%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.26",
%%%     date            = "07 July 2014",
%%%     time            = "16:52:13 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "toce.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "55511 4547 23397 224516",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; ACM Journal on
%%%                        Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC);
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Computing Education
%%%                        (TOCE)",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "no",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        the journal ACM Transactions on Computing
%%%                        Education (TOCE) (CODEN unknown, ISSN
%%%                        1946-6226), for 2009--date.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 9, number 1, in
%%%                        January 2009 as a continuation of the older
%%%                        ACM Journal on Educational Resources in
%%%                        Computing (JERIC).  The journal appears
%%%                        quarterly.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has World-Wide Web sites at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.26, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             2009 (  17)    2011 (  24)    2013 (  19)
%%%                             2010 (  21)    2012 (  16)    2014 (  15)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        112
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  112
%%%
%%%                        Data for this bibliography was derived from
%%%                        data at the ACM Web site.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.
%%%
%%%                        The bibsource keys in the bibliography
%%%                        entries below indicate the data sources.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
%%%
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%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
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%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, using ``bibsort -byvolume.''
%%%
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%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TOCE                  = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Tenenberg:2009:IAT,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Introducing the {ACM Transactions on Computing
                 Education}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513594",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)
                 represents a name change and a broadening of scope for
                 the ACM Journal on Educational Resources on Computing
                 (JERIC). The topics covered by this new journal will
                 range across diverse aspects of computing education:
                 traditional computer science, computer engineering,
                 software engineering, information technology, and
                 informatics; emerging aspects of computing; and
                 applications of computing to other disciplines, such as
                 computational biology. The common characteristics
                 shared by these articles are a scholarly approach to
                 teaching and learning, a broad appeal to educational
                 practitioners, and a clear connection to student
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Computing education; practitioner research;
                 scholarship of teaching and learning",
}

@Article{Richards:2009:DPB,
  author =       "Debbie Richards",
  title =        "Designing Project-Based Courses with a Focus on
                 Group Formation and Assessment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513595",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The value and the pitfalls of project and group work
                 are well recognized. The principles and elements which
                 apply to projects in general, apply to project-based
                 courses. Thoughtful and detailed planning,
                 understanding of the stakeholders and their needs, a
                 good design, appropriate testing, monitoring and
                 quality control and continual management can maximize
                 the benefits and minimize the negatives. In this
                 article we draw together the literature to consider key
                 design choices of project-based courses considering:
                 type, length, size, management, participants, and
                 content with a particular focus on the composition of
                 groups and the issues surrounding assessment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "assessment; Group-based courses; group formation",
}

@Article{Ritzhaupt:2009:CGD,
  author =       "Albert D. Ritzhaupt",
  title =        "Creating a Game Development Course with Limited
                 Resources: An Evaluation Study",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513596",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article provides an overview of the challenges in
                 implementing a game development course with limited
                 resources in computing curricula. An approach to a
                 holistic game development course is outlined in terms
                 of its organization, software, and instructional
                 methods. The course had 23 students enrolled in its
                 first offering and was systematically evaluated in
                 light of the approach using multiple sources of data.
                 Descriptive statistics and measures of internal
                 consistency reliability are provided. Three important
                 findings resulted from this research: (1) a game
                 development course can be implemented with limited
                 institutional monetary support for a reasonable cost
                 per student, (2) cooperation and competition can be
                 effectively integrated into a game development course
                 as instructional strategies, and (3) integrated lecture
                 and computer lab sessions with cooperative learning is
                 an effective instructional method for a game
                 development course. Finally, insights and lessons
                 learned are provided to assist educators in creating
                 their own game development courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "computing education; educational evaluation; Game
                 development curriculum; game development tools",
}

@Article{Caspersen:2009:SFP,
  author =       "Michael E. Caspersen and Michael Kolling",
  title =        "{STREAM}: A First Programming Process",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513597",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Programming is recognized as one of seven grand
                 challenges in computing education. Decades of research
                 have shown that the major problems novices experience
                 are composition-based---they may know what the
                 individual programming language constructs are, but
                 they do not know how to put them together. Despite this
                 fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming
                 education research hardly address the issue of teaching
                 the skills needed for systematic development of
                 programs.\par

                 We provide a conceptual framework for incremental
                 program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which
                 unifies best practice in modern software development
                 such as test-driven development and refactoring with
                 the prevailing perspective of programming methodology,
                 stepwise refinement. The conceptual framework enables
                 well-defined characterizations of incremental program
                 development.\par

                 We utilize the conceptual framework to derive a
                 programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for
                 novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a
                 full and rich agile software engineering process
                 particularly suited for novices learning
                 object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to
                 achieve two things: to help novice programmers learn
                 faster and better while at the same time laying the
                 foundation for a more thorough treatment of more
                 advanced aspects of software engineering. In this
                 article, two examples demonstrate the application of
                 STREAM.\par

                 The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory
                 programming courses at our universities for the past
                 three years and the results are very encouraging. We
                 report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the
                 learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study
                 indicates a positive effect on the development of
                 students' process competences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "agile methods; programming education; programming
                 methodology; programming process; refactoring; Stepwise
                 improvement; stepwise refinement; test-driven
                 development",
}

@Article{Barker:2009:SFP,
  author =       "L. Barker",
  title =        "Student and Faculty Perceptions of Undergraduate
                 Research Experiences in Computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513598",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Undergraduate research experiences are promoted and
                 funded for their potential in increasing students'
                 likelihood of pursuing graduate degrees, increasing
                 their confidence, and expanding their awareness of
                 their discipline and career opportunities. These
                 outcomes, however, depend on the social,
                 organizational, and intellectual conditions under which
                 students conduct research. Large-scale comparative
                 studies suggest that computer science undergraduate
                 researchers participate in fewer of the activities that
                 lead to membership in a ``culture of research.'' This
                 interview-based study illuminates the experiences of
                 both undergraduates and their faculty research mentors
                 in computer science summer and academic year programs.
                 Twenty-five undergraduates and 31 faculty mentors, the
                 majority women, were interviewed. Their stories reveal
                 best and worst case research conditions for students,
                 the special benefits to women who have experienced
                 harassment in their classes, unconscious biases of
                 faculty, the wisdom of faculty who guide undergraduates
                 to successful research outcomes, and faculty's
                 perceptions of benefits for themselves, their
                 departments, and the students they mentor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "research career; research experiences for
                 undergraduates; Undergraduate research; women in
                 computing",
}

@Article{Ocker:2009:TSW,
  author =       "Rosalie Ocker and Mary Beth Rosson and Dana Kracaw and
                 S. Roxanne Hiltz",
  title =        "Training Students to Work Effectively in
                 Partially Distributed Teams",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513599",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Information technology teams are often partially
                 distributed teams (PDTs). A PDT consists of two or more
                 subteams that are separated geographically. This
                 articles describes research focused on the use of PDTs
                 to engage students in ``real world'' IT team learning
                 about the subject matter while also teaching them the
                 skills they will need to work in global software
                 development teams. Findings from a large-scale
                 international study indicate that the introduction of
                 training modules enhanced perceived learning of
                 appropriate PDT teaming behaviors; students with
                 training reported improved shared team identification,
                 trust, awareness, coordination, competence, and
                 conflict with respect to distant subteam members, and
                 higher overall team performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "distributed teams; partially distributed teams;
                 Virtual teams",
}

@Article{Myller:2009:EET,
  author =       "Niko Myller and Roman Bednarik and Erkki Sutinen and
                 Mordechai Ben-Ari",
  title =        "Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software
                 Visualization and Collaborative Learning",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1513593.1513600",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "As collaborative learning in general, and pair
                 programming in particular, has become widely adopted in
                 computer science education, so has the use of
                 pedagogical visualization tools for facilitating
                 collaboration. However, there is little theory on
                 collaborative learning with visualization, and few
                 studies on their effect on each other. We build on the
                 concept of the {\em engagement taxonomy\/} and extend
                 it to classify finer variations in the engagement that
                 result from the use of a visualization tool. We analyze
                 the applicability of the taxonomy to the description of
                 the differences in the collaboration process when
                 visualization is used. Our hypothesis is that
                 increasing the level of engagement between learners and
                 the visualization tool results in a higher positive
                 impact of the visualization on the collaboration
                 process. This article describes an empirical
                 investigation designed to test the hypothesis. The
                 results provide support for our extended engagement
                 taxonomy and hypothesis by showing that the
                 collaborative activities of the students and the
                 engagement levels are correlated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "collaborative learning; engagement taxonomy; Program
                 visualization",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:EPA,
  author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and J. {\'A}ngel
                 Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
  title =        "Editorial: Program and Algorithm Visualization in
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538235",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Urquiza-Fuentes:2009:SSE,
  author =       "Jaime Urquiza-Fuentes and J. {\'A}ngel
                 Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
  title =        "A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program
                 Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538236",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Karavirta:2009:SMH,
  author =       "Ville Karavirta",
  title =        "Seamless Merging of Hypertext and Algorithm
                 Animation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538237",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:VBC,
  author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and Teena Vellaramkalayil",
  title =        "A Visualization-Based Computer Science Hypertextbook
                 Prototype",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538238",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bruce-Lockhart:2009:ATG,
  author =       "Michael Bruce-Lockhart and Theodore Norvell and
                 Pierluigi Crescenzi",
  title =        "Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538239",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cross:2009:RGD,
  author =       "James H. {Cross II} and T. Dean Hendrix and David A.
                 Umphress and Larry A. Barowski and Jhilmil Jain and
                 Lacey N. Montgomery",
  title =        "Robust Generation of Dynamic Data Structure
                 Visualizations with Multiple Interaction Approaches",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538240",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Schaeckeler:2009:COP,
  author =       "Stefan Schaeckeler and Weijia Shang and Ruth Davis",
  title =        "Compiler Optimization Pass Visualization: The
                 Procedural Abstraction Case",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1538234.1538241",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Pears:2009:VOC,
  author =       "Arnold Pears and Lauri Malmi",
  title =        "Values and Objectives in Computing Education
                 Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1594399.1594400",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Paterson:2009:PPS,
  author =       "J. H. Paterson and K. F. Cheng and J. Haddow",
  title =        "{PatternCoder}: {A} Programming Support Tool for
                 Learning Binary Class Associations and Design
                 Patterns",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1594399.1594401",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kiesmuller:2009:DLP,
  author =       "Ulrich Kiesm{\"u}ller",
  title =        "Diagnosing Learners' Problem-Solving Strategies Using
                 Learning Environments with Algorithmic Problems in
                 Secondary Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1594399.1594402",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2010:WDM,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Why Discipline Matters in Computing Education
                 Scholarship",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1656255.1656256",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brusilovsky:2010:LSP,
  author =       "Peter Brusilovsky and Sergey Sosnovsky and Michael V.
                 Yudelson and Danielle H. Lee and Vladimir Zadorozhny
                 and Xin Zhou",
  title =        "Learning {SQL} Programming with Interactive Tools:
                 From Integration to Personalization",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1656255.1656257",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yuan:2010:VTT,
  author =       "Xiaohong Yuan and Percy Vega and Yaseen Qadah and
                 Ricky Archer and Huiming Yu and Jinsheng Xu",
  title =        "Visualization Tools for Teaching Computer Security",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1656255.1656258",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Meerbaum--Salant:2010:ACM,
  author =       "Orni Meerbaum--Salant and Orit Hazzan",
  title =        "An Agile Constructionist Mentoring Methodology for
                 Software Projects in the High School",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1656255.1656259",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:GEI,
  author =       "Doug Baldwin and Alyce Brady",
  title =        "{Guest Editors}' Introduction: Computer Science in the
                 Liberal Arts",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1731041.1731042",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "For many people, computer science is not closely
                 associated with the liberal arts. Yet ``liberal arts''
                 can denote a philosophy of education that emphasizes
                 broadly preparing students for all aspects of their
                 future lives, and as computing becomes more central to
                 the ways in which we think about the world, computer
                 science becomes correspondingly more central in such an
                 education. This, in turn, makes computer science more
                 important in the programs of educational institutions
                 that follow a liberal arts philosophy. This issue of
                 {\em Transactions on Computing Education\/} presents
                 three articles that examine the intersection of
                 computer science and the liberal arts. Walker and
                 Kelemen explore in detail how a liberal arts philosophy
                 complements the needs of computer science education,
                 and how computer science as a discipline fits the goals
                 of a liberal arts philosophy. Bruce et al. present the
                 history of a consortium of computer scientists from
                 liberal arts colleges and the model computer science
                 curricula they have developed for such colleges.
                 Finally, Baldwin et al. describe the concrete computer
                 science programs at five institutions, each with a
                 distinct place in the liberal arts spectrum. We hope
                 that these articles will advance understanding of
                 computer science in the liberal arts, and inspire
                 readers to incorporate liberal arts principles into
                 their own computer science programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Walker:2010:CSL,
  author =       "Henry M. Walker and Charles Kelemen",
  title =        "Computer Science and the Liberal Arts: {A}
                 Philosophical Examination",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1731041.1731043",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article explores the philosophy and position of
                 the discipline of computer science within the liberal
                 arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer
                 science and a review of the characteristics of the
                 liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides
                 important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but
                 also presents important constraints. A well designed
                 program can flourish in this environment, and evidence
                 indicates that a liberal arts program in computer
                 science can indeed succeed well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Liberal arts; undergraduate education",
}

