%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%% BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.12",
%%%     date            = "01 April 2014",
%%%     time            = "05:57:16 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "taccess.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "03968 2973 15677 150436",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing;
%%%                        bibliography; TACCESS",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing
%%%                        (CODEN ????, ISSN 1936-7228 (print),
%%%                        1936-7236 (electronic)), covering all journal
%%%                        issues from 2008 -- date.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.12, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
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%%%                             2008 (  12)    2011 (  10)    2014 (   5)
%%%                             2009 (  15)    2012 (   8)
%%%                             2010 (  13)    2013 (   7)
%%%
%%%                             Article:         70
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:   70
%%%
%%%                        The journal Web page can be found at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.is.umbc.edu/taccess/
%%%
%%%                        The journal table of contents page is at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/taccess/
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
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%%%
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%%%                        Web pages.
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%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
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%%%                        available.  Article reviews have been
%%%                        omitted, until their copyright status has
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%%%
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%%%                        archive, even though it has likely since
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%%%                        information about the entry.
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TACCESS              = "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Sears:2008:I,
  author =       "Andrew Sears and Vicki Hanson",
  title =        "Introduction",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361203.1361204",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Trewin:2008:GE,
  author =       "Shari Trewin",
  title =        "Guest Editorial",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361203.1361205",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Huenerfauth:2008:EAS,
  author =       "Matt Huenerfauth and Liming Zhao and Erdan Gu and Jan
                 Allbeck",
  title =        "Evaluation of {American Sign Language} Generation by
                 Native {ASL} Signers",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361203.1361206",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "There are many important factors in the design of
                 evaluation studies for systems that generate animations
                 of American Sign Language (ASL) sentences, and
                 techniques for evaluating natural language generation
                 of written texts are not easily adapted to ASL. When
                 conducting user-based evaluations, several cultural and
                 linguistic characteristics of members of the American
                 Deaf community must be taken into account so as to
                 ensure the accuracy of evaluations involving these
                 users. This article describes an implementation and
                 user-based evaluation (by native ASL signers) of a
                 prototype ASL natural language generation system that
                 produces sentences containing classifier predicates,
                 which are frequent and complex spatial phenomena that
                 previous ASL generators have not produced. Native
                 signers preferred the system's output to Signed English
                 animations -- scoring it higher in grammaticality,
                 understandability, and naturalness of movement. They
                 were also more successful at a comprehension task after
                 viewing the system's classifier predicate animations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "accessibility technology for the deaf; American Sign
                 Language; animation; evaluation; natural language
                 generation",
}

@Article{Wobbrock:2008:GCM,
  author =       "Jacob O. Wobbrock and Krzysztof Z. Gajos",
  title =        "Goal Crossing with Mice and Trackballs for People with
                 Motor Impairments: Performance, Submovements, and
                 Design Directions",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361203.1361207",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Prior research shows that people with motor
                 impairments face considerable challenges when using
                 conventional mice and trackballs. One challenge is
                 positioning the mouse cursor within confined target
                 areas; another is executing a precise click without
                 slipping. These problems can make mouse pointing in
                 graphical user interfaces very difficult for some
                 people. This article explores goal crossing as an
                 alternative strategy for more accessible target
                 acquisition. In goal crossing, targets are boundaries
                 that are simply crossed by the mouse cursor. Thus, goal
                 crossing avoids the two aforementioned problems. To
                 date, however, researchers have not examined the
                 feasibility of goal crossing for people with motor
                 difficulties. We therefore present a study comparing
                 area pointing and goal crossing. Our performance
                 results indicate that although Fitts' throughput for
                 able-bodied users is higher for area pointing than for
                 goal crossing (4.72 vs. 3.61 bits/s), the opposite is
                 true for users with motor impairments (2.34 vs. 2.88
                 bits/s). However, error rates are higher for goal
                 crossing than for area pointing under a strict
                 definition of crossing errors (6.23\% vs. 1.94\%). We
                 also present path analyses and an examination of
                 submovement velocity, acceleration, and jerk (the
                 change in acceleration over time). These results show
                 marked differences between crossing and pointing and
                 almost categorically favor crossing. An important
                 finding is that crossing reduces jerk for both
                 participant groups, indicating more fluid, stable
                 motion. To help realize the potential of goal crossing
                 for computer access, we offer design concepts for
                 crossing widgets that address the occlusion problem,
                 which occurs when one crossing goal obscures another in
                 persistent mouse-cursor interfaces. This work provides
                 the motivation and initial steps for further
                 exploration of goal crossing on the desktop, and may
                 help researchers and designers to radically reshape
                 user interfaces to provide accessible goal crossing,
                 thereby lowering barriers to access.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "area pointing; Fitts' law; goal crossing; motor
                 impairments; mouse pointing; movement microstructure;
                 path analysis; Steering law; submovements; Target
                 acquisition; throughput",
}

@Article{Allen:2008:FEM,
  author =       "Meghan Allen and Joanna McGrenere and Barbara
                 Purves",
  title =        "The Field Evaluation of a Mobile Digital Image
                 Communication Application Designed for People with
                 Aphasia",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361203.1361208",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "PhotoTalk is an application for a mobile device that
                 allows people with aphasia to capture and manage
                 digital photographs to support face-to-face
                 communication. Unlike any other augmentative and
                 alternative communication device for people with
                 aphasia, PhotoTalk focuses solely on image capture and
                 organization and is designed to be used independently.
                 Our project used a streamlined process with three
                 phases: (1) a rapid participatory design and
                 development phase with two speech-language pathologists
                 acting as representative users, (2) an informal
                 usability study with five aphasic participants, which
                 caught usability problems and provided preliminary
                 feedback on the usefulness of PhotoTalk, and (3) a
                 one-month field evaluation with two aphasic
                 participants followed by a one-month secondary field
                 evaluation with one aphasic participant, which showed
                 that they all used it regularly and relatively
                 independently, although not always for its intended
                 communicative purpose. Our field evaluations
                 demonstrated PhotoTalk's promise in terms of its
                 usability and usefulness in {\em everyday
                 communication}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "AAC devices; aphasia; cognitive disability;
                 evaluation; field study; mobile technology;
                 participatory design",
}

@Article{Wandmacher:2008:SAC,
  author =       "Tonio Wandmacher and Jean-Yves Antoine and Franck
                 Poirier and Jean-Paul D{\'e}parte",
  title =        "{Sibylle}, An Assistive Communication System Adapting
                 to the Context and Its User",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361203.1361209",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we describe the latest version of
                 Sibylle, an AAC system that permits persons who have
                 severe physical disabilities to enter text with any
                 computer application, as well as to compose messages to
                 be read out through speech synthesis. The system
                 consists of a virtual keyboard comprising a set of
                 keypads that allow for the entering of characters or
                 full words by a single-switch selection process. It
                 also includes a sophisticated word prediction component
                 which dynamically calculates the most appropriate words
                 for a given context. This component is auto-adaptive,
                 that is, it learns with every text the user enters. It
                 thus adapts its predictions to the user's language and
                 the current topic of communication as well. So far, the
                 system works for French, German and English. Earlier
                 versions of Sibylle have been used since 2001 in a
                 rehabilitation center (Kerpape, France).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Augmentative and alternative communication; keystroke
                 saving rate; latent semantic analysis; user adaptation;
                 virtual keyboard; word prediction",
}

@Article{Glinert:2008:CPD,
  author =       "Ephraim P. Glinert and Bryant W. York",
  title =        "Computers and People with Disabilities",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408760.1408761",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "{\em Editors' comments:\/} ``Computers and People with
                 Disabilities'' is a reprint of an article originally
                 published in {\em Communications of the ACM\/} in 1992.
                 In this article, Glinert and York issued a
                 ``call-to-arms'' for research and development on
                 technologies for people with disabilities.
                 Specifically, they highlighted that human-computer
                 interfaces at the time generally failed to take into
                 account the needs of disabled users. Their challenge
                 was to change computing culture to address this need.
                 Their article remains timely today in its consideration
                 of government, industry, and private foundations
                 working with researchers to achieve accessible
                 technology. With the recent launch of {\em Transactions
                 on Accessible Computing}, this seems an appropriate
                 time to consider progress in the field since, as well
                 as current research trends.\par

                 The reprinting of this article is followed by four
                 commentaries by leaders in accessibility research. Each
                 was cited in the 1992 article and each now gives their
                 view on how the field has progressed since that time.
                 In their commentaries, some themes emerge and new
                 technologies are discussed. In short, their
                 commentaries point to both a great deal of progress and
                 a lack of progress. All four of the commentators note
                 areas where computing continues to present barriers
                 rather than assist users with
                 disabilities.\par

