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%%% author = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%% version = "2.13",
%%% date = "12 August 2013",
%%% time = "17:35:48 MDT",
%%% filename = "stoc2000.bib",
%%% address = "University of Utah
%%% Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%% 155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%% Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%% USA",
%%% telephone = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%% FAX = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%% URL = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%% checksum = "62007 15882 73886 726197",
%%% email = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%% beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
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%%% keywords = "ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC)",
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%%% supported = "yes",
%%% docstring = "This is a COMPLETE bibliography of
%%% publications in the ACM Symposium on Theory
%%% of Computing (STOC) conference proceedings
%%% for the decade 2000--2009. Companion
%%% bibliographies stoc19xx.bib and stoc20xx.bib
%%% cover other decades, and stoc.bib contains
%%% entries for just the proceedings volumes
%%% themselves.
%%%
%%% There is a World-Wide Web site for these
%%% publications at
%%%
%%% http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/
%%%
%%% At version 2.13, the year coverage looked
%%% like this:
%%%
%%% 2000 ( 86) 2004 ( 74) 2008 ( 86)
%%% 2001 ( 87) 2005 ( 86) 2009 ( 80)
%%% 2002 ( 93) 2006 ( 80) 2010 ( 2)
%%% 2003 ( 81) 2007 ( 79)
%%%
%%% InProceedings: 823
%%% Proceedings: 11
%%%
%%% Total entries: 834
%%%
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%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:
@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
University of Utah,
Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
155 S 1400 E RM 233,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
\path|beebe@acm.org|,
\path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}
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@String{pub-ACM:adr = "New York, NY, USA"}
%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:
@InProceedings{Impagliazzo:2000:EPR,
author = "Russell Impagliazzo and Ronen Shaltiel and Avi
Wigderson",
title = "Extractors and pseudo-random generators with optimal
seed length",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "1--10",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p1-impagliazzo/p1-impagliazzo.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p1-impagliazzo/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Naor:2000:PRF,
author = "Moni Naor and Omer Reingold and Alon Rosen",
title = "Pseudo-random functions and factoring (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "11--20",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p11-naor/p11-naor.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p11-naor/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gutierrez:2000:SEF,
author = "Claudio Guti{\'e}rrez",
title = "Satisfiability of equations in free groups is in
{PSPACE}",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "21--27",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p21-gutierrez/p21-gutierrez.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p21-gutierrez/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Achlioptas:2000:SVT,
author = "Dimitris Achlioptas",
title = "Setting 2 variables at a time yields a new lower bound
for random {3-SAT} (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "28--37",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p28-achlioptas/p28-achlioptas.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p28-achlioptas/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Czumaj:2000:NAA,
author = "Artur Czumaj and Christian Scheideler",
title = "A new algorithm approach to the general {Lov{\'a}sz}
local lemma with applications to scheduling and
satisfiability problems (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "38--47",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p38-czumaj/p38-czumaj.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p38-czumaj/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gurvits:2000:DPT,
author = "Leonid Gurvits and Alex Samorodnitsky",
title = "A deterministic polynomial-time algorithm for
approximating mixed discriminant and mixed volume",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "48--57",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p48-gurvits/p48-gurvits.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p48-gurvits/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Carr:2000:RME,
author = "Robert Carr and Santosh Vempala",
title = "Randomized metarounding (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "58--62",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p58-carr/p58-carr.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p58-carr/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Grohe:2000:ITE,
author = "Martin Grohe",
title = "Isomorphism testing for embeddable graphs through
definability",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "63--72",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p63-grohe/p63-grohe.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p63-grohe/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kabanets:2000:CMP,
author = "Valentine Kabanets and Jin-Yi Cai",
title = "Circuit minimization problem",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "73--79",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p73-kabanets/p73-kabanets.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p73-kabanets/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Katz:2000:ELD,
author = "Jonathan Katz and Luca Trevisan",
title = "On the efficiency of local decoding procedures for
error-correcting codes",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "80--86",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p80-katz/p80-katz.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p80-katz/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Istrail:2000:SMT,
author = "Sorin Istrail",
title = "Statistical mechanics, three-dimensionality and
{NP-completeness}: {I. Universality} of intracatability
for the partition function of the {Ising} model across
non-planar surfaces (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "87--96",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p87-istrail/p87-istrail.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p87-istrail/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Iwata:2000:CSP,
author = "Satoru Iwata and Lisa Fleischer and Satoru Fujishige",
title = "A combinatorial, strongly polynomial-time algorithm
for minimizing submodular functions",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "97--106",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p97-iwata/p97-iwata.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p97-iwata/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fleischer:2000:IAS,
author = "Lisa Fleischer and Satoru Iwata",
title = "Improved algorithms for submodular function
minimization and submodular flow",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "107--116",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p107-fleischer/p107-fleischer.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p107-fleischer/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Vygen:2000:DMC,
author = "Jens Vygen",
title = "On dual minimum cost flow algorithms (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "117--125",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p117-vygen/p117-vygen.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p117-vygen/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Papadimitriou:2000:ATS,
author = "Christos H. Papadimitriou and Santosh Vempala",
title = "On the approximability of the traveling salesman
problem (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "126--133",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p126-papadimitriou/p126-papadimitriou.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p126-papadimitriou/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feige:2000:ADN,
author = "Uriel Feige and Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson and Guy
Kortsarz",
title = "Approximating the domatic number",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "134--143",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p134-feige/p134-feige.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p134-feige/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Srinivasan:2000:VSI,
author = "Aravind Srinivasan",
title = "The value of strong inapproximability results for
clique",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "144--152",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p144-srinivasan/p144-srinivasan.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p144-srinivasan/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Adler:2000:CUE,
author = "Micah Adler and Tom Leighton",
title = "Compression using efficient multicasting",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "153--162",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p153-adler/p153-adler.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p153-adler/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kleinberg:2000:SWP,
author = "Jon Kleinberg",
title = "The small-world phenomenon: an algorithm perspective",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "163--170",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p163-kleinberg/p163-kleinberg.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p163-kleinberg/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Aiello:2000:RGM,
author = "William Aiello and Fan Chung and Linyuan Lu",
title = "A random graph model for massive graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "171--180",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p171-aiello/p171-aiello.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p171-aiello/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Guruswami:2000:LDA,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami and Madhu Sudan",
title = "List decoding algorithms for certain concatenated
codes",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "181--190",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p181-guruswami/p181-guruswami.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p181-guruswami/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Samorodnitsky:2000:PCN,
author = "Alex Samorodnitsky and Luca Trevisan",
title = "A {PCP} characterization of {NP} with optimal
amortized query complexity",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "191--199",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p191-samorodnitsky/p191-samorodnitsky.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p191-samorodnitsky/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Vadhan:2000:TIP,
author = "Salil Vadhan",
title = "On transformation of interactive proofs that preserve
the prover's complexity",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "200--207",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p200-vadhan/p200-vadhan.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p200-vadhan/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Csirik:2000:SSA,
author = "Janos Csirik and David S. Johnson and Claire Kenyon
and James B. Orlin and Peter W. Shor and Richard R.