@Article{Bruce:2010:HLA,
  author =       "Kim B. Bruce and Robert D. Cupper and Robert L. Scot
                 Drysdale",
  title =        "A History of the Liberal Arts Computer Science
                 Consortium and its Model Curricula",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1731041.1731044",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "With the support of a grant from the Sloan Foundation,
                 nine computer scientists from liberal arts colleges
                 came together in October, 1984 to form the Liberal Arts
                 Computer Science Consortium (LACS) and to create a
                 model curriculum appropriate for liberal arts colleges.
                 Over the years the membership has grown and changed,
                 but the focus has remained on helping to establish and
                 maintain high-quality computer science programs in
                 liberal arts colleges. In this report we discuss
                 briefly the history of the group, the series of three
                 curricula produced by LACS, and other contributions of
                 the members to computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Computing Curriculum Guidelines; LACS; liberal arts",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:CSL,
  author =       "D. Baldwin and A. Brady and A. Danyluk and J. Adams
                 and A. Lawrence",
  title =        "Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science
                 Programs",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1731041.1731045",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer
                 computer science majors. This article illustrates how
                 quality computer science programs can be realized in a
                 wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and
                 contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts
                 colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the
                 State University of New York at Geneseo, Spelman
                 College, and Calvin College. While the example programs
                 differ in size, mission, and the nature of their home
                 institutions, all take advantage of their liberal arts
                 setting to offer rich computer science educations.
                 Comparing these programs to each other and to the
                 latest ACM/IEEE Computer Society computer science
                 curriculum shows that the liberal arts programs are
                 distinguishable from the ACM/Computer Society
                 recommendations, but at the same time are strong
                 undergraduate majors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Goldman:2010:SSC,
  author =       "Ken Goldman and Paul Gross and Cinda Heeren and
                 Geoffrey L. Herman and Lisa Kaczmarczyk and Michael
                 C. Loui and Craig Zilles",
  title =        "Setting the Scope of Concept Inventories for
                 Introductory Computing Subjects",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1789934.1789935",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "A concept inventory is a standardized assessment tool
                 intended to evaluate a student's understanding of the
                 core concepts of a topic. In order to create a concept
                 inventory it is necessary to accurately identify these
                 core concepts. A Delphi process is a structured
                 multi-step process that uses a group of experts to
                 achieve a consensus opinion. We present the results of
                 three Delphi processes to identify topics that are
                 important and difficult in each of three introductory
                 computing subjects: discrete mathematics, programming
                 fundamentals, and logic design. The topic rankings can
                 not only be used to guide the coverage of concept
                 inventories, but can also be used by instructors to
                 identify what topics merit special attention.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "concept inventory; Curriculum; delphi; discrete math;
                 logic design; programming fundamentals",
}

@Article{dAmore:2010:SOV,
  author =       "Roberto d'Amore",
  title =        "A Synthesis-Oriented {VHDL} Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1789934.1789936",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article proposes a VHDL language course that
                 establishes a strong correlation between the language
                 statements and their use in circuit synthesis. Two
                 course modules are described: a basic module that
                 contains the essential concepts of the language,
                 sufficient for students to describe medium complexity
                 circuits, followed by a second module with more complex
                 language concepts. The benefits of correlated
                 laboratory tasks which use simulation and synthesis
                 tools are discussed. Evaluation content, student test
                 scores, and student feedback are presented. Suggestions
                 for improving and modifying the course are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "digital course; SystemC; System Verilog; Verilog;
                 VHDL",
}

@Article{Shoufan:2010:CRP,
  author =       "Abdulhadi Shoufan and Sorin A. Huss",
  title =        "A Course on Reconfigurable Processors",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1789934.1789937",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Reconfigurable computing is an established field in
                 computer science. Teaching this field to computer
                 science students demands special attention due to
                 limited student experience in electronics and digital
                 system design. This article presents a compact course
                 on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the
                 Technische Universit{\"a}t Darmstadt, and is intended
                 for instructors aiming to introduce a new course in
                 reconfigurable computing. Therefore, a detailed
                 description of the course structure and content is
                 provided. In contrast to courses on digital system
                 design, which use FPGAs as a case platform, our course
                 places this platform at the center of its focus and
                 highlights its features as a basis for reconfigurable
                 computing. Both declarative knowledge and functioning
                 knowledge are considered in defining learning outcomes
                 based on a novel What-Why-How Model. Lab activities
                 were designated to deepen the functioning knowledge.
                 The written exam is aligned to learning outcomes and
                 shows that most students acquired the intended
                 outcomes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "configuration resources; configuration technologies;
                 Design process; VHDL",
}

@Article{Bennedsen:2010:BVD,
  author =       "Jens Bennedsen and Carsten Schulte",
  title =        "{BlueJ} Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of
                 Object-Oriented Programs?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1789934.1789938",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on an experiment undertaken in
                 order to evaluate the effect of a program visualization
                 tool for helping students to better understand the
                 dynamics of object-oriented programs. The concrete tool
                 used was BlueJ's debugger and object inspector. The
                 study was done as a control-group experiment in an
                 introductory programming course.\par

                 The results of the experiment show that the students
                 who used BlueJ's debugger did not perform statistically
                 significantly better than the students not using it;
                 both groups profited about the same amount from the
                 exercises given in the experiment.\par

                 We discuss possible reasons for and implications of
                 this result.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "BlueJ; CS1; debugger; learning program execution;
                 object inspector; object orientation; tools;
                 visualization",
}

@Article{Shaffer:2010:AVS,
  author =       "Clifforda Shaffer and Matthew L. Cooper and Alexander
                 Joel D. Alon and Monika Akbar and Michael Stewart and
                 Sean Ponce and Stephen H. Edwards",
  title =        "Algorithm Visualization: The State of the Field",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1821996.1821997",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present findings regarding the state of the field
                 of Algorithm Visualization (AV) based on our analysis
                 of a collection of over 500 AVs. We examine how AVs are
                 distributed among topics, who created them and when,
                 their overall quality, and how they are disseminated.
                 There does exist a cadre of good AVs and active
                 developers. Unfortunately, we found that many AVs are
                 of low quality, and coverage is skewed toward a few
                 easier topics. This can make it hard for instructors to
                 locate what they need. There are no effective
                 repositories of AVs currently available, which puts
                 many AVs at risk for being lost to the community over
                 time. Thus, the field appears in need of improvement in
                 disseminating materials, propagating known best
                 practices, and informing developers about topic
                 coverage. These concerns could be mitigated by building
                 community and improving communication among AV users
                 and developers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Algorithm animation; algorithm visualization; AlgoViz
                 Wiki; community; data structure visualization; free and
                 open source software",
}

@Article{Renumol:2010:ICP,
  author =       "V. G. Renumol and Dharanipragada Janakiram and S.
                 Jayaprakash",
  title =        "Identification of Cognitive Processes of Effective and
                 Ineffective Students During Computer Programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1821996.1821998",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Identifying the set of cognitive processes (CPs) a
                 student can go through during computer programming is
                 an interesting research problem. It can provide a
                 better understanding of the human aspects in computer
                 programming process and can also contribute to the
                 computer programming education in general. The study
                 identified the presence of a set of 42 CPs in computer
                 programming (C language). The study used Verbal
                 Protocol Analysis (VPA) in identifying these CPs. It is
                 a qualitative study on the Verbal Protocols (VPs) of 19
                 students. Some of the CPs have been inferred by
                 referring to the literature and some have been
                 additionally identified by this study. The additional
                 CPs found are confusion, hypothesis, interrogation,
                 iteration, monitoring, recollection, recurrence, and
                 translation. It is observed that programming involves
                 the interplay of lower and higher CPs and needs various
                 cognitive skills, which increase the processing load on
                 the brain and make the programming process difficult
                 and complex to learn and practice. The same set of CPs
                 was found in both the effective and ineffective
                 subjects. The research results can provide deeper
                 knowledge to teachers on cognitive aspects of
                 programming and the cognitive behavior of students
                 during the programming process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "cognitive processes; cognitive psychology; computer
                 programming; effective and ineffective students;
                 Programming education; verbal protocol analysis",
}