                 Alistair Edwards sets the stage with a look back at
                 interfaces and input technologies popular in 1992, with
                 attention paid to access problems related to graphical
                 user interfaces (GUIs) that have consumed much research
                 energy since 1992. Alan Newell highlights disability
                 concerns that were not given large research
                 consideration in 1992, but which have now become
                 significant due, in large part, to changes in global
                 demographics. Specifically, he brings visibility to
                 research on older adults and cognitively disabled
                 users.\par

                 A number of advances in technology and methodology
                 since 1992 are discussed by the commentators. The
                 ubiquity of computing and its critical adoption in the
                 world today are highlighted. The commentators reflect,
                 for example, on technologies produced by research for
                 disabled users that have now impacted mainstream
                 offerings on standards for accessibility that have
                 emerged worldwide and their impact and on assistive
                 technologies that have been developed. Critically, the
                 proliferation of the World Wide Web was not foreseen in
                 1992 and its use by people with disabilities is
                 discussed. Gregg Vanderheiden considers the opportunity
                 afforded by the Web to provide widespread availability
                 of accessible software.\par

                 Glinert and York discussed the need for design for
                 disability. While research relevant to users with
                 disabilities is gaining momentum, the commentators
                 indicate that users with disabilities still struggle
                 with much of today's IT. The commentators note current
                 trends toward designs that take into account disabled
                 users. Notably, Richard Ladner ends his commentary by
                 mentioning the issue of empowerment. Users with
                 disabilities have moved beyond simply needing the
                 protections of regulation that were emerging in 1992,
                 to being active participants in designing solutions to
                 allow full participation in the current social,
                 political, and economic environments.\par

                 Together, these articles provide a great deal of food
                 for thought on technology advances and new
                 considerations of accessible technology. Has the change
                 in computing culture envisioned by Glinert and York
                 taken hold?\par

                 Vicki L. Hanson and Andrew Sears

                 Co-Editors in Chief",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Accessibility; HCI; inclusive design; interfaces;
                 ubiquitous computing; universal access; Web",
}

@Article{Edwards:2008:KTC,
  author =       "Alistair D. N. Edwards",
  title =        "Keeping Up with Technology: Commentary on {``Computers
                 and People with Disabilities''}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408760.1408762",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "This is a personal response to rereading the Glinert
                 and York [1992] article ``Computers and People with
                 Disabilities.'' Comparing the world of assistive
                 technology as it was in 1992 and as it now appears is
                 instructive in terms of the things which have changed
                 --- and those which have not. The technology has
                 certainly developed. This applies both to the
                 mainstream and to the assistive technology which aims
                 to make the mainstream accessible. So, in 1992, the GUI
                 was a threat to visually impaired computer users; now
                 there are powerful screen readers available. Yet what
                 does not appear to have changed much is the fact that
                 assistive technologies continue to lag behind the
                 mainstream, constantly having to ``catch up.'' Also,
                 while there has been some increase in awareness of the
                 need for accessibility, there is still scope for that
                 awareness to be translated into action.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Interfaces",
}

@Article{Newell:2008:ACP,
  author =       "Alan F. Newell",
  title =        "Accessible Computing --- Past Trends and Future
                 Suggestions: Commentary on {``Computers and People with
                 Disabilities''}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408760.1408763",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "This article gives a personal perspective on Glinert
                 and York's 1992 paper, focusing on whether and how the
                 situation has changed over the past 15 years, and makes
                 recommendations for the future of the field of
                 accessible computing with a particular focus on the
                 needs of older people and people with cognitive
                 dysfunction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Assistive technology; cognitive dysfunction; inclusive
                 design; older and disabled people; theater in design",
}

@Article{Vanderheiden:2008:UAC,
  author =       "Gregg C. Vanderheiden",
  title =        "Ubiquitous Accessibility, Common Technology Core, and
                 Micro-Assistive Technology: Commentary on {``Computers
                 and People with Disabilities''}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408760.1408764",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Much has changed since 1992 when the original CACM
                 article by Ephraim Glinert and Bryant York was
                 published. In the early 1990's, accessibility was
                 mostly an add-on, with only Apple computers having
                 built-in access. Computers were playing an increasingly
                 important role in education and employment, but had not
                 yet completely integrated themselves into all aspects
                 of life as completely as they have today. The World
                 Wide Web as we know it had not yet been born. Today
                 there are accessibility features built directly into
                 every major operating system, and one OS even includes
                 a built-in screen reader. Assistive technologies are
                 more numerous and capable. And awareness of the
                 importance of access is much higher. However, some
                 things have not changed. Assistive technologies lag
                 behind mainstream technologies in both compatibility
                 and functionality. Effective assistive technologies are
                 often beyond the financial reach of those who need
                 them. Effective assistive technologies are not
                 available in many countries and many languages, even
                 though technology is reaching into education,
                 employment, and daily living of more countries and more
                 people in each country every year. In moving forward we
                 need to build on what we have achieved and explore new
                 concepts, such as a {\em common technical core,
                 ubiquitous accessibility, micro-assistive technology},
                 and {\em free public accessibility}. Cooperative and
                 collaborative approaches also need to be explored if we
                 are to have any hope of catching up and keeping up with
                 the ever-accelerating mainstream information and
                 communication technologies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Interfaces; micro-AT; ubiquitous accessibility",
}

@Article{Ladner:2008:AEC,
  author =       "Richard E. Ladner",
  title =        "Access and Empowerment: Commentary on {``Computers and
                 People with Disabilities''}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408760.1408765",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "A number of positive changes have taken place since
                 Glinert and York's 1992 call-to-arms. Progress reviewed
                 in this article includes evolving considerations of
                 universal design in the marketplace, ubiquitous
                 computing with accessibility features, increasing
                 computing research and conference venues that address
                 needs of users with disabilities, and attention to the
                 importance of user empowerment in development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "ubiquitous computing; Universal design; user-centered
                 design; Web",
}

@Article{Crossan:2008:MTP,
  author =       "Andrew Crossan and Stephen Brewster",
  title =        "Multimodal Trajectory Playback for Teaching Shape
                 Information and Trajectories to Visually Impaired
                 Computer Users",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408760.1408766",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 18:48:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "There are difficulties in presenting nontextual or
                 dynamic information to blind or visually impaired users
                 through computers. This article examines the potential
                 of haptic and auditory trajectory playback as a method
                 of teaching shapes and gestures to visually impaired
                 people. Two studies are described which test the
                 success of teaching simple shapes. The first study
                 examines haptic trajectory playback alone, played
                 through a force-feedback device, and compares
                 performance of visually impaired users with sighted
                 users. It demonstrates that the task is significantly
                 harder for visually impaired users. The second study
                 builds on these results, combining force-feedback with
                 audio to teach visually impaired users to recreate
                 shapes. The results suggest that users performed
                 significantly better when presented with multimodal
                 haptic and audio playback of the shape, rather than
                 haptic only. Finally, an initial test of these ideas in
                 an application context is described, with sighted
                 participants describing drawings to visually impaired
                 participants through touch and sound. This study
                 demonstrates in what situations trajectory playback can
                 prove a useful role in a collaborative setting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Accessibility; evaluation; multimodal; trajectory
                 playback",
}

@Article{McCoy:2009:ISI,
  author =       "Kathleen F. McCoy and Annalu Waller",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on {AAC}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497302.1497303",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:33 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents an introduction to the special
                 issue on Augmentative and Alternative Communication
                 (AAC).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Alternative and augmentative communication;
                 human-computer interaction",
}

@Article{Ghedira:2009:CEC,
  author =       "Souhir Ghedira and Pierre Pino and Guy Bourhis",
  title =        "Conception and Experimentation of a Communication
                 Device with Adaptive Scanning",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497302.1497304",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:33 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "For some people with motor disabilities and speech
                 disorders, the only way to communicate and to have some
                 control over their environment is through the use of a
                 controlled scanning system operated by a single switch.
                 The main problem with these systems is that the
                 communication process tends to be exceedingly slow,
                 since the system must scan through the available
                 choices one at a time until the desired message is
                 reached. One way of raising the speed of message
                 selection is to optimize the elementary scanning delay
                 in real time so that it allows the user to make
                 selections as quickly as possible without making too
                 many errors. With this objective in mind, this article
                 presents a method for optimizing the scanning delay,
                 which is based on an analysis of the data recorded in
                 ``log files'' while applying the EDiTH system [Digital
                 Teleaction Environment for People with Disabilities].
                 This analysis makes it possible to develop a
                 human-machine interaction model specific to the study,
                 and then to establish an adaptive algorithm for the
                 calculation of the scanning delay. The results obtained
                 with imposed scenarios and then in ecological
                 situations provides a confirmation that our algorithms
                 are effective in dynamically adapting a scan speed. The
                 main advantage offered by the procedure proposed is
                 that it works on timing information alone and thus does
                 not require any knowledge of the scanning device
                 itself. This allows it to work with any scanning
                 device.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "adaptive scanning rate; Alternative communication;
                 Model Human Processor; modeling; scanning system",
}