Weber",
title = "On the sum-of-squares algorithm for bin packing",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "208--217",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p208-csirik/p208-csirik.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p208-csirik/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feigenbaum:2000:SCM,
author = "Joan Feigenbaum and Christos Papadimitriou and Scott
Shenker",
title = "Sharing the cost of muliticast transmissions
(preliminary version)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "218--227",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p218-feigenbaum/p218-feigenbaum.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p218-feigenbaum/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kao:2000:RPP,
author = "Ming-Yang Kao and Andreas Nolte and Stephen R. Tate",
title = "The risk profile problem for stock portfolio
optimization (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "228--234",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p228-kao/p228-kao.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p228-kao/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Canetti:2000:RZK,
author = "Ran Canetti and Oded Goldreich and Shafi Goldwasser
and Silvio Micali",
title = "Resettable zero-knowledge (extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "235--244",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p235-canetti/p235-canetti.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p235-canetti/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Katz:2000:CCS,
author = "Jonathan Katz and Moti Yung",
title = "Complete characterization of security notions for
probabilistic private-key encryption",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "245--254",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p245-katz/p245-katz.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p245-katz/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{DiCrescenzo:2000:ZKP,
author = "Giovanni {Di Crescenzo} and Kouichi Sakurai and Moti
Yung",
title = "On zero-knowledge proofs (extended abstract): ``from
membership to decision''",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "255--264",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p255-di_crescenzo/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Boneh:2000:FSI,
author = "Dan Boneh",
title = "Finding smooth integers in short intervals using {CRT}
decoding",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "265--272",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p265-boneh/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Edelsbrunner:2000:SCS,
author = "Herbert Edelsbrunner and Xiang-Yang Li and Gary Miller
and Andreas Stathopoulos and Dafna Talmor and Shang-Hua
Teng and Alper {\"U}ng{\"o}r and Noel Walkington",
title = "Smoothing and cleaning up slivers",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "273--277",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p273-edelsbrunner/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Busch:2000:HPR,
author = "Costas Busch and Maurice Herlihy and Roger
Wattenhofer",
title = "Hard-Potato routing",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "278--285",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p278-busch/p278-busch.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p278-busch/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Aleksandrov:2000:AAG,
author = "Lyudmil Aleksandrov and Anil Maheshwari and
J{\"o}rg-R{\"u}diger Sack",
title = "Approximation algorithms for geometric shortest path
problems",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "286--295",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p286-aleksandrov/p286-aleksandrov.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p286-aleksandrov/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Even:2000:IAC,
author = "Guy Even and Sudipto Guha and Baruch Schieber",
title = "Improved approximations of crossings in graph
drawings",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "296--305",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p296-even/p296-even.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p296-even/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Motwani:2000:DAP,
author = "Rajeev Motwani and Rina Panigrahy and Vijay Saraswat
and Suresh Ventkatasubramanian",
title = "On the decidability of accessibility problems
(extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "306--315",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p306-motwani/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kilian:2000:MGC,
author = "Joe Kilian",
title = "More general completeness theorems for secure
two-party computation",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "316--324",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p316-kilian/p316-kilian.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p316-kilian/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cramer:2000:CVS,
author = "Ronald Cramer and Ivan Damg{\aa}rd and Stefan
Dziembowski",
title = "On the complexity of verifiable secret sharing and
multiparty computation",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "325--334",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p325-cramer/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Andersson:2000:TWC,
author = "Arne A. Andersson and Mikkel Thorup",
title = "Tight(er) worst-case bounds on dynamic searching and
priority queues",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "335--342",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p335-andersson/p335-andersson.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p335-andersson/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Thorup:2000:NOF,
author = "Mikkel Thorup",
title = "Near-optimal fully-dynamic graph connectivity",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "343--350",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p343-thorup/p343-thorup.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p343-thorup/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Mahajan:2000:NNA,
author = "Meena Mahajan and Kasturi R. Varadarajan",
title = "A new {NC-algorithm} for finding a perfect matching in
bipartite planar and small genus graphs (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "351--357",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p351-mahajan/p351-mahajan.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p351-mahajan/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Alekhnovich:2000:SCP,
author = "Michael Alekhnovich and Eli Ben-Sasson and Alexander
A. and Avi Wigderson",
title = "Space complexity in propositional calculus",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "358--367",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p358-alekhnovich/p358-alekhnovich.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p358-alekhnovich/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Maciel:2000:NPW,
author = "Alexis Maciel and Toniann Pitassi and Alan R. Woods",
title = "A new proof of the weak pigeonhole principle",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "368--377",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p368-maciel/p368-maciel.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p368-maciel/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Harnik:2000:HLB,
author = "Danny Harnik and Ran Raz",
title = "Higher lower bounds on monotone size",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "378--387",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p378-harnik/p378-harnik.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p378-harnik/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Barkol:2000:TBN,
author = "Omer Barkol and Yuval Rabani",
title = "Tighter bounds for nearest neighbor search and related
problems in the cell probe model",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "388--396",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p388-barkol/p388-barkol.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p388-barkol/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Grossi:2000:CSA,
author = "Roberto Grossi and Jeffrey Scott Vitter",
title = "Compressed suffix arrays and suffix trees with
applications to text indexing and string matching
(extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "397--406",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p397-grossi/p397-grossi.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p397-grossi/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cole:2000:FST,
author = "Richard Cole and Ramesh Hariharan",
title = "Faster suffix tree construction with missing suffix
links",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "407--415",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p407-cole/p407-cole.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p407-cole/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Muthukrishnan:2000:ANN,
author = "S. Muthukrishnan and S{\"u}leyman Cenk Sahinalp",
title = "Approximate nearest neighbors and sequence comparison
with block operations",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "416--424",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p416-muthukrishnan/p416-muthukrishnan.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p416-muthukrishnan/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Li:2000:NOM,
author = "Ming Li and Bin Ma and Lusheng Wang",
title = "Near optimal multiple alignment within a band in
polynomial time",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "425--434",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p425-li/p425-li.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p425-li/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Blum:2000:NTL,
author = "Avrim Blum and Adam Kalai and Hal Wasserman",
title = "Noise-tolerant learning, the parity problem, and the
statistical query model",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "435--440",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p435-blum/p435-blum.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p435-blum/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Goldsmith:2000:MTR,
author = "Judy Goldsmith and Robert H. Sloan",