@Article{Russell:2010:MPB,
  author =       "Ingrid Russell and Zdravko Markov and Todd Neller and
                 Susan Coleman",
  title =        "{MLeXAI}: {A} Project-Based Application-Oriented
                 Model",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1821996.1821999",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Our approach to teaching introductory artificial
                 intelligence (AI) unifies its diverse core topics
                 through a theme of machine learning, and emphasizes how
                 AI relates more broadly with computer science. Our
                 work, funded by a grant from the National Science
                 Foundation, involves the development, implementation,
                 and testing of a suite of projects that can be closely
                 integrated into a one-term AI course. Each project
                 involves the development of a machine learning system
                 in a specific application. These projects have been
                 used in six different offerings over a three-year
                 period at three different types of institutions. While
                 we have presented a sample of the projects as well as
                 limited preliminary experiences in other venues, this
                 article presents the first assessment of our work over
                 an extended period of three years. Results of
                 assessment show that the projects were well received by
                 the students. By using projects involving real-world
                 applications we provided additional motivation for
                 students. While illustrating core concepts, the
                 projects introduced students to an important area in
                 computer science, machine learning, thus motivating
                 further study.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; projects",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:PSI,
  author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
  title =        "Preface to Special Issue on Initial Learning
                 Environments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868359",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:MT,
  author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
  title =        "Machines for Thinking",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868360",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we set a context for three Initial
                 Learning Environments Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. We
                 consider historical antecedents, technical comparators
                 and design approaches.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kolling:2010:GPE,
  author =       "Michael K{\"o}lling",
  title =        "The {Greenfoot} Programming Environment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868361",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Greenfoot is an educational integrated development
                 environment aimed at learning and teaching programming.
                 It is aimed at a target audience of students from about
                 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college-
                 and university-level education. Greenfoot combines
                 graphical, interactive output with programming in Java,
                 a standard, text-based object-oriented programming
                 language. This article first describes Greenfoot and
                 then goes on to discuss design goals and motivations,
                 strengths and weaknesses of the system, and its
                 relation to two environments with similar goals,
                 Scratch and Alice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cooper:2010:DA,
  author =       "Stephen Cooper",
  title =        "The Design of {Alice}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868362",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article explores the major design characteristics
                 (both pedagogic as well as technical) that helped to
                 shape Alice 2. It identifies several strengths of Alice
                 as well as several weaknesses. An example problem is
                 solved in Alice, covering many of the design
                 characteristics. Finally, the effects and impacts of
                 Alice instruction are presented, and the future
                 directions of Alice development are provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Maloney:2010:SPL,
  author =       "John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick and Natalie Rusk and
                 Brian Silverman and Evelyn Eastmond",
  title =        "The {Scratch} Programming Language and Environment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868363",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Scratch is a visual programming environment that
                 allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer
                 programming while working on personally meaningful
                 projects such as animated stories and games. A key
                 design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed
                 learning through tinkering and collaboration with
                 peers. This article explores how the Scratch
                 programming language and environment support this
                 goal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Utting:2010:AGS,
  author =       "Ian Utting and Stephen Cooper and Michael K{\"o}lling
                 and John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick",
  title =        "{Alice}, {Greenfoot}, and {Scratch} -- {A}
                 Discussion",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868364",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article distills a discussion about the goals,
                 mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim
                 to support the acquisition and development of computing
                 concepts (problem solving and programming) in
                 pre-University and non-technical students: Alice,
                 Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a
                 special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE
                 Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued
                 during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of
                 the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:EEP,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Editorial: Entry Points for Computing Education
                 Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921608",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to provide entry points
                 into the literature on making and warranting claims in
                 the social and behavioral sciences that might be of use
                 to computing educators. In addition, we provide some
                 heuristic advice on getting started and continuing
                 along this direction based on our experience as
                 computing education researchers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Braught:2011:CPP,
  author =       "Grant Braught and Tim Wahls and L. Marlin Eby",
  title =        "The Case for Pair Programming in the Computer Science
                 Classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921609",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Previous studies indicate that the use of pair
                 programming has beneficial effects on student learning.
                 In this article, we present a controlled study that
                 directly measured students' acquisition of individual
                 programming skills using laboratory practica (in which
                 students programmed individually under exam
                 conditions). Additionally, we analyzed other measures
                 of student performance, attitudes, and retention. Our
                 results provide direct evidence that pair programming
                 improves the individual programming skills of lower SAT
                 students, and that students who pair program are more
                 confident in their work and are more likely to
                 successfully complete the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Borstler:2011:QEI,
  author =       "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Marie Nordstr{\"o}m and
                 James H. Paterson",
  title =        "On the Quality of Examples in Introductory {Java}
                 Textbooks",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Example programs play an important role in the
                 teaching and learning of programming. Students as well
                 as teachers rank examples as the most important
                 resources for learning to program. Example programs
                 work as role models and must therefore always be
                 consistent with the principles and rules we are
                 teaching. However, it is difficult to find or develop
                 examples that are fully faithful to all principles and
                 guidelines of the object-oriented paradigm and also
                 follow general pedagogical principles and practices.
                 Unless students are able to engage with good examples,
                 they will not be able to tell desirable from
                 undesirable properties in their own and others'
                 programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Liberman:2011:DLI,
  author =       "Neomi Liberman and Catriel Beeri and Yifat Ben-David
                 Kolikant",
  title =        "Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and
                 Polymorphism",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on difficulties related to the
                 concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by
                 a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience
                 with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a
                 course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis
                 of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in
                 the course, as well as on observations made during the
                 course. The article suggests that the difficulties are
                 mostly caused by the learners' ignorance about a
                 programming model for inheritance and polymorphism.
                 Such a model is presented in the appendix.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wang:2011:EEU,
  author =       "Alf Inge Wang",
  title =        "Extensive Evaluation of Using a Game Project in a
                 Software Architecture Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes an extensive evaluation of
                 introducing a game project to a software architecture
                 course. In this project, university students have to
                 construct and design a type of software architecture,
                 evaluate the architecture, implement an application
                 based on the architecture, and test this
                 implementation. In previous years, the domain of the
                 software architecture project has been a robot
                 controller for navigating a maze. In 2008, the students
                 on the software architecture course chose between the
                 two domains: Khepera robot simulation in Java and XNA
                 game development in C\#. Independent of the domain
                 chosen, the students had to go through the same phases,
                 produce the same documents based on the same templates,
                 and follow exactly the same process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ladner:2011:ISI,
  author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
  title =        "Introduction to Special Issue (Part 1): Broadening
                 Participation in Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993070",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This special issue includes the first set of articles
                 addressing broadening participation in computing
                 education. The articles span the stages of the
                 pipeline, from introducing middle school children to
                 computer science to retaining underrepresented groups
                 at the university level. The preface presented here
                 outlines the need for increasing the participation of
                 underrepresented minorities, women, and people with
                 disabilities in the development of technology. In
                 addition, the preface summarizes the six articles
                 included in this first (of two) issues on broadening
                 participation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Doerschuk:2011:IHS,
  author =       "Peggy Doerschuk and Jiangjiang Liu and Judith Mann",
  title =        "{INSPIRED} High School Computing Academies",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993071",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "If we are to attract more women and minorities to
                 computing we must engage students at an early age. As
                 part of its mission to increase participation of women
                 and underrepresented minorities in computing, the
                 Increasing Student Participation in Research
                 Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing
                 academies for high school students. The academies are
                 designed to increase students' knowledge of and
                 interest in computing and to encourage females and
                 minorities to participate in computing. INSPIRED
                 academies differ from others in several ways. They are
                 relatively easy to organize and require relatively few
                 resources; they focus on computing concepts and
                 object-oriented programming; they expose students to
                 successful female and minority computer scientists; and
                 they actively engage university students from
                 underrepresented groups to organize, coordinate, teach,
                 and help assess the academies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kim:2011:EWC,
  author =       "Karen A. Kim and Amy J. Fann and Kimberly O.
                 Misa-Escalante",
  title =        "Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering:
                 Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in
                 Undergraduate Research Experiences",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993072",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Building on research that identifies and addresses
                 issues of women's underrepresentation in computing,
                 this article describes promising practices in
                 undergraduate research experiences that promote women's
                 long-term interest in computer science and engineering.
                 Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU
                 programs include programmatic elements designed to
                 promote gender equity and identifies specific
                 mechanisms that are seen as effective in supporting
                 women in REU programs and in encouraging them to
                 persist in computer science and engineering fields.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wolz:2011:CTE,
  author =       "Ursula Wolz and Meredith Stone and Kim Pearson and
                 Sarah Monisha Pulimood and Mary Switzer",
  title =        "Computational Thinking and Expository Writing in the
                 Middle School",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993073",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "To broaden participation in computing we need to look
                 beyond traditional domains of inquiry and expertise. We
                 present results from a demonstration project in which
                 interactive journalism was used to infuse computational
                 thinking into the standard curriculum and regular
                 classroom experience at a middle school with a diverse
                 population. Outcomes indicate that we were able to
                 develop positive attitudes about computational thinking
                 and programming among students and teachers who did not
                 necessarily view themselves as ``math types.'' By
                 partnering with language arts, technology and math
                 teachers at Fisher Middle School, Ewing New Jersey, we
                 introduced the isomorphism between the journalistic
                 process and computational thinking to 7th and 8th
                 graders.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Zimmerman:2011:WLH,
  author =       "Thomas G. Zimmerman and David Johnson and Cynthia
                 Wambsgans and Antonio Fuentes",
  title =        "Why {Latino} High School Students Select Computer
                 Science as a Major: Analysis of a Success Story",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993074",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on a public school that is
                 succeeding in encouraging Latino high school students
                 to select Computer Science (CS) as a major. The
                 students attend a charter high school designed to
                 encourage low-income Latino students to attend college
                 and attain proficiency in English, Spanish, and
                 computers. Using data from surveys and by analyzing
                 test scores, the authors quantify the characteristics
                 of students who are likely to choose CS as a major. A
                 survey of 139 tenth- through twelfth-grade Latino
                 students is used to determine factors that influence CS
                 major selection. The survey includes questions from a
                 previous study (836 high school math students from 9
                 public and private schools) as a control.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rheingans:2011:RMG,
  author =       "Penny Rheingans and Anne Brodsky and Jill Scheibler
                 and Anne Spence",
  title =        "The Role of Majority Groups in Diversity Programs",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993075",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The underrepresentation of women in technical fields
                 is a widely acknowledged national problem, limiting
                 both the raw size of the talent pool and the diversity
                 of experiences and perspectives of those who will
                 design solutions to key problems facing society.
                 Empowering women to succeed in these fields is clearly
                 one important component of any solution. Because the
                 population in those fields will likely continue to be
                 overwhelmingly male for some time to come, men must
                 also be a key component of the solution. Specifically,
                 since the attitudes of the majority group are a strong
                 determinant of climate, it is almost equally important
                 to foster a population of men supportive of increasing
                 the representation of women.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Goode:2011:ECS,
  author =       "Joanna Goode and Jane Margolis",
  title =        "Exploring Computer Science: {A} Case Study of School
                 Reform",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993076",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article will detail efforts to broaden
                 participation in computing in urban schools through a
                 comprehensive reform effort of curricular development,
                 teacher professional development, and policy changes.
                 Beginning with an account of the curricular development
                 of Exploring Computer Science, we will describe the
                 inquiry-based research that underlies these learning
                 materials. Next, we argue that accompanying
                 professional development that supports the curriculum
                 is essential for supporting this inquiry-based approach
                 to computer science instruction. We then explain the
                 policy strategies used to designate this course as a
                 college-preparatory elective and place it in 17 Los
                 Angeles high schools. Finally, we share the initial
                 results of how students experience this course and