@Article{Fried-Oken:2009:EVO,
  author =       "Melanie Fried-Oken and Charity Rowland and Glory Baker
                 and Mayling Dixon and Carolyn Mills and Darlene Schultz
                 and Barry Oken",
  title =        "The Effect of Voice Output on {AAC}-Supported
                 Conversations of Persons with {Alzheimer}'s Disease",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497302.1497305",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:33 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this study was to determine whether the
                 presence or absence of digitized 1--2-word voice output
                 on a direct selection, customized Augmentative and
                 Alternative Communication (AAC) device would affect the
                 impoverished conversations of persons with dementia.
                 Thirty adults with moderate Alzheimer's disease
                 participated in two personally relevant conversations
                 with an AAC device. For twelve of the participants the
                 AAC device included voice output. The AAC device was
                 the Flexiboard$^{TM}$ containing sixteen messages
                 needed to discuss a favorite autobiographical topic
                 chosen by the participant and his/her family
                 caregivers. Ten-minute conversations were videotaped in
                 participants' residences and analyzed for four
                 conversational measures related to the participants'
                 communicative behavior. Results show that AAC devices
                 with digitized voice output depress conversational
                 performance and distract participants with moderate
                 Alzheimer's disease as compared to similar devices
                 without voice output. There were significantly more
                 1-word utterances and fewer total utterances when AAC
                 devices included voice output, and the rate of topic
                 elaborations/initiations was significantly lower when
                 voice output was present. Discussion about the novelty
                 of voice output for this population of elders and the
                 need to train elders to use this technology is
                 provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Alzheimer' Augmentative and Alternative Communication
                 (AAC); Dementia; digitized speech synthesis; language;
                 s disease",
}

@Article{Waller:2009:ESP,
  author =       "Annalu Waller and Rolf Black and David A. O'Mara and
                 Helen Pain and Graeme Ritchie and Ruli Manurung",
  title =        "Evaluating the {STANDUP} Pun Generating Software with
                 Children with Cerebral Palsy",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497302.1497306",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:33 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "The interactive STANDUP software was developed to
                 provide children who use augmentative and alternative
                 communication (AAC) with a ``language playground.'' The
                 software provides appropriate functionality for users
                 with physical, speech, and language impairments to
                 generate and tell novel punning riddles at different
                 levels of complexity. STANDUP was evaluated with nine
                 children with cerebral palsy during an eight-week
                 study. Results show that the participants were able to
                 generate and tell novel jokes with minimal or no
                 support. The use of STANDUP impacted favorably on
                 general AAC use. The study results also suggested that
                 STANDUP could potentially have a positive effect on
                 social and pragmatic skills. Further research to
                 investigate the impact of STANDUP on communication
                 skills is proposed. Suggestions for future software
                 development include providing users with opportunities
                 to complete jokes and to integrate online dictionaries
                 when new vocabulary is encountered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Alternative and augmentative communication;
                 computational humor; speech generation devices",
}

@Article{Trnka:2009:UIW,
  author =       "Keith Trnka and John McCaw and Debra Yarrington and
                 Kathleen F. McCoy and Christopher Pennington",
  title =        "User Interaction with Word Prediction: The Effects of
                 Prediction Quality",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497302.1497307",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:33 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Word prediction systems can reduce the number of
                 keystrokes required to form a message in a letter-based
                 AAC system. It has been questioned, however, whether
                 such savings translate into an enhanced communication
                 rate due to the additional overhead (e.g., shifting of
                 focus and repeated scanning of a prediction list)
                 required in using such a system. Our hypothesis is that
                 word prediction has high potential for enhancing AAC
                 communication rate, but the amount is dependent in a
                 complex way on the accuracy of the predictions. Due to
                 significant user interface variations in AAC systems
                 and the potential bias of prior word prediction
                 experience on existing devices, this hypothesis is
                 difficult to verify. We present a study of two
                 different word prediction methods compared against
                 letter-by-letter entry at simulated AAC communication
                 rates. We find that word prediction systems can in fact
                 speed communication rate (an advanced system gave a
                 58.6\% improvement), and that a more accurate word
                 prediction system can raise the communication rate
                 higher than is explained by the additional accuracy of
                 the system alone due to better utilization (93.6\%
                 utilization for advanced versus 78.2\% for basic).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "communication rate; user study; Word prediction",
}

@Article{Czaja:2009:ISI,
  author =       "Sara J. Czaja and Peter Gregor and Vicki L. Hanson",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on Aging and
                 Information Technology",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1525840.1525841",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "This article provides an introduction to the Special
                 Issue on Aging.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Aging; cognitive aging; instruction; menu design;
                 older adults; pen interfaces; quality of life
                 technology; spoken dialog systems; user privacy
                 preferences; video modeling; voice interfaces",
}

@Article{Wolters:2009:BOD,
  author =       "Maria Wolters and Kallirroi Georgila and Johanna D.
                 Moore and Sarah E. MacPherson",
  title =        "Being Old Doesn't Mean Acting Old: How Older Users
                 Interact with Spoken Dialog Systems",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1525840.1525842",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Most studies on adapting voice interfaces to older
                 users work top-down by comparing the interaction
                 behavior of older and younger users. In contrast, we
                 present a bottom-up approach. A statistical cluster
                 analysis of 447 appointment scheduling dialogs between
                 50 older and younger users and 9 simulated spoken
                 dialog systems revealed two main user groups, a
                 ``social'' group and a ``factual'' group. ``Factual''
                 users adapted quickly to the systems and interacted
                 efficiently with them. ``Social'' users, on the other
                 hand, were more likely to treat the system like a
                 human, and did not adapt their interaction style. While
                 almost all ``social'' users were older, over a third of
                 all older users belonged in the ``factual'' group.
                 Cognitive abilities and gender did not predict group
                 membership. We conclude that spoken dialog systems
                 should adapt to users based on observed behavior, not
                 on age.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Aging; clustering; cognitive aging; spoken dialog
                 systems; voice interfaces",
}

@Article{Moffatt:2009:EMI,
  author =       "Karyn Moffatt and Joanna McGrenere",
  title =        "Exploring Methods to Improve Pen-Based Menu Selection
                 for Younger and Older Adults",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1525840.1525843",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Tablet PCs are gaining popularity, but many
                 individuals still struggle with pen-based interaction.
                 In a previous baseline study, we examined the types of
                 difficulties younger and older adults encounter when
                 using pen-based input. The research reported in this
                 article seeks to address one of these errors, namely,
                 missing just below. This error occurs in a menu
                 selection task when a user's selection pattern is
                 downwardly shifted, such that the top edge of the menu
                 item below the target is selected relatively often,
                 while the corresponding top edge of the target itself
                 is seldom selected. We developed two approaches for
                 addressing missing just below errors: reassigning
                 selections along the top edge and deactivating them. In
                 a laboratory evaluation, only the deactivated edge
                 approach showed promise overall. Further analysis of
                 our data revealed that individual differences played a
                 large role in our results and identified a new source
                 of selection difficulty. Specifically, we observed two
                 error-prone groups of users: the low hitters, who, like
                 participants in the baseline study, made missing just
                 below errors, and the high hitters, who, in contrast,
                 had difficulty with errors on the item above. All but
                 one of the older participants fell into one of these
                 error-prone groups, reinforcing that older users do
                 need better support for selecting menu items with a
                 pen. Preliminary analysis of the performance data
                 suggests both of our approaches were beneficial for the
                 low hitters, but that additional techniques are needed
                 to meet the needs of the high hitters and to address
                 the challenge of supporting both groups in a single
                 interface.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "aging; interaction techniques; menu design; older
                 users; Pen-based target acquisition",
}

@Article{Struve:2009:VMT,
  author =       "Doreen Struve and Hartmut Wandke",
  title =        "Video Modeling for Training Older Adults to Use New
                 Technologies",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1525840.1525844",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "The increasing permeation of technology in our society
                 leads to the challenge that everybody needs to interact
                 with technology systems. Older adults often meet
                 difficulties while trying to interact with complex,
                 demanding systems in their daily life. One approach to
                 enable older adults to use new technologies in a safe
                 and efficient way is the provision of training
                 programs. In this article we report about a promising
                 training strategy using video modeling in conjunction
                 with other instructional methods to enhance learning.
                 Cognitive as well as socio-motivational aspects will be
                 addressed. We assessed if guided error training in
                 video modeling will improve learning outcomes for a
                 Ticket Vending Machine (TVM). To investigate if the
                 training method might be beneficial for younger adults
                 as well, we compared 40 younger and 40 older adult
                 learners in a guided error training course with
                 error-free training. Younger and older participants
                 made fewer mistakes in guided error training, but no
                 differences occurred in task completion times.
                 Moreover, self-efficacy increased with training for
                 both age groups, but no significant differences were
                 found for the training condition. Analysis of knowledge
                 gains showed a significant benefit of guided error
                 training in structural knowledge. Overall, the results
                 showed that guided error training may enhance learning
                 for younger and older adults who are learning to use
                 technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "guided error training; Instruction; older adults;
                 self-efficacy; technology use; video modeling",
}