title = "More theory revision with queries (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "441--448",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p441-goldsmith/p441-goldsmith.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p441-goldsmith/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Buhrman:2000:BO,
author = "H. Buhrman and P. B. Miltersen and J. Radhakrishnan
and S. Venkatesh",
title = "Are bitvectors optimal?",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "449--458",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p449-buhrman/p449-buhrman.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p449-buhrman/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Rothemund:2000:PSC,
author = "Paul W. K. Rothemund and Erik Winfree",
title = "The program-size complexity of self-assembled squares
(extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "459--468",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p459-rothemund/p459-rothemund.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p459-rothemund/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chen:2000:SPQ,
author = "Danny Z. Chen and Jinhui Xu",
title = "Shortest path queries in planar graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "469--478",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p469-chen/p469-chen.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p469-chen/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Reed:2000:HTT,
author = "Bruce Reed",
title = "How tall is a tree?",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "479--483",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p479-reed/p479-reed.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p479-reed/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fagin:2000:RWB,
author = "Ronald Fagin and Anna R. Karlin and Jon Kleinberg and
Prabhakar Raghavan and Sridhar Rajagopalan and Ronitt
Rubinfeld and Madhu Sudan and Andrew Tomkins",
title = "Random walks with ``back buttons'' (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "484--493",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p484-fagin/p484-fagin.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p484-fagin/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fitzi:2000:PCG,
author = "Mattias Fitzi and Ueli Maurer",
title = "From partial consistency to global broadcast",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "494--503",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p494-fitzi/p494-fitzi.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p494-fitzi/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kempe:2000:CIP,
author = "David Kempe and Jon Kleinberg and Amit Kumar",
title = "Connectivity and inference problems for temporal
networks",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "504--513",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p504-kempe/p504-kempe.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p504-kempe/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Rasala:2000:SNB,
author = "April Rasala and Gordon Wilfong",
title = "Strictly non-blocking {WDM} cross-connects for
heterogeneous networks",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "514--523",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p514-rasala/p514-rasala.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p514-rasala/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feder:2000:FLP,
author = "Tomas Feder and Rajeev Motwani and Carlos Subi",
title = "Finding long paths and cycles in sparse {Hamiltonian}
graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "524--529",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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URL = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/stoc/335305/p524-feder/p524-feder.pdf;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p524-feder/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feige:2000:AMB,
author = "Uriel Feige and Robert Krauthgamer and Kobbi Nissim",
title = "Approximating the minimum bisection size (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "530--536",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Konemann:2000:MDI,
author = "J. K{\"o}nemann and R. Ravi",
title = "A matter of degree: improved approximation algorithms
for degree-bounded minimum spanning trees",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "537--546",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Schulman:2000:CEC,
author = "Leonard J. Schulman",
title = "Clustering for edge-cost minimization (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "547--555",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p547-schulman/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fortune:2000:ECI,
author = "Steven Fortune",
title = "Exact computations of the inertia symmetric integer
matrices",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "556--564",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p556-fortune/",
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}
@InProceedings{Orlin:2000:OSB,
author = "James B. Orlin and Andreas S. Schulz and Sudipta
Sengupta",
title = "$ \epsilon $-optimization schemes and {$L$}-bit
precision (extended abstract): alternative perspectives
in combinatorial optimization",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "565--572",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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}
@InProceedings{Olshevsky:2000:MVP,
author = "Vadim Olshevsky and Amin Shokrollahi",
title = "Matrix-vector product for confluent {Cauchy}-like
matrices with application to confluent rational
interpolation",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "573--581",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p573-olshevsky/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Charikar:2000:QSP,
author = "Moses Charikar and Ronald Fagin and Venkatesan
Guruswami and Jon Kleinberg and Prabhakar Raghavan and
Amit Sahai",
title = "Query strategies for priced information (extended
abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "582--591",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Seiden:2000:GGR,
author = "Steven S. Seiden",
title = "A guessing game and randomized online algorithms",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "592--601",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p592-seiden/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feder:2000:CMU,
author = "Tomas Feder and Rajeev Motwani and Rina Panigrahy and
Chris Olston and Jennifer Widom",
title = "Computing the median with uncertainty",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "602--607",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p602-feder/",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kitaev:2000:PAE,
author = "Alexei Kitaev and John Watrous",
title = "Parallelization, amplification, and exponential time
simulation of quantum interactive proof systems",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "608--617",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Grover:2000:RST,
author = "Lov K. Grover",
title = "Rapid sampling though quantum computing",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "618--626",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Hallgren:2000:NSR,
author = "Sean Hallgren and Alexander Russell and Amnon
Ta-Shma",
title = "Normal subgroup reconstruction and quantum computation
using group representations",
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pages = "627--635",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p627-hallgren/",
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}
@InProceedings{Ambainis:2000:QLB,
author = "Andris Ambainis",
title = "Quantum lower bounds by quantum arguments",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "636--643",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Klauck:2000:QPC,
author = "Hartmut Klauck",
title = "On quantum and probabilistic communication: {Las
Vegas} and one-way protocols",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "644--651",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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}
@InProceedings{Gupta:2000:CFA,
author = "Anupam Gupta and {\'E}va Tardos",
title = "A constant factor approximation algorithm for a class
of classification problems",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "652--658",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p652-gupta/",
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}
@InProceedings{Kenyon:2000:PTA,
author = "Claire Kenyon and Nicolas Schabanel and Neal Young",
title = "Polynomial-time approximation scheme for data
broadcast",
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pages = "659--666",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p659-kenyon/",
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}
@InProceedings{Furer:2000:APC,
author = "Martin F{\"u}rer",
title = "Approximating permanents of complex matrices",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "667--669",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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}
@InProceedings{Goel:2000:CFT,
author = "Ashish Goel and Adam Meyerson and Serge Plotkin",
title = "Combining fairness with throughput: online routing
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year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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}
@InProceedings{Berman:2000:ITM,
author = "Piotr Berman and Bhaskar DasGupta",
title = "Improvements in throughout maximization for real-time
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year = "2000",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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}
@InProceedings{vanDam:2000:STU,
author = "Wim van Dam and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ic Magniez and Michele
Mosca and Miklos Santha",
title = "Self-testing of universal and fault-tolerant sets of
quantum gates",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "688--696",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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}
@InProceedings{Ambainis:2000:CHM,
author = "Andris Ambainis and Leonard J. Schulman and Umesh V.