                 ongoing challenges encountered when working in the
                 public school system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ladner:2011:SIB,
  author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
  title =        "Special Issue on Broadening Participation in Computing
                 Education (Part 2)",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037277",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rosson:2011:OUT,
  author =       "Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll and Hansa
                 Sinha",
  title =        "Orientation of Undergraduates Toward Careers in the
                 Computer and Information Sciences: Gender,
                 Self-Efficacy and Social Support",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037278",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crutchfield:2011:BFO,
  author =       "Orpheus S. L. Crutchfield and Christopher D. Harrison
                 and Guy Haas and Daniel D. Garcia and Sheila
                 M. Humphreys and Colleen M. Lewis and Peter Khooshabeh",
  title =        "{Berkeley Foundation for Opportunities in Information
                 Technology}: {A} Decade of Broadening Participation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037279",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gates:2011:CAH,
  author =       "Ann Quiroz Gates and Sarah Hug and Heather Thiry and
                 Richard Al{\'o} and Mohsen Beheshti and John Fernandez
                 and Nestor Rodriguez and Malek Adjouadi",
  title =        "{The Computing Alliance of Hispanic-Serving
                 Institutions}: Supporting Hispanics at Critical
                 Transition Points",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037280",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Eglash:2011:FSA,
  author =       "Ron Eglash and Mukkai Krishnamoorthy and Jason Sanchez
                 and Andrew Woodbridge",
  title =        "Fractal Simulations of {African} Design in Pre-College
                 Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037281",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Dahlberg:2011:SAV,
  author =       "Teresa Dahlberg and Tiffany Barnes and Kim Buch and
                 Audrey Rorrer",
  title =        "The {STARS} Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening
                 Participation in Computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037282",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Burgstahler:2011:UDI,
  author =       "Sheryl Burgstahler",
  title =        "Universal Design: Implications for Computing
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037283",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ludi:2011:URP,
  author =       "Stephanie Ludi and Tom Reichlmayr",
  title =        "The Use of Robotics to Promote Computing to
                 Pre-College Students with Visual Impairments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037284",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:ECT,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Editorial: Computational Tools for Computing
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048932",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to both encourage
                 authors to continue to submit articles describing
                 computational tools for computing education to TOCE,
                 and to make explicit our expectations as the editors of
                 TOCE for what makes a good ``tools'' article. We
                 elaborate three key criteria, and provide examples from
                 previous TOCE papers that satisfy these criteria: (1)
                 establish that the tool is related essentially to
                 computing education, (2) make explicit claims about the
                 impact of the tool on learning, and (3) evidence these
                 claims through actual use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Miller:2011:WPD,
  author =       "Craig S. Miller and Amber Settle",
  title =        "When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Effects of Task
                 Goals on Learning Computing Concepts",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048933",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Specifying file references for hypertext links is an
                 elementary competence that nevertheless draws upon core
                 computational thinking concepts such as tree traversal
                 and the distinction between relative and absolute
                 references. In this article we explore the learning
                 effects of different instructional strategies in the
                 context of an introductory computing course. Results
                 suggest that asking students to do targeted tasks,
                 albeit supported with working examples, is not the best
                 preparation. Instead, unstructured study of examples
                 produces superior learning. Answering targeted
                 conceptual questions can also yield comparably positive
                 learning but only in qualified contexts. While perhaps
                 unintuitive, these results are consistent with a long
                 line of research on human cognition and learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Armoni:2011:LST,
  author =       "Michal Armoni",
  title =        "Looking at Secondary Teacher Preparation Through the
                 Lens of Computer Science",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048934",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Teaching computer science (CS) in high schools, rather
                 than just programming or even computer literacy, is
                 important as a means of introducing students to the
                 true nature of CS, and enhancing their problem-solving
                 skills. Since teachers are the key to the success of
                 any high school educational initiative, any discussion
                 of high school programs must consider the teachers, and
                 specifically the teacher preparation needed to make the
                 implementation of such programs possible. However,
                 there is scant research on CS teacher education,
                 probably because CS is a relatively young discipline.
                 Very few of the publications in the area of CS teacher
                 preparation are research-based.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Nikula:2011:MGH,
  author =       "Uolevi Nikula and Orlena Gotel and Jussi Kasurinen",
  title =        "A Motivation Guided Holistic Rehabilitation of the
                 First Programming Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048935",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "It has been estimated that more than two million
                 students started computing studies in 1999 and 650,000
                 of them either dropped or failed their first
                 programming course. For the individual student,
                 dropping such a course can distract from the completion
                 of later courses in a computing curriculum and may even
                 result in changing their course of study to a
                 curriculum without programming. In this article, we
                 report on how we set out to rehabilitate a troubled
                 first programming course, one for which the dropout
                 statistic and repercussion was evident. The five-year
                 longitudinal case study described in this article began
                 by systematically tracking the pass rate of a first
                 programming course, its throughput, as proposed by the
                 Theory of Constraints.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:TRI,
  author =       "Tanya McGill and Jocelyn Armarego and Tony Koppi",
  title =        "The Teaching--Research--Industry--Learning Nexus in
                 Information and Communications Technology",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133798",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The teaching-research nexus concept has been
                 extensively examined in the higher education
                 literature, and the importance of industry linkages in
                 information and communications technology (ICT)
                 education has also been widely discussed. However, to
                 date there has been little recognition of the full
                 extent of relationships between aspects of teaching,
                 learning, research, and industry, and of the synergy
                 possible from exploiting these relationships. Koppi and
                 Naghdy [2009] introduced the concept of the
                 teaching-research-industry-learning (TRIL) nexus in ICT
                 education and this article attempts to advance
                 understanding of the concept by exploring the
                 literature that underpins it. The article contributes
                 to a clearer understanding of the nature of the
                 relationships involved as they apply to ICT education,
                 and makes comprehensive recommendations to support
                 strengthening the TRIL nexus in ICT education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Mariani:2012:AAD,
  author =       "Leonardo Mariani and Daniela Micucci",
  title =        "{AuDeNTES}: Automatic Detection of {teNtative}
                 plagiarism according to a {rEference} Solution",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133799",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In academic courses, students frequently take
                 advantage of someone else's work to improve their own
                 evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior
                 seriously threatens the integrity of the academic
                 system, and teachers invest substantial effort in
                 preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students
                 take examinations requiring the production of computer
                 programs, plagiarism detection can be semiautomated
                 using analysis techniques such as JPlag and Moss. These
                 techniques are useful but lose effectiveness when the
                 text of the exam suggests some of the elements that
                 should be structurally part of the solution. A loss of
                 effectiveness is caused by the many common parts that
                 are shared between programs due to the suggestions in
                 the text of the exam rather than plagiarism. In this
                 article, we present the AuDeNTES anti-plagiarism
                 technique. AuDeNTES detects plagiarism via the code
                 fragments that better represent the individual
                 students' contributions by filtering from students'
                 submissions the parts that might be common to many
                 students due to the suggestions in the text of the
                 exam. The filtered parts are identified by comparing
                 students' submissions against a reference solution,
                 which is a solution of the exam developed by the
                 teachers. Specifically, AuDeNTES first produces
                 tokenized versions of both the reference solution and
                 the programs that must be analyzed. Then, AuDeNTES
                 removes from the tokenized programs the tokens that are
                 included in the tokenized reference solution. Finally,
                 AuDeNTES computes the similarity among the filtered
                 tokenized programs and produces a ranked list of
                 program pairs suspected of plagiarism. An empirical
                 comparison against multiple state-of-the-art plagiarism
                 detection techniques using several sets of real
                 students' programs collected in early programming
                 courses demonstrated that AuDeNTES identifies more
                 plagiarism cases than the other techniques at the cost
                 of a small additional inspection effort.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Herman:2012:DWW,
  author =       "Geoffrey L. Herman and Michael C. Loui and Lisa
                 Kaczmarczyk and Craig Zilles",
  title =        "Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties
                 in {Boolean} Logic",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133800",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The ability to reason with formal logic is a
                 foundational skill for computer scientists and computer
                 engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design,
                 debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about
                 their understanding of propositional logic and their
                 ability to translate from English specifications to
                 Boolean expressions, we characterized common
                 misconceptions and novice problem-solving processes of
                 students who had recently completed a digital logic
                 design class. We present these results and discuss
                 their implications for instruction and the development
                 of pedagogical assessment tools known as concept
                 inventories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:LPP,
  author =       "Monica M. McGill",
  title =        "Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences
                 on Student Motivation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133801",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "One of the goals of using robots in introductory
                 programming courses is to increase motivation among
                 learners. There have been several types of robots that
                 have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a
                 variety of computer science concepts. A more recently
                 introduced robot designed to teach programming to
                 novice students is the Institute for Personal Robots in
                 Education (IPRE) robot. The author chose to use this
                 robot and study its motivational effects on
                 non-computer science students in a CS0 course. The
                 purpose of this study was to determine whether using
                 the IPRE robots motivates students to learn programming
                 in a CS0 course. After considering various motivational
                 theories and instruments designed to measure
                 motivation, the author used Keller's Instructional
                 Materials Motivation Survey to measure four components
                 of motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and
                 satisfaction. Additional items were added to the
                 survey, including a set of open-ended questions. The
                 results of this study indicate that the use of these
                 robots had a positive influence on participants'
                 attitudes towards learning to program in a CS0 course,
                 but little or no effect on relevance, confidence, or
                 satisfaction. Results also indicate that although
                 gender and students interests may affect individual
                 components of motivation, gender, technical
                 self-perception, and interest in software development
                 have no bearing on the overall motivational levels of
                 students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Poor:2012:NUL,
  author =       "G. Michael Poor and Laura M. Leventhal and Julie
                 Barnes and Duke R. Hutchings and Paul Albee and Laura
                 Campbell",
  title =        "No User Left Behind: Including Accessibility in
                 Student Projects and the Impact on {CS} Students'
                 Attitudes",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160548",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Usability and accessibility have become increasingly
                 important in computing curricula. This article briefly
                 reviews how these concepts may be included in existing
                 courses. The authors conducted a survey of student
                 attitudes toward these issues at the start and end of a
                 usability engineering course that included a group
                 project with an accessibility component. Results of the
                 survey indicate that students' awareness of issues
                 related to usability and accessibility are increased
                 after taking the course and completing the project. Our
                 work and results are potentially valuable to CS
                 educators in three ways: (1) They validate the
                 usefulness of the survey instrument in assessing
                 pedagogies in usability engineering, (2) They provide
                 useful insights into the attitudes of CS majors
                 relative to the important topics of usability and
                 accessibility, and (3) They point to possible benefits
                 of including usability and accessibility topics into CS
                 curricula.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ip:2012:FNI,
  author =       "Barry Ip",
  title =        "Fitting the Needs of an Industry: An Examination of
                 Games Design, Development, and Art Courses in the
                 {UK}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160549",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "There have been growing criticisms in recent years
                 among the computer and video games community on the
                 apparent lack of graduates capable of meeting the
                 industry's employment needs. Following the sharp rise
                 in the number of computer and video games courses
                 across higher education (HE) institutions in the UK and
                 across the globe, this article examines the composition
                 of existing British games design, development, and art
                 programs in relation to prescribed study areas voiced
                 by industry bodies. From a sample of 242 courses, and a
                 further 11 industry-derived and accredited programs,
                 the results explore content currently residing within a
                 variety of games programs and qualification types and
                 evaluate the extent to which such content adheres to
                 the industry's demand for the focus on specific skills
                 and study areas. The findings point toward certain
                 shortfalls in some key areas deemed to be important by
                 industry professionals and the consideration of the
                 degree to which course providers should cater to the
                 specific demands of industry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:CPP,
  author =       "Monica M. McGill",
  title =        "The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game
                 Degree Programs in the {United Kingdom} and {United
                 States}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160550",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and
                 consumed by an increasing number of people and the game
                 industry is only expected to grow. In response,
                 postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have
                 started to create game degree programs. Though
                 curriculum theorists provide insight into the process
                 of creating a new program, no formal research
                 contextualizes curriculum planning for game degree
                 programs. The purpose of this research was to explore
                 these processes when planning undergraduate game degree
                 programs. The research methodology included an
                 explanatory mixed-methods approach, using a
                 quantitative survey of participants in the UK and the
                 U.S., followed by interviews with several participants
                 selected on the basis of their institution's
                 demographics. Results indicate that five external
                 factors influence the development of game programs
                 (government, industry, other universities, society, and
                 trade associations) and eight internal factors
                 influence curriculum planning (facilities, faculty,
                 institution, interdisciplinary collaboration, learners,