@Article{Beach:2009:R,
  author =       "Scott Beach and ACM TACCESS Staff and Richard Schulz
                 and Julie Downs and Judith Matthews and Bruce Barron
                 and Katherine Seelman",
  title =        "2008 Reviewers",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1525840.1540652",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 18:10:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Technology aimed at enhancing function and enabling
                 independent living among older and disabled adults is a
                 growing field of research. Privacy concerns are a
                 potential barrier to adoption of such technology. Using
                 data from a national Web survey (n=1,518), we focus on
                 perceived acceptability of sharing information about
                 toileting, taking medications, moving about the home,
                 cognitive ability, driving behavior, and vital signs
                 with five targets: family, healthcare providers,
                 insurance companies, researchers, and government. We
                 also examine acceptability of recording the behaviors
                 using three methods: video with sound, video without
                 sound, and sensors. Results show that sharing or
                 recording information about toileting behavior; sharing
                 information with the government and insurance
                 companies; and recording the information using video
                 were least acceptable. Respondents who reported current
                 disability were significantly more accepting of sharing
                 and recording of information than nondisabled adults,
                 controlling for demographic variables, general
                 technology attitudes, and assistive device use. Results
                 for age were less consistent, although older
                 respondents tended to be more accepting than younger
                 respondents. The study provides empirical evidence from
                 a large national sample of the implicit trade-offs
                 between privacy and the potential for improved health
                 among older and disabled adults in quality of life
                 technology applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "quality of life technology; User privacy preferences",
}

@Article{Barreto:2009:GE,
  author =       "Armando Barreto and Torsten Felzer",
  title =        "Guest Editorial",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1530064.1530065",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Hailpern:2009:AHC,
  author =       "Joshua Hailpern and Karrie Karahalios and James Halle
                 and Laura Dethorne and Mary-Kelsey Coletto",
  title =        "{A3}: {HCI} Coding Guideline for Research Using Video
                 Annotation to Assess Behavior of Nonverbal Subjects
                 with Computer-Based Intervention",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1530064.1530066",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Huenerfauth:2009:LMM,
  author =       "Matt Huenerfauth",
  title =        "A Linguistically Motivated Model for Speed and Pausing
                 in Animations of {American Sign Language}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1530064.1530067",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Price:2009:DEP,
  author =       "Kathleen J. Price and Andrew Sears",
  title =        "The Development and Evaluation of Performance-Based
                 Functional Assessment: {A} Methodology for the
                 Measurement of Physical Capabilities",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1530064.1530068",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Trewin:2009:EVM,
  author =       "Shari Trewin and Mark Laff and Vicki Hanson and Anna
                 Cavender",
  title =        "Exploring Visual and Motor Accessibility in Navigating
                 a Virtual World",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1530064.1530069",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Walker:2010:UDA,
  author =       "B. N. Walker and L. M. Mauney",
  title =        "Universal Design of Auditory Graphs: {A} Comparison of
                 Sonification Mappings for Visually Impaired and Sighted
                 Listeners",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1714458.1714459",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:03 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Feng:2010:CUC,
  author =       "Jinjuan Feng and Jonathan Lazar and Libby Kumin and
                 Ant Ozok",
  title =        "Computer Usage by Children with {Down Syndrome}:
                 Challenges and Future Research",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1714458.1714460",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:04:03 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Pino:2010:IOS,
  author =       "Alexandros Pino and Georgios Kouroupetroglou",
  title =        "{ITHACA}: An Open Source Framework for Building
                 Component-Based Augmentative and Alternative
                 Communication Applications",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1786774.1786775",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:52:06 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "As an answer to the disabled community's odyssey to
                 gain access to adaptable, modular, multilingual, cheap
                 and sustainable Augmentative and Alternative
                 Communication (AAC) products, we propose the use of the
                 ITHACA framework. It is a software environment for
                 building component-based AAC applications, grounded on
                 the Design for All principles and a hybrid--- {\em
                 community\/} and {\em commercial\/} ---Open Source
                 development model. ITHACA addresses the developers, the
                 vendors, as well as the people who use AAC. We
                 introduce a new viewpoint on the AAC product
                 design-develop-distribute lifecycle, and a novel way to
                 search-select-modify-maintain the AAC aid. ITHACA
                 provides programmers with a set of tools and reusable
                 Open Source code for building AAC software components.
                 It also facilitates AAC product vendors to put together
                 sophisticated applications using the available on the
                 Web, independently premanufactured, free or commercial
                 software parts. Furthermore, it provides people who use
                 AAC with a variety of compatible AAC software products
                 which incorporate multimodal, user-tailored interfaces
                 that can fulfill their changing needs. The ITHACA
                 architecture and the proposed fusion of past and
                 current approaches, trends and technologies are
                 explained. ITHACA has been successfully applied by
                 implementing a family of AAC products, based on
                 interchangeable components. Several ready to use
                 ITHACA-based components, including on-screen keyboards,
                 Text-to-Speech, symbol selection sets, e-chatting,
                 emailing, and scanning-based input, as well as four
                 complete communication aids addressing different user
                 cases have been developed. This demonstration showed
                 good acceptance of the ITHACA applications and
                 substantial improvement of the end users' communication
                 skills. Developers' experience on working in ITHACA's
                 Open Source projects was also positively evaluated.
                 More importantly, the potential contribution of the
                 component-based framework and Open Source development
                 model combination to the AAC community emerged.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Augmentative and alternative communication; component;
                 design for all; framework; open source",
}

@Article{Sauer:2010:TUU,
  author =       "Graig Sauer and Jonathan Lazar and Harry Hochheiser
                 and Jinjuan Feng",
  title =        "Towards a Universally Usable Human Interaction Proof:
                 Evaluation of Task Completion Strategies",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1786774.1786776",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:52:06 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "The need for security features to stop spam and bots
                 has prompted research aimed at developing human
                 interaction proofs (HIPs) that are both secure and easy
                 to use. The primarily visual techniques used in these
                 HIP tools present difficulties for users with visual
                 impairments. This article reports on the development of
                 Human-Interaction Proof, Universally Usable (HIPUU), a
                 new approach to human-interaction proofs based on
                 identification of a series of sound/image pairs.
                 Simultaneous presentation of a single, unified task in
                 two alternative modalities provides multiple paths to
                 successful task completion. We present two alternative
                 task completion strategies, based on differing input
                 strategies (menu-based vs. free text entry). Empirical
                 results from studies involving both blind and sighted
                 users validate both the usability and accessibility of
                 these differing strategies, with blind users achieving
                 successful task completion rates above 90\%. The
                 strengths of the alternate task completion strategies
                 are discussed, along with possible approaches for
                 improving the robustness of HIPUU.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "blind users; CAPTCHA; HIP; security; universal
                 usability",
}

@Article{Randolph:2010:AFN,
  author =       "Adriane B. Randolph and Melody M. Moore Jackson",
  title =        "Assessing Fit of Nontraditional Assistive
                 Technologies",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1786774.1786777",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:52:06 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "There is a variety of brain-based interface methods
                 which depend on measuring small changes in brain
                 signals or properties. These methods have typically
                 been used for nontraditional assistive technology
                 applications. Non-traditional assistive technology is
                 generally targeted for users with severe motor
                 disabilities which may last long-term due to illness or
                 injury or short-term due to situational disabilities.
                 Control of a nontraditional assistive technology can
                 vary widely across users depending upon many factors
                 ranging from health to experience. Unfortunately, there
                 is no systematic method for assessing usability of
                 nontraditional assistive technologies to achieve the
                 best control. The current methods to accommodate users
                 through trial-and-error result in the loss of valuable
                 time and resources as users sometimes have diminishing
                 abilities or suffer from terminal illnesses. This work
                 describes a methodology for objectively measuring an
                 individual's ability to control a specific
                 nontraditional assistive technology, thus expediting
                 the technology-fit process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "assistive technology; brain-based interfaces;
                 brain-computer interface; direct-brain interface;
                 functional near-infrared; galvanic skin response;
                 individual characteristics; user profiles",
}

