.3)",
}

@Article{Carpineto:2001:ITA,
  author =       "Claudio Carpineto and Renato de Mori and Giovanni
                 Romano and Brigitte Bigi",
  title =        "An information-theoretic approach to automatic query
                 expansion",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--27",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:17:10 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/2001-19-1/p1-carpineto/p1-carpineto.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2001-19-1/p1-carpineto/",
  abstract =     "Techniques for automatic query expansion from top
                 retrieved documents have shown promise for improving
                 retrieval effectiveness on large collections; however,
                 they often rely on an empirical ground, and there is a
                 shortage of cross-system comparisons. Using ideas from
                 Information Theory, we present a computationally simple
                 and theoretically justified method for assigning scores
                 to candidate expansion terms. Such scores are used to
                 select and weight expansion terms within Rocchio's
                 framework for query reweighting. We compare ranking
                 with information-theoretic query expansion versus
                 ranking with other query expansion techniques, showing
                 that the former achieves better retrieval effectiveness
                 on several performance measures. We also discuss the
                 effect on retrieval effectiveness of the main
                 parameters involved in automatic query expansion, such
                 as data sparseness, query difficulty, number of
                 selected documents, and number of selected terms,
                 pointing out interesting relationships.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Design; Experimentation; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "automatic query expansion; information retrieval;
                 information theory; pseudorelevance feedback",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Retrieval models}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Relevance feedback};
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Query formulation}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Content Analysis
                 and Indexing (H.3.1): {\bf Indexing methods}",
}

@Article{deOliveira:2001:SBM,
  author =       "Maria Cristina Ferreira de Oliveira and Marcelo
                 Augusto Santos Turine and Paulo Cesar Masiero",
  title =        "A statechart-based model for hypermedia applications",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "28--52",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:17:10 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/2001-19-1/p28-de_oliveira/p28-de_oliveira.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2001-19-1/p28-de_oliveira/",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a formal definition for HMBS
                 (Hypermedia Model Based on Statecharts). HMBS uses the
                 structure and execution semantics of statecharts to
                 specify both the structural organization and the
                 browsing semantics of hypermedia applications.
                 Statecharts are an extension of finite-state machines
                 and the model is thus a generalization of
                 hypergraph-based hypertext models. Some of the most
                 important features of HMBS are its ability to model
                 hierarchy and synchronization of information; provision
                 of mechanisms for specifying access structures,
                 navigational contexts, access control, multiple
                 tailored versions,and hierarchical views. Analysis of
                 the underlying statechart machine allows verification
                 of page reachability, valid paths, and other
                 properties, thus providing mechanisms to support
                 authors in the development of structured
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Design; Languages; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "browsing semantics; HMBS; hypermedia specification;
                 navigational model; statecharts",
  subject =      "Theory of Computation --- Computation by Abstract
                 Devices --- Models of Computation (F.1.1): {\bf
                 Relations between models}; Computing Methodologies ---
                 Document and Text Processing --- Document Preparation
                 (I.7.2): {\bf Hypertext/hypermedia}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Search
                 process}; Information Systems --- Information Storage
                 and Retrieval --- Systems and Software (H.3.4): {\bf
                 Information networks}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Multimedia
                 Information Systems (H.5.1): {\bf Hypertext navigation
                 and maps**}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Hypertext/Hypermedia
                 (H.5.4)",
}

@Article{Papadias:2001:AST,
  author =       "Dimitris Papadias and Nikos Mamoulis and Vasilis
                 Delis",
  title =        "Approximate spatio-temporal retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--96",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 17 08:17:10 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/2001-19-1/p53-papadias/p53-papadias.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tois/2001-19-1/p53-papadias/",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a framework for the handling of
                 spatio-temporal queries with inexact matches, using the
                 concept of relation similarity. We initially describe a
                 binary string encoding for 1D relations that permits
                 the automatic derivation of similarity measures. We
                 then extend this model to various granularity levels
                 and many dimensions, and show that reasoning on
                 spatio-temporal structure is significantly facilitated
                 in the new framework. Finally, we provide algorithms
                 and optimization methods for four types of queries: (i)
                 object retrieval based on some spatio-temporal
                 relations with respect to a reference object, (ii)
                 spatial joins, i.e., retrieval of object pairs that
                 satisfy some input relation, (iii) structural queries,
                 which retrieve configurations matching a particular
                 spatio-temporal structure, and (iv) special cases of
                 motion queries. Considering the current large
                 availability of multidimensional data and the
                 increasing need for flexible query-answering
                 mechanisms, our techniques can be used as the core of
                 spatio-temporal query processors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Physical Design (H.2.2): {\bf Access methods};
                 Information Systems --- Database Management --- Systems
                 (H.2.4): {\bf Multimedia databases}; Information
                 Systems --- Database Management --- Database
                 Applications (H.2.8): {\bf Spatial databases and GIS}",
}

@Article{Melnik:2001:BDF,
  author =       "Sergey Melnik and Sriram Raghavan and Beverly Yang and
                 Hector Garcia-Molina",
  title =        "Building a distributed full-text index for the {Web}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "217--241",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Kwok:2001:SQA,
  author =       "Cody Kwok and Oren Etzioni and Daniel S. Weld",
  title =        "Scaling question answering to the {Web}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "242--262",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Hong:2001:WPB,
  author =       "Jason I. Hong and Jeffrey Heer and Sarah Waterson and
                 James A. Landay",
  title =        "{WebQuilt}: a proxy-based approach to remote web
                 usability testing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "263--285",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Aggarwal:2001:DLC,
  author =       "Charu C. Aggarwal and Fatima Al-Garawi and Philip S.
                 Yu",
  title =        "On the design of a learning crawler for topical
                 resource discovery",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "286--309",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Meng:2001:HSE,
  author =       "Weiyi Meng and Zonghuan Wu and Clement Yu and Zhuogang
                 Li",
  title =        "A highly scalable and effective method for
                 metasearch",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "310--335",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Wong:2001:AAF,
  author =       "Kam-Fai Wong and Dawei Song and Peter Bruza and
                 Chun-Hung Cheng",
  title =        "Application of aboutness to functional benchmarking in
                 information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "337--370",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Comai:2001:CGQ,
  author =       "Sara Comai and Ernesto Damiani and Piero Fraternali",
  title =        "Computing graphical queries over {XML} data",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "371--430",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Yoshioka:2001:GTK,
  author =       "Takeshi Yoshioka and George Herman and JoAnne Yates
                 and Wanda Orlikowski",
  title =        "Genre taxonomy: a knowledge repository of
                 communicative actions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "431--456",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 14:45:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Lempel:2002:PPA,
  author =       "Ronny Lempel and Aya Soffer",
  title =        "{PicASHOW}: {Pictorial} authority search by hyperlinks
                 on the {Web}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--24",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Aridor:2002:KEF,
  author =       "Yariv Aridor and David Carmel and Yoelle S. Maarek and
                 Aya Soffer and Ronny Lempel",
  title =        "Knowledge encapsulation for focused search from
                 pervasive devices",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "25--46",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Bharat:2002:WEA,
  author =       "Krishna Bharat and George A. Mihaila",
  title =        "When experts agree: using non-affiliated experts to
                 rank popular topics",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--58",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Wen:2002:QCU,
  author =       "Ji-Rong Wen and Jian-Yun Nie and Hong-Jiang Zhang",
  title =        "Query clustering using user logs",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--81",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Buyukkokten:2002:EWB,
  author =       "Orkut Buyukkokten and Oliver Kaljuvee and Hector
                 Garcia-Molina and Andreas Paepcke and Terry Winograd",
  title =        "Efficient {Web} browsing on handheld devices using
                 page and form summarization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "82--115",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Finkelstein:2002:PSC,
  author =       "Lev Finkelstein and Evgeniy Gabrilovich and Yossi
                 Matias and Ehud Rivlin and Zach Solan and Gadi Wolfman
                 and Eytan Ruppin",
  title =        "Placing search in context: The concept revisited",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "116--131",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Cooper:2002:PPD,
  author =       "Brian F. Cooper and Hector Garcia-Molina",
  title =        "Peer-to-peer data trading to preserve information",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--170",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Chowdhury:2002:CSF,
  author =       "Abdur Chowdhury and Ophir Frieder and David Grossman
                 and Mary Catherine McCabe",
  title =        "Collection statistics for fast duplicate document
                 detection",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--191",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Heinz:2002:BTF,
  author =       "Steffen Heinz and Justin Zobel and Hugh E. Williams",
  title =        "Burst tries: a fast, efficient data structure for
                 string keys",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--223",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Zhu:2002:TKB,
  author =       "Lei Zhu and Aibing Rao and Aidong Zhang",
  title =        "Theory of keyblock-based image retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "224--257",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:11 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Carpineto:2002:IRF,
  author =       "Claudio Carpineto and Giovanni Romano and Vittorio
                 Giannini",
  title =        "Improving retrieval feedback with multiple
                 term-ranking function combination",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "259--290",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Owei:2002:IAH,
  author =       "Vesper Owei",
  title =        "An intelligent approach to handling imperfect
                 information in concept-based natural language queries",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "291--328",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Cannane:2002:GPC,
  author =       "Adam Cannane and Hugh E. Williams",
  title =        "A general-purpose compression scheme for large
                 collections",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "329--355",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Amati:2002:PMI,
  author =       "Gianni Amati and Cornelis Joost {Van Rijsbergen}",
  title =        "Probabilistic models of information retrieval based on
                 measuring the divergence from randomness",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--389",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Feng:2002:SNB,
  author =       "Ling Feng and Elizabeth Chang and Tharam Dillon",
  title =        "A semantic network-based design methodology for {XML}
                 documents",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "390--421",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Jarvelin:2002:CGB,
  author =       "Kalervo J{\"a}rvelin and Jaana Kek{\"a}l{\"a}inen",
  title =        "Cumulated gain-based evaluation of {IR} techniques",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "422--446",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Gravano:2003:QSA,
  author =       "Luis Gravano and Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis and Mehran
                 Sahami",
  title =        "{QProber}: a system for automatic classification of
                 hidden-{Web} databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--41",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Calado:2003:LVG,
  author =       "P{\'a}vel Calado and Berthier Ribeiro-Neto and Nivio
                 Ziviani and Edleno Moura and Ilm{\'e}rio Silva",
  title =        "Local versus global link information in the {Web}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "42--63",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Ganesan:2003:EHD,
  author =       "Prasanna Ganesan and Hector Garcia-Molina and Jennifer
                 Widom",
  title =        "Exploiting hierarchical domain structure to compute
                 similarity",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "64--93",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Conrad:2003:EUS,
  author =       "Jack G. Conrad and Joanne R. S. Claussen",
  title =        "Early user--system interaction for database selection
                 in massive domain-specific online environments",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "94--131",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Moldovan:2003:PIE,
  author =       "Dan Moldovan and Marius Pa{\c{s}}ca and Sanda
                 Harabagiu and Mihai Surdeanu",
  title =        "Performance issues and error analysis in an
                 open-domain question answering system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--154",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Bertino:2003:HAC,
  author =       "Elisa Bertino and Jianping Fan and Elena Ferrari and
                 Mohand-Said Hacid and Ahmed K. Elmagarmid and Xingquan
                 Zhu",
  title =        "A hierarchical access control model for video database
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "155--191",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Amato:2003:RPM,
  author =       "Giuseppe Amato and Fausto Rabitti and Pasquale Savino
                 and Pavel Zezula",
  title =        "Region proximity in metric spaces and its use for
                 approximate similarity search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--227",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 10:37:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Leroy:2003:UDC,
  author =       "Gondy Leroy and Ann M. Lally and Hsinchun Chen",
  title =        "The use of dynamic contexts to improve casual
                 {Internet} searching",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "229--253",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/858476.858477",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 17:24:06 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Research has shown that most users' online information
                 searches are suboptimal. Query optimization based on a
                 relevance feedback or genetic algorithm using dynamic
                 query contexts can help casual users search the
                 Internet. These algorithms can draw on implicit user
                 feedback based on the surrounding links and text in a
                 search engine result set to expand user queries with a
                 variable number of keywords in two manners. Positive
                 expansion adds terms to a user's keywords with a
                 Boolean ``and,'' negative expansion adds terms to the
                 user's keywords with a Boolean ``not.'' Each algorithm
                 was examined for three user groups, high, middle, and
                 low achievers, who were classified according to their
                 overall performance. The interactions of users with
                 different levels of expertise with different expansion
                 types or algorithms were evaluated. The genetic
                 algorithm with negative expansion tripled recall and
                 doubled precision for low achievers, but high achievers
                 displayed an opposed trend and seemed to be hindered in
                 this condition. The effect of other conditions was less
                 substantial.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Bolchini:2003:LPD,
  author =       "Cristiana Bolchini and Fabio Salice and Fabio A.
                 Schreiber and Letizia Tanca",
  title =        "Logical and physical design issues for smart card
                 databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "254--285",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/858476.858478",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 17:24:06 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The design of very small databases for smart cards and
                 for portable embedded systems is deeply constrained by
                 the peculiar features of the physical medium. We
                 propose a joint approach to the logical and physical
                 database design phases and evaluate several data
                 structures with respect to the performance, power
                 consumption, and endurance parameters of read/program
                 operations on the Flash-EEPROM storage medium.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Upstill:2003:QIE,
  author =       "Trystan Upstill and Nick Craswell and David Hawking",
  title =        "Query-independent evidence in home page finding",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "286--313",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/858476.858479",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 17:24:06 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Hyperlink recommendation evidence, that is, evidence
                 based on the structure of a web's link graph, is widely
                 exploited by commercial Web search systems. However
                 there is little published work to support its
                 popularity. Another form of query-independent evidence,
                 URL-type, has been shown to be beneficial on a home
                 page finding task. We compared the usefulness of these
                 types of evidence on the home page finding task,
                 combined with both content and anchor text baselines.
                 Our experiments made use of five query sets spanning
                 three corpora---one enterprise crawl, and the WT10g and
                 VLC2 Web test collections.We found that, in optimal
                 conditions, all of the query-independent methods
                 studied (in-degree, URL-type, and two variants of
                 PageRank) offered a better than random improvement on a
                 content-only baseline. However, only URL-type offered a
                 better than random improvement on an anchor text
                 baseline. In realistic settings, for either baseline,
                 only URL-type offered consistent gains. In combination
                 with URL-type the anchor text baseline was more useful
                 for finding popular home pages, but URL-type with
                 content was more useful for finding randomly selected
                 home pages. We conclude that a general home page
                 finding system should combine evidence from document
                 content, anchor text, and URL-type classification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Turney:2003:MPC,
  author =       "Peter D. Turney and Michael L. Littman",
  title =        "Measuring praise and criticism: {Inference} of
                 semantic orientation from association",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "315--346",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:13:42 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Chang:2003:MME,
  author =       "Edward Chang and Beitao Li",
  title =        "{MEGA}---the maximizing expected generalization
                 algorithm for learning complex query concepts",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "347--382",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:13:42 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Eastman:2003:CRR,
  author =       "Caroline M. Eastman and Bernard J. Jansen",
  title =        "Coverage, relevance, and ranking: {The} impact of
                 query operators on {Web} search engine results",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "383--411",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:13:42 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Powell:2003:CPC,
  author =       "Allison L. Powell and James C. French",
  title =        "Comparing the performance of collection selection
                 algorithms",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "412--456",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:13:42 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Si:2003:SLM,
  author =       "Luo Si and Jamie Callan",
  title =        "A semisupervised learning method to merge search
                 engine results",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "457--491",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:13:42 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Staff:2003:TR,
  author =       "{ACM Transactions on Information Systems Staff}",
  title =        "{TOIS} reviewers",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "492--493",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:13:42 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Konstan:2004:IRS,
  author =       "Joseph A. Konstan",
  title =        "Introduction to recommender systems: Algorithms and
                 Evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--4",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:24:10 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Herlocker:2004:ECF,
  author =       "Jonathan L. Herlocker and Joseph A. Konstan and Loren
                 G. Terveen and John T. Riedl",
  title =        "Evaluating collaborative filtering recommender
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--53",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:24:10 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Middleton:2004:OUP,
  author =       "Stuart E. Middleton and Nigel R. Shadbolt and David C.
                 De Roure",
  title =        "Ontological user profiling in recommender systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "54--88",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:24:10 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Hofmann:2004:LSM,
  author =       "Thomas Hofmann",
  title =        "Latent semantic models for collaborative filtering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "89--115",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:24:10 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Huang:2004:AAR,
  author =       "Zan Huang and Hsinchun Chen and Daniel Zeng",
  title =        "Applying associative retrieval techniques to alleviate
                 the sparsity problem in collaborative filtering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "116--142",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:24:10 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Deshpande:2004:IBT,
  author =       "Mukund Deshpande and George Karypis",
  title =        "Item-based top-{$N$} recommendation algorithms",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "143--177",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:24:10 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Zhai:2004:SSM,
  author =       "Chengxiang Zhai and John Lafferty",
  title =        "A study of smoothing methods for language models
                 applied to information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "179--214",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Mana-Lopez:2004:MSA,
  author =       "Manuel J. Ma{\~n}a-L{\'o}pez and Manuel {De Buenaga}
                 and Jos{\'e} M. G{\'o}mez-Hidalgo",
  title =        "Multidocument summarization: an added value to
                 clustering in interactive retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "215--241",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Lu:2004:ATM,
  author =       "Wen-Hsiang Lu and Lee-Feng Chien and Hsi-Jian Lee",
  title =        "Anchor text mining for translation of {Web} queries:
                 {A} transitive translation approach",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "242--269",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Goncalves:2004:SSS,
  author =       "Marcos Andr{\'e} Gon{\c{c}}alves and Edward A. Fox and
                 Layne T. Watson and Neill A. Kipp",
  title =        "Streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies
                 (5s): a formal model for digital libraries",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "270--312",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Fuhr:2004:XXQ,
  author =       "Norbert Fuhr and Kai Gro{\ss}johann",
  title =        "{XIRQL}: {An XML} query language based on information
                 retrieval concepts",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "313--356",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Bodoff:2004:RMH,
  author =       "David Bodoff",
  title =        "Relevance models to help estimate document and query
                 parameters",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "357--380",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Wu:2004:EMB,
  author =       "Xindong Wu and Chengqi Zhang and Shichao Zhang",
  title =        "Efficient mining of both positive and negative
                 association rules",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "381--405",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Gladney:2004:TYD,
  author =       "Henry M. Gladney",
  title =        "Trustworthy 100-year digital objects: {Evidence} after
                 every witness is dead",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "406--436",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Miller:2004:PTP,
  author =       "Bradley N. Miller and Joseph A. Konstan and John
                 Riedl",
  title =        "{PocketLens}: {Toward} a personal recommender system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "437--476",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{King:2004:DCB,
  author =       "Irwin King and Cheuk Hang Ng and Ka Cheung Sia",
  title =        "Distributed content-based visual information retrieval
                 system on peer-to-peer networks",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "477--501",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Brafman:2004:QDM,
  author =       "Ronen I. Brafman and Carmel Domshlak and Solomon E.
                 Shimony",
  title =        "Qualitative decision making in adaptive presentation
                 of structured information",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "503--539",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Park:2004:ALS,
  author =       "Seung-Taek Park and David M. Pennock and C. Lee Giles
                 and Robert Krovetz",
  title =        "Analysis of lexical signatures for improving
                 information persistence on the {World Wide Web}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "540--572",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Williams:2004:FPQ,
  author =       "Hugh E. Williams and Justin Zobel and Dirk Bahle",
  title =        "Fast phrase querying with combined indexes",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "573--594",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Park:2004:ISI,
  author =       "Jinsoo Park and Sudha Ram",
  title =        "Information systems interoperability: {What} lies
                 beneath?",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "595--632",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:03:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Williams:2005:IGI,
  author =       "Hugh E. Williams",
  title =        "Introduction to genomic information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:07:01 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Korodi:2005:ENM,
  author =       "Gergely Korodi and Ioan Tabus",
  title =        "An efficient normalized maximum likelihood algorithm
                 for {DNA} sequence compression",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--34",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:07:01 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Sander:2005:MAS,
  author =       "J{\"o}rg Sander and Raymond T. Ng and Monica C.
                 Sleumer and Man Saint Yuen and Steven J. Jones",
  title =        "A methodology for analyzing {SAGE} libraries for
                 cancer profiling",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--60",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:07:01 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Tao:2005:HST,
  author =       "Yufei Tao and Dimitris Papadias",
  title =        "Historical spatio-temporal aggregation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "61--102",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:07:01 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Adomavicius:2005:ICI,
  author =       "Gediminas Adomavicius and Ramesh Sankaranarayanan and
                 Shahana Sen and Alexander Tuzhilin",
  title =        "Incorporating contextual information in recommender
                 systems using a multidimensional approach",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--145",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:07:01 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Fox:2005:EIM,
  author =       "Steve Fox and Kuldeep Karnawat and Mark Mydland and
                 Susan Dumais and Thomas White",
  title =        "Evaluating implicit measures to improve {Web} search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "147--168",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 26 17:34:31 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Cooper:2005:AHS,
  author =       "Brian F. Cooper and Hector Garcia-Molina",
  title =        "Ad hoc, self-supervising peer-to-peer search
                 networks",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "169--200",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 26 17:34:31 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Xu:2005:CEF,
  author =       "Jennifer J. Xu and Hsinchun Chen",
  title =        "{CrimeNet} explorer: a framework for criminal network
                 knowledge discovery",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "201--226",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 26 17:34:31 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Wei:2005:MBA,
  author =       "Yan Zheng Wei and Luc Moreau and Nicholas R.
                 Jennings",
  title =        "A market-based approach to recommender systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "227--266",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 22 11:21:45 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Park:2005:NDR,
  author =       "Laurence A. F. Park and Kotagiri Ramamohanarao and
                 Marimuthu Palaniswami",
  title =        "A novel document retrieval method using the discrete
                 wavelet transform",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "267--298",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 22 11:21:45 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Gladney:2005:TYD,
  author =       "H. M. Gladney and R. A. Lorie",
  title =        "Trustworthy 100-year digital objects: durable encoding
                 for when it's too late to ask",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "299--324",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 22 11:21:45 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{White:2005:EIF,
  author =       "Ryen W. White and Ian Ruthven and Joemon M. Jose and
                 C. J. Van Rijsbergen",
  title =        "Evaluating implicit feedback models using searcher
                 simulations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "325--361",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 22 11:21:45 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Chuang:2005:TGT,
  author =       "Shui-Lung Chuang and Lee-Feng Chien",
  title =        "Taxonomy generation for text segments: a practical
                 {Web}-based approach",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "363--396",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 25 06:41:53 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Possas:2005:SBV,
  author =       "Bruno P{\^o}ssas and Nivio Ziviani and Wagner {Meira,
                 Jr.} and Berthier Ribeiro-Neto",
  title =        "Set-based vector model: an efficient approach for
                 correlation-based ranking",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "397--429",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 25 06:41:53 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Pant:2005:LCC,
  author =       "Gautam Pant and Padmini Srinivasan",
  title =        "Learning to crawl: {Comparing} classification
                 schemes",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "430--462",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 25 06:41:53 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Ivory:2005:EWS,
  author =       "Melody Y. Ivory and Rodrick Megraw",
  title =        "Evolution of {Web} site design patterns",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "463--497",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 25 06:41:53 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Zobel:2006:DVS,
  author =       "J. Zobel",
  title =        "Detection of video sequences using compact
                 signatures",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--50",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1125857.1125858",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 22 06:10:51 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Fagni:2006:BPW,
  author =       "Tiziano Fagni and Raffaele Perego and Fabrizio
                 Silvestri and Salvatore Orlando",
  title =        "Boosting the performance of {Web} search engines:
                 {Caching} and prefetching query results by exploiting
                 historical usage data",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--78",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1125857.1125859",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 22 06:10:51 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Qian:2006:SPB,
  author =       "Gang Qian and Qiang Zhu and Qiang Xue and Sakti
                 Pramanik",
  title =        "A space-partitioning-based indexing method for
                 multidimensional non-ordered discrete data spaces",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--110",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1125857.1125860",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 22 06:10:51 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{McDonald:2006:SCS,
  author =       "Daniel M. McDonald and Hsinchun Chen",
  title =        "Summary in context: {Searching} versus browsing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--141",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1125857.1125861",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 22 06:10:51 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Marchionini:2006:TR,
  author =       "Gary Marchionini",
  title =        "{TOIS} reviewers 2003--2005",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "142--143",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1125857.1125862",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 22 06:10:51 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Lee:2006:UEF,
  author =       "Hyowon Lee and Alan F. Smeaton and Noel E. O'Connor
                 and Barry Smyth",
  title =        "User evaluation of {F{\'\i}schl{\'a}r-News}: an
                 automatic broadcast news delivery system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--189",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 09:31:12 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Gao:2006:MFM,
  author =       "Sheng Gao and Wen Wu and Chin-Hui Lee and Tat-Seng
                 Chua",
  title =        "A maximal figure-of-merit {(MFoM)-learning} approach
                 to robust classifier design for text categorization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "190--218",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 09:31:12 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Zhou:2006:ERF,
  author =       "Zhi-Hua Zhou and Ke-Jia Chen and Hong-Bin Dai",
  title =        "Enhancing relevance feedback in image retrieval using
                 unlabeled data",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "219--244",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 09:31:12 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Chen:2006:IIV,
  author =       "Keke Chen and Ling Liu",
  title =        "{iVIBRATE}: {Interactive} visualization-based
                 framework for clustering large datasets",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "245--294",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 09:31:12 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Jiang:2006:ECR,
  author =       "Jing Jiang and Chengxiang Zhai",
  title =        "Extraction of coherent relevant passages using hidden
                 {Markov} models",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "295--319",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165774.1165775",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 11 07:12:08 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Shen:2006:QEW,
  author =       "Dou Shen and Rong Pan and Jian-Tao Sun and Jeffrey
                 Junfeng Pan and Kangheng Wu and Jie Yin and Qiang
                 Yang",
  title =        "Query enrichment for web-query classification",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "320--352",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165774.1165776",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 11 07:12:08 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Tsai:2006:CMS,
  author =       "Chih-Fong Tsai and Ken McGarry and John Tait",
  title =        "{CLAIRE}: a modular support vector image indexing and
                 classification system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "353--379",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165774.1165777",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 11 07:12:08 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Yu:2006:LSC,
  author =       "Hong Yu and Won Kim and Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou and
                 John Wilbur",
  title =        "A large scale, corpus-based approach for automatically
                 disambiguating biomedical abbreviations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "380--404",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165774.1165778",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 11 07:12:08 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Abbreviations and acronyms are widely used in the
                 biomedical literature and many of them represent
                 important biomedical concepts. Because many
                 abbreviations are ambiguous (e.g., CAT denotes both
                 chloramphenicol acetyl transferase and computed axial
                 tomography, depending on the context), recognizing the
                 full form associated with each abbreviation is in most
                 cases equivalent to identifying the meaning of the
                 abbreviation. This, in turn, allows us to perform more
                 accurate natural language processing, information
                 extraction, and retrieval. In this study, we have
                 developed supervised approaches to identifying the full
                 forms of ambiguous abbreviations within the context
                 they appear. We first automatically assigned multiple
                 possible full forms for each abbreviation; we then
                 treated the in-context full-form prediction for each
                 specific abbreviation occurrence as a case of
                 word-sense disambiguation. We generated automatically a
                 dictionary of all possible full forms for each
                 abbreviation. We applied supervised machine-learning
                 algorithms for disambiguation. Because some of the
                 links between abbreviations and their corresponding
                 full forms are explicitly given in the text and can be
                 recovered automatically, we can use these explicit
                 links to automatically provide training data for
                 disambiguating the abbreviations that are not linked to
                 a full form within a text. We evaluated our methods on
                 over 150 thousand abstracts and obtain for coverage and
                 precision results of 82\% and 92\%, respectively, when
                 performed as tenfold cross-validation, and 79\% and
                 80\%, respectively, when evaluated against an external
                 set of abstracts in which the abbreviations are not
                 defined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Baeza-Yates:2006:ISI,
  author =       "Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Norbert Fuhr and Yoelle
                 Maarek",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on {XML} retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "405--406",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1185877.1185878",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Kamps:2006:AIN,
  author =       "Jaap Kamps and Maarten Marx and Maarten de Rijke and
                 B{\"o}rkur Sigurbj{\"o}rnsson",
  title =        "Articulating information needs in {XML} query
                 languages",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "407--436",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1185877.1185879",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and
                 structure. With the increased availability of
                 document-centric XML documents comes a need for query
                 facilities in which both structural constraints and
                 constraints on the content of the documents can be
                 expressed. How does the expressiveness of languages for
                 querying XML documents help users to express their
                 information needs? We address this question from both
                 an experimental and a theoretical point of view. Our
                 experimental analysis compares a structure-ignorant
                 with a structure-aware retrieval approach using the
                 test suite of the INEX XML Retrieval Evaluation
                 Initiative. Theoretically, we create two mathematical
                 models of users' knowledge of a set of documents and
                 define query languages which exactly fit these models.
                 One of these languages corresponds to an XML version of
                 fielded search, the other to the INEX query language.
                 Our main experimental findings are: First, while
                 structure is used in varying degrees of complexity,
                 two-thirds of the queries can be expressed in a
                 fielded-search-like format which does not use the
                 hierarchical structure of the documents. Second,
                 three-quarters of the queries use constraints on the
                 context of the elements to be returned; these
                 contextual constraints cannot be captured by ordinary
                 keyword queries. Third, structure is used as a search
                 hint, and not as a strict requirement, when judged
                 against the underlying information need. Fourth, the
                 use of structure in queries functions as a precision
                 enhancing device.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Full-text XML querying; XML retrieval; XPath",
}