                 learning time and space, originating department, and
                 backgrounds of the planners). Results also indicate
                 that while some differences exist in the game degree
                 programs across countries, the vast majority of
                 curriculum planning processes and influencing factors
                 are the same. The study concludes with a set of
                 recommendations for educators, trade associations, and
                 the games industry to improve game degree programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Taub:2012:CUM,
  author =       "Rivka Taub and Michal Armoni and Mordechai Ben-Ari",
  title =        "{CS} Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views,
                 Attitudes, and Intentions Regarding {CS}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160551",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative
                 attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to
                 address these difficulties, a series of learning
                 activities called Computer Science Unplugged was
                 developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These
                 activities expose young people to central concepts in
                 CS in an entertaining way without requiring a computer.
                 The CS Unplugged activities have become more and more
                 popular among CS educators and several activities are
                 recommended in the ACM K-12 curriculum for elementary
                 schools. CS Unplugged is used worldwide and has been
                 translated into many languages. We examined the effect
                 of the CS Unplugged activities on middle-school
                 students' ideas about CS and their desire to consider
                 and study it in high school. The results indicate that
                 following the activities the ideas of the students on
                 what CS is about were partially improved, but their
                 desire to study CS lessened. In order to provide
                 possible explanations to these results, we analyzed the
                 CS Unplugged activities to determine to what extent the
                 objectives of CS Unplugged were addressed in the
                 activities. In addition, we checked whether the
                 activities were designed according to constructivist
                 principles and whether they were explicitly linked to
                 central concepts in CS. We found that only some of the
                 objectives were addressed in the activities, that the
                 activities do not engage with the students' prior
                 knowledge and that most of the activities are not
                 explicitly linked to central concepts in CS. We offer
                 suggestions for modifying the CS Unplugged activities
                 so that they will be more likely to achieve their
                 objectives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Talon:2012:DCI,
  author =       "B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Talon and Mouldi Sagar and
                 Christophe Kolski",
  title =        "Developing Competence in Interactive Systems: The
                 {GRASP} Tool for the Design or Redesign of Pedagogical
                 {ICT} Devices",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275598",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Training professionals to design and produce
                 interactive systems requires the use of well
                 thought-out training scenarios. Indeed, it is essential
                 to consider pedagogical forms whose objective is
                 providing learners with field experience. It is also
                 necessary to motivate learners to learn about subjects
                 that sometimes seem distant from their immediate
                 concerns and to renew their interest in these subjects.
                 This article presents a tool, called GRASP, that helps
                 design pedagogical devices. This tool was first
                 evaluated through three educational initiatives
                 implemented in two universities in the north of France.
                 These initiatives were analyzed to enhance the tool.
                 Then, a second evaluation was conducted to validate the
                 tool more widely. The first part of this article
                 presents the scientific context. Then the design tool,
                 the evaluation protocol, and the three devices built
                 using this tool and their evaluation are introduced.
                 Some of the lessons learned during the initiatives are
                 described. Next, the second evaluation, conducted with
                 more teachers, is presented. Finally, the conclusion
                 highlights the perspectives opened by these
                 initiatives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{OGrady:2012:PPB,
  author =       "Michael J. O'Grady",
  title =        "Practical Problem-Based Learning in Computing
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275599",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer Science (CS) is a relatively new disciple and
                 how best to introduce it to new students remains an
                 open question. Likewise, the identification of
                 appropriate instructional strategies for the diverse
                 topics that constitute the average curriculum remains
                 open to debate. One approach considered by a number of
                 practitioners in CS education involves Problem-Based
                 Learning (PBL), a radical departure from the
                 conventional lecturing format. PBL has been adopted in
                 other domains with success, but whether these positive
                 experiences will be replicated in CS remains to be
                 seen. In this article, a systematic review of PBL
                 initiatives in undergraduate and postgraduate CS is
                 presented from a Computing Education Research (CER)
                 perspective. This includes analyses of a range of
                 practical didactic issues, including the degree to
                 which PBL has been systematically evaluated, practical
                 problem description in the literature, as well as a
                 survey of topics for which a PBL approach has been
                 adopted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Apiola:2012:CSL,
  author =       "Mikko Apiola and Matti Lattu and Tomi A. Pasanen",
  title =        "Creativity-Supporting Learning Environment---{CSLE}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275600",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite much public discussion about the importance of
                 creativity and innovation-friendly teaching in Finnish
                 higher education, the impact of the general opinion on
                 actual teaching practices has been limited. In the
                 Finnish computer science education the teaching mostly
                 follows a pattern of lectures, fixed exercise sets, and
                 exams. With this article we want to open a discussion
                 about possibilities of enhancing the learning
                 environment by focusing on creative problem solving. We
                 will present results from two research experiments in
                 which we aimed to provide computer science students
                 with a practically oriented learning environment with
                 an explicit intention of supporting the creative work
                 of students. There exists a vast amount of scientific
                 theory about creativity, yet it is unclear on how to
                 turn that theory into practice. Thus, our main interest
                 was to find ways of applying creativity theory in
                 practice in the context of computer science education.
                 Our research experiments consist of a practically
                 oriented computer science course, where
                 LEGO\reg{}Mindstorms robots were used as the platform
                 for the student work. Methodological tools used in this
                 study included content analysis of student products,
                 observations from our learning sessions and
                 semi-structured interviews with the students. The
                 course was organised two times: the first time was in
                 spring 2009 and the second in spring 2010. The total
                 number of attending students was 72. In this article we
                 argue that our approach of providing a
                 creativity-supporting practical computer science course
                 was a success. We gained a lot of ideas on how to
                 support creativity, the students were clearly
                 motivated, and they began to learn a new kind of
                 experimental working style. The robotics kit seemed to
                 work well both as a trigger for motivation and as a
                 platform to support experimental learning, enhancing
                 students' creativity and working style. In our opinion
                 these findings are of great importance, and give
                 promising practical ideas for the support of creativity
                 in higher computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Exter:2012:EEP,
  author =       "Marisa Exter and Nichole Turnage",
  title =        "Exploring Experienced Professionals' Reflections on
                 Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275601",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This exploratory qualitative study examines computing
                 professional's memories of their own formal and
                 non-formal educational experiences, their reflections
                 on how these have prepared them for their professional
                 roles, and their recommendations for an ``ideal''
                 undergraduate degree program. Data was collected
                 through semi-structured interviews of experienced
                 computing professionals. Ongoing on-the-job learning is
                 a natural part of professionals' work lives.
                 Participants indicate that important elements in an
                 undergraduate degree program include foundational
                 computing topics, development of critical thinking and
                 communications skills, and a strong emphasis on
                 experiences similar to those encountered in a
                 professional position, such as complex, realistic group
                 projects. Specific programming languages and
                 technologies should be used only as practice in solving
                 problems and learning on one's own.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benkrid:2012:DHD,
  author =       "Khaled Benkrid and Thomas Clayton",
  title =        "Digital Hardware Design Teaching: an Alternative
                 Approach",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382565",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents the design and implementation of
                 a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware
                 design teaching in the School of Engineering at the
                 University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have
                 been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven
                 teaching, deep learning, affordability, and
                 flexibility. This has identified discrete electronics
                 as key components in the early stages of the curriculum
                 and FPGAs as an economical platform for the teaching of
                 various digital hardware design concepts and techniques
                 in later stages of the curriculum. In particular, the
                 article presents the detailed design and implementation
                 of one digital hardware design laboratory, called
                 Gateway, which introduces students to synchronous
                 digital circuit development from high level functional
                 specifications, uses Verilog for hardware description
                 and FPGAs as an implementation platform. Biggs' theory
                 of constructive alignment was applied in the design of
                 this lab's learning outcomes, lab content, teaching and
                 learning methods, and assessment methods. The lab makes
                 extensive use of multimedia in both lab content
                 delivery and demonstration applications developed by
                 students. Student feedback following the deployment of
                 this lab was overwhelmingly positive and an evaluation
                 of the lab results compared to previous lab offerings'
                 shows the merit of the approach taken.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sondag:2012:FTU,
  author =       "Tyler Sondag and Kian L. Pokorny and Hridesh Rajan",
  title =        "{Frances}: a Tool for Understanding Computer
                 Architecture and Assembly Language",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382566",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Students in all areas of computing require knowledge
                 of the computing device including software
                 implementation at the machine level. Several courses in
                 computer science curricula address these low-level
                 details such as computer architecture and assembly
                 languages. For such courses, there are advantages to
                 studying real architectures instead of simplified
                 examples. However, real architectures and instruction
                 sets introduce complexity that makes them difficult to
                 grasp in a single semester course. Visualization
                 techniques can help ease this burden, unfortunately
                 existing tools are often difficult to use and
                 consequently difficult to adopt in a course where time
                 is already limited. To solve this problem, we present
                 Frances. Frances graphically illustrates key
                 differences between familiar high-level languages and
                 unfamiliar low-level languages and also illustrates how
                 familiar high-level programs behave on real
                 architectures. Key to this tool is that we use a simple
                 Web interface that requires no setup, easing course
                 adoption hurdles. We also include several features that
                 further enhance its usefulness in a classroom setting.
                 These features include graphical relationships between
                 high-level code and machine code, clearly illustrated
                 step-by-step machine state transitions, color coding to
                 make instruction behavior clear, and illustration of
                 pointers. We have used Frances in courses and performed
                 experimental evaluation. Our experiences with Frances
                 in the classroom demonstrate its usability. Most
                 notably, in our experimental setting, students with no
                 computer architecture course experience were able to
                 complete lessons using Frances with no guidance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benda:2012:WLL,
  author =       "Klara Benda and Amy Bruckman and Mark Guzdial",
  title =        "When Life and Learning Do Not Fit: Challenges of
                 Workload and Communication in Introductory Computer
                 Science Online",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382567",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the results of an interview study
                 investigating student experiences in two online
                 introductory computer science courses. Our theoretical
                 approach is situated at the intersection of two
                 research traditions: distance and adult education
                 research, which tends to be sociologically oriented,
                 and computer science education research, which has
                 strong connections with pedagogy and psychology. The
                 article reviews contributions from both traditions on
                 student failure in the context of higher education,
                 distance and online education as well as introductory
                 computer science. Our research relies on a combination
                 of the two perspectives, which provides useful results
                 for the field of computer science education in general,
                 as well as its online or distance versions. The
                 interviewed students exhibited great diversity in both
                 socio-demographic and educational background. We
                 identified no profiles that predicted student success
                 or failure. At the same time, we found that
                 expectations about programming resulted in challenges
                 of time-management and communication. The time
                 requirements of programming assignments were
                 unpredictable, often disproportionate to expectations,
                 and clashed with the external commitments of adult
                 professionals. Too little communication was available
                 to access adequate instructor help. On the basis of
                 these findings, we suggest instructional design
                 solutions for adult professionals studying introductory
                 computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2012:CSE,
  author =       "Peter Hubwieser",
  title =        "Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools ---
                 The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382568",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new
                 compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its
                 grammar schools (Gymnasium). The subject is based on a
                 comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by
                 the author and his colleagues during the years
                 1995--2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades
                 6/7 for all students of grammar schools and in grade
                 9/10 for the students of the science and technology
                 track of this school type. In grades 11 and 12 there
                 are elective courses that qualify for an optional
                 graduation exam in CS. The first students that have
                 attended the course in total graduated in 2011. This
                 article describes the whole project in the form of an
                 extensive case study that is guided by the Darmstadt
                 Model, which was developed as a category system for
                 computer science education in secondary schools by a
                 working group at ITiCSE 2011. This case study is the
                 first (nearly) all-embracing discussion of the whole
                 project that describes the long way from the original
                 concept to the first graduates as well as the internal
                 structure of the subject and the first results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ben-Ari:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Mordechai Ben-Ari and Dan Garcia and Tom Murphy",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on concurrent and
                 parallel programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414447",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Much of computing education research is devoted to
                 introductory computer science. The articles in this
                 special issue look at the other end of the spectrum:
                 learning advanced subjects, here, concurrent, parallel
                 and distributed computation. The articles present four
                 approaches for teaching these subjects using
                 infra-structure that is feasible for educational
                 institutions to acquire: MapReduce in a cloud, remote
                 computing on a multicore system, a network of gaming
                 consoles, and software modeling using formal
                 specification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rabkin:2013:UCM,
  author =       "Ariel Rabkin and Charles Reiss and Randy Katz and
                 David Patterson",