@Article{Leung:2010:MLI,
  author =       "Rock Leung and Leah Findlater and Joanna McGrenere and
                 Peter Graf and Justine Yang",
  title =        "Multi-Layered Interfaces to Improve Older Adults'
                 Initial Learnability of Mobile Applications",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1838562.1838563",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 8 18:21:23 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Mobile computing devices can offer older adults (ages
                 65+) support in their daily lives, but older adults
                 often find such devices difficult to learn and use. One
                 potential design approach to improve the learnability
                 of mobile devices is a Multi-Layered (ML) interface,
                 where novice users start with a reduced-functionality
                 interface layer that only allows them to perform basic
                 tasks, before progressing to a more complex interface
                 layer when they are comfortable. We studied the effects
                 of a ML interface on older adults' performance in
                 learning tasks on a mobile device. We conducted a
                 controlled experiment with 16 older (ages 65--81) and
                 16 younger participants (age 21--36), who performed
                 tasks on either a 2-layer or a nonlayered (control)
                 address book application, implemented on a commercial
                 smart phone. We found that the ML interface's
                 Reduced-Functionality layer, compared to the control's
                 Full-Functionality layer, better helped users to master
                 a set of basic tasks and to retain that ability 30
                 minutes later. When users transitioned from the
                 Reduced-Functionality to the Full-Functionality
                 interface layer, their performance on the previously
                 learned tasks was negatively affected, but no negative
                 impact was found on learning new, advanced tasks.
                 Overall, the ML interface provided greater benefit for
                 older participants than for younger participants in
                 terms of task completion time during initial learning,
                 perceived complexity, and preference. We discuss how
                 the ML interface approach is suitable for improving the
                 learnability of mobile applications, particularly for
                 older adults.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "Age-related differences; learnability; menu design;
                 mobile devices; multi-layered interfaces; older adults;
                 user study",
}

@Article{Huenerfauth:2010:AAM,
  author =       "Matt Huenerfauth and Pengfei Lu",
  title =        "Accurate and Accessible Motion-Capture Glove
                 Calibration for Sign Language Data Collection",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1838562.1838564",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 8 18:21:23 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Motion-capture recordings of sign language are used in
                 research on automatic recognition of sign language or
                 generation of sign language animations, which have
                 accessibility applications for deaf users with low
                 levels of written-language literacy. Motion-capture
                 gloves are used to record the wearer's handshape.
                 Unfortunately, they require a time-consuming and
                 inexact calibration process each time they are worn.
                 This article describes the design and evaluation of a
                 new calibration protocol for motion-capture gloves,
                 which is designed to make the process more efficient
                 and to be accessible for participants who are deaf and
                 use American Sign Language (ASL). The protocol was
                 evaluated experimentally; deaf ASL signers wore the
                 gloves, were calibrated (using the new protocol and
                 using a calibration routine provided by the glove
                 manufacturer), and were asked to perform sequences of
                 ASL handshapes. Five native ASL signers rated the
                 correctness and understandability of the collected
                 handshape data. In an additional evaluation, ASL
                 signers were asked to perform ASL stories while wearing
                 the gloves and a motion-capture bodysuit (in some cases
                 our new calibration protocol was used, in other cases,
                 the standard protocol). Later, twelve native ASL
                 signers watched animations produced from this
                 motion-capture data and answered comprehension
                 questions about the stories. In both evaluation
                 studies, the new protocol received significantly higher
                 scores than the standard calibration. The protocol has
                 been made freely available online, and it includes
                 directions for the researcher, images and videos of how
                 participants move their hands during the process, and
                 directions for participants (as ASL videos and English
                 text).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
  keywords =     "accessibility technology for the deaf; American Sign
                 Language; animation; calibration; CyberGlove;
                 Motion-capture glove",
}