@Article{Crouch:2006:DER,
  author =       "Carolyn J. Crouch",
  title =        "Dynamic element retrieval in a structured
                 environment",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "437--454",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1185877.1185880",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This research examines the feasibility of dynamic
                 element retrieval in a structured environment.
                 Structured documents and queries are represented in
                 extended vector form, based on a modification of the
                 basic vector space model suggested by Fox [1983]. A
                 method for the dynamic retrieval of XML elements, which
                 requires only a single indexing of the documents at the
                 level of the basic indexing node, is presented. This
                 method, which we refer to as flexible retrieval,
                 produces a rank ordered list of retrieved elements that
                 is equivalent to the result produced by the same
                 retrieval against an all-element index of the
                 collection. Flexible retrieval obviates the need for
                 storing either an all-element index or multiple indices
                 of the collection.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "dynamic element retrieval; flexible retrieval;
                 structured retrieval; vector space model; XML",
}

@Article{Lehtonen:2006:PHX,
  author =       "Miro Lehtonen",
  title =        "Preparing heterogeneous {XML} for full-text search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "455--474",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1185877.1185881",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "XML retrieval is facing new challenges when applied to
                 heterogeneous XML documents, where next to nothing
                 about the document structure can be taken for granted.
                 We have developed solutions where some of the
                 heterogeneity issues are addressed. Our fragment
                 selection algorithm selectively divides a heterogeneous
                 document collection into equi-sized fragments with
                 full-text content. If the content is considered too
                 data-oriented, it is not accepted. The algorithm needs
                 no information about element names. In addition, three
                 techniques for fragment expansion are presented, all of
                 which yield a 13--17\% average improvement in average
                 precision. These techniques and algorithms are among
                 the first steps in developing document-type-independent
                 indexing methods for the full text in heterogeneous XML
                 collections.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "heterogeneous documents; indexing; XML retrieval",
}

@Article{Geneves:2006:SSA,
  author =       "Pierre Genev{\`e}s and Nabil Laya{\"\i}da",
  title =        "A system for the static analysis of {XPath}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "475--502",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1185877.1185882",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "XPath is the standard language for navigating XML
                 documents and returning a set of matching nodes. We
                 present a sound and complete decision procedure for
                 containment of XPath queries, as well as other related
                 XPath decision problems such as satisfiability,
                 equivalence, overlap, and coverage. The considered
                 XPath fragment covers most of the language features
                 used in practice. Specifically, we propose a unifying
                 logic for XML, namely, the alternation-free modal
                 $\mu$-calculus with converse. We show how to translate
                 major XML concepts such as XPath and regular XML types
                 (including DTDs) into this logic. Based on these
                 embeddings, we show how XPath decision problems, in the
                 presence or absence of XML types, can be solved using a
                 decision procedure for $\mu$-calculus satisfiability.
                 We provide a complexity analysis of our system together
                 with practical experiments to illustrate the efficiency
                 of the approach for realistic scenarios.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Containment; equivalence; logic; query; XML; XPath",
}

@Article{Kazai:2006:ECG,
  author =       "Gabriella Kazai and Mounia Lalmas",
  title =        "{eXtended} cumulated gain measures for the evaluation
                 of content-oriented {XML} retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "503--542",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1185877.1185883",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose and evaluate a family of measures, the
                 eXtended Cumulated Gain (XCG) measures, for the
                 evaluation of content-oriented XML retrieval
                 approaches. Our aim is to provide an evaluation
                 framework that allows the consideration of dependency
                 among XML document components. In particular, two
                 aspects of dependency are considered: (1) near-misses,
                 which are document components that are structurally
                 related to relevant components, such as a neighboring
                 paragraph or container section, and (2) overlap, which
                 regards the situation wherein the same text fragment is
                 referenced multiple times, for example, when a
                 paragraph and its container section are both retrieved.
                 A further consideration is that the measures should be
                 flexible enough so that different models of user
                 behavior may be instantiated within. Both system- and
                 user-oriented aspects are investigated and both recall
                 and precision-like qualities are measured. We evaluate
                 the reliability of the proposed measures based on the
                 INEX 2004 test collection. For example, the effects of
                 assessment variation and topic set size on evaluation
                 stability are investigated, and the upper and lower
                 bounds of expected error rates are established. The
                 evaluation demonstrates that the XCG measures are
                 stable and reliable, and in particular, that the novel
                 measures of effort-precision and gain-recall ( ep / gr
                 ) show comparable behavior to established IR measures
                 like precision and recall.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "cumulated gain; dependency; evaluation; INEX; metrics;
                 near-miss; overlap; XML retrieval",
}

@Article{Piwowarski:2007:PRU,
  author =       "B. Piwowarski and P. Gallinari and G. Dupret",
  title =        "Precision recall with user modeling {(PRUM)}:
                 {Application} to structured information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1198296.1198297",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Standard Information Retrieval (IR) metrics are not
                 well suited for new paradigms like XML or Web IR in
                 which retrievable information units are document
                 elements and/or sets of related documents. Part of the
                 problem stems from the classical hypotheses on the user
                 models: They do not take into account the structural or
                 logical context of document elements or the possibility
                 of navigation between units. This article proposes an
                 explicit and formal user model that encompasses a large
                 variety of user behaviors. Based on this model, we
                 extend the probabilistic precision-recall metric to
                 deal with the new IR paradigms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Evaluation; information retrieval; measure;
                 precision-recall; Web; XML",
}

@Article{Lam:2007:NET,
  author =       "Wai Lam and Shing-Kit Chan and Ruizhang Huang",
  title =        "Named entity translation matching and learning: {With}
                 application for mining unseen translations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1198296.1198298",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article introduces a named entity matching model
                 that makes use of both semantic and phonetic evidence.
                 The matching of semantic and phonetic information is
                 captured by a unified framework via a bipartite graph
                 model. By considering various technical challenges of
                 the problem, including order insensitivity and partial
                 matching, this approach is less rigid than existing
                 approaches and highly robust. One major component is a
                 phonetic matching model which exploits similarity at
                 the phoneme level. Two learning algorithms for learning
                 the similarity information of basic phonemic matching
                 units based on training examples are investigated. By
                 applying the proposed named entity matching model, a
                 mining system is developed for discovering new named
                 entity translations from daily Web news. The system is
                 able to discover new name translations that cannot be
                 found in the existing bilingual dictionary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "learning phonetic information; named entity
                 translation; Text mining",
}

@Article{Chai:2007:EIU,
  author =       "Joyce Y. Chai and Chen Zhang and Rong Jin",
  title =        "An empirical investigation of user term feedback in
                 text-based targeted image search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1198296.1198299",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Text queries are natural and intuitive for users to
                 describe their information needs. However, text-based
                 image retrieval faces many challenges. Traditional text
                 retrieval techniques on image descriptions have not
                 been very successful. This is mainly due to the
                 inconsistent textual descriptions and the discrepancies
                 between user queries and terms in the descriptions. To
                 investigate strategies to alleviate this vocabulary
                 problem, this article examines the role of user term
                 feedback in targeted image search that is based on
                 text-based image retrieval. Term feedback refers to the
                 feedback from a user on specific terms regarding their
                 relevance to a target image. Previous studies have
                 indicated the effectiveness of term feedback in
                 interactive text retrieval. However, in our experiments
                 on text-based image retrieval, the term feedback has
                 not been shown to be effective. Our results indicate
                 that, although term feedback has a positive effect by
                 allowing users to identify more relevant terms, it also
                 has a strong negative effect by providing more
                 opportunities for users to specify irrelevant terms. To
                 understand these different effects and their
                 implications, this article further analyzes important
                 factors that contribute to the utility of term feedback
                 and discusses the outlook of term feedback in
                 interactive text-based image retrieval.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Text-based interactive image retrieval; user term
                 feedback",
}