Vazirani",
title = "Computing with highly mixed states (extended
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pages = "697--704",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p697-ambainis/",
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}
@InProceedings{Aharonov:2000:QBE,
author = "Dorit Aharonov and Amnon Ta-Shma and Umesh V. Vazirani
and Andrew C. Yao",
title = "Quantum bit escrow",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "705--714",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p705-aharonov/",
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}
@InProceedings{Biham:2000:PSQ,
author = "Eli Biham and Michel Boyer and P. Oscar Boykin and Tal
Mor and Vwani Roychowdhury",
title = "A proof of the security of quantum key distribution
(extended abstract)",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "715--724",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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}
@InProceedings{Fiat:2000:BAU,
author = "Amos Fiat and Manor Mendel",
title = "Better algorithms for unfair metrical task systems and
applications",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "725--734",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p725-fiat/",
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@InProceedings{Bar-Noy:2000:UAA,
author = "Amotz Bar-Noy and Reuven Bar-Yehuda and Ari Freund and
Joseph Naor and Baruch Schieber",
title = "A unified approach to approximating resource
allocation and scheduling",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "735--744",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/stoc/335305/p735-bar-noy/",
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@InProceedings{Berenbrink:2000:BAH,
author = "Petra Berenbrink and Artur Czumaj and Angelika Steger
and Berthold V{\"o}cking",
title = "Balanced allocations: the heavily loaded case",
crossref = "ACM:2000:PTS",
pages = "745--754",
year = "2000",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:35:45 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/stoc/;
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}
@InProceedings{Charikar:2001:CMS,
author = "Moses Charikar and Rina Panigrahy",
title = "Clustering to minimize the sum of cluster diameters",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "1--10",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Bartal:2001:AMS,
author = "Yair Bartal and Moses Charikar and Danny Raz",
title = "Approximating min-sum $k$-clustering in metric
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crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "11--20",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Arya:2001:LSH,
author = "Vijay Arya and Naveen Garg and Rohit Khandekar and
Kamesh Munagala and Vinayaka Pandit",
title = "Local search heuristic for $k$-median and facility
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crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "21--29",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
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@InProceedings{Meyerson:2001:PEF,
author = "Adam Meyerson",
title = "Profit-earning facility location",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
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year = "2001",
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}
@InProceedings{Ambainis:2001:ODQ,
author = "Andris Ambainis and Eric Bach and Ashwin Nayak and
Ashvin Vishwanath and John Watrous",
title = "One-dimensional quantum walks",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "37--49",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
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@InProceedings{Aharonov:2001:QWG,
author = "Dorit Aharonov and Andris Ambainis and Julia Kempe and
Umesh Vazirani",
title = "Quantum walks on graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "50--59",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Watrous:2001:QAS,
author = "John Watrous",
title = "Quantum algorithms for solvable groups",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "60--67",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Grigni:2001:QMA,
author = "Michelangelo Grigni and Leonard Schulman and Monica
Vazirani and Umesh Vazirani",
title = "Quantum mechanical algorithms for the nonabelian
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crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "68--74",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Tokuyama:2001:MPO,
author = "Takeshi Tokuyama",
title = "Minimax parametric optimization problems and
multi-dimensional parametric searching",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "75--83",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Chekuri:2001:AMW,
author = "Chandra Chekuri and Sanjeev Khanna and An Zhu",
title = "Algorithms for minimizing weighted flow time",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "84--93",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Becchetti:2001:NCS,
author = "Luca Becchetti and Stefano Leonardi",
title = "Non-clairvoyant scheduling to minimize the average
flow time on single and parallel machines",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "94--103",
year = "2001",
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@InProceedings{Roughgarden:2001:SSS,
author = "Tim Roughgarden",
title = "{Stackelberg} scheduling strategies",
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@InProceedings{Valiant:2001:QCC,
author = "Leslie G. Valiant",
title = "Quantum computers that can be simulated classically in
polynomial time",
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@InProceedings{Klauck:2001:IQC,
author = "Hartmut Klauck and Ashwin Nayak and Amnon Ta-Shma and
David Zuckerman",
title = "Interaction in quantum communication and the
complexity of set disjointness",
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pages = "124--133",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ambainis:2001:NPL,
author = "Andris Ambainis",
title = "A new protocol and lower bounds for quantum coin
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pages = "134--142",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ta-Shma:2001:LLC,
author = "Amnon Ta-Shma and Christopher Umans and David
Zuckerman",
title = "Loss-less condensers, unbalanced expanders, and
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pages = "143--152",
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@InProceedings{Mostefaoui:2001:CIV,
author = "Achour Mostefaoui and Sergio Rajsbaum and Michel
Raynal",
title = "Conditions on input vectors for consensus solvability
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pages = "153--162",
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@InProceedings{Kempe:2001:SGR,
author = "David Kempe and Jon Kleinberg and Alan Demers",
title = "Spatial gossip and resource location protocols",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Elkin:2001:EBS,
author = "Michael Elkin and David Peleg",
title = "$ (1 + \epsilon, \beta) $-spanner constructions for
general graphs",
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@InProceedings{Thorup:2001:ADO,
author = "Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ta-Shma:2001:EC,
author = "Amnon Ta-Shma and David Zuckerman",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Elkies:2001:ECM,
author = "Noam D. Elkies",
title = "Excellent codes from modular curves",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Shparlinski:2001:SPA,
author = "Igor E. Shparlinski",
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@InProceedings{Klivans:2001:REI,
author = "Adam R. Klivans and Daniel Spielman",
title = "Randomness efficient identity testing of multivariate
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@InProceedings{Thorup:2001:FDM,
author = "Mikkel Thorup",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Grohe:2001:CCN,
author = "Martin Grohe",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Kosaraju:2001:EPS,
author = "S. Rao Kosaraju",
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@InProceedings{Schaefer:2001:DSG,
author = "Marcus Schaefer and Daniel Stefankovic",
title = "Decidability of string graphs",