@Article{Zhu:2010:IGB,
  author =       "Shaojian Zhu and Jinjuan Feng and Andrew Sears",
  title =        "Investigating Grid-Based Navigation: The Impact of
                 Physical Disability",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1838562.1838565",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 8 18:21:23 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Hands-free speech-based technology can be a useful
                 alternative for individuals that find traditional input
                 devices, such as keyboard and mouse, difficult to use.
                 Various speech-based navigation techniques have been
                 examined, and several are available in commercial
                 software applications. Among these alternatives,
                 grid-based navigation has demonstrated both potential
                 and limitations. In this article, we discuss an
                 empirical study that assessed the efficacy of two
                 enhancements to grid-based navigation: magnification
                 and fine-tuning. The magnification capability enlarges
                 the selected region when it becomes sufficiently small,
                 making it easier to see the target and cursor. The
                 fine-tuning capability allows users to move the cursor
                 short distances to position the cursor over the target.
                 The study involved one group of participants with
                 physical disabilities, an age-matched group of
                 participants without disabilities, and a third group
                 that included young adults without disabilities. The
                 results confirm that both magnification and fine-tuning
                 significantly improved the participants' performance
                 when selecting targets, especially small targets.
                 Providing either, or both, of the proposed enhancements
                 substantially reduced the gaps in performance due to
                 disability and age. The results will inform the design
                 of speech-based target selection mechanism, allowing
                 users to select targets faster while making fewer
                 errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{McCoy:2010:GEA,
  author =       "Kathleen F. McCoy",
  title =        "Guest Editorial: {ASSETS 2009}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1857920.1857921",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 28 11:38:52 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Sato:2010:EAC,
  author =       "Daisuke Sato and Hironobu Takagi and Masatomo
                 Kobayashi and Shinya Kawanaka and Chieko Asakawa",
  title =        "Exploratory Analysis of Collaborative {Web}
                 Accessibility Improvement",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1857920.1857922",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 28 11:38:52 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Amemiya:2010:OKH,
  author =       "Tomohiro Amemiya and Hisashi Sugiyama",
  title =        "Orienting Kinesthetically: {A} Haptic Handheld
                 Wayfinder for People with Visual Impairments",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1857920.1857923",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 28 11:38:52 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Sanchez:2010:UMV,
  author =       "Jaime S{\'a}nchez and Mauricio Saenz and Jose Miguel
                 Garrido",
  title =        "Usability of a Multimodal Video Game to Improve
                 Navigation Skills for Blind Children",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1857920.1857924",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 28 11:38:52 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Doush:2010:MPT,
  author =       "Iyad Abu Doush and Enrico Pontelli and Tran Cao Son
                 and Dominic Simon and Ou Ma",
  title =        "Multimodal Presentation of Two-Dimensional Charts: An
                 Investigation Using {Open Office XML} and {Microsoft
                 Excel}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1857920.1857925",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 28 11:38:52 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Wobbrock:2011:ABD,
  author =       "Jacob O. Wobbrock and Shaun K. Kane and Krzysztof Z.
                 Gajos and Susumu Harada and Jon Froehlich",
  title =        "Ability-Based Design: Concept, Principles and
                 Examples",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1952383.1952384",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 21 09:12:15 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Jeon:2011:SSI,
  author =       "Myounghoon Jeon and Bruce N. Walker",
  title =        "{Spindex} (Speech Index) Improves Auditory Menu
                 Acceptance and Navigation Performance",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1952383.1952385",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 21 09:12:15 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Sharit:2011:HPS,
  author =       "Joseph Sharit and Mario A. Hernandez and Sankaran N.
                 Nair and Thomas Kuhn and Sara J. Czaja",
  title =        "Health Problem Solving by Older Persons Using a
                 Complex Government {Web} Site: Analysis and
                 Implications for {Web} Design",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1952383.1952386",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 21 09:12:15 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Kuber:2011:EHH,
  author =       "Ravi Kuber and Wai Yu and M. Sile O'Modhrain",
  title =        "Evaluation of Haptic {HTML} Mappings Derived from a
                 Novel Methodology",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1952388.1952389",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 21 09:12:16 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Lunn:2011:IBS,
  author =       "Darren Lunn and Simon Harper and Sean Bechhofer",
  title =        "Identifying Behavioral Strategies of Visually Impaired
                 Users to Improve Access to {Web} Content",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1952388.1952390",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 21 09:12:16 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Hanson:2011:IAS,
  author =       "Vicki L. Hanson and Andrew Sears",
  title =        "Introduction {ASSETS'10} Special Issue",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2039339.2039340",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:16:33 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "This article provides an introduction to ASSETS'10
                 Special Issue.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Piper:2011:WSA,
  author =       "Anne Marie Piper and Nadir Weibel and James D.
                 Hollan",
  title =        "{Write-N-Speak}: Authoring Multimodal Digital-Paper
                 Materials for Speech-Language Therapy",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2039339.2039341",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:16:33 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Aphasia is characterized by a reduced ability to
                 understand and/or generate speech and language.
                 Speech-language therapy helps individuals with aphasia
                 regain language and cope with changes in their
                 communication abilities. The therapy process is largely
                 paper-based, making multimodal digital pen technology a
                 promising tool for supporting therapy activities. We
                 report on ten months of field research where we examine
                 the practice of speech-language therapy, implement
                 Write-N-Speak, a digital-paper toolkit for end-user
                 creation of custom therapy materials, and deploy this
                 system for 12 weeks with one therapist-client dyad in a
                 clinical setting. The therapist used Write-N-Speak to
                 create a range of materials including custom
                 interactive worksheets, photographs programmed with the
                 client's voice, and interactive stickers on household
                 items to aid object recognition and naming. We conclude
                 with a discussion of multimodal digital pen technology
                 for this and other therapy activities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Alankus:2011:STT,
  author =       "Gazihan Alankus and Rachel Proffitt and Caitlin
                 Kelleher and Jack Engsberg",
  title =        "Stroke Therapy through Motion-Based Games: a Case
                 Study",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2039339.2039342",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:16:33 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "In the United States alone, more than five million
                 people are living with long term motor impairments
                 caused by a stroke. Recently, video games with
                 affordable motion-based input devices have been
                 proposed as a part of therapy to help people recover
                 lost range of motion and motor control. While
                 researchers have demonstrated the potential utility of
                 therapeutic games through controlled studies,
                 relatively little work has explored their long-term
                 home-based use. We conducted a six-week home study with
                 a 62-year-old woman who was seventeen years
                 post-stroke. She played therapeutic games for
                 approximately one hour a day, five days a week. Over
                 the six weeks, she recovered significant motor
                 abilities, which is unexpected given the time since her
                 stroke. We explore detecting such improvements early,
                 using game logs for daily measurements of motor ability
                 to complement the standard measurements that are taken
                 less often. Through observations and interviews, we
                 present lessons learned about the barriers and
                 opportunities that arise from long-term home-based use
                 of therapeutic games.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Lu:2011:DDS,
  author =       "Pengfei Lu and Matt Huenerfauth",
  title =        "Data-Driven Synthesis of Spatially Inflected Verbs for
                 {American Sign Language} Animation",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2039339.2039343",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:16:33 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "We are studying techniques for producing realistic and
                 understandable animations of American Sign Language
                 (ASL); such animations have accessibility benefits for
                 signers with lower levels of written language literacy.
                 This article describes and evaluates a novel method for
                 modeling and synthesizing ASL animations based on
                 samples of ASL signs collected from native signers. We
                 apply this technique to ASL inflecting verbs, common
                 signs in which the location and orientation of the
                 hands is influenced by the arrangement of locations in
                 3D space that represent entities under discussion. We
                 train mathematical models of hand movement on animation
                 data of signs produced by a native signer. In
                 evaluation studies with native ASL signers, the verb
                 animations synthesized from our model had similar
                 subjective-rating and comprehension-question scores to
                 animations produced by a human animator; they also
                 achieved higher scores than baseline animations.
                 Further, we examine a split modeling technique for
                 accommodating certain verb signs with complex movement
                 patterns, and we conduct an analysis of how robust our
                 modeling techniques are to reductions in the size of
                 their training data. The modeling techniques in this
                 article are applicable to other types of ASL signs and
                 to other sign languages used internationally. Our
                 models' parameterization of sign animations can
                 increase the repertoire of generation systems and can
                 partially automate the work of humans using sign
                 language scripting systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Staff:2011:R,
  author =       "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing Staff",
  title =        "Reviewers",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2039339.2039344",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:16:33 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Hanson:2012:IA,
  author =       "Vicki L. Hanson and Andrew Sears",
  title =        "Introduction to article 7",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2141943.2141944",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 18:42:03 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Sears:2012:RUA,
  author =       "Andrew Sears and Vicki L. Hanson",
  title =        "Representing users in accessibility research",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2141943.2141945",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 18:42:03 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "The need to study representative users is widely
                 accepted within the human-computer interaction (HCI)
                 community. While exceptions exist, and alternative
                 populations are sometimes studied, virtually any
                 introduction to the process of designing user
                 interfaces will discuss the importance of understanding
                 the intended users as well as the significant impact
                 individual differences can have on how effectively
                 individuals can use various technologies. HCI
                 researchers are expected to provide relevant
                 demographics regarding study participants as well as
                 information about experience using similar
                 technologies. Yet in the field of accessibility, we
                 continue to see studies that do not appropriately
                 include representative users. Highlighting ways to
                 remedy this multifaceted problem, we argue that
                 expectations regarding how accessibility research is
                 conducted and reported must be raised if this field is
                 to have the desired impact with regard to inclusive
                 design, the information technologies studied, and the
                 lives of the individuals studied.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Brajnik:2012:ACE,
  author =       "Giorgio Brajnik and Yeliz Yesilada and Simon Harper",
  title =        "Is accessibility conformance an elusive property? {A}
                 study of validity and reliability of {WCAG} 2.0",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2141943.2141946",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 18:42:03 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0
                 separate testing into both ``Machine'' and ``Human''
                 audits; and further classify ``Human Testability'' into
                 ``Reliably Human Testable'' and ``Not Reliably
                 Testable''; it is human testability that is the focus
                 of this paper. We wanted to investigate the likelihood
                 that ``at least 80\% of knowledgeable human evaluators
                 would agree on the conclusion'' of an accessibility
                 audit, and therefore understand the percentage of
                 success criteria that could be described as reliably
                 human testable, and those that could not. In this case,
                 we recruited twenty-five experienced evaluators to
                 audit four pages for WCAG 2.0 conformance. These pages
                 were chosen to differ in layout, complexity, and
                 accessibility support, thereby creating a small but
                 variable sample. We found that an 80\% agreement
                 between experienced evaluators almost never occurred
                 and that the average agreement was at the 70--75\%
                 mark, while the error rate was around 29\%. Further,
                 trained-but novice-evaluators performing the same
                 audits exhibited the same agreement to that of our more
                 experienced ones, but a reduction on validity of
                 6--13\% ; the validity that an untrained user would
                 attain can only be a conjecture. Expertise appears to
                 improve (by 19\%) the ability to avoid false positives.
                 Finally, pooling the results of two independent
                 experienced evaluators would be the best option,
                 capturing at most 76\% of the true problems and
                 producing only 24\% of false positives. Any other
                 independent combination of audits would achieve worse
                 results. This means that an 80\% target for agreement,
                 when audits are conducted without communication between
                 evaluators, is not attainable, even with experienced
                 evaluators, when working on pages similar to the ones
                 used in this experiment; that the error rate even for
                 experienced evaluators is relatively high and further,
                 that untrained accessibility auditors be they
                 developers or quality testers from other domains, would
                 do much worse than this.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Obrien:2012:UAT,
  author =       "Marita A. O'Brien and Wendy A. Rogers and Arthur D.
                 Fisk",
  title =        "Understanding age and technology experience
                 differences in use of prior knowledge for everyday
                 technology interactions",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2141943.2141947",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228 (print), 1936-7236 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-7236",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 18:42:03 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Technology designers must understand relevant prior
                 knowledge in a target user population to facilitate
                 adoption and effective use. To assess prior knowledge
                 used in naturalistic settings, we systematically
                 collected information about technologies used over
                 10-day periods from older adults with high and low
                 technology experience and younger adults. Technology
                 repertoires for younger adults and high technology
                 older adults were similar; differences reflected
                 typically different needs for kitchen and health care
                 technologies between the age groups. Technology
                 repertoires for low-technology older adults showed
                 substantial technology usage in many categories. Lower
                 usage compared to high-tech older adults for each
                 category was limited primarily to PC and Internet
                 technologies. Experience differences suggest
                 preferences among low-technology older adults for basic
                 technology usage and for working with people rather
                 than technologies. Participants in all groups were
                 generally successful using their everyday technologies
                 to achieve their goals. Prior knowledge was the most
                 common attribution for success, but external
                 information was also commonly referenced. Relevant
                 prior knowledge included technical, functional,
                 strategy, and self knowledge. High tech older adults
                 did not report more problems than younger adults, but
                 they did attribute more problems to insufficient prior
                 knowledge. Younger adults attributed more problems to
                 interference from prior knowledge. Low-tech older
                 adults reported fewer problems, typically attributing
                 them to insufficient prior knowledge or product/system
                 faults. We discuss implications for further research
                 and design improvements to increase everyday technology
                 success and adoption for high-tech and low-tech older
                 adults.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{McGrenere:2012:ISI,
  author =       "Joanna McGrenere",
  title =        "Introduction to Special Issue on Mobile Technologies
                 for Older Users",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2399193.2399194",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:02 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Leung:2012:HOA,
  author =       "Rock Leung and Charlotte Tang and Shathel Haddad and
                 Joanna Mcgrenere and Peter Graf and Vilia Ingriany",
  title =        "How Older Adults Learn to Use Mobile Devices: Survey
                 and Field Investigations",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2399193.2399195",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:02 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Mobile computing devices, such as smart phones, offer
                 benefits that may be especially valuable to older
                 adults (age 65+). Yet, older adults have been shown to
                 have difficulty learning to use these devices. In the
                 research presented in this article, we sought to better
                 understand how older adults learn to use mobile
                 devices, their preferences and barriers, in order to
                 find new ways to support them in their learning
                 process. We conducted two complementary studies: a
                 survey study with 131 respondents from three age groups
                 (20--49, 50--64, 65+) and an in-depth field study with
                 6 older adults aged 50+. The results showed, among
                 other things, that the preference for trial-and-error
                 decreases with age, and while over half of older
                 respondents and participants preferred using the
                 instruction manual, many reported difficulties using
                 it. We discuss implications for design and illustrate
                 these implications with an example help system, Help
                 Kiosk, designed to support older adults' learning to
                 use mobile devices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Yesilada:2012:SIA,
  author =       "Yeliz Yesilada",
  title =        "Special Issue {ASSETS 2011}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2399193.2399196",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:02 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Flatla:2012:SSM,
  author =       "David R. Flatla and Carl Gutwin",
  title =        "Situation-Specific Models of Color Differentiation",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2399193.2399197",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:02 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Color is commonly used to represent categories and
                 values in computer applications, but users with
                 Color-Vision Deficiencies (CVD) often have difficulty
                 differentiating these colors. Recoloring tools have
                 been developed to address the problem, but current