@Article{Talvensaari:2007:CEC,
  author =       "Tuomas Talvensaari and Jorma Laurikkala and Kalervo
                 J{\"a}rvelin and Martti Juhola and Heikki Keskustalo",
  title =        "Creating and exploiting a comparable corpus in
                 cross-language information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1198296.1198300",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a method for creating a comparable text
                 corpus from two document collections in different
                 languages. The collections can be very different in
                 origin. In this study, we build a comparable corpus
                 from articles by a Swedish news agency and a U.S.
                 newspaper. The keys with best resolution power were
                 extracted from the documents of one collection, the
                 source collection, by using the relative average term
                 frequency (RATF) value. The keys were translated into
                 the language of the other collection, the target
                 collection, with a dictionary-based query translation
                 program. The translated queries were run against the
                 target collection and an alignment pair was made if the
                 retrieved documents matched given date and similarity
                 score criteria. The resulting comparable collection was
                 used as a similarity thesaurus to translate queries
                 along with a dictionary-based translator. The combined
                 approaches outperformed translation schemes where
                 dictionary-based translation or corpus translation was
                 used alone.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "comparable corpora; Cross-language information
                 retrieval; query translation",
}

@Article{Ma:2007:IBP,
  author =       "Zhongming Ma and Gautam Pant and Olivia R. Liu Sheng",
  title =        "Interest-based personalized search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1198296.1198301",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Web search engines typically provide search results
                 without considering user interests or context. We
                 propose a personalized search approach that can easily
                 extend a conventional search engine on the client side.
                 Our mapping framework automatically maps a set of known
                 user interests onto a group of categories in the Open
                 Directory Project (ODP) and takes advantage of manually
                 edited data available in ODP for training text
                 classifiers that correspond to, and therefore
                 categorize and personalize search results according to
                 user interests. In two sets of controlled experiments,
                 we compare our personalized categorization system
                 (PCAT) with a list interface system (LIST) that mimics
                 a typical search engine and with a nonpersonalized
                 categorization system (CAT). In both experiments, we
                 analyze system performances on the basis of the type of
                 task and query length. We find that PCAT is preferable
                 to LIST for information gathering types of tasks and
                 for searches with short queries, and PCAT outperforms
                 CAT in both information gathering and finding types of
                 tasks, and for searches associated with free-form
                 queries. From the subjects' answers to a questionnaire,
                 we find that PCAT is perceived as a system that can
                 find relevant Web pages quicker and easier than LIST
                 and CAT.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "information retrieval; Open Directory; Personalized
                 search; user interest; user interface; World Wide Web",
}

@Article{Lin:2007:EPU,
  author =       "Jimmy Lin",
  title =        "An exploration of the principles underlying
                 redundancy-based factoid question answering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229179.1229180",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The so-called ``redundancy-based'' approach to
                 question answering represents a successful strategy for
                 mining answers to factoid questions such as ``Who shot
                 Abraham Lincoln?'' from the World Wide Web. Through
                 contrastive and ablation experiments with Aranea, a
                 system that has performed well in several TREC QA
                 evaluations, this work examines the underlying
                 assumptions and principles behind redundancy-based
                 techniques. Specifically, we develop two theses: that
                 stable characteristics of data redundancy allow factoid
                 systems to rely on external ``black box'' components,
                 and that despite embodying a data-driven approach,
                 redundancy-based methods encode a substantial amount of
                 knowledge in the form of heuristics. Overall, this work
                 attempts to address the broader question of ``what
                 really matters'' and to provide guidance for future
                 researchers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Data redundancy; Web search",
}

@Article{Joachims:2007:EAI,
  author =       "Thorsten Joachims and Laura Granka and Bing Pan and
                 Helene Hembrooke and Filip Radlinski and Geri Gay",
  title =        "Evaluating the accuracy of implicit feedback from
                 clicks and query reformulations in {Web} search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229179.1229181",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article examines the reliability of implicit
                 feedback generated from clickthrough data and query
                 reformulations in World Wide Web (WWW) search.
                 Analyzing the users' decision process using eyetracking
                 and comparing implicit feedback against manual
                 relevance judgments, we conclude that clicks are
                 informative but biased. While this makes the
                 interpretation of clicks as absolute relevance
                 judgments difficult, we show that relative preferences
                 derived from clicks are reasonably accurate on average.
                 We find that such relative preferences are accurate not
                 only between results from an individual query, but
                 across multiple sets of results within chains of query
                 reformulations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Clickthrough data; eye-tracking; implicit feedback;
                 query reformulations; user studies",
}

@Article{Cui:2007:SPM,
  author =       "Hang Cui and Min-Yen Kan and Tat-Seng Chua",
  title =        "Soft pattern matching models for definitional question
                 answering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229179.1229182",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We explore probabilistic lexico-syntactic pattern
                 matching, also known as soft pattern matching, in a
                 definitional question answering system. Most current
                 systems use regular expression-based hard matching
                 patterns to identify definition sentences. Such rigid
                 surface matching often fares poorly when faced with
                 language variations. We propose two soft matching
                 models to address this problem: one based on bigrams
                 and the other on the Profile Hidden Markov Model
                 (PHMM). Both models provide a theoretically sound
                 method to model pattern matching as a probabilistic
                 process that generates token sequences. We demonstrate
                 the effectiveness of the models on definition sentence
                 retrieval for definitional question answering. We show
                 that both models significantly outperform the
                 state-of-the-art manually constructed hard matching
                 patterns on recent TREC data.\par

                 A critical difference between the two models is that
                 the PHMM has a more complex topology. We experimentally
                 show that the PHMM can handle language variations more
                 effectively but requires more training data to
                 converge.\par

                 While we evaluate soft pattern models only on
                 definitional question answering, we believe that both
                 models are generic and can be extended to other areas
                 where lexico-syntactic pattern matching can be
                 applied.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "definitional question answering; Soft patterns",
}

@Article{Beitzel:2007:ACW,
  author =       "Steven M. Beitzel and Eric C. Jensen and David D.
                 Lewis and Abdur Chowdhury and Ophir Frieder",
  title =        "Automatic classification of {Web} queries using very
                 large unlabeled query logs",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229179.1229183",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:51:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Accurate topical classification of user queries allows
                 for increased effectiveness and efficiency in
                 general-purpose Web search systems. Such classification
                 becomes critical if the system must route queries to a
                 subset of topic-specific and resource-constrained
                 back-end databases. Successful query classification
                 poses a challenging problem, as Web queries are short,
                 thus providing few features. This feature sparseness,
                 coupled with the constantly changing distribution and
                 vocabulary of queries, hinders traditional text
                 classification. We attack this problem by combining
                 multiple classifiers, including exact lookup and
                 partial matching in databases of manually classified
                 frequent queries, linear models trained by supervised
                 learning, and a novel approach based on mining
                 selectional preferences from a large unlabeled query
                 log. Our approach classifies queries without using
                 external sources of information, such as online Web
                 directories or the contents of retrieved pages, making
                 it viable for use in demanding operational
                 environments, such as large-scale Web search services.
                 We evaluate our approach using a large sample of
                 queries from an operational Web search engine and show
                 that our combined method increases recall by nearly
                 40\% over the best single method while maintaining
                 adequate precision. Additionally, we compare our
                 results to those from the 2005 KDD Cup and find that we
                 perform competitively despite our operational
                 restrictions. This suggests it is possible to topically
                 classify a significant portion of the query stream
                 without requiring external sources of information,
                 allowing for deployment in operationally restricted
                 environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Baralis:2007:AXQ,
  author =       "Elena Baralis and Paolo Garza and Elisa Quintarelli
                 and Letizia Tanca",
  title =        "Answering {XML} queries by means of data summaries",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1247715.1247716",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "XML is a rather verbose representation of
                 semistructured data, which may require huge amounts of
                 storage space. We propose a summarized representation
                 of XML data, based on the concept of instance pattern,
                 which can both provide succinct information and be
                 directly queried. The physical representation of
                 instance patterns exploits itemsets or association
                 rules to summarize the content of XML datasets.
                 Instance patterns may be used for (possibly partially)
                 answering queries, either when fast and approximate
                 answers are required, or when the actual dataset is not
                 available, for example, it is currently unreachable.
                 Experiments on large XML documents show that instance
                 patterns allow a significant reduction in storage
                 space, while preserving almost entirely the
                 completeness of the query result. Furthermore, they
                 provide fast query answers and show good scalability on
                 the size of the dataset, thus overcoming the document
                 size limitation of most current XQuery engines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Association rules; data mining; data summarization;
                 intensional answers; itemsets; semistructured data",
}

@Article{Cormack:2007:OSS,
  author =       "Gordon V. Cormack and Thomas R. Lynam",
  title =        "Online supervised spam filter evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1247715.1247717",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Eleven variants of six widely used open-source spam
                 filters are tested on a chronological sequence of 49086
                 e-mail messages received by an individual from August
                 2003 through March 2004. Our approach differs from
                 those previously reported in that the test set is
                 large, comprises uncensored raw messages, and is
                 presented to each filter sequentially with incremental
                 feedback. Misclassification rates and Receiver
                 Operating Characteristic Curve measurements are
                 reported, with statistical confidence intervals.
                 Quantitative results indicate that content-based
                 filters can eliminate 98\% of spam while incurring
                 0.1\% legitimate email loss. Qualitative results
                 indicate that the risk of loss depends on the nature of
                 the message, and that messages likely to be lost may be
                 those that are less critical. More generally, our
                 methodology has been encapsulated in a free software
                 toolkit, which may used to conduct similar
                 experiments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "email; Spam; text classification",
}

@Article{Zhou:2007:DPM,
  author =       "Changqing Zhou and Dan Frankowski and Pamela Ludford
                 and Shashi Shekhar and Loren Terveen",
  title =        "Discovering personally meaningful places: an
                 interactive clustering approach",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1247715.1247718",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The discovery of a person's meaningful places involves
                 obtaining the physical locations and their labels for a
                 person's places that matter to his daily life and
                 routines. This problem is driven by the requirements
                 from emerging location-aware applications, which allow
                 a user to pose queries and obtain information in
                 reference to places, for example, ``home'', ``work'' or
                 ``Northwest Health Club''. It is a challenge to map
                 from physical locations to personally meaningful places
                 due to a lack of understanding of what constitutes the
                 real users' personally meaningful places. Previous work
                 has explored algorithms to discover personal places
                 from location data. However, we know of no systematic
                 empirical evaluations of these algorithms, leaving
                 designers of location-aware applications in the dark
                 about their choices.\par Our work remedies this
                 situation. We extended a clustering algorithm to
                 discover places. We also defined a set of essential
                 evaluation metrics and an interactive evaluation
                 framework. We then conducted a large-scale experiment
                 that collected real users' location data and personally
                 meaningful places, and illustrated the utility of our
                 evaluation framework. Our results establish a baseline
                 that future work can measure itself against. They also
                 demonstrate that our algorithm discovers places with
                 reasonable accuracy and outperforms the well-known
                 K-Means clustering algorithm for place discovery.
                 Finally, we provide evidence that shapes more complex
                 than ``points'' are required to represent the full
                 range of people's everyday places.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "clustering algorithms; field studies; location-aware
                 applications; place discovery; Ubiquitous computing",
}

@Article{He:2007:SHP,
  author =       "Ben He and Iadh Ounis",
  title =        "On setting the hyper-parameters of term frequency
                 normalization for information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1247715.1247719",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The setting of the term frequency normalization
                 hyper-parameter suffers from the query dependence and
                 collection dependence problems, which remarkably hurt
                 the robustness of the retrieval performance. Our study
                 in this article investigates three term frequency
                 normalization methods, namely normalization 2, BM25's
                 normalization and the Dirichlet Priors normalization.
                 We tackle the query dependence problem by modifying the
                 query term weight using a Divergence From Randomness
                 term weighting model, and tackle the collection
                 dependence problem by measuring the correlation of the
                 normalized term frequency with the document length. Our
                 research hypotheses for the two problems, as well as an
                 automatic hyper-parameter setting methodology, are
                 extensively validated and evaluated on four Text
                 REtrieval Conference (TREC) collections.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "collection-dependence; information retrieval models;
                 Query-dependence; relevance feedback; term frequency
                 normalization; TREC experimentation",
}

@Article{Jones:2007:TPQ,
  author =       "Rosie Jones and Fernando Diaz",
  title =        "Temporal profiles of queries",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1247715.1247720",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Documents with timestamps, such as email and news, can
                 be placed along a timeline. The timeline for a set of
                 documents returned in response to a query gives an
                 indication of how documents relevant to that query are
                 distributed in time. Examining the timeline of a query
                 result set allows us to characterize both how
                 temporally dependent the topic is, as well as how
                 relevant the results are likely to be. We outline
                 characteristic patterns in query result set timelines,
                 and show experimentally that we can automatically
                 classify documents into these classes. We also show
                 that properties of the query result set timeline can
                 help predict the mean average precision of a query.
                 These results show that meta-features associated with a
                 query can be combined with text retrieval techniques to
                 improve our understanding and treatment of text search
                 on documents with timestamps.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "ambiguity; event detection; language models; precision
                 prediction; query classification; temporal profiles;
                 Time",
}

@Article{Marchionini:2007:TRJ,
  author =       "Gary Marchionini",
  title =        "{TOIS} reviewers {January} 2006 through {May} 2007",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1281485.1281486",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Bailey:2007:AHT,
  author =       "Christopher Bailey and Wendy Hall and David E. Millard
                 and Mark J. Weal",
  title =        "Adaptive hypermedia through contextualized open
                 hypermedia structures",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1281485.1281487",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The aim of this article is to produce an alternative
                 view of the adaptive hypermedia (AH) domain from a
                 contextually-aware open hypermedia (OH) perspective. We
                 believe that a wide range of AH techniques can be
                 supported with a small number of OH structures, which
                 can be combined together to create more complex
                 effects, possibly simplifying the development of new AH
                 systems.\par

                 In this work we reexamine Brusilovsky's taxonomy of AH
                 techniques from a structural OH perspective. We also
                 show that it is possible to identify and model common
                 structures across the taxonomy of adaptive techniques.
                 An agent-based adaptive hypermedia system called HA 3 L
                 is presented, which uses these OH structures to provide
                 a straightforward implementation of a variety of
                 adaptive hypermedia techniques. This enables us to
                 reflect on the structural equivalence of many of the
                 techniques, demonstrates the advantages of the OH
                 approach, and can inform the design of future adaptive
                 hypermedia systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "adaptive hypermedia; Adaptive techniques; FOHM;
                 hypermedia structure; open hypermedia",
}

@Article{Fang:2007:SMT,
  author =       "Xiao Fang and Olivia R. Liu Sheng and Michael Chau",
  title =        "{ServiceFinder}: a method towards enhancing service
                 portals",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1281485.1281488",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The rapid advancement of Internet technologies enables
                 more and more educational institutes, companies, and
                 government agencies to provide services, namely online
                 services, through web portals. With hundreds of online
                 services provided through a web portal, it is critical
                 to design web portals, namely service portals, through
                 which online services can be easily accessed by their
                 consumers. This article addresses this critical issue
                 from the perspective of service selection, that is, how
                 to select a small number of service-links (i.e.,
                 hyperlinks pointing to online services) to be featured
                 in the homepage of a service portal such that users can
                 be directed to find the online services they seek most
                 effectively. We propose a mathematically formulated
                 metric to measure the effectiveness of the selected
                 service-links in directing users to locate their
                 desired online services and formally define the service
                 selection problem. A solution method, ServiceFinder, is
                 then proposed. Using real-world data obtained from the
                 Utah State Government service portal, we show that
                 ServiceFinder outperforms both the current practice of
                 service selection and previous algorithms for adaptive
                 website design. We also show that the performance of
                 ServiceFinder is close to that of the optimal solution
                 resulting from exhaustive search.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "online service; Service portal; service selection",
}

@Article{Majumder:2007:YYA,
  author =       "Prasenjit Majumder and Mandar Mitra and Swapan K.
                 Parui and Gobinda Kole and Pabitra Mitra and
                 Kalyankumar Datta",
  title =        "{YASS}: {Yet} another suffix stripper",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1281485.1281489",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Stemmers attempt to reduce a word to its stem or root
                 form and are used widely in information retrieval tasks
                 to increase the recall rate. Most popular stemmers
                 encode a large number of language-specific rules built
                 over a length of time. Such stemmers with comprehensive
                 rules are available only for a few languages. In the
                 absence of extensive linguistic resources for certain
                 languages, statistical language processing tools have
                 been successfully used to improve the performance of IR
                 systems. In this article, we describe a
                 clustering-based approach to discover equivalence
                 classes of root words and their morphological variants.
                 A set of string distance measures are defined, and the
                 lexicon for a given text collection is clustered using
                 the distance measures to identify these equivalence
                 classes. The proposed approach is compared with
                 Porter's and Lovin's stemmers on the AP and WSJ
                 subcollections of the Tipster dataset using 200
                 queries. Its performance is comparable to that of
                 Porter's and Lovin's stemmers, both in terms of average
                 precision and the total number of relevant documents
                 retrieved. The proposed stemming algorithm also
                 provides consistent improvements in retrieval
                 performance for French and Bengali, which are currently
                 resource-poor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Bengali; clustering; corpus; French; Indian languages;
                 stemming; string similarity",
}

@Article{Pinto:2007:NXM,
  author =       "Alberto Pinto and Goffredo Haus",
  title =        "A novel {XML} music information retrieval method using
                 graph invariants",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1281485.1281490",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The increasing diffusion of XML languages for the
                 encoding of domain-specific multimedia information
                 raises the need for new information retrieval models
                 that can fully exploit structural information. An XML
                 language specifically designed for music like MX allows
                 queries to be made directly on the thematic material.
                 The main advantage of such a system is that it can
                 handle symbolic, notational, and audio objects at the
                 same time through a multilayered structure. On the
                 model side, common music information retrieval methods
                 do not take into account the inner structure of melodic
                 themes and the metric relationships between
                 notes.\par

                 In this article we deal with two main topics: a novel
                 architecture based on a new XML language for music and
                 a new model of melodic themes based on graph
                 theory.\par

                 This model takes advantage of particular graph
                 invariants that can be linked to melodic themes as
                 metadata in order to characterize all their possible
                 modifications through specific transformations and that
                 can be exploited in filtering algorithms. We provide a
                 similarity function and show through an evaluation
                 stage how it improves existing methods, particularly in
                 the case of same-structured themes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Graphs; invariants; melodic similarity; metadata;
                 music; music information retrieval; structural
                 properties; XML",
}