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pages = "241--246",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Sanjeev:2001:LMA,
author = "Arora Sanjeev and Ravi Kannan",
title = "Learning mixtures of arbitrary {Gaussians}",
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pages = "247--257",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Klivans:2001:LDT,
author = "Adam R. Klivans and Rocco Servedio",
title = "Learning {DNF} in time",
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pages = "258--265",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Bar-Yossef:2001:SAL,
author = "Ziv Bar-Yossef and Ravi Kumar and D. Sivakumar",
title = "Sampling algorithms: lower bounds and applications",
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pages = "266--275",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Parnas:2001:TMP,
author = "Michal Parnas and Dana Ron",
title = "Testing metric properties",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Fischer:2001:TMP,
author = "Eldar Fischer and Ilan Newman",
title = "Testing of matrix properties",
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pages = "286--295",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Spielman:2001:SAA,
author = "Daniel Spielman and Shang-Hua Teng",
title = "Smoothed analysis of algorithms: why the simplex
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pages = "296--305",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Gartner:2001:OLE,
author = "Bernd G{\"a}rtner and J{\'o}zsef Solymosi and Falk
Tschirschnitz and Emo Welzl and Pavel Valtr",
title = "One line and $ \epsilon $",
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pages = "306--315",
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bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Icking:2001:TBC,
author = "Christian Icking and Lihong Ha",
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pages = "316--321",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Chazelle:2001:LBI,
author = "Bernard Chazelle and Ding Liu",
title = "Lower bounds for intersection searching and fractional
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pages = "322--329",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Borgs:2001:STS,
author = "Christian Borgs and Jennifer Chayes and Boris Pittel",
title = "Sharp threshold and scaling window for the integer
partitioning problem",
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pages = "330--336",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Achlioptas:2001:STP,
author = "Dimitris Achlioptas and Paul Beame and Michael
Molloy",
title = "A sharp threshold in proof complexity",
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pages = "337--346",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Pitassi:2001:RRL,
author = "Toniann Pitassi and Ran Raz",
title = "Regular resolution lower bounds for the weak
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year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Arai:2001:CAT,
author = "Noriko Arai and Toniann Pitassi and Alasdair
Urquhart",
title = "The complexity of analytic tableaux",
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year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Jain:2001:AAA,
author = "Kamal Jain and Vijay Vazirani",
title = "Applications of approximation algorithms to
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Moss:2001:AAC,
author = "Anna Moss and Yuval Rabani",
title = "Approximation algorithms for constrained for
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Guha:2001:CFA,
author = "Sudipto Guha and Adam Meyerson and Kamesh Munagala",
title = "A constant factor approximation for the single sink
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pages = "383--388",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Gupta:2001:PVP,
author = "Anupam Gupta and Jon Kleinberg and Amit Kumar and
Rajeev Rastogi and Bulent Yener",
title = "Provisioning a virtual private network: a network
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@InProceedings{Lachish:2001:ELB,
author = "Oded Lachish and Ran Raz",
title = "Explicit lower bound of $ 4.5 n - o(n) $ for {Boolean}
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@InProceedings{Raz:2001:LBM,
author = "Ran Raz and Amir Shpilka",
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@InProceedings{Bollig:2001:ROB,
author = "Beate Bollig and Philipp Woelfel",
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@InProceedings{Pagh:2001:CPC,
author = "Rasmus Pagh",
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@InProceedings{Feige:2001:IRS,
author = "Uriel Feige and Gideon Schechtman",
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pages = "433--442",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Goemans:2001:AAM,
author = "Michel X. Goemans and David Williamson",
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pages = "443--452",
year = "2001",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Trevisan:2001:NAR,
author = "Luca Trevisan",
title = "Non-approximability results for optimization problems
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year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Molloy:2001:CGW,
author = "Michael Molloy and Bruce Reed",
title = "Colouring graphs when the number of colours is nearly
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year = "2001",
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@InProceedings{Guha:2001:DSH,
author = "Sudipto Guha and Nick Koudas and Kyuseok Shim",
title = "Data-streams and histograms",
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year = "2001",
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@InProceedings{Alstrup:2001:OSR,
author = "Stephen Alstrup and Gerth Brodal and Theis Rauhe",
title = "Optimal static range reporting in one dimension",
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year = "2001",
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@InProceedings{Ergun:2001:BDF,
author = "Funda Ergun and S. Cenk Sahinalp and Jonathan Sharp
and Rakesh Sinha",
title = "Biased dictionaries with fast insert\slash deletes",
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pages = "483--491",
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@InProceedings{Naor:2001:APH,
author = "Moni Naor and Vanessa Teague",
title = "Anti-persistence: history independent data
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@InProceedings{Karlin:2001:DTA,
author = "Anna R. Karlin and Claire Kenyon and Dana Randall",
title = "Dynamic {TCP} acknowledgement and other stories about
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@InProceedings{Mavronicolas:2001:PSR,
author = "Marios Mavronicolas and Paul Spirakis",
title = "The price of selfish routing",
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@InProceedings{Kesselman:2001:BOM,
author = "Alexander Kesselman and Zvi Lotker and Yishay Mansour
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title = "Buffer overflow management in {QoS} switches",
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@InProceedings{Vocking:2001:AOP,
author = "Berthold V{\"o}cking",
title = "Almost optimal permutation routing on hypercubes",
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pages = "530--539",
year = "2001",
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@InProceedings{Jayram:2001:OSA,
author = "T. S. Jayram and Tracy Kimbrel and Robert Krauthgamer
and Baruch Schieber and Maxim Sviridenko",
title = "Online server allocation in a server farm via benefit
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author = "Shai Halevi and Robert Krauthgamer and Eyal
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title = "Private approximation of {NP}-hard functions",
crossref = "ACM:2001:PAA",
pages = "550--559",
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 20 18:37:27 MST 2002",
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@InProceedings{Kilian:2001:CRZ,
author = "Joe Kilian and Erez Petrank",
title = "Concurrent and resettable zero-knowledge in
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@InProceedings{Canetti:2001:BBC,
author = "Ran Canetti and Joe Kilian and Erez Petrank and Alon