                 recolorers are limited in that they work from a model
                 of only one type of congenital CVD (i.e.,
                 dichromatism). This model does not adequately describe
                 many other forms of CVD (e.g., more common congenital
                 deficiencies such as anomalous trichromacy, acquired
                 deficiencies such as cataracts or age-related yellowing
                 of the lens, or temporary deficiencies such as wearing
                 tinted glasses or working in bright sunlight), and so
                 standard recolorers work poorly in many situations. In
                 this article we describe an alternate approach that can
                 address these limitations. The new approach, called
                 Situation-Specific Modeling (SSM), constructs a model
                 of a specific user's color differentiation abilities in
                 a specific situation, and uses that model as the basis
                 for recoloring digital presentations. As a result, SSM
                 can inherently handle all types of CVD, whether
                 congenital, acquired, or environmental. In this article
                 we describe and evaluate several models that are based
                 on the SSM approach. Our first model of individual
                 color differentiation (called ICD-1) works in RGB color
                 space, and a user study showed it to be accurate and
                 robust (both for users with and without congenital
                 CVD). However, three aspects of ICD-1 were identified
                 as needing improvement: the calibration step needed to
                 build the situation-specific model, and the prediction
                 steps used in recoloring were too slow for real-world
                 use; and the results of the model's predictions were
                 too coarse for some uses. We therefore developed three
                 further techniques: ICD-2 reduces the time needed to
                 calibrate the model; ICD-3 reduces the time needed to
                 make predictions with the model; and ICD-4 provides
                 additional information about the degree of
                 differentiability in a prediction. Our final result is
                 a model of the user's color perception that handles any
                 type of CVD, can be calibrated in two minutes, and can
                 find replacement colors in near-real time ($^~$ 1
                 second for a 64-color image). The ICD models provide a
                 tool that can greatly improve the perceptibility of
                 digital color for many different types of CVD users,
                 and also demonstrates situation-specific modeling as a
                 new approach that can broaden the applicability of
                 assistive technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Moll:2013:HTG,
  author =       "Jonas Moll and Eva-Lotta Salln{\"a}s Pysander",
  title =        "A Haptic Tool for Group Work on Geometrical Concepts
                 Engaging Blind and Sighted Pupils",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2493171.2493172",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:04 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "In the study presented here, two haptic and visual
                 applications for learning geometrical concepts in group
                 work in primary school have been designed and
                 evaluated. The aim was to support collaborative
                 learning among sighted and visually impaired pupils.
                 The first application is a static flattened 3D
                 environment that supports learning to distinguish
                 between angles by means of a 3D haptic device providing
                 touch feedback. The second application is a dynamic 3D
                 environment that supports learning of spatial geometry.
                 The scene is a room with a box containing geometrical
                 objects, which pupils can pick up and move around. The
                 applications were evaluated in four schools with groups
                 of two sighted and one visually impaired pupil. The
                 results showed the support for the visually impaired
                 pupil and for the collaboration to be satisfying. A
                 shared understanding of the workspace could be
                 achieved, as long as the virtual environment did not
                 contain movable objects. Verbal communication was
                 crucial for the work process but haptic guiding to some
                 extent substituted communication about direction. When
                 it comes to joint action between visually impaired and
                 sighted pupils a number of interesting problems were
                 identified when the dynamic and static virtual
                 environments were compared. These problems require
                 further investigation. The study extends prior work in
                 the areas of assistive technology and multimodal
                 communication by evaluating functions for joint haptic
                 manipulation in the unique setting of group work in
                 primary school.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Ma:2013:IUB,
  author =       "Yao Ma and Jinjuan Feng and Libby Kumin and Jonathan
                 Lazar",
  title =        "Investigating User Behavior for Authentication
                 Methods: a Comparison between Individuals with {Down
                 Syndrome} and Neurotypical Users",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2493171.2493173",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:04 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "A wide variety of authentication mechanisms have been
                 designed to ensure information security. Individuals
                 with cognitive disabilities depend on computers and the
                 Internet for a variety of tasks and, therefore, use
                 authentication applications on an everyday basis.
                 However, although there have been numerous studies
                 investigating password usage by neurotypical users,
                 there have been no research studies conducted to
                 examine the use of authentication methods by
                 individuals with cognitive disabilities. In this
                 article, we systematically investigate how individuals
                 with cognitive disabilities, specifically Down syndrome
                 (DS), interact with various user authentication
                 mechanisms. This research provides the first benchmark
                 data on the performance of individuals with DS when
                 using multiple authentication methods. It confirms that
                 individuals with DS are capable of using the
                 traditional alphanumeric passwords with reasonable
                 efficiency. The passwords created by individuals with
                 DS are of similar strength to those created by
                 neurotypical people. Graphic passwords are not as
                 effective as traditional alphanumeric and mnemonic
                 passwords regarding efficiency, and are less preferred
                 by the participants. Based on the findings of the
                 study, we propose design guidelines that aim to assist
                 both practitioners and researchers in designing and
                 developing effective authentication applications that
                 fit the specific needs of individuals with DS.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Hwang:2013:ETE,
  author =       "Faustina Hwang and Nic Hollinworth and Nitin
                 Williams",
  title =        "Effects of Target Expansion on Selection Performance
                 in Older Computer Users",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2514848",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:05 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Point and click interactions using a mouse are an
                 integral part of computer use for current desktop
                 systems. Compared with younger users though, older
                 adults experience greater difficulties performing
                 cursor positioning tasks, and this can present
                 limitations to using a computer easily and effectively.
                 Target expansion is a technique for improving pointing
                 performance where the target grows dynamically as the
                 cursor approaches. This has the advantage that targets
                 conserve screen real estate in their unexpanded state,
                 yet can still provide the benefits of a larger area to
                 click on. This article presents two studies of target
                 expansion with older and younger participants,
                 involving multidirectional point-select tasks with a
                 computer mouse. Study 1 compares static versus
                 expanding targets, and Study 2 compares static targets
                 with three alternative techniques for expansion.
                 Results show that expansion can improve times by up to
                 14\%, and reduce error rates by up to 50\%.
                 Additionally, expanding targets are beneficial even
                 when the expansion happens late in the movement, that
                 is, after the cursor has reached the expanded target
                 area or even after it has reached the original target
                 area. The participants' subjective feedback on the
                 target expansion are generally favorable, and this
                 lends further support for the technique.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Vickers:2013:PLT,
  author =       "Stephen Vickers and Howell Istance and Aulikki
                 Hyrskykari",
  title =        "Performing Locomotion Tasks in Immersive Computer
                 Games with an Adapted Eye-Tracking Interface",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2514856",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:05 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Young people with severe physical disabilities may
                 benefit greatly from participating in immersive
                 computer games. In-game tasks can be fun, engaging,
                 educational, and socially interactive. But for those
                 who are unable to use traditional methods of computer
                 input such as a mouse and keyboard, there is a barrier
                 to interaction that they must first overcome. Eye-gaze
                 interaction is one method of input that can potentially
                 achieve the levels of interaction required for these
                 games. How we use eye-gaze or the gaze interaction
                 technique depends upon the task being performed, the
                 individual performing it, and the equipment available.
                 To fully realize the impact of participation in these
                 environments, techniques need to be adapted to the
                 person's abilities. We describe an approach to
                 designing and adapting a gaze interaction technique to
                 support locomotion, a task central to immersive game
                 playing. This is evaluated by a group of young people
                 with cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy. The results
                 show that by adapting the interaction technique,
                 participants are able to significantly improve their
                 in-game character control.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Sears:2013:E,
  author =       "Andrew Sears and Vicki Hanson",
  title =        "Editorial",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522990.2522991",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:07 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Kacorri:2013:EDH,
  author =       "Hernisa Kacorri and Pengfei Lu and Matt Huenerfauth",
  title =        "Effect of Displaying Human Videos During an Evaluation
                 Study of {American Sign Language} Animation",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2517038",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:07 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Many researchers internationally are studying how to
                 synthesize computer animations of sign language; such
                 animations have accessibility benefits for people who
                 are deaf and have lower literacy in written languages.
                 The field has not yet formed a consensus as to how to
                 best conduct evaluations of the quality of sign
                 language animations, and this article explores an
                 important methodological issue for researchers
                 conducting experimental studies with participants who
                 are deaf. Traditionally, when evaluating an animation,
                 some lower and upper baselines are shown for comparison
                 during the study. For the upper baseline, some
                 researchers use carefully produced animations, and
                 others use videos of human signers. Specifically, this
                 article investigates, in studies where signers view
                 animations of sign language and are asked subjective
                 and comprehension questions, whether participants
                 differ in their subjective and comprehension responses
                 when actual videos of human signers are shown during
                 the study. Through three sets of experiments, we
                 characterize how the Likert-scale subjective judgments
                 of participants about sign language animations are
                 negatively affected when they are also shown videos of
                 human signers for comparison --- especially when
                 displayed side-by-side. We also identify a small
                 positive effect on the comprehension of sign language
                 animations when studies also contain videos of human
                 signers. Our results enable direct comparison of
                 previously published evaluations of sign language
                 animations that used different types of upper baselines
                 --- video or animation. Our results also provide
                 methodological guidance for researchers who are
                 designing evaluation studies of sign language animation
                 or designing experimental stimuli or questions for
                 participants who are deaf.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Hurst:2013:DUP,
  author =       "Amy Hurst and Scott E. Hudson and Jennifer Mankoff and
                 Shari Trewin",
  title =        "Distinguishing Users By Pointing Performance in
                 Laboratory and Real-World Tasks",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2517039",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:07 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Accurate pointing is an obstacle to computer access
                 for individuals who experience motor impairments. One
                 of the main barriers to assisting individuals with
                 pointing problems is a lack of frequent and low-cost
                 assessment of pointing ability. We are working to build
                 technology to automatically assess pointing problems
                 during every day (or real-world) computer use. To this
                 end, we have gathered and studied real-world pointing
                 use from individuals with motor impairments and older
                 adults. We have used this data to develop novel
                 techniques to analyze pointing performance. In this
                 article, we present learned statistical models that
                 distinguish between pointing actions from diverse
                 populations using real-world pointing samples. We
                 describe how our models could be used to support
                 individuals with different abilities sharing a
                 computer, or one individual who experiences temporary
                 pointing problems. Our investigation contributes to a
                 better understanding of real-world pointing. We hope
                 that these techniques will be used to develop systems
                 that can automatically adapt to users' current needs in
                 real-world computing environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Editors:2014:GNE,
  author =       "Editors:",
  title =        "Greetings from the New {Editors-in-Chief}",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2557667",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:08 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Kushalnagar:2014:AEC,
  author =       "Raja S. Kushalnagar and Walter S. Lasecki and Jeffrey
                 P. Bigham",
  title =        "Accessibility Evaluation of Classroom Captions",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2543578",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:08 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Real-time captioning enables deaf and hard of hearing
                 (DHH) people to follow classroom lectures and other
                 aural speech by converting it into visual text with
                 less than a five second delay. Keeping the delay short
                 allows end-users to follow and participate in
                 conversations. This article focuses on the fundamental
                 problem that makes real-time captioning difficult:
                 sequential keyboard typing is much slower than
                 speaking. We first surveyed the audio characteristics
                 of 240 one-hour-long captioned lectures on YouTube,
                 such as speed and duration of speaking bursts. We then
                 analyzed how these characteristics impact caption
                 generation and readability, considering specifically
                 our human-powered collaborative captioning approach. We
                 note that most of these characteristics are also
                 present in more general domains. For our caption
                 comparison evaluation, we transcribed a classroom
                 lecture in real-time using all three captioning
                 approaches. We recruited 48 participants (24 DHH) to
                 watch these classroom transcripts in an eye-tracking
                 laboratory. We presented these captions in a
                 randomized, balanced order. We show that both hearing
                 and DHH participants preferred and followed
                 collaborative captions better than those generated by
                 automatic speech recognition (ASR) or professionals due
                 to the more consistent flow of the resulting captions.
                 These results show the potential to reliably capture
                 speech even during sudden bursts of speed, as well as
                 for generating ``enhanced'' captions, unlike other
                 human-powered captioning approaches.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Webster:2014:TSC,
  author =       "Gemma Webster and Vicki L. Hanson",
  title =        "Technology for Supporting Care Staff in Residential
                 Homes",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2543577",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 07:24:08 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Care staff, those who attend to the day-to-day needs
                 of people in residential facilities, represent an
                 important segment of the health-care provision of those
                 entrusted to their care. The potential use of
                 technology by care staff has not been a focus of
                 researcher attention. The work reported here provides
                 initial steps in addressing that gap, considering both
                 the design requirements for this population and
                 presentation of early work on a software system for use
                 by care staff. We describe the development of a
                 software tool for use by care staff, called Portrait,
                 and report two studies related to factors affecting
                 technology use by this population. The results of this
                 research are promising, with Portrait being very
                 positively received by care managers and care staff.
                 Use of this software in a care home for over a month
                 indicated continued use, with care staff returning to
                 the system throughout the test period. The
                 contributions of this research are the identification
                 of factors important in working with a care staff
                 population, the introduction and evaluation of a novel
                 software tool for care staff in residential homes, and
                 the highlighting of potential benefits of technology in
                 assisting care staff.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Shipman:2014:ISL,
  author =       "Frank M. Shipman and Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna and Caio
                 D. D. Monteiro",
  title =        "Identifying Sign Language Videos in Video Sharing
                 Sites",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2579698",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 05:55:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "Video sharing sites enable members of the sign
                 language community to record and share their knowledge,
                 opinions, and worries on a wide range of topics. As a
                 result, these sites have formative digital libraries of
                 sign language content hidden within their large overall
                 collections. This article explores the problem of
                 locating these sign language (SL) videos and presents
                 techniques for identifying SL videos in such
                 collections. To determine the effectiveness of existing
                 text-based search for locating these SL videos, a
                 series of queries were issued to YouTube to locate SL
                 videos on the top 10 news stories of 2011 according to
                 Yahoo!. Overall precision for the first page of results
                 (up to 20 results) was 42\%. An approach for
                 automatically detecting SL video is then presented.
                 Five video features considered likely to be of value
                 were developed using standard background modeling and
                 face detection. The article compares the results of an
                 SVM classifier when given all permutations of these
                 five features. The results show that a measure of the
                 symmetry of motion relative to the face position
                 provided the best performance of any single feature.
                 When tested against a challenging test collection that
                 included many likely false positives, an SVM provided
                 with all five features achieved 82\% precision and 90\%
                 recall. In contrast, the text-based search (queries
                 with the topic terms and ``ASL'' or ``sign language'')
                 returned a significant portion of non-SL
                 content---nearly half of all videos found. By our
                 estimates, the application of video-based filtering
                 techniques such as the one proposed here would increase
                 precision from 42\% for text-based queries up to
                 75\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}