@Article{Gerstel:2007:RHI,
  author =       "Ori Gerstel and Shay Kutten and Eduardo Sany Laber and
                 Rachel Matichin and David Peleg and Artur Alves Pessoa
                 and Criston Souza",
  title =        "Reducing human interactions in {Web} directory
                 searches",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1281485.1281491",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Consider a website containing a collection of webpages
                 with data such as in Yahoo or the Open Directory
                 project. Each page is associated with a weight
                 representing the frequency with which that page is
                 accessed by users. In the tree hierarchy
                 representation, accessing each page requires the user
                 to travel along the path leading to it from the root.
                 By enhancing the index tree with additional edges
                 (hotlinks) one may reduce the access cost of the
                 system. In other words, the hotlinks reduce the
                 expected number of steps needed to reach a leaf page
                 from the tree root, assuming that the user knows which
                 hotlinks to take. The hotlink enhancement problem
                 involves finding a set of hotlinks minimizing this
                 cost.\par

                 This article proposes the first exact algorithm for the
                 hotlink enhancement problem. This algorithm runs in
                 polynomial time for trees with logarithmic depth.
                 Experiments conducted with real data show that
                 significant improvement in the expected number of
                 accesses per search can be achieved in websites using
                 this algorithm. These experiments also suggest that the
                 simple and much faster heuristic proposed previously by
                 Czyzowicz et al. [2003] creates hotlinks that are
                 nearly optimal in the time savings they provide to the
                 user.\par

                 The version of the hotlink enhancement problem in which
                 the weight distribution on the leaves is unknown is
                 discussed as well. We present a polynomial-time
                 algorithm that is optimal for any tree for any depth.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "algorithms; directory tree; Hotlink; hotlist;
                 hyperlink",
}

@Article{Jensen:2007:RES,
  author =       "Eric C. Jensen and Steven M. Beitzel and Abdur
                 Chowdhury and Ophir Frieder",
  title =        "Repeatable evaluation of search services in dynamic
                 environments",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292592",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In dynamic environments, such as the World Wide Web, a
                 changing document collection, query population, and set
                 of search services demands frequent repetition of
                 search effectiveness (relevance) evaluations.
                 Reconstructing static test collections, such as in
                 TREC, requires considerable human effort, as large
                 collection sizes demand judgments deep into retrieved
                 pools. In practice it is common to perform shallow
                 evaluations over small numbers of live engines (often
                 pairwise, engine A vs. engine B) without system
                 pooling. Although these evaluations are not intended to
                 construct reusable test collections, their utility
                 depends on conclusions generalizing to the query
                 population as a whole. We leverage the bootstrap
                 estimate of the reproducibility probability of
                 hypothesis tests in determining the query sample sizes
                 required to ensure this, finding they are much larger
                 than those required for static collections. We propose
                 a semiautomatic evaluation framework to reduce this
                 effort. We validate this framework against a manual
                 evaluation of the top ten results of ten Web search
                 engines across 896 queries in navigational and
                 informational tasks. Augmenting manual judgments with
                 pseudo-relevance judgments mined from Web taxonomies
                 reduces both the chances of missing a correct pairwise
                 conclusion, and those of finding an errant conclusion,
                 by approximately 50\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Evaluation; Web search",
}

@Article{Pirkola:2007:FBI,
  author =       "Ari Pirkola and Jarmo Toivonen and Heikki Keskustalo
                 and Kalervo J{\"a}rvelin",
  title =        "Frequency-based identification of correct translation
                 equivalents {(FITE)} obtained through transformation
                 rules",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292593",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We devised a novel statistical technique for the
                 identification of the translation equivalents of source
                 words obtained by transformation rule based translation
                 (TRT). The effectiveness of the technique called
                 frequency-based identification of translation
                 equivalents ( FITE ) was tested using biological and
                 medical cross-lingual spelling variants and
                 out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in Spanish--English and
                 Finnish-English TRT. The results showed that, depending
                 on the source language and frequency corpus, FITE-TRT
                 (the identification of translation equivalents from
                 TRT's translation set by means of the FITE technique)
                 may achieve high translation recall. In the case of the
                 Web as the frequency corpus, translation recall was
                 89.2\%--91.0\% for Spanish--English FITE-TRT. For both
                 language pairs FITE-TRT achieved high translation
                 precision: 95.0\%--98.8\%. The technique also reliably
                 identified native source language words: source words
                 that cannot be correctly translated by TRT.
                 Dictionary-based CLIR augmented with FITE-TRT performed
                 substantially better than basic dictionary-based CLIR
                 where OOV keys were kept intact. FITE-TRT with Web
                 document frequencies was the best technique among
                 several fuzzy translation/matching approaches tested in
                 cross-language retrieval experiments. We also discuss
                 the application of FITE-TRT in the automatic
                 construction of multilingual dictionaries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Cross-language information retrieval; fuzzy matching;
                 OOV words; transformation rules; transliteration",
}

@Article{Agosti:2007:FMA,
  author =       "Maristella Agosti and Nicola Ferro",
  title =        "A formal model of annotations of digital content",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292594",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article is a study of the themes and issues
                 concerning the annotation of digital contents, such as
                 textual documents, images, and multimedia documents in
                 general. These digital contents are automatically
                 managed by different kinds of digital library
                 management systems and more generally by different
                 kinds of information management systems.\par

                 Even though this topic has already been partially
                 studied by other researchers, the previous research
                 work on annotations has left many open issues. These
                 issues concern the lack of clarity about what an
                 annotation is, what its features are, and how it is
                 used. These issues are mainly due to the fact that
                 models and systems for annotations have only been
                 developed for specific purposes. As a result, there is
                 only a fragmentary picture of the annotation and its
                 management, and this is tied to specific contexts of
                 use and lacks-general validity.\par

                 The aim of the article is to provide a unified and
                 integrated picture of the annotation, ranging from
                 defining what an annotation is to providing a formal
                 model. The key ideas of the model are: the distinction
                 between the meaning and the sign of the annotation,
                 which represent the semantics and the materialization
                 of an annotation, respectively; the clear formalization
                 of the temporal dimension involved with annotations;
                 and the introduction of a distributed hypertext between
                 digital contents and annotations. Therefore, the
                 proposed formal model captures both syntactic and
                 semantic aspects of the annotations. Furthermore, it is
                 built on previously existing models and may be seen as
                 an extension of them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Annotation; digital content; digital library system;
                 foundations; hypertext",
}

@Article{Im:2007:DOS,
  author =       "Il Im and Alexander Hars",
  title =        "Does a one-size recommendation system fit all? the
                 effectiveness of collaborative filtering based
                 recommendation systems across different domains and
                 search modes",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292595",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Collaborative filtering (CF) is a personalization
                 technology that generates recommendations for users
                 based on others' evaluations. CF is used by numerous
                 e-commerce Web sites for providing personalized
                 recommendations. Although much research has focused on
                 refining collaborative filtering algorithms, little is
                 known about the effects of user and domain
                 characteristics on the accuracy of collaborative
                 filtering systems. In this study, the effects of two
                 factors---product domain and users' search mode---on
                 the accuracy of CF are investigated. The effects of
                 those factors are tested using data collected from two
                 experiments in two different product domains, and from
                 two large CF datasets, EachMovie and Book-Crossing. The
                 study shows that the search mode of the users strongly
                 influences the accuracy of the recommendations. CF
                 works better when users look for specific information
                 than when they search for general information. The
                 accuracy drops significantly when data from different
                 modes are mixed. The study also shows that CF is more
                 accurate for knowledge domains than for consumer
                 product domains. The results of this study imply that
                 for more accurate recommendations, collaborative
                 filtering systems should be able to identify and handle
                 users' mode of search, even within the same domain and
                 user group.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Collaborative filtering; recommendation systems",
}

@Article{Darwish:2007:ECV,
  author =       "Kareem Darwish and Walid Magdy",
  title =        "Error correction vs. query garbling for {Arabic OCR}
                 document retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292596",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Due to the existence of large numbers of legacy
                 documents (such as old books and newspapers), improving
                 retrieval effectiveness for OCR'ed documents continues
                 to be an important problem. This article compares the
                 effect of OCR error correction with and without
                 language modeling and the effect of query garbling with
                 weighted structured queries on the retrieval of OCR
                 degraded Arabic documents. The results suggest that
                 moderate error correction does not yield statistically
                 significant improvement in retrieval effectiveness when
                 indexing and searching using n-grams. Also, reversing
                 error correction models to perform query garbling in
                 conjunction with weighted structured queries yields
                 improved retrieval effectiveness. Lastly, using very
                 good error correction that utilizes language modeling
                 yields the best improvement in retrieval
                 effectiveness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Arabic Retrieval; OCR Correction; OCR Retrieval",
}

@Article{Ipeirotis:2008:CAH,
  author =       "Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis and Luis Gravano",
  title =        "Classification-aware hidden-web text database
                 selection",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344411.1344412",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Many valuable text databases on the web have
                 noncrawlable contents that are ``hidden'' behind search
                 interfaces. Metasearchers are helpful tools for
                 searching over multiple such ``hidden-web'' text
                 databases at once through a unified query interface. An
                 important step in the metasearching process is database
                 selection, or determining which databases are the most
                 relevant for a given user query. The state-of-the-art
                 database selection techniques rely on statistical
                 summaries of the database contents, generally including
                 the database vocabulary and associated word
                 frequencies. Unfortunately, hidden-web text databases
                 typically do not export such summaries, so previous
                 research has developed algorithms for constructing
                 approximate content summaries from document samples
                 extracted from the databases via querying. We present a
                 novel ``focused-probing'' sampling algorithm that
                 detects the topics covered in a database and adaptively
                 extracts documents that are representative of the topic
                 coverage of the database. Our algorithm is the first to
                 construct content summaries that include the
                 frequencies of the words in the database.
                 Unfortunately, Zipf's law practically guarantees that
                 for any relatively large database, content summaries
                 built from moderately sized document samples will fail
                 to cover many low-frequency words; in turn, incomplete
                 content summaries might negatively affect the database
                 selection process, especially for short queries with
                 infrequent words. To enhance the sparse document
                 samples and improve the database selection decisions,
                 we exploit the fact that topically similar databases
                 tend to have similar vocabularies, so samples extracted
                 from databases with a similar topical focus can
                 complement each other. We have developed two database
                 selection algorithms that exploit this observation. The
                 first algorithm proceeds hierarchically and selects the
                 best categories for a query, and then sends the query
                 to the appropriate databases in the chosen categories.
                 The second algorithm uses ``shrinkage,'' a statistical
                 technique for improving parameter estimation in the
                 face of sparse data, to enhance the database content
                 summaries with category-specific words. We describe how
                 to modify existing database selection algorithms to
                 adaptively decide (at runtime) whether shrinkage is
                 beneficial for a query. A thorough evaluation over a
                 variety of databases, including 315 real web databases
                 as well as TREC data, suggests that the proposed
                 sampling methods generate high-quality content
                 summaries and that the database selection algorithms
                 produce significantly more relevant database selection
                 decisions and overall search results than existing
                 algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "database selection; Distributed information retrieval;
                 web search",
}

@Article{Abbasi:2008:WSA,
  author =       "Ahmed Abbasi and Hsinchun Chen",
  title =        "Writeprints: a stylometric approach to identity-level
                 identification and similarity detection in cyberspace",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344411.1344413",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "One of the problems often associated with online
                 anonymity is that it hinders social accountability, as
                 substantiated by the high levels of cybercrime.
                 Although identity cues are scarce in cyberspace,
                 individuals often leave behind textual identity traces.
                 In this study we proposed the use of stylometric
                 analysis techniques to help identify individuals based
                 on writing style. We incorporated a rich set of
                 stylistic features, including lexical, syntactic,
                 structural, content-specific, and idiosyncratic
                 attributes. We also developed the Writeprints technique
                 for identification and similarity detection of
                 anonymous identities. Writeprints is a Karhunen-Loeve
                 transforms-based technique that uses a sliding window
                 and pattern disruption algorithm with individual
                 author-level feature sets. The Writeprints technique
                 and extended feature set were evaluated on a testbed
                 encompassing four online datasets spanning different
                 domains: email, instant messaging, feedback comments,
                 and program code. Writeprints outperformed benchmark
                 techniques, including SVM, Ensemble SVM, PCA, and
                 standard Karhunen-Loeve transforms, on the
                 identification and similarity detection tasks with
                 accuracy as high as 94\% when differentiating between
                 100 authors. The extended feature set also
                 significantly outperformed a baseline set of features
                 commonly used in previous research. Furthermore,
                 individual-author-level feature sets generally
                 outperformed use of a single group of attributes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "discourse; online text; style classification;
                 Stylometry; text mining",
}

@Article{Lau:2008:TBR,
  author =       "Raymond Y. K. Lau and Peter D. Bruza and Dawei Song",
  title =        "Towards a belief-revision-based adaptive and
                 context-sensitive information retrieval system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344411.1344414",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In an adaptive information retrieval (IR) setting, the
                 information seekers' beliefs about which terms are
                 relevant or nonrelevant will naturally fluctuate. This
                 article investigates how the theory of belief revision
                 can be used to model adaptive IR. More specifically,
                 belief revision logic provides a rich representation
                 scheme to formalize retrieval contexts so as to
                 disambiguate vague user queries. In addition, belief
                 revision theory underpins the development of an
                 effective mechanism to revise user profiles in
                 accordance with information seekers' changing
                 information needs. It is argued that information
                 retrieval contexts can be extracted by means of the
                 information-flow text mining method so as to realize a
                 highly autonomous adaptive IR system. The extra bonus
                 of a belief-based IR model is that its retrieval
                 behavior is more predictable and explanatory. Our
                 initial experiments show that the belief-based adaptive
                 IR system is as effective as a classical adaptive IR
                 system. To our best knowledge, this is the first
                 successful implementation and evaluation of a
                 logic-based adaptive IR model which can efficiently
                 process large IR collections.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "adaptive information retrieval; Belief revision;
                 information flow; retrieval context; text mining",
}

@Article{deMoura:2008:LBP,
  author =       "Edleno Silva de Moura and Celia Francisca dos Santos
                 and Bruno Dos santos de Araujo and Altigran Soares da
                 Silva and Pavel Calado and Mario A. Nascimento",
  title =        "Locality-Based pruning methods for web search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344411.1344415",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article discusses a novel approach developed for
                 static index pruning that takes into account the
                 locality of occurrences of words in the text. We use
                 this new approach to propose and experiment on simple
                 and effective pruning methods that allow a fast
                 construction of the pruned index. The methods proposed
                 here are especially useful for pruning in environments
                 where the document database changes continuously, such
                 as large-scale web search engines. Extensive
                 experiments are presented showing that the proposed
                 methods can achieve high compression rates while
                 maintaining the quality of results for the most common
                 query types present in modern search engines, namely,
                 conjunctive and phrase queries. In the experiments, our
                 locality-based pruning approach allowed reducing search
                 engine indices to 30\% of their original size, with
                 almost no reduction in precision at the top answers.
                 Furthermore, we conclude that even an extremely simple
                 locality-based pruning method can be competitive when
                 compared to complex methods that do not rely on
                 locality information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "indexing; information retrieval; Pruning; search;
                 search engines; web search",
}

@Article{Wang:2008:DSZ,
  author =       "Xuanhui Wang and Tao Tao and Jian-Tao Sun and Azadeh
                 Shakery and Chengxiang Zhai",
  title =        "{DirichletRank}: {Solving} the zero-one gap problem of
                 {PageRank}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344411.1344416",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Link-based ranking algorithms are among the most
                 important techniques to improve web search. In
                 particular, the PageRank algorithm has been
                 successfully used in the Google search engine and has
                 been attracting much attention recently. However, we
                 find that PageRank has a ``zero-one gap'' problem
                 which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been
                 addressed in any previous work. This problem can be
                 potentially exploited to spam PageRank results and make
                 the state-of-the-art link-based antispamming techniques
                 ineffective. The zero-one gap problem arises as a
                 result of the current ad hoc way of computing
                 transition probabilities in the random surfing model.
                 We therefore propose a novel DirichletRank algorithm
                 which calculates these probabilities using Bayesian
                 estimation with a Dirichlet prior. DirichletRank is a
                 variant of PageRank, but does not have the problem of
                 zero-one gap and can be analytically shown
                 substantially more resistant to some link spams than
                 PageRank. Experiment results on TREC data show that
                 DirichletRank can achieve better retrieval accuracy
                 than PageRank due to its more reasonable allocation of
                 transition probabilities. More importantly, experiments
                 on the TREC dataset and another real web dataset from
                 the Webgraph project show that, compared with the
                 original PageRank, DirichletRank is more stable under
                 link perturbation and is significantly more robust
                 against both manually identified web spams and several
                 simulated link spams. DirichletRank can be computed as
                 efficiently as PageRank, and thus is scalable to
                 large-scale web applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "DirichletRank; link analysis; PageRank; spamming;
                 zero-one gap",
}

@Article{Cohen:2008:RTD,
  author =       "Sara Cohen and Carmel Domshlak and Naama Zwerdling",
  title =        "On ranking techniques for desktop search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344411.1344417",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Users tend to store huge amounts of files, of various
                 formats, on their personal computers. As a result,
                 finding a specific, desired file within the file system
                 is a challenging task. This article addresses the
                 desktop search problem by considering various
                 techniques for ranking results of a search query over
                 the file system. First, basic ranking techniques, which
                 are based on various file features (e.g., file name,
                 access date, file size, etc.), are considered and their
                 effectiveness is empirically analyzed. Next, two
                 learning-based ranking schemes are presented, and are
                 shown to be significantly more effective than the basic
                 ranking methods. Finally, a novel ranking technique,
                 based on query selectiveness, is considered for use
                 during the cold-start period of the system. This method
                 is also shown to be empirically effective, even though
                 it does not involve any learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Desktop search; personal information management;
                 ranking",
}

@Article{Abbasi:2008:SAM,
  author =       "Ahmed Abbasi and Hsinchun Chen and Arab Salem",
  title =        "Sentiment analysis in multiple languages: {Feature}
                 selection for opinion classification in {Web} forums",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361684.1361685",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 08:32:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The Internet is frequently used as a medium for
                 exchange of information and opinions, as well as
                 propaganda dissemination. In this study the use of
                 sentiment analysis methodologies is proposed for
                 classification of Web forum opinions in multiple
                 languages. The utility of stylistic and syntactic
                 features is evaluated for sentiment classification of
                 English and Arabic content. Specific feature extraction
                 components are integrated to account for the linguistic
                 characteristics of Arabic. The entropy weighted genetic
                 algorithm (EWGA) is also developed, which is a
                 hybridized genetic algorithm that incorporates the
                 information-gain heuristic for feature selection. EWGA
                 is designed to improve performance and get a better
                 assessment of key features. The proposed features and
                 techniques are evaluated on a benchmark movie review
                 dataset and U.S. and Middle Eastern Web forum postings.
                 The experimental results using EWGA with SVM indicate
                 high performance levels, with accuracies of over 91\\%
                 on the benchmark dataset as well as the U.S. and Middle
                 Eastern forums. Stylistic features significantly
                 enhanced performance across all testbeds while EWGA
                 also outperformed other feature selection methods,
                 indicating the utility of these features and techniques
                 for document-level classification of sentiments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "feature selection; opinion mining; Sentiment analysis;
                 text classification",
}