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author = "Rosario Gennaro and Yuval Ishai and Eyal Kushilevitz
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author = "Andrew Chi-Chih Yao",
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author = "Mikl{\'o}s Ajtai and Ravi Kumar and D. Sivakumar",
title = "A sieve algorithm for the shortest lattice vector
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title = "Fast computation of low rank matrix approximations",
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author = "John Dunagan and Santosh Vempala",
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title = "Estimating true evolutionary distances between
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author = "Markus M{\"u}ller-Olm and Helmut Seidl",
title = "On optimal slicing of parallel programs",
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pages = "647--656",
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author = "Martin Groher and Thomas Schwentick and Luc Segoufin",
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author = "Andrei Bulatov and Andrei Krokhin and Peter Jeavons",
title = "The complexity of maximal constraint languages",
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author = "Luca de Alfaro and Rupak Majumdar",
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author = "Farrokh Vatan",
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@InProceedings{Gacs:2001:CSS,
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author = "Ravi Montenegro and Jung-Bae Son",
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author = "Mark Jerrum and Alistair Sinclair and Eric Vigoda",
title = "A polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the
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author = "Bruno Durand and Leonid Levin and Alexander Shen",
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@InProceedings{Schaefer:2002:RSG,
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{\v{S}}tefankovi{\v{c}}",
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author = "Leslie Ann Goldberg and Steven Kelk and Mike
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title = "The complexity of choosing an {$H$}-colouring (nearly)
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author = "Xiaotie Deng and Christos Papadimitriou and Shmuel
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author = "Peter G{\'a}cs",
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author = "Surender Baswana and Ramesh Hariharan and Sandeep
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title = "Improved decremental algorithms for maintaining
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@InProceedings{Albers:2002:ROS,
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@InProceedings{Raz:2002:CMP,
author = "Ran Raz",
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Muthukrishnan and M. Strauss",
title = "Near-optimal sparse {Fourier} representations via
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@InProceedings{Arora:2002:FAC,
author = "Sanjeev Arora and Subhash Khot",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Scharbrodt:2002:NAC,
author = "Mark Scharbrodt and Thomas Schickinger and Angelika
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title = "A new average case analysis for completion time
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@InProceedings{Chan:2002:UAH,
author = "Wun-Tat Chan and Tak-Wah Lam and Hing-Fung Ting and
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@InProceedings{Srinivasan:2002:ORB,
author = "Anand Srinivasan and James H. Anderson",
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@InProceedings{Achlioptas:2002:AAG,
author = "Dimitris Achlioptas and Cristopher Moore",
title = "Almost all graphs with average degree $4$ are
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pages = "199--208",
year = "2002",
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@InProceedings{Molloy:2002:MTR,
author = "Michael Molloy",
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@InProceedings{Smyth:2002:RIT,
author = "Clifford Smyth",
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pages = "218--221",
year = "2002",
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@InProceedings{Chien:2002:CAA,
author = "Steve Chien and Lars Rasmussen and Alistair Sinclair",
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year = "2002",
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pages = "232--239",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Cryan:2002:PTA,
author = "Mary Cryan and Martin Dyer",
title = "A polynomial-time algorithm to approximately count
contingency tables when the number of rows is
constant",
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pages = "240--249",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Badoiu:2002:ACC,
author = "Mihai B{\u{a}}doiu and Sariel Har-Peled and Piotr
Indyk",
title = "Approximate clustering via core-sets",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "250--257",
year = "2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Albers:2002:PLR,
author = "Susanne Albers and Lene M. Favrholdt and Oliver Giel",
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@InProceedings{Arge:2002:COP,
author = "Lars Arge and Michael A. Bender and Erik D. Demaine
and Bryan Holland-Minkley and J. Ian Munro",
title = "Cache-oblivious priority queue and graph algorithm
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}
@InProceedings{Bachmat:2002:ACA,
author = "E. Bachmat",
title = "Average case analysis for batched disk scheduling and
increasing subsequences",
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}
@InProceedings{Czumaj:2002:STA,
author = "Artur Czumaj and Piotr Krysta and Berthold
V{\"o}cking",
title = "Selfish traffic allocation for server farms",
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@InProceedings{Chekuri:2002:ASP,
author = "Chandra Chekuri and Sanjeev Khanna",
title = "Approximation schemes for preemptive weighted flow
time",
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}
@InProceedings{Cheriyan:2002:AAM,
author = "Joseph Cheriyan and Santosh Vempala and Adrian Vetta",
title = "Approximation algorithms for minimum-cost $k$-vertex
connected subgraphs",
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pages = "306--312",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Jain:2002:ECA,
author = "Kamal Jain and Vijay V. Vazirani",
title = "Equitable cost allocations via primal-dual-type
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pages = "313--321",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dwork:2002:RZK,
author = "Cynthia Dwork and Larry Stockmeyer",
title = "2-round zero knowledge and proof auditors",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Goldreich:2002:CZK,
author = "Oded Goldreich",
title = "Concurrent zero-knowledge with timing, revisited",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Dziembowski:2002:TSP,
author = "Stefan Dziembowski and Ueli Maurer",
title = "Tight security proofs for the bounded-storage model",
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year = "2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Khot:2002:HRA,
author = "Subhash Khot",
title = "Hardness results for approximate hypergraph coloring",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Saks:2002:SLB,
author = "Michael Saks and Xiaodong Sun",
title = "Space lower bounds for distance approximation in the
data stream model",
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pages = "360--369",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ajtai:2002:ACI,
author = "Mikl{\'o}s Ajtai and T. S. Jayram and Ravi Kumar and
D. Sivakumar",
title = "Approximate counting of inversions in a data stream",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "370--379",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Charikar:2002:SET,
author = "Moses S. Charikar",
title = "Similarity estimation techniques from rounding
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Gilbert:2002:FSS,
author = "Anna C. Gilbert and Sudipto Guha and Piotr Indyk and
Yannis Kotidis and S. Muthukrishnan and Martin J.