  title =        "Using clouds for {MapReduce} measurement assignments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414448",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe our experiences teaching MapReduce in a
                 large undergraduate lecture course using public cloud
                 services and the standard Hadoop API. Using the
                 standard API, students directly experienced the quality
                 of industrial big-data tools. Using the cloud, every
                 student could carry out scalability benchmarking
                 assignments on realistic hardware, which would have
                 been impossible otherwise. Over two semesters, over 500
                 students took our course. We believe this is the first
                 large-scale demonstration that it is feasible to use
                 pay-as-you-go billing in the cloud for a large
                 undergraduate course. Modest instructor effort was
                 sufficient to prevent students from
                 overspending. Average per-pupil expenses in the Cloud
                 were under \$45. Students were excited by the
                 assignment: 90\% said they thought it should be
                 retained in future course offerings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Abuzaghleh:2013:IAH,
  author =       "Omar Abuzaghleh and Kathleen Goldschmidt and Yasser
                 Elleithy and Jeongkyu Lee",
  title =        "Implementing an affordable high-performance computing
                 for teaching-oriented computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414449",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "With the advances in computing power, high-performance
                 computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not
                 only scientific research in advanced organizations but
                 also computer science curriculum in the educational
                 community. For example, multicore programming and
                 parallel systems are highly desired courses in the
                 computer science major. However, the high cost of HPC
                 equipment and maintenance makes it hard to be adapted
                 into a conventional computer science curriculum.
                 Specifically, teaching-oriented institutions cannot
                 afford an HPC system due to the high cost, lack of
                 experience, and smaller research infrastructure. The
                 main objective of this article is to present an
                 affordable and easy-to-use high-performance cluster
                 system for teaching-oriented computer science
                 curriculums. In order to address this, we have designed
                 and implemented an affordable high-performance cluster
                 system based on the PlayStation 3 (PS3). For the
                 performance evaluation of the PS3 cluster, we conducted
                 a benchmarking test, that is, matrix multiplication,
                 with different numbers of synergistic processing
                 elements (SPEs) and nodes. As a result, it was
                 concluded that the PS3Cluster provides enough computing
                 power as an HPC for computer science courses, while the
                 total cost is less than 10\% of an existing cluster
                 system on the market that has similar performance. In
                 addition, the implemented PS3Cluster system has been
                 used for computer science courses, such as Parallel and
                 Distributed Databases and Parallel Programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ziwisky:2013:EEO,
  author =       "Michael Ziwisky and Kyle Persohn and Dennis Brylow",
  title =        "A down-to-earth educational operating system for
                 up-in-the-cloud many-core architectures",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414450",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present Xipx, the first port of a major educational
                 operating system to a processor in the emerging class
                 of many-core architectures. Through extensions to the
                 proven Embedded Xinu operating system, Xipx gives
                 students hands-on experience with system programming in
                 a distributed message-passing environment. We expose
                 the software primitives needed to maintain coherency
                 between many cores in a system lacking specialized
                 caching hardware. Our proposed series of laboratory
                 assignments adds parallel thread execution and
                 intercore message passing communication to a
                 well-established OS curriculum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Carro:2013:MDA,
  author =       "Manuel Carro and {\'A}ngel Herranz and Julio
                 Mari{\~n}o",
  title =        "A model-driven approach to teaching concurrency",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414451",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an undergraduate course on concurrent
                 programming where formal models are used in different
                 stages of the learning process. The main practical
                 difference with other approaches lies in the fact that
                 the ability to develop correct concurrent software
                 relies on a systematic transformation of formal models
                 of inter-process interaction (so called shared
                 resources), rather than on the specific constructs of
                 some programming language. Using a resource-centric
                 rather than a language-centric approach has some
                 benefits for both teachers and students. Besides the
                 obvious advantage of being independent of the
                 programming language, the models help in the early
                 validation of concurrent software design, provide
                 students and teachers with a lingua franca that greatly
                 simplifies communication at the classroom and during
                 supervision, and help in the automatic generation of
                 tests for the practical assignments. This method has
                 been in use, with slight variations, for some 15 years,
                 surviving changes in the programming language and
                 course length. In this article, we describe the
                 components and structure of the current incarnation of
                 the course --- which uses Java as target language ---
                 and some tools used to support our method. We provide a
                 detailed description of the different outcomes that the
                 model-driven approach delivers (validation of the
                 initial design, automatic generation of tests, and
                 mechanical generation of code) from a teaching
                 perspective. A critical discussion on the perceived
                 advantages and risks of our approach follows, including
                 some proposals on how these risks can be minimized. We
                 include a statistical analysis to show that our method
                 has a positive impact in the student ability to
                 understand concurrency and to generate correct code.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Isomottonen:2013:TPE,
  author =       "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen",
  title =        "Teaching programming by emphasizing self-direction:
                 How did students react to the active role required of
                 them?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483711",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Lecturing is known to be a controversial form of
                 teaching. With massed classrooms, in particular, it
                 tends to constrain the active participation of
                 students. One of the remedies applied to programming
                 education is to use technology that can vitalize
                 interaction in the classroom, while another is to base
                 teaching increasingly on programming activities. In
                 this article, we present the first results of an
                 exploratory study, in which we teach programming
                 without lectures, exams, or grades, by heavily
                 emphasizing programming activity, and, in a pedagogical
                 sense, student self-direction. This article
                 investigates how students reacted to the active role
                 required of them and what issues emerged in this
                 setting where self-direction was required. The results
                 indicate three issues that should be taken into account
                 when designing a student-driven course: the challenge
                 of supporting students' theoretical synthesis of the
                 topics to be learned, the individual's opportunities
                 for self-direction in a group work setting, and
                 mismatch between individual learning processes and
                 academic course scheduling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ngai:2013:DIM,
  author =       "Grace Ngai and Stephen C. F. Chan and Hong Va Leong
                 and Vincent T. Y. Ng",
  title =        "Designing {i*CATch}: a multipurpose,
                 education-friendly construction kit for physical and
                 wearable computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483712",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents the design and development of
                 i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable
                 computing that was designed to be scalable,
                 plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and
                 exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized
                 construction interface that can be adapted for a wide
                 range of soft textiles or electronic boards, a set of
                 functional components, and an easy-to-use hybrid
                 text-graphical integrated development environment. The
                 objective was to design an easily usable,
                 manufacturable and extensible construction kit that can
                 be used in a wide range of teaching tasks for a wide
                 variety of student demographic profiles. We present
                 detailed specifications of our construction kit and
                 explain some of the major design decisions. Experiences
                 in using the kit in multiple teaching environments,
                 ranging from elementary school to postgraduate,
                 demonstrate that the design objectives have been
                 achieved.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sorva:2013:NMI,
  author =       "Juha Sorva",
  title =        "Notional machines and introductory programming
                 education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483713",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article brings together, summarizes, and comments
                 on several threads of research that have contributed to
                 our understanding of the challenges that novice
                 programmers face when learning about the runtime
                 dynamics of programs and the role of the computer in
                 program execution. More specifically, the review covers
                 the literature on programming misconceptions, the
                 cognitive theory of mental models, constructivist
                 theory of knowledge and learning, phenomenographic
                 research on experiencing programming, and the theory of
                 threshold concepts. These bodies of work are examined
                 in relation to the concept of a ``notional machine''-an
                 abstract computer for executing programs of a
                 particular kind. As a whole, the literature points to
                 notional machines as a major challenge in introductory
                 programming education. It is argued that instructors
                 should acknowledge the notional machine as an explicit
                 learning objective and address it in teaching. Teaching
                 within some programming paradigms, such as
                 object-oriented programming, may benefit from using
                 multiple notional machines at different levels of
                 abstraction. Pointers to some promising pedagogical
                 techniques are provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grissom:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Scott Grissom",
  title =        "Introduction to special issue on alternatives to
                 lecture in the computer science classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499948",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Active learning in the college classroom has long been
                 promoted as more effective than traditional lecture.
                 Increased adoption of these instructional practices is
                 recommended in several prominent national reports as
                 well as a new National Science Foundation program. The
                 goal of this special issue is to share evidence-based
                 instructional practices that have been applied to
                 computer science education. With collaborative
                 learning, students interact with each other to achieve
                 a common learning goal. Peer Instruction is an active
                 pedagogy pioneered in Physics education in which most
                 lecture time is replaced with students answering
                 carefully designed multiple-choice questions. Chemistry
                 faculty developed and refined an inquiry-based pedagogy
                 called Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning
                 (POGIL). The fields of Architecture and Fine Arts
                 promote student collaboration in studio-based
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Beck:2013:CLI,
  author =       "Leland Beck and Alexander Chizhik",
  title =        "Cooperative learning instructional methods for {CS1}:
                 Design, implementation, and evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2492686",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional
                 technique that has been applied with a wide variety of
                 subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations.
                 This article briefly reviews the principles of
                 cooperative learning, and describes how these
                 principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set
                 of cooperative learning activities for a CS1 course. In
                 each activity, specific roles are assigned to group
                 members in order to highlight important concepts and to
                 enhance the overall functioning of the group. The group
                 processing is followed by a whole-class debriefing led
                 by the instructor, which works in tandem with the group
                 activity to help students improve their understanding
                 of the material. The effectiveness of these cooperative
                 learning activities was assessed in a series of
                 educational research studies which spanned three
                 academic years and included two different instructors.
                 The results of these studies show statistically
                 significant benefits from the cooperative learning
                 approach, both overall and for a broad range of
                 subgroups of students. The article concludes with
                 suggestions for faculty members who may want to use
                 these cooperative learning activities in the classroom,
                 or to develop their own activities along similar
                 lines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Renaud:2013:THC,
  author =       "Karen Renaud and Quintin Cutts",
  title =        "Teaching human-centered security using nontraditional
                 techniques",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2492687",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computing science students amass years of programming
                 experience and a wealth of factual knowledge in their
                 undergraduate courses. Based on our combined years of
                 experience, however, one of our students' abiding
                 shortcomings is that they think there is only one
                 correct answer to issues in most courses: an idealistic
                 stance. Human-centered security, as well as other
                 areas, requires students to understand that they have
                 to weigh up a number of different possible solutions,
                 and satisfice, rather than choose the one that is
                 undeniably the best. In other words, they need to adopt
                 a more realistic stance. Lecture-based teaching cannot
                 develop this facility, due to its inability to engage
                 students deeply with the issues and possible solutions.
                 We argue that depth (in terms of understanding the
                 complexity and issues involved) as well as breadth (in
                 terms of appreciating the different positions taken by
                 users on these issues) are essential for developing the
                 realistic stance. This article reports on an
                 instructional design that was used to help students
                 become more realistic in their decision making. The
                 design is based on seven educational strategies that,
                 in tandem, help students to see the depth and breadth
                 of topics in the course. We detail the instructional
                 design and its application to three topic areas in the
                 course, and report on the outcomes. We found evidence
                 that students did indeed develop the depth and breadth
                 we were hoping for. In concluding, we reflect on the
                 design and the positive result, and propose changes to
                 further improve the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lee:2013:CPI,
  author =       "Cynthia Bailey Lee and Saturnino Garcia and Leo
                 Porter",
  title =        "Can peer instruction be effective in upper-division
                 computer science courses?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499949",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Peer Instruction (PI) is an active learning
                 pedagogical technique. PI lectures present students
                 with a series of multiple-choice questions, which they
                 respond to both individually and in groups. PI has been
                 widely successful in the physical sciences and,
                 recently, has been successfully adopted by computer
                 science instructors in lower-division, introductory
                 courses. In this work, we challenge readers to consider
                 PI for their upper-division courses as well. We present
                 a PI curriculum for two upper-division computer science
                 courses: Computer Architecture and Theory of
                 Computation. These courses exemplify several perceived
                 challenges to the adoption of PI in upper-division
                 courses, including: exploration of abstract ideas,
                 development of high-level judgment of engineering
                 design trade-offs, and exercising advanced mathematical
                 sophistication. This work includes selected course
                 materials illustrating how these challenges are
                 overcome, learning gains results comparing these
                 upper-division courses with previous lower-division
                 results in the literature, student attitudinal survey
                 results (N = 501), and pragmatic advice to prospective
                 developers and adopters. We present three main
                 findings. First, we find that these upper-division
                 courses achieved student learning gains equivalent to
                 those reported in successful lower-division computing
                 courses. Second, we find that student feedback for each
                 class was overwhelmingly positive, with 88\% of
                 students recommending PI for use in other computer
                 science classes. Third, we find that instructors
                 adopting the materials introduced here were able to