@Article{Wu:2008:ITI,
  author =       "Ho Chung Wu and Robert Wing Pong Luk and Kam Fai Wong
                 and Kui Lam Kwok",
  title =        "Interpreting {TF-IDF} term weights as making relevance
                 decisions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361684.1361686",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 08:32:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "A novel probabilistic retrieval model is presented. It
                 forms a basis to interpret the TF-IDF term weights as
                 making relevance decisions. It simulates the local
                 relevance decision-making for every location of a
                 document, and combines all of these ``local'' relevance
                 decisions as the ``document-wide'' relevance decision
                 for the document. The significance of interpreting
                 TF-IDF in this way is the potential to: (1) establish a
                 unifying perspective about information retrieval as
                 relevance decision-making; and (2) develop advanced
                 TF-IDF-related term weights for future elaborate
                 retrieval models. Our novel retrieval model is
                 simplified to a basic ranking formula that directly
                 corresponds to the TF-IDF term weights. In general, we
                 show that the term-frequency factor of the ranking
                 formula can be rendered into different term-frequency
                 factors of existing retrieval systems. In the basic
                 ranking formula, the remaining quantity $-\log
                 p(\bar{r}| t \in d)$ is interpreted as the probability
                 of randomly picking a nonrelevant usage (denoted by
                 $\bar{r}$) of term $t$. Mathematically, we show that
                 this quantity can be approximated by the inverse
                 document-frequency (IDF). Empirically, we show that
                 this quantity is related to IDF, using four reference
                 TREC ad hoc retrieval data collections.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Information retrieval; relevance decision; term
                 weight",
}

@Article{Melucci:2008:BIR,
  author =       "Massimo Melucci",
  title =        "A basis for information retrieval in context",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361684.1361687",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 08:32:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Information retrieval (IR) models based on vector
                 spaces have been investigated for a long time.
                 Nevertheless, they have recently attracted much
                 research interest. In parallel, context has been
                 rediscovered as a crucial issue in information
                 retrieval. This article presents a principled approach
                 to modeling context and its role in ranking information
                 objects using vector spaces. First, the article
                 outlines how a basis of a vector space naturally
                 represents context, both its properties and factors.
                 Second, a ranking function computes the probability of
                 context in the objects represented in a vector space,
                 namely, the probability that a contextual factor has
                 affected the preparation of an object.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Personalization; probability; quantum mechanics;
                 vector-space model",
}

@Article{Altingovde:2008:ICB,
  author =       "Ismail Sengor Altingovde and Engin Demir and Fazli Can
                 and {\"O}zg{\"u}r Ulusoy",
  title =        "Incremental cluster-based retrieval using compressed
                 cluster-skipping inverted files",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361684.1361688",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 08:32:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose a unique cluster-based retrieval (CBR)
                 strategy using a new cluster-skipping inverted file for
                 improving query processing efficiency. The new inverted
                 file incorporates cluster membership and centroid
                 information along with the usual document information
                 into a single structure. In our incremental-CBR
                 strategy, during query evaluation, both best(-matching)
                 clusters and the best(-matching) documents of such
                 clusters are computed together with a single
                 posting-list access per query term. As we switch from
                 term to term, the best clusters are recomputed and can
                 dynamically change. During query-document matching,
                 only relevant portions of the posting lists
                 corresponding to the best clusters are considered and
                 the rest are skipped. The proposed approach is
                 essentially tailored for environments where inverted
                 files are compressed, and provides substantial
                 efficiency improvement while yielding comparable, or
                 sometimes better, effectiveness figures. Our
                 experiments with various collections show that the
                 incremental-CBR strategy using a compressed
                 cluster-skipping inverted file significantly improves
                 CPU time efficiency, regardless of query length. The
                 new compressed inverted file imposes an acceptable
                 storage overhead in comparison to a typical inverted
                 file. We also show that our approach scales well with
                 the collection size.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Best match; cluster-based retrieval (CBR);
                 cluster-skipping inverted index structure (CS-IIS);
                 full search (FS); index compression; inverted index
                 structure (IIS); query processing",
}

@Article{Wang:2008:URM,
  author =       "Jun Wang and Arjen P. de Vries and Marcel J. T.
                 Reinders",
  title =        "Unified relevance models for rating prediction in
                 collaborative filtering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361684.1361689",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 08:32:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Collaborative filtering aims at predicting a user's
                 interest for a given item based on a collection of user
                 profiles. This article views collaborative filtering as
                 a problem highly related to information retrieval,
                 drawing an analogy between the concepts of users and
                 items in recommender systems and queries and documents
                 in text retrieval.\par

                 We present a probabilistic user-to-item relevance
                 framework that introduces the concept of relevance into
                 the related problem of collaborative filtering. Three
                 different models are derived, namely, a user-based, an
                 item-based, and a unified relevance model, and we
                 estimate their rating predictions from three sources:
                 the user's own ratings for different items, other
                 users' ratings for the same item, and ratings from
                 different but similar users for other but similar
                 items.\par

                 To reduce the data sparsity encountered when estimating
                 the probability density function of the relevance
                 variable, we apply the nonparametric (data-driven)
                 density estimation technique known as the Parzen-window
                 method (or kernel-based density estimation). Using a
                 Gaussian window function, the similarity between users
                 and/or items would, however, be based on Euclidean
                 distance. Because the collaborative filtering
                 literature has reported improved prediction accuracy
                 when using cosine similarity, we generalize the
                 Parzen-window method by introducing a projection
                 kernel.\par

                 Existing user-based and item-based approaches
                 correspond to two simplified instantiations of our
                 framework. User-based and item-based collaborative
                 filterings represent only a partial view of the
                 prediction problem, where the unified relevance model
                 brings these partial views together under the same
                 umbrella. Experimental results complement the
                 theoretical insights with improved recommendation
                 accuracy. The unified model is more robust to data
                 sparsity because the different types of ratings are
                 used in concert.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Collaborative filtering; personalization;
                 recommendation",
}

@Article{Losada:2008:AMB,
  author =       "David E. Losada and Leif Azzopardi",
  title =        "Assessing multivariate {Bernoulli} models for
                 information retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361684.1361690",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 08:32:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Although the seminal proposal to introduce language
                 modeling in information retrieval was based on a
                 multivariate Bernoulli model, the predominant modeling
                 approach is now centered on multinomial models.
                 Language modeling for retrieval based on multivariate
                 Bernoulli distributions is seen inefficient and
                 believed less effective than the multinomial model. In
                 this article, we examine the multivariate Bernoulli
                 model with respect to its successor and examine its
                 role in future retrieval systems. In the context of
                 Bayesian learning, these two modeling approaches are
                 described, contrasted, and compared both theoretically
                 and computationally. We show that the query likelihood
                 following a multivariate Bernoulli distribution
                 introduces interesting retrieval features which may be
                 useful for specific retrieval tasks such as sentence
                 retrieval. Then, we address the efficiency aspect and
                 show that algorithms can be designed to perform
                 retrieval efficiently for multivariate Bernoulli
                 models, before performing an empirical comparison to
                 study the behaviorial aspects of the models. A series
                 of comparisons is then conducted on a number of test
                 collections and retrieval tasks to determine the
                 empirical and practical differences between the
                 different models. Our results indicate that for
                 sentence retrieval the multivariate Bernoulli model can
                 significantly outperform the multinomial model.
                 However, for the other tasks the multinomial model
                 provides consistently better performance (and in most
                 cases significantly so). An analysis of the various
                 retrieval characteristics reveals that the multivariate
                 Bernoulli model tends to promote long documents whose
                 nonquery terms are informative. While this is
                 detrimental to the task of document retrieval
                 (documents tend to contain considerable nonquery
                 content), it is valuable for other tasks such as
                 sentence retrieval, where the retrieved elements are
                 very short and focused.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Information retrieval; language models; multinomial;
                 multivariate Bernoulli",
}

@Article{Barreau:2008:IKR,
  author =       "Deborah Barreau and Robert Capra and Susan Dumais and
                 William Jones and Manuel P{\'e}rez-Qui{\~n}ones",
  title =        "Introduction to keeping, refinding and sharing
                 personal information",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402257",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Teevan:2008:HPR,
  author =       "Jaime Teevan",
  title =        "How people recall, recognize, and reuse search
                 results",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402258",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "When a person issues a query, that person has
                 expectations about the search results that will be
                 returned. These expectations can be based on the
                 current information need, but are also influenced by
                 how the searcher believes the search engine works,
                 where relevant results are expected to be ranked, and
                 any previous searches the individual has run on the
                 topic. This paper looks in depth at how the
                 expectations people develop about search result lists
                 during an initial query affect their perceptions of and
                 interactions with future repeat search result lists.
                 Three studies are presented that give insight into how
                 people recall, recognize, and reuse results. The first
                 study (a study of {\em recall\/}) explores what people
                 recall about previously viewed search result lists. The
                 second study (a study of {\em recognition\/}) builds on
                 the first to reveal that people often recognize a
                 result list as one they have seen before even when it
                 is quite different. As long as those aspects that the
                 searcher remembers about the initial list remain the
                 same, other aspects can change significantly. This is
                 advantageous because, as the third study (a study of
                 {\em reuse\/}) shows, when a result list appears to
                 have changed, people have trouble re-using the
                 previously viewed content in the list. They are less
                 likely to find what they are looking for, less happy
                 with the result quality, more likely to find the task
                 hard, and more likely to take a long time searching.
                 Although apparent consistency is important for reuse,
                 people's inability to recognize change makes
                 consistency without stagnation possible. New relevant
                 results can be presented where old results have been
                 forgotten, making both old and new content easy to
                 find.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "dynamic information; personal information management;
                 recall; recognition; Refinding; reuse; search",
}

@Article{Bergman:2008:ISE,
  author =       "Ofer Bergman and Ruth Beyth-Marom and Rafi Nachmias
                 and Noa Gradovitch and Steve Whittaker",
  title =        "Improved search engines and navigation preference in
                 personal information management",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402259",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Traditionally users access their personal files mainly
                 by using folder navigation. We evaluate whether recent
                 improvements in desktop search have changed this
                 fundamental aspect of Personal Information Management
                 (PIM). We tested this in two studies using the same
                 questionnaire: (a) The Windows Study --- a longitudinal
                 comparison of {\em Google Desktop\/} and {\em Windows
                 XP Search Companion}, and (b) The Mac Study --- a large
                 scale comparison of Mac {\em Spotlight\/} and {\em
                 Sherlock}. There were few effects for improved search.
                 First, regardless of search engine, there was a strong
                 navigation preference: on average, users estimated that
                 they used navigation for 56--68\% of file retrieval
                 events but searched for only 4--15\% of events. Second,
                 the effect of improving the quality of the search
                 engine on search usage was limited and inconsistent.
                 Third, search was used mainly as a last resort when
                 users could not remember file location. Finally, there
                 was no evidence that using improved desktop search
                 engines leads people to change their filing habits to
                 become less reliant on hierarchical file organization.
                 We conclude by offering theoretical explanations for
                 navigation preference, relating to differences between
                 PIM and Internet retrieval, and suggest alternative
                 design directions for PIM systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "files retrieval; navigation preference; Personal
                 information management; personal search engines; search
                 preference; user study",
}

@Article{Elsweiler:2008:EME,
  author =       "David Elsweiler and Mark Baillie and Ian Ruthven",
  title =        "Exploring memory in email refinding",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402260",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Human memory plays an important role in personal
                 information management (PIM). Several scholars have
                 noted that people refind information based on what they
                 remember and it has been shown that people adapt their
                 management strategies to compensate for the limitations
                 of memory. Nevertheless, little is known about what
                 people tend to remember about their personal
                 information and how they use their memories to refind.
                 The aim of this article is to increase our
                 understanding of the role that memory plays in the
                 process of refinding personal information.
                 Concentrating on email re-finding, we report on a user
                 study that investigates what attributes of email
                 messages participants remember when trying to refind.
                 We look at how the attributes change in different
                 scenarios and examine the factors which impact on what
                 is remembered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Email refinding; information refinding; memory; user
                 study",
}

@Article{Siersdorfer:2008:MMM,
  author =       "Stefan Siersdorfer and Sergej Sizov",
  title =        "Meta methods for model sharing in personal information
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402261",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article introduces a methodology for
                 automatically organizing document collections into
                 thematic categories for Personal Information Management
                 (PIM) through collaborative sharing of machine learning
                 models in an efficient and privacy-preserving way. Our
                 objective is to combine multiple independently learned
                 models from several users to construct an advanced
                 ensemble-based decision model by taking the knowledge
                 of multiple users into account in a decentralized
                 manner, for example, in a peer-to-peer overlay network.
                 High accuracy of the corresponding supervised
                 (classification) and unsupervised (clustering) methods
                 is achieved by restrictively leaving out uncertain
                 documents rather than assigning them to inappropriate
                 topics or clusters with low confidence. We introduce a
                 formal probabilistic model for the resulting ensemble
                 based meta methods and explain how it can be used for
                 constructing estimators and for goal-oriented tuning.
                 Comprehensive evaluation results on different reference
                 data sets illustrate the viability of our approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Classification; clustering; meta methods;
                 peer-to-peer; personal information management;
                 restrictive methods",
}

@Article{Hicks:2008:OMP,
  author =       "B. J. Hicks and A. Dong and R. Palmer and H. C.
                 Mcalpine",
  title =        "Organizing and managing personal electronic files: a
                 mechanical engineer's perspective",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402262",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article deals with the organization and
                 management of the computer files handled by mechanical
                 engineers on their personal computers. In engineering
                 organizations, a wide variety of electronic files
                 (documents) are necessary to support both business
                 processes and the activities of design and manufacture.
                 Whilst a large number of files and hence information is
                 formally archived, a significant amount of additional
                 information and knowledge resides in electronic files
                 on personal computers. The widespread use of these
                 personal information stores means that all information
                 is retained. However, its reuse is problematic for all
                 but the individual as a result of the naming and
                 organization of the files. To begin to address this
                 issue, a study of the use and current practices for
                 managing personal electronic files is described. The
                 study considers the fundamental classes of files
                 handled by engineers and analyses the organization of
                 these files across the personal computers of 40
                 participants. The study involves a questionnaire and an
                 electronic audit. The results of these qualitative and
                 quantitative elements are used to elicit an
                 understanding of the practices and requirements of
                 engineers for managing personal electronic files. A
                 potential scheme for naming and organizing personal
                 electronic files is discussed as one possible way to
                 satisfy these requirements. The aim of the scheme is to
                 balance the personal nature of data storage with the
                 need for personal records to be shared with others to
                 support knowledge reuse in engineering organizations.
                 Although this article is concerned with mechanical
                 engineers, the issues dealt with are relevant to
                 knowledge-based industries and, in particular, teams of
                 knowledge workers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "directory and file naming conventions; Engineers; file
                 sharing and file recognition and recall; information
                 management",
}

@Article{Bernstein:2008:ISH,
  author =       "Michael Bernstein and Max {Van Kleek} and David Karger
                 and M. C. Schraefel",
  title =        "Information scraps: {How} and why information eludes
                 our personal information management tools",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402263",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we investigate {\em information
                 scraps\/} --- personal information where content has
                 been scribbled on Post-it notes, scrawled on the
                 corners of sheets of paper, stuck in our pockets, sent
                 in email messages to ourselves, and stashed in
                 miscellaneous digital text files. Information scraps
                 encode information ranging from ideas and sketches to
                 notes, reminders, shipment tracking numbers, driving
                 directions, and even poetry. Although information
                 scraps are ubiquitous, we have much still to learn
                 about these loose forms of information practice. Why do
                 we keep information scraps outside of our traditional
                 PIM applications? What role do information scraps play
                 in our overall information practice? How might PIM
                 applications be better designed to accommodate and
                 support information scraps' creation, manipulation and
                 retrieval?\par

                 We pursued these questions by studying the information
                 scrap practices of 27 knowledge workers at five
                 organizations. Our observations shed light on
                 information scraps' content, form, media, and location.
                 From this data, we elaborate on the typical information
                 scrap lifecycle, and identify common roles that
                 information scraps play: temporary storage, archiving,
                 work-in-progress, reminding, and management of unusual
                 data. These roles suggest a set of unmet design needs
                 in current PIM tools: lightweight entry, unconstrained
                 content, flexible use and adaptability, visibility, and
                 mobility.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "information scraps; note taking; Personal information
                 management",
}

@Article{Marchionini:2008:ERM,
  author =       "Gary Marchionini",
  title =        "Editorial: {Reviewer} merits and review control in an
                 age of electronic manuscript management systems",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402264",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Peer review is an important resource of scholarly
                 communities and must be managed and nurtured carefully.
                 Electronic manuscript management systems have begun to
                 improve some aspects of workflow for conferences and
                 journals but also raise issues related to reviewer
                 roles and reputations and the control of reviews over
                 time. Professional societies should make their policies
                 related to reviews and reviewer histories clear to
                 authors and reviewers, develop strategies and tools to
                 facilitate good and timely reviews, and facilitate the
                 training of new reviewers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "manuscript management systems; Peer review",
}

@Article{Marchionini:2008:TRJ,
  author =       "Gary Marchionini",
  title =        "{TOIS} reviewers {June 2007} through {May 2008}",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1402256.1402265",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 6 15:21:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Piwowarski:2008:SCR,
  author =       "Benjamin Piwowarski and Andrew Trotman and Mounia
                 Lalmas",
  title =        "Sound and complete relevance assessment for {XML}
                 retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1416950.1416951",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 23 13:49:17 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In information retrieval research, comparing retrieval
                 approaches requires test collections consisting of
                 documents, user requests and relevance assessments.
                 Obtaining relevance assessments that are as sound and
                 complete as possible is crucial for the comparison of
                 retrieval approaches. In XML retrieval, the problem of
                 obtaining sound and complete relevance assessments is
                 further complicated by the structural relationships
                 between retrieval results.\par