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title = "Fast, small-space algorithms for approximate histogram
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year = "2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Anshelevich:2002:SLB,
author = "Elliot Anshelevich and David Kempe and Jon Kleinberg",
title = "Stability of load balancing algorithms in dynamic
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Adler:2002:TPP,
author = "Micah Adler",
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year = "2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Cooper:2002:CWG,
author = "Colin Cooper and Alan Frieze",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Roughgarden:2002:PAI,
author = "Tim Roughgarden",
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year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Elkin:2002:CLA,
author = "Michael Elkin and Guy Kortsarz",
title = "Combinatorial logarithmic approximation algorithm for
directed telephone broadcast problem",
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year = "2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Alekhnovich:2002:ESB,
author = "Michael Alekhnovich and Jan Johannsen and Toniann
Pitassi and Alasdair Urquhart",
title = "An exponential separation between regular and general
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2002:SST,
author = "Eli Ben-Sasson",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Hellerstein:2002:ELD,
author = "Lisa Hellerstein and Vijay Raghavan",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Fischer:2002:MTG,
author = "Eldar Fischer and Eric Lehman and Ilan Newman and
Sofya Raskhodnikova and Ronitt Rubinfeld and Alex
Samorodnitsky",
title = "Monotonicity testing over general poset domains",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Barak:2002:SPT,
author = "Boaz Barak and Yehuda Lindell",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Canetti:2002:UCT,
author = "Ran Canetti and Yehuda Lindell and Rafail Ostrovsky
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ajtai:2002:ILM,
author = "Mikl{\'o}s Ajtai",
title = "The invasiveness of off-line memory checking",
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pages = "504--513",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Lindell:2002:CAB,
author = "Yehuda Lindell and Anna Lysyanskaya and Tal Rabin",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Aspnes:2002:WFC,
author = "James Aspnes and Gauri Shah and Jatin Shah",
title = "Wait-free consensus with infinite arrivals",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Feige:2002:RBA,
author = "Uriel Feige",
title = "Relations between average case complexity and
approximation complexity",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Holmerin:2002:VCR,
author = "Jonas Holmerin",
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author = "Ran Raz",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2002:HEB,
author = "Eli Ben-Sasson",
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year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Kaplan:2002:MHB,
author = "Haim Kaplan and Nira Shafrir and Robert E. Tarjan",
title = "Meldable heaps and {Boolean} union-find",
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pages = "573--582",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Brodal:2002:OFS,
author = "Gerth St{\o}lting Brodal and George Lagogiannis and
Christos Makris and Athanasios Tsakalidis and Kostas
Tsichlas",
title = "Optimal finger search trees in the pointer machine",
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pages = "583--591",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Cole:2002:VCM,
author = "Richard Cole and Ramesh Hariharan",
title = "Verifying candidate matches in sparse and wildcard
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Han:2002:DST,
author = "Yijie Han",
title = "Deterministic sorting in {$ O(n \log \log n) $} time
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pages = "602--608",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Micciancio:2002:ICH,
author = "Daniele Micciancio",
title = "Improved cryptographic hash functions with
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pages = "609--618",
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@InProceedings{Sivakumar:2002:ADC,
author = "D. Sivakumar",
title = "Algorithmic derandomization via complexity theory",
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year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Umans:2002:PRG,
author = "Christopher Umans",
title = "Pseudo-random generators for all hardnesses",
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pages = "627--634",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Aaronson:2002:QLB,
author = "Scott Aaronson",
title = "Quantum lower bound for the collision problem",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Crepeau:2002:SMP,
author = "Claude Cr{\'e}peau and Daniel Gottesman and Adam
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title = "Secure multi-party quantum computation",
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pages = "643--652",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Hallgren:2002:PTQ,
author = "Sean Hallgren",
title = "Polynomial-time quantum algorithms for {Pell}'s
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Capalbo:2002:RCC,
author = "Michael Capalbo and Omer Reingold and Salil Vadhan and
Avi Wigderson",
title = "Randomness conductors and constant-degree lossless
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pages = "659--668",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Meshulam:2002:ESC,
author = "Roy Meshulam and Avi Wigderson",
title = "Expanders from symmetric codes",
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year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Batu:2002:CAE,
author = "Tu{\u{g}}kan Batu and Sanjoy Dasgupta and Ravi Kumar
and Ronitt Rubinfeld",
title = "The complexity of approximating entropy",
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pages = "678--687",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Beame:2002:TST,
author = "Paul Beame and Erik Vee",
title = "Time-space tradeoffs, multiparty communication
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pages = "688--697",
year = "2002",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Nayak:2002:CEA,
author = "Ashwin Nayak and Julia Salzman",
title = "On communication over an entanglement-assisted quantum
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@InProceedings{Linial:2002:GED,
author = "Nathan Linial and Avner Magen and Assaf Naor",
title = "Girth and {Euclidean} distortion",
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year = "2002",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Basu:2002:CBN,
author = "Saugata Basu",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Arya:2002:SEA,
author = "Sunil Arya and Theocharis Malamatos and David M.