@Article{Peters:2014:ATA,
  author =       "Christian Peters and Thomas Hermann and Sven Wachsmuth
                 and Jesse Hoey",
  title =        "Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive
                 Disabilities in Brushing Teeth --- A User Study with
                 the {TEBRA} System",
  journal =      j-TACCESS,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2579700",
  ISSN =         "1936-7228",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 05:55:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/taccess.bib",
  abstract =     "People with cognitive disabilities such as dementia
                 and intellectual disabilities tend to have problems in
                 coordinating steps in the execution of Activities of
                 Daily Living (ADLs) due to limited capabilities in
                 cognitive functioning. To successfully perform ADLs,
                 these people are reliant on the assistance of human
                 caregivers. This leads to a decrease of independence
                 for care recipients and imposes a high burden on
                 caregivers. Assistive Technology for Cognition (ATC)
                 aims to compensate for decreased cognitive functions.
                 ATC systems provide automatic assistance in task
                 execution by delivering appropriate prompts which
                 enable the user to perform ADLs without any assistance
                 of a human caregiver. This leads to an increase of the
                 user's independence and to a relief of caregiver's
                 burden. In this article, we describe the design,
                 development and evaluation of a novel ATC system. The
                 TEBRA (TEeth BRushing Assistance) system supports
                 people with moderate cognitive disabilities in the
                 execution of brushing teeth. A main requirement for the
                 acceptance of ATC systems is context awareness:
                 explicit feedback from the user is not necessary to
                 provide appropriate assistance. Furthermore, an ATC
                 system needs to handle spatial and temporal variance in
                 the execution of behaviors such as different movement
                 characteristics and different velocities. The TEBRA
                 system handles spatial variance in a behavior
                 recognition component based on a Bayesian network
                 classifier. A dynamic timing model deals with temporal
                 variance by adapting to different velocities of users
                 during a trial. We evaluate a fully functioning
                 prototype of the TEBRA system in a study with people
                 with cognitive disabilities. The main aim of the study
                 is to analyze the technical performance of the system
                 and the user's behavior in the interaction with the
                 system with regard to the main hypothesis: is the TEBRA
                 system able to increase the user's independence in the
                 execution of brushing teeth?",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing (TACCESS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1156",
}