                 replicate the outcomes of the instructors who developed
                 the materials in terms of student learning gains and
                 student feedback.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hu:2013:UPH,
  author =       "Helen H. Hu and Tricia D. Shepherd",
  title =        "Using {POGIL} to help students learn to program",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499950",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "POGIL has been successfully implemented in a
                 scientific computing course to teach science students
                 how to program in Python. Following POGIL guidelines,
                 the authors have developed guided inquiry activities
                 that lead student teams to discover and understand
                 programming concepts. With each iteration of the
                 scientific computing course, the authors have refined
                 the activities and learned how to better adapt POGIL
                 for the computer science classroom. This article
                 details how POGIL activities differ from both
                 traditional computer science labs and other
                 active-learning pedagogies. Background is provided on
                 POGIL's effectiveness. The article then includes a full
                 description of how POGIL activities were used in the
                 scientific computing course, as well as an example
                 POGIL activity on recursion. Discussion is provided on
                 how to facilitate and develop POGIL activities. Quotes
                 from student evaluations and an assessment on how well
                 students learned to program are provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2013:TAC,
  author =       "Christopher D. Hundhausen and Anukrati Agrawal and
                 Pawan Agarwal",
  title =        "Talking about code: Integrating pedagogical code
                 reviews into early computing courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499951",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Given the increasing importance of soft skills in the
                 computing profession, there is good reason to provide
                 students with more opportunities to learn and practice
                 those skills in undergraduate computing courses. Toward
                 that end, we have developed an active learning approach
                 for computing education called the Pedagogical Code
                 Review (PCR). Inspired by the code inspection process
                 used in the software industry, a PCR is a collaborative
                 activity in which a small team of students, led by a
                 trained moderator: (a) walk through segments of each
                 other's programming solutions, (b) check the code
                 against a list of best coding practices, and (c)
                 discuss and log issues that arise. To evaluate the
                 viability and effectiveness of this approach, we
                 conducted a series of four mixed-method empirical
                 studies of various implementations of PCRs in CS1
                 courses at Washington State University. The first study
                 validated the viability of the PCR activity. Using a
                 quasi-experimental design, the final three studies
                 evaluated two alternative implementations of PCRs-
                 face-to-face and online. Our results provide evidence
                 that PCRs can promote positive attitudinal shifts, and
                 hone skills in critical review, teamwork, and
                 communication. Based on our findings, we present a set
                 of best practices for implementing PCRs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sorva:2013:RGP,
  author =       "Juha Sorva and Ville Karavirta and Lauri Malmi",
  title =        "A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for
                 Introductory Programming Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2490822",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article is a survey of program visualization
                 systems intended for teaching beginners about the
                 runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on
                 generic systems that are capable of illustrating many
                 kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively
                 describe such systems from the last three decades and
                 review findings from their empirical evaluations. A
                 comparable review on the topic does not previously
                 exist; ours is intended to serve as a reference for the
                 creators, evaluators, and users of educational program
                 visualization systems. Moreover, we revisit the issue
                 of learner engagement which has been identified as a
                 potentially key factor in the success of educational
                 software visualization and summarize what little is
                 known about engagement in the context of the generic
                 program visualization systems for beginners that we
                 have reviewed; a proposed refinement of the frameworks
                 previously used by computing education researchers to
                 rank types of learner engagement is a side product of
                 this effort. Overall, our review illustrates that
                 program visualization systems for beginners are often
                 short-lived research prototypes that support the
                 user-controlled viewing of program animations; a recent
                 trend is to support more engaging modes of user
                 interaction. The results of evaluations largely support
                 the use of program visualization in introductory
                 programming education, but research to date is
                 insufficient for drawing more nuanced conclusions with
                 respect to learner engagement. On the basis of our
                 review, we identify interesting questions to answer for
                 future research in relation to themes such as
                 engagement, the authenticity of learning tasks,
                 cognitive load, and the integration of program
                 visualization into introductory programming pedagogy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Magana:2013:IDB,
  author =       "Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L. Falk and Michael J.
                 {Reese, Jr.}",
  title =        "Introducing Discipline-Based Computing in
                 Undergraduate Engineering Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2534971",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article investigates the effectiveness of a
                 course employing a discipline-based computing approach.
                 The research questions driving this study were: (1) Can
                 experiences with discipline-based computing promote
                 students' acquisition and application of foundational
                 computing concepts and procedures? (2) How do students
                 perceive and experience the integration of
                 discipline-based computing as relevant to their future
                 career goals? (3) How do students perceive the
                 structure of the class as useful and engaging for their
                 learning? We used qualitative and quantitative research
                 methods to approach the research questions. The
                 population studied was 20 engineering undergraduates
                 from Johns Hopkins University. Results of this study
                 suggest that students performed proficiently in
                 applying computing methods, procedures, and concepts to
                 the solution of well-structured engineering problems.
                 Results also suggest that student self-perceptions of
                 their overall computing abilities and their abilities
                 to specifically solve engineering problems shifted from
                 low to high confidence. Students consistently found the
                 course to be important and useful for their studies and
                 their future careers. They also found the course to be
                 of very high quality and identified the instructors and
                 the teaching and feedback methods employed as very
                 useful for their learning. Finally, students also
                 described the course as very challenging compared with
                 other courses in their own department and at the
                 university in general.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Shesh:2013:TSU,
  author =       "Amit Shesh",
  title =        "Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics
                 Course in Small and Medium-sized Colleges",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522689",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article discusses the evolution of a single
                 undergraduate computer graphics course over five
                 semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could
                 offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what
                 would it include? This constraint is relevant to many
                 small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources,
                 adequate expertise, and enrollment to sustain multiple
                 courses in graphics that spread out its vast and
                 evolving content. We strive to include material that
                 would provide (1) a basic but solid theoretical
                 foundation, (2) topics, data structures, and algorithms
                 that are most practically used, (3) ample experience in
                 actual graphics programming and (4) a basic awareness
                 of advanced topics. We have a secondary objective of
                 relating and complementing computer graphics knowledge
                 and programming with topics in other computer science
                 courses to provide a more cohesive understanding to our
                 students. We achieve both objectives by using an
                 ``early-scenegraphs'' approach to progressively create
                 graphics applications that use XML-based modeling and
                 both pipeline-based and ray traced rendering. We report
                 and analyze results that show how students were able to
                 achieve more complex results within similar time
                 periods while largely retaining prior average student
                 performance in the course. Students also report higher
                 rates of satisfaction with the course when it follows
                 our proposed approach. Pedagogically our main
                 contribution is an evolving blueprint for a single
                 undergraduate CG course that offers flexibility to
                 emphasize different aspects like modeling, rendering,
                 etc. according to the instructor's and students'
                 interests, while aligning the course better within the
                 computer science curriculum especially when resources
                 are limited.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Velazquez-Iturbide:2013:EMA,
  author =       "J. {\'A}ngel Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
  title =        "An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of
                 Greedy Algorithms",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2534972",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple
                 algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are
                 not simple to achieve. We present a didactic method
                 aimed at promoting active learning of greedy
                 algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of
                 selection function, and is based on explicit learning
                 goals. It mainly consists of an experimental method and
                 the interactive system, GreedEx, that supports it. We
                 also present our experience of five years using the
                 didactic method and the evaluations we conducted to
                 refine it, which are of two kinds: usability
                 evaluations of GreedEx and analysis of students'
                 reports. Usability evaluations revealed a number of
                 opportunities of improvement for GreedEx, and the
                 analysis of students' reports showed a number of
                 misconceptions. We made use of these findings in
                 several ways, mainly: improving GreedEx, elaborating
                 lecture notes that address students' misconceptions,
                 and adapting the class and lab sessions and materials.
                 As a consequence of these actions, our didactic method
                 currently satisfies its initial goals. The article has
                 two main contributions. First, the didactic method
                 itself can be valuable for computer science educators
                 in their teaching of algorithms. Secondly, the
                 refinement process we have carried out, which was a
                 multifaceted, medium-term action research, can be of
                 interest to researchers of technology-supported
                 computing education, since it illustrates how the
                 didactic method was integrated into our educational
                 practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Stefik:2013:EIP,
  author =       "Andreas Stefik and Susanna Siebert",
  title =        "An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language
                 Syntax",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2534973",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Recent studies in the literature have shown that
                 syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer
                 science students in the field. While this syntax
                 barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies
                 across programming languages has not been carefully
                 investigated. For this article, we conducted four
                 empirical studies on programming language syntax as
                 part of a larger analysis into the, so called,
                 programming language wars. We first present two surveys
                 conducted with students on the intuitiveness of syntax,
                 which we used to garner formative clues on what words
                 and symbols might be easy for novices to understand. We
                 followed up with two studies on the accuracy rates of
                 novices using a total of six programming languages:
                 Ruby, Java, Perl, Python, Randomo, and Quorum. Randomo
                 was designed by randomly choosing some keywords from
                 the ASCII table (a metaphorical placebo). To our
                 surprise, we found that languages using a more
                 traditional C-style syntax (both Perl and Java) did not
                 afford accuracy rates significantly higher than a
                 language with randomly generated keywords, but that
                 languages which deviate (Quorum, Python, and Ruby) did.
                 These results, including the specifics of syntax that
                 are particularly problematic for novices, may help
                 teachers of introductory programming courses in
                 choosing appropriate first languages and in helping
                 students to overcome the challenges they face with
                 syntax.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kafai:2014:COA,
  author =       "Yasmin B. Kafai and Eunkyoung Lee and Kristin Searle
                 and Deborah Fields and Eliot Kaplan and Debora Lui",
  title =        "A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High
                 School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices,
                 and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576874",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we examine the use of electronic
                 textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational
                 concepts and practices while broadening perceptions
                 about computing. The starting point of our work was the
                 design and implementation of a curriculum module using
                 the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer
                 science class. To understand students' learning, we
                 analyzed the structure and functionality of their
                 circuits and program code as well as their design
                 approaches to making and debugging their e-textile
                 creations and their views of computing. We also studied
                 students' changing perceptions of computing. Our
                 discussion addresses the need for and design of
                 scaffolded challenges and the potential for using
                 crafts materials and activities such as e-textiles for
                 designing introductory courses that can broaden
                 participation in computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lukowiak:2014:CEB,
  author =       "Marcin Lukowiak and Stanislaw Radziszowski and James
                 Vallino and Christopher Wood",
  title =        "Cybersecurity Education: Bridging the Gap Between
                 Hardware and Software Domains",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2538029",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "With the continuous growth of cyberinfrastructure
                 throughout modern society, the need for secure
                 computing and communication is more important than ever
                 before. As a result, there is also an increasing need
                 for entry-level developers who are capable of designing
                 and building practical solutions for systems with
                 stringent security requirements. This calls for careful
                 attention to algorithm choice and implementation
                 method, as well as trade-offs between hardware and
                 software implementations. This article describes
                 motivation and efforts taken by three departments at
                 Rochester Institute of Technology (Computer
                 Engineering, Computer Science, and Software
                 Engineering) that were focused on creating a
                 multidisciplinary course that integrates the
                 algorithmic, engineering, and practical aspects of
                 security as exemplified by applied cryptography. In
                 particular, the article presents the structure of this
                 new course, topics covered, lab tools and results from
                 the first two spring quarter offerings in 2011 and
                 2012.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Buchanan:2014:CSB,
  author =       "Sarah Buchanan and Joseph J. {Laviola, Jr.}",
  title =        "{CSTutor}: a Sketch-Based Tool for Visualizing Data
                 Structures",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2535909",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present CSTutor, a sketch-based interface designed
                 to help students understand data structures,
                 specifically Linked Lists, Binary Search Trees, AVL
                 Trees, and Heaps. CSTutor creates an environment that
                 seamlessly combines a user's sketched diagram and code.
                 In each of these data structure modes, the user can
                 naturally sketch a data structure on the canvas just as
                 they would on a white board. CSTutor analyzes the
                 user's diagrams in real time, and automatically
                 generates code in a separate code view to reflect any
                 changes the user has made. Additionally, the code can
                 also be edited and any new code changes will animate
                 the data structure drawn on the canvas. The connection
                 between the data structure drawn on the canvas and the
                 code implementation is intended to bridge the gap
                 between the conceptual diagram of a data structure and
                 the actual implementation. We also present the results
                 of two semester-long studies using CSTutor in a CS1
                 course. The results indicate that students preferred
                 CSTutor and were more engaged using it than a standard