                 A major difference between XML retrieval and flat
                 document retrieval is that the relevance of elements
                 (the retrievable units) is not independent of that of
                 related elements. This has major consequences for the
                 gathering of relevance assessments. This article
                 describes investigations into the creation of sound and
                 complete relevance assessments for the evaluation of
                 content-oriented XML retrieval as carried out at INEX,
                 the evaluation campaign for XML retrieval. The
                 campaign, now in its seventh year, has had three
                 substantially different approaches to gather
                 assessments and has finally settled on a highlighting
                 method for marking relevant passages within documents
                 --- even though the objective is to collect assessments
                 at element level. The different methods of gathering
                 assessments at INEX are discussed and contrasted. The
                 highlighting method is shown to be the most reliable of
                 the methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "evaluation; INEX; passage retrieval; relevance
                 assessment; XML; XML retrieval",
}

@Article{Moffat:2008:RBP,
  author =       "Alistair Moffat and Justin Zobel",
  title =        "Rank-biased precision for measurement of retrieval
                 effectiveness",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1416950.1416952",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 23 13:49:17 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "A range of methods for measuring the effectiveness of
                 information retrieval systems has been proposed. These
                 are typically intended to provide a quantitative
                 single-value summary of a document ranking relative to
                 a query. However, many of these measures have failings.
                 For example, recall is not well founded as a measure of
                 satisfaction, since the user of an actual system cannot
                 judge recall. Average precision is derived from recall,
                 and suffers from the same problem. In addition, average
                 precision lacks key stability properties that are
                 needed for robust experiments. In this article, we
                 introduce a new effectiveness metric, {\em rank-biased
                 precision}, that avoids these problems. Rank-biased
                 precision is derived from a simple model of user
                 behavior, is robust if answer rankings are extended to
                 greater depths, and allows accurate quantification of
                 experimental uncertainty, even when only partial
                 relevance judgments are available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "average precision; pooling; precision; Recall;
                 relevance",
}

@Article{Zheleva:2008:TSR,
  author =       "Elena Zheleva and Aleksander Kolcz and Lise Getoor",
  title =        "Trusting spam reporters: a reporter-based reputation
                 system for email filtering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1416950.1416953",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 23 13:49:17 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Spam is a growing problem; it interferes with valid
                 email and burdens both email users and service
                 providers. In this work, we propose a reactive
                 spam-filtering system based on reporter reputation for
                 use in conjunction with existing spam-filtering
                 techniques. The system has a trust-maintenance
                 component for users, based on their spam-reporting
                 behavior. The challenge that we consider is that of
                 maintaining a reliable system, not vulnerable to
                 malicious users, that will provide early spam-campaign
                 detection to reduce the costs incurred by users and
                 systems. We report on the utility of a reputation
                 system for spam filtering that makes use of the
                 feedback of trustworthy users. We evaluate our proposed
                 framework, using actual complaint feedback from a large
                 population of users, and validate its spam-filtering
                 performance on a collection of real email traffic over
                 several weeks. To test the broader implication of the
                 system, we create a model of the behavior of malicious
                 reporters, and we simulate the system under various
                 assumptions using a synthetic dataset.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "reputation systems; Spam filtering; trust",
}

@Article{Yeh:2008:EPH,
  author =       "Jui-Feng Yeh and Chung-Hsien Wu and Liang-Chih Yu and
                 Yu-Sheng Lai",
  title =        "Extended probabilistic {HAL} with close temporal
                 association for psychiatric query document retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1416950.1416954",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 23 13:49:17 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Psychiatric query document retrieval can assist
                 individuals to locate query documents relevant to their
                 depression-related problems efficiently and
                 effectively. By referring to relevant documents,
                 individuals can understand how to alleviate their
                 depression-related symptoms according to
                 recommendations from health professionals. This work
                 presents an extended probabilistic {\em Hyperspace
                 Analog to Language\/} ({\em epHAL\/}) model to achieve
                 this aim. The epHAL incorporates the close temporal
                 associations between words in query documents to
                 represent word cooccurrence relationships in a
                 high-dimensional context space. The information flow
                 mechanism further combines the query words in the epHAL
                 space to infer related words for effective information
                 retrieval. The language model perplexity is considered
                 as the criterion for model optimization. Finally, the
                 epHAL is adopted for psychiatric query document
                 retrieval, and indicates its superiority in information
                 retrieval over traditional approaches.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Hyperspace Analog to Language (HAL) model; information
                 flow; Information retrieval; query documents",
}

@Article{Kerne:2008:CMI,
  author =       "Andruid Kerne and Eunyee Koh and Steven M. Smith and
                 Andrew Webb and Blake Dworaczyk",
  title =        "{combinFormation}: Mixed-initiative composition of
                 image and text surrogates promotes information
                 discovery",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1416950.1416955",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 23 13:49:17 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "combinFormation is a mixed-initiative creativity
                 support tool for searching, browsing, organizing, and
                 integrating information. Images and text are connected
                 to represent surrogates (enhanced bookmarks),
                 optimizing the use of human cognitive facilities.
                 Composition, an alternative to lists and spatial
                 hypertext, is used to represent a collection of
                 surrogates as a connected whole, using principles from
                 art and design. This facilitates the creative process
                 of {\em information discovery}, in which humans develop
                 new ideas while finding and collecting information. To
                 provoke the user to think about the large space of
                 potentially relevant information resources, a
                 generative agent proactively engages in collecting
                 information resources, forming image and text
                 surrogates, and composing them visually. The agent
                 develops the collection and its visual representation
                 over time, enabling the user to see ideas and
                 relationships. To keep the human in control, we develop
                 interactive mechanisms for authoring the composition
                 and directing the agent. In a field study in an
                 interdisciplinary course on The Design Process, over a
                 hundred students alternated using combinFormation and
                 Google+Word to collect prior work on information
                 discovery invention assignments. The students that used
                 combinFormation's mixed-initiative composition of image
                 and text surrogates performed better.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "clustering; collections; creative cognition;
                 Creativity support tools; exploratory search; field
                 study; focused crawler; information discovery;
                 mixed-initiative systems; relevance feedback;
                 semantics; software agents",
}

@Article{Lin:2008:TAF,
  author =       "Jimmy Lin and Philip Wu and Eileen Abels",
  title =        "Toward automatic facet analysis and need negotiation:
                 {Lessons} from mediated search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1416950.1416956",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 23 13:49:17 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This work explores the hypothesis that interactions
                 between a trained human search intermediary and an
                 information seeker can inform the design of interactive
                 IR systems. We discuss results from a controlled
                 Wizard-of-Oz case study, set in the context of the TREC
                 2005 HARD track evaluation, in which a trained
                 intermediary executed an integrated search and
                 interaction strategy based on conceptual facet analysis
                 and informed by need negotiation techniques common in
                 reference interviews. Having a human ``in the loop''
                 yielded large improvements over fully automated systems
                 as measured by standard ranked-retrieval metrics,
                 demonstrating the value of mediated search. We present
                 a detailed analysis of the intermediary's actions to
                 gain a deeper understanding of what worked and why. One
                 contribution is a taxonomy of clarification types
                 informed both by empirical results and existing
                 theories in library and information science. We discuss
                 how these findings can guide the development of future
                 systems. Overall, this work illustrates how studying
                 human information-seeking processes can lead to better
                 information retrieval applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "interactive information retrieval; Reference
                 interview",
}

@Article{Rodriguez:2009:AMG,
  author =       "Marko A. Rodriguez and Johan Bollen and Herbert {Van
                 De Sompel}",
  title =        "Automatic metadata generation using associative
                 networks",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1462198.1462199",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 17:50:07 MST 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In spite of its tremendous value, metadata is
                 generally sparse and incomplete, thereby hampering the
                 effectiveness of digital information services. Many of
                 the existing mechanisms for the automated creation of
                 metadata rely primarily on content analysis which can
                 be costly and inefficient. The automatic metadata
                 generation system proposed in this article leverages
                 resource relationships generated from existing metadata
                 as a medium for propagation from metadata-rich to
                 metadata-poor resources. Because of its independence
                 from content analysis, it can be applied to a wide
                 variety of resource media types and is shown to be
                 computationally inexpensive. The proposed method
                 operates through two distinct phases. Occurrence and
                 cooccurrence algorithms first generate an associative
                 network of repository resources leveraging existing
                 repository metadata. Second, using the associative
                 network as a substrate, metadata associated with
                 metadata-rich resources is propagated to metadata-poor
                 resources by means of a discrete-form spreading
                 activation algorithm. This article discusses the
                 general framework for building associative networks, an
                 algorithm for disseminating metadata through such
                 networks, and the results of an experiment and
                 validation of the proposed method using a standard
                 bibliographic dataset.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Associative networks; metadata generation;
                 particle-swarms",
}

@Article{Park:2009:ALS,
  author =       "Laurence A. F. Park and Kotagiri Ramamohanarao",
  title =        "An analysis of latent semantic term self-correlation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1462198.1462200",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 17:50:07 MST 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a generalized vector
                 space method that uses dimension reduction to generate
                 term correlations for use during the information
                 retrieval process. We hypothesized that even though the
                 dimension reduction establishes correlations between
                 terms, the dimension reduction is causing a degradation
                 in the correlation of a term to itself
                 (self-correlation). In this article, we have proven
                 that there is a direct relationship to the size of the
                 LSA dimension reduction and the LSA self-correlation.
                 We have also shown that by altering the LSA term
                 self-correlations we gain a substantial increase in
                 precision, while also reducing the computation required
                 during the information retrieval process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Latent semantic analysis; term correlation",
}

@Article{Chen:2009:ATF,
  author =       "Chien Chin Chen and Meng Chang Chen and Ming-Syan
                 Chen",
  title =        "An adaptive threshold framework for event detection
                 using {HMM}-based life profiles",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1462198.1462201",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 17:50:07 MST 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "When an event occurs, it attracts attention of
                 information sources to publish related documents along
                 its lifespan. The task of event detection is to
                 automatically identify events and their related
                 documents from a document stream, which is a set of
                 chronologically ordered documents collected from
                 various information sources. Generally, each event has
                 a distinct activeness development so that its status
                 changes continuously during its lifespan. When an event
                 is active, there are a lot of related documents from
                 various information sources. In contrast when it is
                 inactive, there are very few documents, but they are
                 focused. Previous works on event detection did not
                 consider the characteristics of the event's activeness,
                 and used rigid thresholds for event detection. We
                 propose a concept called life profile, modeled by a
                 hidden Markov model, to model the activeness trends of
                 events. In addition, a general event detection
                 framework, LIPED, which utilizes the learned life
                 profiles and the burst-and-diverse characteristic to
                 adjust the event detection thresholds adaptively, can
                 be incorporated into existing event detection methods.
                 Based on the official TDT corpus and contest rules, the
                 evaluation results show that existing detection methods
                 that incorporate LIPED achieve better performance in
                 the cost and F1 metrics, than without.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "clustering; Event detection; hidden Markov models;
                 life profiles; TDT; topic detection",
}

@Article{Tryfonopoulos:2009:IFQ,
  author =       "Christos Tryfonopoulos and Manolis Koubarakis and
                 Yannis Drougas",
  title =        "Information filtering and query indexing for an
                 information retrieval model",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1462198.1462202",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 17:50:07 MST 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In the information filtering paradigm, clients
                 subscribe to a server with continuous queries or
                 profiles that express their information needs. Clients
                 can also publish documents to servers. Whenever a
                 document is published, the continuous queries
                 satisfying this document are found and notifications
                 are sent to appropriate clients. This article deals
                 with the filtering problem that needs to be solved
                 efficiently by each server: Given a database of
                 continuous queries {\em db\/} and a document $d$, find
                 all queries $q \in {\em db\/}$ that match $d$. We
                 present data structures and indexing algorithms that
                 enable us to solve the filtering problem efficiently
                 for large databases of queries expressed in the model
                 {\em AWP}. {\em AWP\/} is based on named attributes
                 with values of type text, and its query language
                 includes Boolean and word proximity operators.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Information filtering; performance evaluation; query
                 indexing algorithms; selective dissemination of
                 information",
}

@Article{Xue:2009:ULM,
  author =       "Gui-Rong Xue and Jie Han and Yong Yu and Qiang Yang",
  title =        "User language model for collaborative personalized
                 search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1462198.1462203",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 17:50:07 MST 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Traditional personalized search approaches rely solely
                 on individual profiles to construct a user model. They
                 are often confronted by two major problems: data
                 sparseness and cold-start for new individuals. Data
                 sparseness refers to the fact that most users only
                 visit a small portion of Web pages and hence a very
                 sparse user-term relationship matrix is generated,
                 while cold-start for new individuals means that the
                 system cannot conduct any personalization without
                 previous browsing history. Recently, community-based
                 approaches were proposed to use the group's social
                 behaviors as a supplement to personalization. However,
                 these approaches only consider the commonality of a
                 group of users and still cannot satisfy the diverse
                 information needs of different users. In this article,
                 we present a new approach, called collaborative
                 personalized search. It considers not only the
                 commonality factor among users for defining group user
                 profiles and global user profiles, but also the
                 specialties of individuals. Then, a statistical user
                 language model is proposed to integrate the individual
                 model, group user model and global user model together.
                 In this way, the probability that a user will like a
                 Web page is calculated through a two-step smoothing
                 mechanism. First, a global user model is used to smooth
                 the probability of unseen terms in the individual
                 profiles and provide aggregated behavior of global
                 users. Then, in order to precisely describe individual
                 interests by looking at the behaviors of similar users,
                 users are clustered into groups and group-user models
                 are constructed. The group-user models are integrated
                 into an overall model through a cluster-based language
                 model. The behaviors of the group users can be utilized
                 to enhance the performance of personalized search. This
                 model can alleviate the two aforementioned problems and
                 provide a more effective personalized search than
                 previous approaches. Large-scale experimental
                 evaluations are conducted to show that the proposed
                 approach substantially improves the relevance of a
                 search over several competitive methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "clustering; cold-start; Collaborative personalized
                 search; data Sparseness; smoothing; user language
                 model",
}

@Article{Schumaker:2009:TAS,
  author =       "Robert P. Schumaker and Hsinchun Chen",
  title =        "Textual analysis of stock market prediction using
                 breaking financial news: {The} {AZFin} text system",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1462198.1462204",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 17:50:07 MST 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Our research examines a predictive machine learning
                 approach for financial news articles analysis using
                 several different textual representations: bag of
                 words, noun phrases, and named entities. Through this
                 approach, we investigated 9,211 financial news articles
                 and 10,259,042 stock quotes covering the S\&P 500
                 stocks during a five week period. We applied our
                 analysis to estimate a discrete stock price twenty
                 minutes after a news article was released. Using a
                 support vector machine (SVM) derivative specially
                 tailored for discrete numeric prediction and models
                 containing different stock-specific variables, we show
                 that the model containing both article terms and stock
                 price at the time of article release had the best
                 performance in closeness to the actual future stock
                 price (MSE 0.04261), the same direction of price
                 movement as the future price (57.1\% directional
                 accuracy) and the highest return using a simulated
                 trading engine (2.06\% return). We further investigated
                 the different textual representations and found that a
                 Proper Noun scheme performs better than the de facto
                 standard of Bag of Words in all three metrics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "prediction; stock market; SVM",
}

@Article{Kurland:2009:CLM,
  author =       "Oren Kurland and Lillian Lee",
  title =        "Clusters, language models, and ad hoc information
                 retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1508850.1508851",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 20 13:44:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The language-modeling approach to information
                 retrieval provides an effective statistical framework
                 for tackling various problems and often achieves
                 impressive empirical performance. However, most
                 previous work on language models for information
                 retrieval focused on document-specific characteristics,
                 and therefore did not take into account the structure
                 of the surrounding corpus, a potentially rich source of
                 additional information. We propose a novel algorithmic
                 framework in which information provided by
                 document-based language models is enhanced by the
                 incorporation of information drawn from {\em
                 clusters\/} of similar documents. Using this framework,
                 we develop a suite of new algorithms. Even the simplest
                 typically outperforms the standard language-modeling
                 approach in terms of mean average precision (MAP) and
                 recall, and our new {\em interpolation\/} algorithm
                 posts statistically significant performance
                 improvements for both metrics over all six corpora
                 tested. An important aspect of our work is the way we
                 model corpus structure. In contrast to most previous
                 work on cluster-based retrieval that partitions the
                 corpus, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple
                 strategy based on a nearest-neighbors approach that
                 produces overlapping clusters.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "aspect models; cluster hypothesis; cluster-based
                 language models; clustering; interpolation model;
                 Language modeling; smoothing",
}

@Article{Shokouhi:2009:RRM,
  author =       "Milad Shokouhi and Justin Zobel",
  title =        "Robust result merging using sample-based score
                 estimates",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1508850.1508852",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 20 13:44:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "In federated information retrieval, a query is routed
                 to multiple collections and a single answer list is
                 constructed by combining the results. Such metasearch
                 provides a mechanism for locating documents on the
                 hidden Web and, by use of sampling, can proceed even
                 when the collections are uncooperative. However, the
                 similarity scores for documents returned from different
                 collections are not comparable, and, in uncooperative
                 environments, document scores are unlikely to be
                 reported. We introduce a new merging method for
                 uncooperative environments, in which similarity scores
                 for the sampled documents held for each collection are
                 used to estimate global scores for the documents
                 returned per query. This method requires no assumptions
                 about properties such as the retrieval models used.
                 Using experiments on a wide range of collections, we
                 show that in many cases our merging methods are
                 significantly more effective than previous
                 techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "distributed information retrieval; result fusion;
                 Result merging; uncooperative collections",
}

@Article{Candan:2009:SSE,
  author =       "K. Sel{\c{c}}uk Candan and Mehmet E. D{\"o}nderler and
                 Terri Hedgpeth and Jong Wook Kim and Qing Li and Maria
                 Luisa Sapino",
  title =        "{SEA}: {Segment-enrich-annotate} paradigm for adapting
                 dialog-based content for improved accessibility",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1508850.1508853",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 20 13:44:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "While navigation within complex information spaces is
                 a problem for all users, the problem is most evident
                 with individuals who are blind who cannot simply
                 locate, point, and click on a link in hypertext
                 documents with a mouse. Users who are blind have to
                 listen searching for the link in the document using
                 only the keyboard and a screen reader program, which
                 may be particularly inefficient in large documents with
                 many links or deep hierarchies that are hard to
                 navigate. Consequently, they are especially penalized
                 when the information being searched is hidden under
                 multiple layers of indirections. In this article, we
                 introduce a {\em segment-enrich-annotate\/} (SEA)
                 paradigm for adapting digital content with deep
                 structures for improved accessibility. In particular,
                 we instantiate and evaluate this paradigm through the
                 iCare-Assistant, an assistive system for helping
                 students who are blind in accessing Web and electronic
                 course materials. Our evaluations, involving the
                 participation of students who are blind, showed that
                 the iCare-Assistant system, built based on the SEA
                 paradigm, reduces the navigational overhead
                 significantly and enables user who are blind access
                 complex online course servers effectively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "annotation; assistive technology for blind users;
                 educational discussion boards and Web sites;
                 segmentation; Web navigational aids",
}