                 whiteboard lecture; however, results were mixed in quiz
                 and exam performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Goldsmith:2014:FIC,
  author =       "Judy Goldsmith and Nicholas Mattei",
  title =        "Fiction as an Introduction to Computer Science
                 Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576873",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The undergraduate computer science curriculum is
                 generally focused on skills and tools; most students
                 are not exposed to much research in the field, and do
                 not learn how to navigate the research literature. We
                 describe how fiction reviews (and specifically science
                 fiction) are used as a gateway to research reviews.
                 Students learn a little about current or recent
                 research on a topic that stirs their imagination, and
                 learn how to search for, read critically, and compare
                 technical papers on a topic related to their chosen
                 science fiction book, movie, or TV show.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yadav:2014:CTE,
  author =       "Aman Yadav and Chris Mayfield and Ninger Zhou and
                 Susanne Hambrusch and John T. Korb",
  title =        "Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary
                 Teacher Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576872",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computational thinking (CT) is broadly defined as the
                 mental activity for abstracting problems and
                 formulating solutions that can be automated. In an
                 increasingly information-based society, CT is becoming
                 an essential skill for everyone. To ensure that
                 students develop this ability at the K-12 level, it is
                 important to provide teachers with an adequate
                 knowledge about CT and how to incorporate it into their
                 teaching. This article describes a study on designing
                 and introducing computational thinking modules and
                 assessing their impact on preservice teachers'
                 understanding of CT concepts, as well as their attitude
                 towards computing. Results demonstrate that introducing
                 computational thinking into education courses can
                 effectively influence preservice teachers'
                 understanding of CT concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2014:ECE,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Editorial: Computing Education in ({K--12}) Schools
                 from a Cross-National Perspective",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602481",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This special issue on computing education in (K--12)
                 schools represents considerable effort by the editorial
                 team, authors, and reviewers. It provides a series of
                 country-specific case studies of computing education in
                 schools that highlights the way in which curricula
                 emerge from each country's specific historical and
                 cultural circumstances. As a result, not only is there
                 much to learn from each of the case studies, but there
                 are additional lessons in the commonalities and
                 generalizations obtainable only by having a rich set of
                 case studies such as these that can be viewed
                 comparatively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2014:PVC,
  author =       "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N.
                 Giannakos and Roland T. Mittermeir",
  title =        "Perspectives and Visions of Computer Science Education
                 in Primary and Secondary ({K--12}) Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602482",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In view of the recent developments in many countries,
                 for example, in the USA and in the UK, it appears that
                 computer science education (CSE) in primary or
                 secondary schools (K--12) has reached a significant
                 turning point, shifting its focus from ICT-oriented to
                 rigorous computer science concepts. The goal of this
                 special issue is to offer a publication platform for
                 soundly based in-depth experiences that have been made
                 around the world with concepts, approaches, or
                 initiatives that aim at supporting this shift. For this
                 purpose, the article format was kept as large as
                 possible, enabling the authors to explain many facets
                 of their concepts and experiences in detail. Regarding
                 the structure of the articles, we had encouraged the
                 authors to lean on the Darmstadt Model, a category
                 system that was developed to support the development,
                 improvement, and investigation of K--12 CSE across
                 regional or national boundaries. This model could serve
                 as a unifying framework that might provide a proper
                 structure for a well-founded critical discussion about
                 the future of K--12 CSE. Curriculum designers or policy
                 stakeholders, who have to decide, which approach an
                 upcoming national initiative should follow, could
                 benefit from this discussion as well as researchers who
                 are investigating K12 CSE in any regard. With this goal
                 in mind, we have selected six extensive and two short
                 case studies from the UK, New Zealand, USA/Israel,
                 France, Sweden, Georgia (USA), Russia, and Italy that
                 provide an in-depth analysis of K--12 CSE in their
                 respective country or state.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gal-Ezer:2014:TTC,
  author =       "Judith Gal-Ezer and Chris Stephenson",
  title =        "A Tale of Two Countries: Successes and Challenges in
                 {K--12} Computer Science Education in {Israel} and the
                 {United States}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602483",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article tells a story of K--12 computer science
                 in two different countries. These two countries differ
                 profoundly in culture, language, government and state
                 structure, and in their education systems. Despite
                 these differences, however, they share the pursuit of
                 excellence and high standards in K--12 education. In
                 Israel, curriculum is determined at the national level.
                 The high-school computer science curriculum has been in
                 place for more than 20 years and is offered in all
                 schools as an elective similar to biology, chemistry,
                 and physics. The picture in the United States is more
                 complex and therefore less amenable to generalization.
                 Because educational policy is set at the state and
                 sometimes even at the school district level, access to
                 computer science courses and the content of those
                 courses can vary even for schools within the same
                 district. This article will describe the development of
                 the curricula/standards in both countries and the
                 current situation, focusing on common issues and
                 challenges in areas such as equity and teacher
                 training.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brown:2014:RRC,
  author =       "Neil C. C. Brown and Sue Sentance and Tom Crick and
                 Simon Humphreys",
  title =        "Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in {UK}
                 Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602484",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a
                 remarkable transformation. While the changes are not
                 consistent across each of the four devolved nations of
                 the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland),
                 there are developments in each that are moving the
                 subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5
                 onwards. In this article, we detail how computer
                 science declined in the UK, and the developments that
                 led to its revitalisation: a mixture of industry and
                 interest group lobbying, with a particular focus on the
                 value of the subject to all school pupils, not just
                 those who would study it at degree level. This rapid
                 growth in the subject is not without issues, however:
                 there remain significant forthcoming challenges with
                 its delivery, especially surrounding the issue of
                 training sufficient numbers of teachers. We describe a
                 national network of teaching excellence which is being
                 set up to combat this problem, and look at the other
                 challenges that lie ahead.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bell:2014:CSI,
  author =       "Tim Bell and Peter Andreae and Anthony Robins",
  title =        "A Case Study of the Introduction of Computer Science
                 in {NZ} Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602485",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "For many years computing in New Zealand schools was
                 focused on teaching students how to use computers, and
                 there was little opportunity for students to learn
                 about programming and computer science as formal
                 subjects. In this article we review a series of
                 initiatives that occurred from 2007 to 2009 that led to
                 programming and computer science being made available
                 formally as part of the National Certificate in
                 Educational Achievement (NCEA), the main school-leaving
                 assessment, in 2011. The changes were phased in from
                 2011 to 2013, and we review this process using the
                 Darmstadt model, including describing the context of
                 the school system, the socio-cultural factors in play
                 before, during and after the changes, the nature of the
                 new standards, the reactions and roles of the various
                 stakeholders, and the teaching materials and methods
                 that developed. The changes occurred very quickly, and
                 we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having
                 such a rapid process. In all these changes, teachers
                 have emerged as having a central role, as they have
                 been key in instigating and implementing change.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Baron:2014:CSE,
  author =       "Georges-Louis Baron and Beatrice Drot-Delange and
                 Monique Grandbastien and Fran{\c{c}}oise Tort",
  title =        "Computer Science Education in {French} Secondary
                 Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602486",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science as a school subject in France is
                 characterized by a succession of promising starts that
                 have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions.
                 The main goal of this article is to analyze this
                 complex situation from a historical perspective, and
                 describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer
                 Science course in the last year of secondary education,
                 together with other initiatives that might contribute
                 to introducing Computer Science as a school subject. We
                 also aim at discussing some perspectives for the future
                 to support a better informatics education for all
                 students. The sources we have used are mainly
                 historical and administrative, however we have also
                 drawn on empirical research and surveys conducted since
                 the seventies. This article therefore takes both
                 retrospective and perspective viewpoints.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rolandsson:2014:PSL,
  author =       "Lennart Rolandsson and Inga-Britt Skogh",
  title =        "Programming in School: Look Back to Move Forward",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602487",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, the development of the Swedish
                 informatics curriculum during the 1970s, 1980s and
                 1990s is studied and described. The study's design is
                 inspired by the curriculum theory presented by
                 Lindensj{\"o} and Lundgren [2000], who suggest using
                 the concept of arenas (the arenas of enactment,
                 transformation and realisation) when discussing
                 curriculum development. Data collection in this study
                 comprises activities and actors in the arenas of
                 enactment and transformation. Collected data include
                 contemporary articles, journals, reports, booklets,
                 government documents and archived documents. Findings
                 show that informatics education in Sweden evolved from
                 primarily focusing on programming knowledge related to
                 automatic data processing and offered exclusively in
                 vocational education (the 1960s and 1970s) to later
                 (early 1980s) being introduced in the upper secondary
                 school curriculum under the heading Datakunskap. The
                 enactment of the informatics curriculum in 1983
                 encompassed programming, system development and
                 computing in relation to applied sciences and civics.
                 Mathematics teachers did much of the experimental work.
                 It is shown that the competencies of upper secondary
                 school teachers at the time rarely corresponded to the
                 demands of the subject (content knowledge, resources
                 and pedagogical skills). Stereotypical examples were
                 therefore developed to support teachers in instructing
                 about the subject content. When implemented in the
                 theoretical natural science-programme, system
                 development/systemisation was transformed into a
                 twofold issue, comprising vocational attributes and
                 societal aspects of computer programming. The
                 implementation of today's informatics education,
                 including programming in the curriculum, should draw
                 from lessons learned from history. For a successful
                 outcome, this study emphasises the necessity to
                 understand 1) the common incentives for introducing
                 computer programming in the curriculum, 2) the
                 requirement for teachers' pedagogical content knowledge
                 and 3) the stakeholders' role in the curriculum
                 development process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Guzdial:2014:GCI,
  author =       "Mark Guzdial and Barbara Ericson and Tom Mcklin and
                 Shelly Engelman",
  title =        "{Georgia} Computes! {An} Intervention in a {US} State,
                 with Formal and Informal Education in a Policy
                 Context",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602488",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Georgia Computes! ( GaComputes ) was a six-year
                 (2006--2012) project to improve computing education
                 across the state of Georgia in the United States,
                 funded by the National Science Foundation. The goal of
                 GaComputes was to broaden participation in computing
                 and especially to engage more members of
                 underrepresented groups which includes women, African
                 Americans, and Hispanics. GaComputes' interventions
                 were multi-faceted and broad: summer camps and
                 after-school/weekend programs for 4th--12th grade
                 students, professional development for secondary
                 teachers, and professional development for
                 post-secondary instructors faculty. All of the efforts
                 were carefully evaluated by an external team (led by
                 the third and fourth authors), which provides us with
                 an unusually detailed view into a computing education
                 intervention across a region (about 59K square miles,
                 about 9.9 million residents). Our dataset includes
                 evaluations from over 2,000 students who attended
                 after-school or weekend workshops, over 500 secondary
                 school teachers who attended professional development,
                 120 post-secondary teachers who attended professional
                 development, and over 2,000 students who attended a
                 summer day (non-residential) camp. GaComputes
                 evaluations provide insight into details of
                 interventions and into influences on student motivation
                 and learning. In this article, we describe the results
                 of these evaluations and describe how GaComputes
                 broadened participation in computing in Georgia through
                 both direct interventions and indirect support of other
                 projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Khenner:2014:SSI,
  author =       "Evgeniy Khenner and Igor Semakin",
  title =        "School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in
                 {Russia}: Educational Relevant Areas",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602489",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article deals with some aspects of studying
                 Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part
                 of the `third dimension' of the Darmstadt model (they
                 are also projected on the other two dimensions of this
                 model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory
                 norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards,
                 the learning objectives, the required learning
                 outcomes, and the Unified National Examination in
                 Informatics, which is required for admission to a
                 number of university programs. It is interesting to
                 note that correspondence between requirements for the
                 outcomes of learning Informatics in Russian school and
                 the requirements of K--12 Computer Science Standards
                 (USA) is quite satisfactory. It is noteworthy that the
                 relatively high level of school education in
                 Informatics in Russia is determined by the
                 well-established methodological system with a 30-year
                 history, the subject's being on the list of core
                 disciplines at school, as well as the existence of a
                 state-sponsored system of education teachers of
                 Informatics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bellettini:2014:IEI,
  author =       "Carlo Bellettini and Violetta Lonati and Dario
                 Malchiodi and Mattia Monga and Anna Morpurgo and Mauro
                 Torelli and Luisa Zecca",
  title =        "Informatics Education in {Italian} Secondary Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2602490",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes the state of informatics
                 education in the Italian secondary schools,
                 highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the
                 Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the
                 fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not
                 holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable
                 teaching material and the expectations of pupils and
                 families, who tend to identify informatics with the use
                 of computer applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}