@Article{Hoi:2009:SSB,
  author =       "Steven C. H. Hoi and Rong Jin and Jianke Zhu and
                 Michael R. Lyu",
  title =        "Semisupervised {SVM} batch mode active learning with
                 applications to image retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1508850.1508854",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 20 13:44:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Support vector machine (SVM) active learning is one
                 popular and successful technique for relevance feedback
                 in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Despite the
                 success, conventional SVM active learning has two main
                 drawbacks. First, the performance of SVM is usually
                 limited by the number of labeled examples. It often
                 suffers a poor performance for the small-sized labeled
                 examples, which is the case in relevance feedback.
                 Second, conventional approaches do not take into
                 account the redundancy among examples, and could select
                 multiple examples that are similar (or even identical).
                 In this work, we propose a novel scheme for explicitly
                 addressing the drawbacks. It first learns a kernel
                 function from a mixture of labeled and unlabeled data,
                 and therefore alleviates the problem of small-sized
                 training data. The kernel will then be used for a batch
                 mode active learning method to identify the most
                 informative and diverse examples via a min-max
                 framework. Two novel algorithms are proposed to solve
                 the related combinatorial optimization: the first
                 approach approximates the problem into a quadratic
                 program, and the second solves the combinatorial
                 optimization approximately by a greedy algorithm that
                 exploits the merits of submodular functions. Extensive
                 experiments with image retrieval using both natural
                 photo images and medical images show that the proposed
                 algorithms are significantly more effective than the
                 state-of-the-art approaches. A demo is available at
                 http://msm.cais.ntu.edu.sg/LSCBIR/.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "active learning; batch mode active learning;
                 Content-based image retrieval; human-computer
                 interaction; semisupervised learning; support vector
                 machines",
}

@Article{Huang:2009:BCS,
  author =       "Zi Huang and Heng Tao Shen and Jie Shao and Xiaofang
                 Zhou and Bin Cui",
  title =        "Bounded coordinate system indexing for real-time video
                 clip search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1508850.1508855",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 20 13:44:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Recently, video clips have become very popular online.
                 The massive influx of video clips has created an urgent
                 need for video search engines to facilitate retrieving
                 relevant clips. Different from traditional long videos,
                 a video clip is a short video often expressing a moment
                 of significance. Due to the high complexity of video
                 data, efficient video clip search from large databases
                 turns out to be very challenging. We propose a novel
                 video clip representation model called the {\em Bounded
                 Coordinate System\/} (BCS), which is the first single
                 representative capturing the dominating content and
                 content --- changing trends of a video clip. It
                 summarizes a video clip by a coordinate system, where
                 each of its coordinate axes is identified by principal
                 component analysis (PCA) and bounded by the range of
                 data projections along the axis. The similarity measure
                 of BCS considers the operations of translation,
                 rotation, and scaling for coordinate system matching.
                 Particularly, rotation and scaling reflect the
                 difference of content tendencies. Compared with the
                 quadratic time complexity of existing methods, the time
                 complexity of measuring BCS similarity is linear. The
                 compact video representation together with its linear
                 similarity measure makes real-time search from video
                 clip collections feasible. To further improve the
                 retrieval efficiency for large video databases, a
                 two-dimensional transformation method called {\em
                 Bidistance Transformation\/} (BDT) is introduced to
                 utilize a pair of optimal reference points with respect
                 to bidirectional axes in BCS. Our extensive performance
                 study on a large database of more than 30,000 video
                 clips demonstrates that BCS achieves very high search
                 accuracy according to human judgment. This indicates
                 that content tendencies are important in determining
                 the meanings of video clips and confirms that BCS can
                 capture the inherent moment of video clip to some
                 extent that better resembles human perception. In
                 addition, BDT outperforms existing indexing methods
                 greatly. Integration of the BCS model and BDT indexing
                 can achieve real-time search from large video clip
                 databases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "indexing; query processing; summarization; Video
                 search",
}

@Article{Shen:2009:NFE,
  author =       "Jialie Shen and John Shepherd and Bin Cui and Kian-Lee
                 Tan",
  title =        "A novel framework for efficient automated singer
                 identification in large music databases",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1508850.1508856",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 20 13:44:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Over the past decade, there has been explosive growth
                 in the availability of multimedia data, particularly
                 image, video, and music. Because of this, content-based
                 music retrieval has attracted attention from the
                 multimedia database and information retrieval
                 communities. Content-based music retrieval requires us
                 to be able to automatically identify particular
                 characteristics of music data. One such characteristic,
                 useful in a range of applications, is the
                 identification of the singer in a musical piece.
                 Unfortunately, existing approaches to this problem
                 suffer from either low accuracy or poor scalability. In
                 this article, we propose a novel scheme, called {\em
                 Hybrid Singer Identifier\/} (HSI), for efficient
                 automated singer recognition. HSI uses multiple
                 low-level features extracted from both vocal and
                 nonvocal music segments to enhance the identification
                 process; it achieves this via a hybrid architecture
                 that builds profiles of individual singer
                 characteristics based on statistical mixture models. An
                 extensive experimental study on a large music database
                 demonstrates the superiority of our method over
                 state-of-the-art approaches in terms of effectiveness,
                 efficiency, scalability, and robustness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "classification; EM algorithm; evaluation; Gaussian
                 mixture models; Music retrieval; singer identification;
                 statistical modeling",
}

@Article{Boldi:2009:PFD,
  author =       "Paolo Boldi and Massimo Santini and Sebastiano Vigna",
  title =        "{PageRank}: {Functional} dependencies",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:02 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Dang:2009:BFP,
  author =       "Edward Kai Fung Dang and Ho Chung Wu and Robert Wing
                 Pong Luk and Kam Fai Wong",
  title =        "Building a framework for the probability ranking
                 principle by a family of expected weighted rank",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:02 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Guiver:2009:FGT,
  author =       "John Guiver and Stefano Mizzaro and Stephen
                 Robertson",
  title =        "A few good topics: {Experiments} in topic set
                 reduction for retrieval evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:02 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Dupplaw:2009:DSB,
  author =       "David Dupplaw and Srinandan Dasmahapatra and Bo Hu and
                 Paul Lewis and Nigel Shadbolt",
  title =        "A distributed, service-based framework for knowledge
                 applications with multimedia",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:02 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{White:2009:CSE,
  author =       "Ryen W. White and Eric Horvitz",
  title =        "Cyberchondria: {Studies} of the escalation of medical
                 concerns in {Web} search",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:02 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Rosaci:2009:MDR,
  author =       "Domenico Rosaci and Giuseppe M. L. Sarn{\'e} and
                 Salvatore Garruzzo",
  title =        "{MUADDIB}: a distributed recommender system supporting
                 device adaptivity",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:02 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Blanco:2010:PSP,
  author =       "Roi Blanco and Alvaro Barreiro",
  title =        "Probabilistic static pruning of inverted files",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Chia:2010:SLB,
  author =       "Tee Kiah Chia and Khe Chai Sim and Haizhou Li and Hwee
                 Tou Ng",
  title =        "Statistical lattice-based spoken document retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Tagarelli:2010:SCX,
  author =       "Andrea Tagarelli and Sergio Greco",
  title =        "Semantic clustering of {XML} documents",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Rosen-Zvi:2010:LAT,
  author =       "Michal Rosen-Zvi and Chaitanya Chemudugunta and Thomas
                 Griffiths and Padhraic Smyth and Mark Steyvers",
  title =        "Learning author-topic models from text corpora",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 12:37:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Puppin:2010:TCS,
  author =       "Diego Puppin and Fabrizio Silvestri and Raffaele
                 Perego and Ricardo Baeza-Yates",
  title =        "Tuning the capacity of search engines: {Load-driven}
                 routing and incremental caching to reduce and balance
                 the load",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1740592.1740593",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 21 17:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article introduces an architecture for a
                 document-partitioned search engine, based on a novel
                 approach combining collection selection and load
                 balancing, called {\em load-driven routing}. By
                 exploiting the query-vector document model, and the
                 incremental caching technique, our architecture can
                 compute very high quality results for any query, with
                 only a fraction of the computational load used in a
                 typical document-partitioned architecture. By trading
                 off a small fraction of the results, our technique
                 allows us to strongly reduce the computing pressure to
                 a search engine back-end; we are able to retrieve more
                 than 2/3 of the top-5 results for a given query with
                 only 10\% the computing load needed by a configuration
                 where the query is processed by each index partition.
                 Alternatively, we can slightly increase the load up to
                 25\% to improve precision and get more than 80\% of the
                 top-5 results. In fact, the flexibility of our system
                 allows a wide range of different configurations, so as
                 to easily respond to different needs in result quality
                 or restrictions in computing power. More important, the
                 system configuration can be adjusted dynamically in
                 order to fit unexpected query peaks or unpredictable
                 failures. This article wraps up some recent works by
                 the authors, showing the results obtained by tests
                 conducted on 6 million documents, 2,800,000 queries and
                 real query cost timing as measured on an actual
                 index.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "collection selection; Distributed IR; incremental
                 caching; Web search engines",
}

@Article{Gao:2010:EQL,
  author =       "Wei Gao and Cheng Niu and Jian-Yun Nie and Ming Zhou
                 and Kam-Fai Wong and Hsiao-Wuen Hon",
  title =        "Exploiting query logs for cross-lingual query
                 suggestions",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1740592.1740594",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 21 17:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Query suggestion aims to suggest relevant queries for
                 a given query, which helps users better specify their
                 information needs. Previous work on query suggestion
                 has been limited to the same language. In this article,
                 we extend it to cross-lingual query suggestion (CLQS):
                 for a query in one language, we suggest similar or
                 relevant queries in other languages. This is very
                 important to the scenarios of cross-language
                 information retrieval (CLIR) and other related
                 cross-lingual applications. Instead of relying on
                 existing query translation technologies for CLQS, we
                 present an effective means to map the input query of
                 one language to queries of the other language in the
                 query log. Important monolingual and cross-lingual
                 information such as word translation relations and word
                 co-occurrence statistics, and so on, are used to
                 estimate the cross-lingual query similarity with a
                 discriminative model. Benchmarks show that the
                 resulting CLQS system significantly outperforms a
                 baseline system that uses dictionary-based query
                 translation. Besides, we evaluate CLQS with
                 French-English and Chinese--English CLIR tasks on
                 TREC-6 and NTCIR-4 collections, respectively. The CLIR
                 experiments using typical retrieval models demonstrate
                 that the CLQS-based approach has significantly higher
                 effectiveness than several traditional query
                 translation methods. We find that when combined with
                 pseudo-relevance feedback, the effectiveness of CLIR
                 using CLQS is enhanced for different pairs of
                 languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Cross-language information retrieval; query expansion;
                 query log; query suggestion; query translation",
}

@Article{Kolbe:2010:ENN,
  author =       "Dashiell Kolbe and Qiang Zhu and Sakti Pramanik",
  title =        "Efficient $k$-nearest neighbor searching in nonordered
                 discrete data spaces",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1740592.1740595",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 21 17:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Numerous techniques have been proposed in the past for
                 supporting efficient {\em k\/} -nearest neighbor ({\em
                 k\/} -NN) queries in continuous data spaces. Limited
                 work has been reported in the literature for {\em k\/}
                 -NN queries in a nonordered discrete data space (NDDS).
                 Performing {\em k\/} -NN queries in an NDDS raises new
                 challenges. The Hamming distance is usually used to
                 measure the distance between two vectors (objects) in
                 an NDDS. Due to the coarse granularity of the Hamming
                 distance, a {\em k\/} -NN query in an NDDS may lead to
                 a high degree of nondeterminism for the query result.
                 We propose a new distance measure, called
                 Granularity-Enhanced Hamming (GEH) distance, which
                 effectively reduces the number of candidate solutions
                 for a query. We have also implemented {\em k\/} -NN
                 queries using multidimensional database indexing in
                 NDDSs. Further, we use the properties of our
                 multidimensional NDDS index to derive the probability
                 of encountering valid neighbors within specific regions
                 of the index. This probability is used to develop a new
                 search ordering heuristic. Our experiments on synthetic
                 and genomic data sets demonstrate that our index-based
                 {\em k\/} -NN algorithm is efficient in finding {\em
                 k\/} -NNs in both uniform and nonuniform data sets in
                 NDDSs and that our heuristics are effective in
                 improving the performance of such queries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "database; distance measurement; nearest neighbor;
                 nonordered discrete data space; Similarity search;
                 spatial indexing",
}

@Article{Wan:2010:ENK,
  author =       "Xiaojun Wan and Jianguo Xiao",
  title =        "Exploiting neighborhood knowledge for single document
                 summarization and keyphrase extraction",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1740592.1740596",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 21 17:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Document summarization and keyphrase extraction are
                 two related tasks in the IR and NLP fields, and both of
                 them aim at extracting condensed representations from a
                 single text document. Existing methods for single
                 document summarization and keyphrase extraction usually
                 make use of only the information contained in the
                 specified document. This article proposes using a small
                 number of nearest neighbor documents to improve
                 document summarization and keyphrase extraction for the
                 specified document, under the assumption that the
                 neighbor documents could provide additional knowledge
                 and more clues. The specified document is expanded to a
                 small document set by adding a few neighbor documents
                 close to the document, and the graph-based ranking
                 algorithm is then applied on the expanded document set
                 to make use of both the local information in the
                 specified document and the global information in the
                 neighbor documents. Experimental results on the
                 Document Understanding Conference (DUC) benchmark
                 datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness
                 of our proposed approaches. The cross-document sentence
                 relationships in the expanded document set are
                 validated to be beneficial to single document
                 summarization, and the word cooccurrence relationships
                 in the neighbor documents are validated to be very
                 helpful to single document keyphrase extraction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Document summarization; graph-based ranking; keyphrase
                 extraction; neighborhood knowledge",
}

@Article{Kelly:2010:EPN,
  author =       "Diane Kelly and Xin Fu and Chirag Shah",
  title =        "Effects of position and number of relevant documents
                 retrieved on users' evaluations of system performance",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1740592.1740597",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 21 17:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Information retrieval research has demonstrated that
                 system performance does not always correlate positively
                 with user performance, and that users often assign
                 positive evaluation scores to search systems even when
                 they are unable to complete tasks successfully. This
                 research investigated the relationship between
                 objective measures of system performance and users'
                 perceptions of that performance. In this study,
                 subjects evaluated the performance of four search
                 systems whose search results were manipulated
                 systematically to produce different orderings and
                 numbers of relevant documents. Three laboratory studies
                 were conducted with a total of eighty-one subjects. The
                 first two studies investigated the effect of the order
                 of five relevant and five nonrelevant documents in a
                 search results list containing ten results on subjects'
                 evaluations. The third study investigated the effect of
                 varying the number of relevant documents in a search
                 results list containing ten results on subjects'
                 evaluations. Results demonstrate linear relationships
                 between subjects' evaluations and the position of
                 relevant documents in a search results list and the
                 total number of relevant documents retrieved. Of the
                 two, number of relevant documents retrieved was a
                 stronger predictor of subjects' evaluation ratings and
                 resulted in subjects using a greater range of
                 evaluation scores.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "precision; presentation of search results; ranking;
                 satisfaction; Search performance; user evaluation of
                 performance",
}

@Article{Brisaboa:2010:DLT,
  author =       "Nieves Brisaboa and Antonio Fari{\~n}a and Gonzalo
                 Navarro and Jos{\'e} Param{\'a}",
  title =        "Dynamic lightweight text compression",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777433",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We address the problem of adaptive compression of
                 natural language text, considering the case where the
                 receiver is much less powerful than the sender, as in
                 mobile applications. Our techniques achieve compression
                 ratios around 32\% and require very little effort from
                 the receiver. Furthermore, the receiver is not only
                 lighter, but it can also search the compressed text
                 with less work than that necessary to decompress it.
                 This is a novelty in two senses: it breaks the usual
                 compressor/decompressor symmetry typical of adaptive
                 schemes, and it contradicts the long-standing
                 assumption that only semistatic codes could be searched
                 more efficiently than the uncompressed text. Our novel
                 compression methods are preferable in several aspects
                 over the existing adaptive and semistatic compressors
                 for natural language texts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "adaptive natural language text compression; compressed
                 pattern matching; real-time transmission; searching
                 compressed texts; text compression",
}

@Article{Wu:2010:AVG,
  author =       "Gang Wu and Yimin Wei",
  title =        "{Arnoldi} versus {GMRES} for computing {PageRank}: a
                 theoretical contribution to {Google}'s {PageRank}
                 problem",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:28",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777434",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "PageRank is one of the most important ranking
                 techniques used in today's search engines. A recent
                 very interesting research track focuses on exploiting
                 efficient numerical methods to speed up the computation
                 of PageRank, among which the Arnoldi-type algorithm and
                 the GMRES algorithm are competitive candidates. In
                 essence, the former deals with the PageRank problem
                 from an eigenproblem, while the latter from a linear
                 system, point of view. However, there is little known
                 about the relations between the two approaches for
                 PageRank. In this article, we focus on a theoretical
                 and numerical comparison of the two approaches.
                 Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of
                 our theoretical results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "Arnoldi; GMRES; Google; Krylov subspace; PageRank; Web
                 ranking",
}

@Article{Li:2010:LCG,
  author =       "Xiao Li and Ye-Yi Wang and Dou Shen and Alex Acero",
  title =        "Learning with click graph for query intent
                 classification",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777435",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Topical query classification, as one step toward
                 understanding users' search intent, is gaining
                 increasing attention in information retrieval. Previous
                 works on this subject primarily focused on enrichment
                 of query features, for example, by augmenting queries
                 with search engine results. In this work, we
                 investigate a completely orthogonal approach ---
                 instead of improving feature representation, we aim at
                 drastically increasing the amount of training data. To
                 this end, we propose two semisupervised learning
                 methods that exploit user click-through data. In one
                 approach, we infer class memberships of unlabeled
                 queries from those of labeled ones according to their
                 proximities in a click graph; and then use these
                 automatically labeled queries to train classifiers
                 using query terms as features. In a second approach,
                 click graph learning and query classifier training are
                 conducted jointly with an integrated objective. Our
                 methods are evaluated in two applications, product
                 intent and job intent classification. In both cases, we
                 expand the training data by over two orders of
                 magnitude, leading to significant improvements in
                 classification performance. An additional finding is
                 that with a large amount of training data obtained in
                 this fashion, a classifier based on simple query term
                 features can outperform those using state-of-the-art,
                 augmented features.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "click graph; query classification; semisupervised
                 learning; user intent",
}

@Article{Harabagiu:2010:UTT,
  author =       "Sanda Harabagiu and Finley Lacatusu",
  title =        "Using topic themes for multi-document summarization",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777436",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The problem of using topic representations for
                 multidocument summarization (MDS) has received
                 considerable attention recently. Several topic
                 representations have been employed for producing
                 informative and coherent summaries. In this article, we
                 describe five previously known topic representations
                 and introduce two novel representations of topics based
                 on topic themes. We present eight different methods of
                 generating multidocument summaries and evaluate each of
                 these methods on a large set of topics used in past DUC
                 workshops. Our evaluation results show a significant
                 improvement in the quality of summaries based on topic
                 themes over MDS methods that use other alternative
                 topic representations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "summarization; topic representations; topic themes",
}

@Article{Maslennikov:2010:CRI,
  author =       "Mstislav Maslennikov and Tat-Seng Chua",
  title =        "Combining relations for information extraction from
                 free text",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777437",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Relations between entities of the same semantic type
                 tend to be sparse in free texts. Therefore, combining
                 relations is the key to effective information
                 extraction (IE) on free text datasets with a small set
                 of training samples. Previous approaches to
                 bootstrapping for IE used different types of relations,
                 such as dependency or co-occurrence, and faced the
                 problems of paraphrasing and misalignment of instances.
                 To cope with these problems, we propose a framework
                 that integrates several types of relations. After
                 extracting candidate entities, our framework evaluates
                 relations between them at the phrasal, dependency,
                 semantic frame, and discourse levels. For each of these
                 levels, we build a classifier that outputs a score for
                 relation instances. In order to integrate these scores,
                 we propose three strategies: (1) integrate evaluation
                 scores from each relation classifier; (2) incorporate
                 the elimination of negatively labeled instances in a
                 previous strategy; and (3) add cascading of extracted
                 relations into strategy (1). Our framework improves the
                 state-of-art results for supervised systems by 8\%,
                 15\%, 3\%, and 5\% on MUC4 (terrorism); MUC6
                 (management succession); ACE RDC 2003 (news, general
                 types); and ACE RDC 2003 (news, specific types) domains
                 respectively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "bootstrapping; dependency relations; discourse
                 relations; information extraction; semantic relations",
}

@Article{Lauw:2010:SST,
  author =       "Hady W. Lauw and Ee-Peng Lim and Hweehwa Pang and
                 Teck-Tim Tan",
  title =        "{STEvent}: {Spatio-temporal} event model for social
                 network discovery",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777438",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Spatio-temporal data concerning the movement of
                 individuals over space and time contains latent
                 information on the associations among these
                 individuals. Sources of spatio-temporal data include
                 usage logs of mobile and Internet technologies. This
                 article defines a spatio-temporal event by the
                 co-occurrences among individuals that indicate
                 potential associations among them. Each spatio-temporal
                 event is assigned a weight based on the precision and
                 uniqueness of the event. By aggregating the weights of
                 events relating two individuals, we can determine the
                 strength of association between them. We conduct
                 extensive experimentation to investigate both the
                 efficacy of the proposed model as well as the
                 computational complexity of the proposed algorithms.
                 Experimental results on three real-life spatio-temporal
                 datasets cross-validate each other, lending greater
                 confidence on the reliability of our proposed model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "data mining; social network; spatio-temporal
                 databases",
}

@Article{Ko:2010:PMA,
  author =       "Jeongwoo Ko and Luo Si and Eric Nyberg and Teruko
                 Mitamura",
  title =        "Probabilistic models for answer-ranking in
                 multilingual question-answering",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1777432.1777439",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 6 15:53:00 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents two probabilistic models for
                 answering ranking in the multilingual
                 question-answering (QA) task, which finds exact answers
                 to a natural language question written in different
                 languages. Although some probabilistic methods have
                 been utilized in traditional monolingual
                 answer-ranking, limited prior research has been
                 conducted for answer-ranking in multilingual
                 question-answering with formal methods. This article
                 first describes a probabilistic model that predicts the
                 probabilities of correctness for individual answers in
                 an independent way. It then proposes a novel
                 probabilistic method to jointly predict the correctness
                 of answers by considering both the correctness of
                 individual answers as well as their correlations. As
                 far as we know, this is the first probabilistic
                 framework that proposes to model the correctness and
                 correlation of answer candidates in multilingual
                 question-answering and provide a novel approach to
                 design a flexible and extensible system architecture
                 for answer selection in multilingual QA. An extensive
                 set of experiments were conducted to show the
                 effectiveness of the proposed probabilistic methods in
                 English-to-Chinese and English-to-Japanese
                 cross-lingual QA, as well as English, Chinese, and
                 Japanese monolingual QA using TREC and NTCIR
                 questions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
  keywords =     "answer selection; answer-merging; answer-ranking;
                 probabilistic graphical model; question-answering",
}

@Article{Tan:2010:CBI,
  author =       "Qingzhao Tan and Prasenjit Mitra",
  title =        "Clustering-based incremental {Web} crawling",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852103",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 23 10:24:49 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "When crawling resources, for example, number of
                 machines, crawl-time, and so on, are limited, so a
                 crawler has to decide an optimal order in which to
                 crawl and recrawl Web pages. Ideally, crawlers should
                 request only those Web pages that have changed since
                 the last crawl; in practice, a crawler may not know
                 whether a Web page has changed before downloading it.
                 In this article, we identify features of Web pages that
                 are correlated to their change frequency. We design a
                 crawling algorithm that clusters Web pages based on
                 features that correlate to their change frequencies
                 obtained by examining past history.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Kurland:2010:PHS,
  author =       "Oren Kurland and Lillian Lee",
  title =        "{PageRank} without hyperlinks: {Structural} reranking
                 using links induced by language models",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852104",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 23 10:24:49 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "The ad hoc retrieval task is to find documents in a
                 corpus that are relevant to a query. Inspired by the
                 PageRank and HITS (hubs and authorities) algorithms for
                 Web search, we propose a structural reranking approach
                 to ad-hoc retrieval that applies to settings with no
                 hyperlink information. We reorder the documents in an
                 initially retrieved set by exploiting implicit
                 asymmetric relationships among them. We consider
                 generation links, which indicate that the language
                 model induced from one document assigns high
                 probability to the text of another. We study a number
                 of reranking criteria based on measures of centrality
                 in the graphs formed by generation links, and show that
                 integrating centrality into standard
                 language-model-based retrieval is quite effective at
                 improving precision at top ranks; the best resultant
                 performance is comparable, and often superior, to that
                 of a state-of-the-art pseudo-feedback-based retrieval
                 approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Magalhaes:2010:ITF,
  author =       "Jo{\~a}o Magalh{\~a}es and Stefan R{\"u}ger",
  title =        "An information-theoretic framework for
                 semantic-multimedia retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852105",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 23 10:24:49 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article is set in the context of searching text
                 and image repositories by keyword. We develop a unified
                 probabilistic framework for text, image, and combined
                 text and image retrieval that is based on the detection
                 of keywords (concepts) using automated image annotation
                 technology. Our framework is deeply rooted in
                 information theory and lends itself to use with other
                 media types. We estimate a statistical model in a
                 multimodal feature space for each possible query
                 keyword. The key element of our framework is to
                 identify feature space transformations that make them
                 comparable in complexity and density. We select the
                 optimal multimodal feature space with a minimum
                 description length criterion from a set of candidate
                 feature spaces that are computed with the
                 average-mutual-information criterion for the text part
                 and hierarchical expectation maximization for the
                 visual part of the data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Webber:2010:SMI,
  author =       "William Webber and Alistair Moffat and Justin Zobel",
  title =        "A similarity measure for indefinite rankings",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852106",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 23 10:24:49 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Ranked lists are encountered in research and daily
                 life and it is often of interest to compare these lists
                 even when they are incomplete or have only some members
                 in common. An example is document rankings returned for
                 the same query by different search engines. A measure
                 of the similarity between incomplete rankings should
                 handle nonconjointness, weight high ranks more heavily
                 than low, and be monotonic with increasing depth of
                 evaluation; but no measure satisfying all these
                 criteria currently exists. In this article, we propose
                 a new measure having these qualities, namely
                 rank-biased overlap (RBO). The RBO measure is based on
                 a simple probabilistic user model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Clements:2010:TDE,
  author =       "Maarten Clements and Arjen P. {De Vries} and Marcel J.
                 T. Reinders",
  title =        "The task-dependent effect of tags and ratings on
                 social media access",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852107",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 23 10:24:49 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Recently, online social networks have emerged that
                 allow people to share their multimedia files, retrieve
                 interesting content, and discover like-minded people.
                 These systems often provide the possibility to annotate
                 the content with tags and ratings. Using a random walk
                 through the social annotation graph, we have combined
                 these annotations into a retrieval model that
                 effectively balances the personal preferences and
                 opinions of like-minded users into a single relevance
                 ranking for either content, tags, or people. We use
                 this model to identify the influence of different
                 annotation methods and system design aspects on common
                 ranking tasks in social content systems. Our results
                 show that a combination of rating and tagging
                 information can improve tasks like search and
                 recommendation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Huang:2010:MND,
  author =       "Zi Huang and Bo Hu and Hong Cheng and Heng Tao Shen
                 and Hongyan Liu and Xiaofang Zhou",
  title =        "Mining near-duplicate graph for cluster-based
                 reranking of {Web} video search results",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852108",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 23 10:24:49 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Recently, video search reranking has been an effective
                 mechanism to improve the initial text-based ranking
                 list by incorporating visual consistency among the
                 result videos. While existing methods attempt to rerank
                 all the individual result videos, they suffer from
                 several drawbacks. In this article, we propose a new
                 video reranking paradigm called cluster-based video
                 reranking (CVR). The idea is to first construct a video
                 near-duplicate graph representing the visual similarity
                 relationship among videos, followed by identifying the
                 near-duplicate clusters from the video near-duplicate
                 graph, then ranking the obtained near-duplicate
                 clusters based on cluster properties and intercluster
                 links, and finally for each ranked cluster, a
                 representative video is selected and returned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Culpepper:2010:ESI,
  author =       "J. Shane Culpepper and Alistair Moffat",
  title =        "Efficient set intersection for inverted indexing",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1877766.1877767",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 23 17:15:03 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Conjunctive Boolean queries are a key component of
                 modern information retrieval systems, especially when
                 Web-scale repositories are being searched. A
                 conjunctive query q is equivalent to a $|q|$-way
                 intersection over ordered sets of integers, where each
                 set represents the documents containing one of the
                 terms, and each integer in each set is an ordinal
                 document identifier. As is the case with many computing
                 applications, there is tension between the way in which
                 the data is represented, and the ways in which it is to
                 be manipulated. In particular, the sets representing
                 index data for typical document collections are highly
                 compressible, but are processed using random access
                 techniques, meaning that methods for carrying out set
                 intersections must be alert to issues to do with access
                 patterns and data representation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Transier:2010:EBA,
  author =       "Frederik Transier and Peter Sanders",
  title =        "Engineering basic algorithms of an in-memory text
                 search engine",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1877766.1877768",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 23 17:15:03 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Inverted index data structures are the key to fast
                 text search engines. We first investigate one of the
                 predominant operation on inverted indexes, which asks
                 for intersecting two sorted lists of document IDs of
                 different lengths. We explore compression and
                 performance of different inverted list data structures.
                 In particular, we present Lookup, a new data structure
                 that allows intersection in expected time linear in the
                 smaller list. Based on this result, we present the
                 algorithmic core of a full text data base that allows
                 fast Boolean queries, phrase queries, and document
                 reporting using less space than the input text. The
                 system uses a carefully choreographed combination of
                 classical data compression techniques and
                 inverted-index-based search data structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Krikon:2010:UIP,
  author =       "Eyal Krikon and Oren Kurland and Michael Bendersky",
  title =        "Utilizing inter-passage and inter-document
                 similarities for reranking search results",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1877766.1877769",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 23 17:15:03 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a novel language-model-based approach to
                 reranking search results; that is, reordering the
                 documents in an initially retrieved list so as to
                 improve precision at top ranks. Our model integrates
                 whole-document information with that induced from
                 passages. Specifically, inter-passage, inter-document,
                 and query-based similarities, which constitute a rich
                 source of information, are combined in our model.
                 Empirical evaluation shows that the
                 precision-at-top-ranks performance of our model is
                 substantially better than that of the initial ranking
                 upon which reranking is performed. Furthermore, the
                 performance is substantially better than that of a
                 commonly used passage-based document ranking method
                 that does not exploit inter-item similarities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Minkov:2010:IGW,
  author =       "Einat Minkov and William W. Cohen",
  title =        "Improving graph-walk-based similarity with reranking:
                 {Case} studies for personal information management",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1877766.1877770",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 23 17:15:03 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Relational or semistructured data is naturally
                 represented by a graph, where nodes denote entities and
                 directed typed edges represent the relations between
                 them. Such graphs are heterogeneous, describing
                 different types of objects and links. We represent
                 personal information as a graph that includes messages,
                 terms, persons, dates, and other object types, and
                 relations like sent-to and has-term. Given the graph,
                 we apply finite random graph walks to induce a measure
                 of entity similarity, which can be viewed as a tool for
                 performing search in the graph. Experiments conducted
                 using personal email collections derived from the Enron
                 corpus and other corpora show how the different tasks
                 of alias finding, threading, and person name
                 disambiguation can be all addressed as search queries
                 in this framework, where the graph-walk-based
                 similarity metric is preferable to alternative
                 approaches, and further improvements are achieved with
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{DellAmico:2010:DFP,
  author =       "Matteo Dell'Amico and Licia Capra",
  title =        "Dependable filtering: {Philosophy} and realizations",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1877766.1877771",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 23 17:15:03 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Digital content production and distribution has
                 radically changed our business models. An unprecedented
                 volume of supply is now on offer, whetted by the demand
                 of millions of users from all over the world. Since
                 users cannot be expected to browse through millions of
                 different items to find what they might like, filtering
                 has become a popular technique to connect supply and
                 demand: trusted users are first identified, and their
                 opinions are then used to create recommendations. In
                 this domain, users' trustworthiness has been measured
                 according to one of the following two criteria: taste
                 similarity (i.e., ``I trust those who agree with me''),
                 or social ties (i.e., ``I trust my friends, and the
                 people that my friends trust'').",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Choudhury:2010:ECU,
  author =       "Munmun De Choudhury and Hari Sundaram and Ajita John
                 and Doree Duncan Seligmann",
  title =        "Extraction, characterization and utility of
                 prototypical communication groups in the blogosphere",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1877766.1877772",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 23 17:15:03 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "This article analyzes communication within a set of
                 individuals to extract the representative prototypical
                 groups and provides a novel framework to establish the
                 utility of such groups. Corporations may want to
                 identify representative groups (which are indicative of
                 the overall communication set) because it is easier to
                 track the prototypical groups rather than the entire
                 set. This can be useful for advertising, identifying
                 ``hot'' spots of resource consumption as well as in
                 mining representative moods or temperature of a
                 community. Our framework has three parts: extraction,
                 characterization, and utility of prototypical groups.
                 First, we extract groups by developing features
                 representing communication dynamics of the
                 individuals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Fang:2011:DEI,
  author =       "Hui Fang and Tao Tao and Chengxiang Zhai",
  title =        "Diagnostic Evaluation of Information Retrieval
                 Models",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1961209.1961210",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 3 17:57:26 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Developing effective retrieval models is a
                 long-standing central challenge in information
                 retrieval research. In order to develop more effective
                 models, it is necessary to understand the deficiencies
                 of the current retrieval models and the relative
                 strengths of each of them. In this article, we propose
                 a general methodology to analytically and
                 experimentally diagnose the weaknesses of a retrieval
                 function, which provides guidance on how to further
                 improve its performance. Our methodology is motivated
                 by the empirical observation that good retrieval
                 performance is closely related to the use of various
                 retrieval heuristics. We connect the weaknesses and
                 strengths of a retrieval function with its
                 implementations of these retrieval heuristics, and
                 propose two strategies to check how well a retrieval
                 function implements the desired retrieval heuristics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Egozi:2011:CBI,
  author =       "Ofer Egozi and Shaul Markovitch and Evgeniy
                 Gabrilovich",
  title =        "Concept-Based Information Retrieval Using Explicit
                 Semantic Analysis",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1961209.1961211",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 3 17:57:26 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Information retrieval systems traditionally rely on
                 textual keywords to index and retrieve documents.
                 Keyword-based retrieval may return inaccurate and
                 incomplete results when different keywords are used to
                 describe the same concept in the documents and in the
                 queries. Furthermore, the relationship between these
                 related keywords may be semantic rather than syntactic,
                 and capturing it thus requires access to comprehensive
                 human world knowledge. Concept-based retrieval methods
                 have attempted to tackle these difficulties by using
                 manually built thesauri, by relying on term
                 cooccurrence data, or by extracting latent word
                 relationships and concepts from a corpus. In this
                 article we introduce a new concept-based retrieval
                 approach based on Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), a
                 recently proposed method that augments keyword-based
                 text representation with concept-based features,
                 automatically extracted from massive human knowledge
                 repositories such as Wikipedia.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Ma:2011:IRS,
  author =       "Hao Ma and Tom Chao Zhou and Michael R. Lyu and Irwin
                 King",
  title =        "Improving Recommender Systems by Incorporating Social
                 Contextual Information",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1961209.1961212",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 3 17:57:26 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "Due to their potential commercial value and the
                 associated great research challenges, recommender
                 systems have been extensively studied by both academia
                 and industry recently. However, the data sparsity
                 problem of the involved user-item matrix seriously
                 affects the recommendation quality. Many existing
                 approaches to recommender systems cannot easily deal
                 with users who have made very few ratings. In view of
                 the exponential growth of information generated by
                 online users, social contextual information analysis is
                 becoming important for many Web applications. In this
                 article, we propose a factor analysis approach based on
                 probabilistic matrix factorization to alleviate the
                 data sparsity and poor prediction accuracy problems by
                 incorporating social contextual information, such as
                 social networks and social tags.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J779",
}

@Article{Mei:2011:CVR,
  author =       "Tao Mei and Bo Yang and Xian-Sheng Hua and Shipeng
                 Li",
  title =        "Contextual Video Recommendation by Multimodal
                 Relevance and User Feedback",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1961209.1961213",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 3 17:57:26 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tois.bib",
  abstract =     "With Internet delivery of video content surging to an
                 unprecedented level, video recommendation, which
                 suggests relevant videos to targeted users according to
                 their historical and current viewings or preferences,
                 has become one of most pervasive online video services.
                 This article presents a novel contextual video
                 recommendation system, called VideoReach, based on
                 multimodal content relevance and user feedback. We
                 consider an online video usually consists of different
                 modalities (i.e., visual and audio track, as well as
                 associated texts such as query, keywords, and
                 surrounding text). Therefore, the recommended videos
                 should be relevant to current viewing in terms of
                 multimodal