Mount",
title = "Space-efficient approximate {Voronoi} diagrams",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "721--730",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Jain:2002:NGA,
author = "Kamal Jain and Mohammad Mahdian and Amin Saberi",
title = "A new greedy approach for facility location problems",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "731--740",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Karger:2002:FNN,
author = "David R. Karger and Matthias Ruhl",
title = "Finding nearest neighbors in growth-restricted
metrics",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "741--750",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{ODonnell:2002:HAW,
author = "Ryan O'Donnell",
title = "Hardness amplification within {NP}",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "751--760",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Agol:2002:MKG,
author = "Ian Agol and Joel Hass and William Thurston",
title = "3-manifold knot genus is {NP}-complete",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "761--766",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Khot:2002:PUP,
author = "Subhash Khot",
title = "On the power of unique $2$-prover $1$-round games",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "767--775",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Jackson:2002:LBA,
author = "Jeffrey C. Jackson and Adam R. Klivans and Rocco A.
Servedio",
title = "Learnability beyond {AC}$^0$",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "776--784",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Golin:2002:HCU,
author = "Mordecai J. Golin and Claire Kenyon and Neal E.
Young",
title = "{Huffman} coding with unequal letter costs",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "785--791",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Charikar:2002:ASG,
author = "Moses Charikar and Eric Lehman and Ding Liu and Rina
Panigrahy and Manoj Prabhakaran and April Rasala and
Amit Sahai and Abhi Shelat",
title = "Approximating the smallest grammar: {Kolmogorov}
complexity in natural models",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "792--801",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Guruswami:2002:LLD,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami",
title = "Limits to list decodability of linear codes",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "802--811",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Guruswami:2002:NOL,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami and Piotr Indyk",
title = "Near-optimal linear-time codes for unique decoding and
new list-decodable codes over smaller alphabets",
crossref = "ACM:2002:PTF",
pages = "812--821",
year = "2002",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:05 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Friedl:2003:HTO,
author = "Katalin Friedl and G{\'a}bor Ivanyos and
Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Magniez and Miklos Santha and Pranab
Sen",
title = "Hidden translation and orbit coset in quantum
computing",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "1--9",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gurvits:2003:CDC,
author = "Leonid Gurvits",
title = "Classical deterministic complexity of {Edmonds'
Problem} and quantum entanglement",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "10--19",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Aharonov:2003:AQS,
author = "Dorit Aharonov and Amnon Ta-Shma",
title = "Adiabatic quantum state generation and statistical
zero knowledge",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "20--29",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Charikar:2003:BSA,
author = "Moses Charikar and Liadan O'Callaghan and Rina
Panigrahy",
title = "Better streaming algorithms for clustering problems",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "30--39",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Plaxton:2003:AAH,
author = "C. Greg Plaxton",
title = "Approximation algorithms for hierarchical location
problems",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "40--49",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{delaVega:2003:ASC,
author = "W. Fernandez de la Vega and Marek Karpinski and Claire
Kenyon and Yuval Rabani",
title = "Approximation schemes for clustering problems",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "50--58",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Childs:2003:EAS,
author = "Andrew M. Childs and Richard Cleve and Enrico Deotto
and Edward Farhi and Sam Gutmann and Daniel A.
Spielman",
title = "Exponential algorithmic speedup by a quantum walk",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "59--68",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Klauck:2003:QTS,
author = "Hartmut Klauck",
title = "Quantum time-space tradeoffs for sorting",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "69--76",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Yao:2003:PQF,
author = "Andrew Chi-Chih Yao",
title = "On the power of quantum fingerprinting",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "77--81",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Azar:2003:MMQ,
author = "Yossi Azar and Yossi Richter",
title = "Management of multi-queue switches in {QoS} networks",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "82--89",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Amir:2003:CFA,
author = "Eyal Amir and Robert Krauthgamer and Satish Rao",
title = "Constant factor approximation of vertex-cuts in planar
graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "90--99",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Alon:2003:OSC,
author = "Noga Alon and Baruch Awerbuch and Yossi Azar",
title = "The online set cover problem",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "100--105",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kerenidis:2003:ELB,
author = "Iordanis Kerenidis and Ronald de Wolf",
title = "Exponential lower bound for $2$-query locally
decodable codes via a quantum argument",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "106--115",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Tardos:2003:OPF,
author = "G{\'a}bor Tardos",
title = "Optimal probabilistic fingerprint codes",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "116--125",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Guruswami:2003:LTE,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami and Piotr Indyk",
title = "Linear time encodable and list decodable codes",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "126--135",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Coppersmith:2003:RCT,
author = "Don Coppersmith and Madhu Sudan",
title = "Reconstructing curves in three (and higher)
dimensional space from noisy data",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "136--142",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kowalik:2003:SPQ,
author = "Lukasz Kowalik and Maciej Kurowski",
title = "Short path queries in planar graphs in constant time",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "143--148",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Thorup:2003:IPQ,
author = "Mikkel Thorup",
title = "Integer priority queues with decrease key in constant
time and the single source shortest paths problem",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "149--158",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Demetrescu:2003:NAD,
author = "Camil Demetrescu and Giuseppe F. Italiano",
title = "A new approach to dynamic all pairs shortest paths",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "159--166",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cole:2003:FAC,
author = "Richard Cole and Ramesh Hariharan",
title = "A fast algorithm for computing {Steiner} edge
connectivity",
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pages = "167--176",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Rettinger:2003:CCS,
author = "Robert Rettinger and Klaus Weihrauch",
title = "The computational complexity of some {Julia} sets",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "177--185",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Sauerhoff:2003:TST,
author = "Martin Sauerhoff and Philipp Woelfel",
title = "Time-space tradeoff lower bounds for integer
multiplication and graphs of arithmetic functions",
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pages = "186--195",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kalai:2003:BPN,
author = "Adam Kalai and Rocco A. Servedio",
title = "Boosting in the presence of noise",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "195--205",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Mossel:2003:LJ,
author = "Elchanan Mossel and Ryan O'Donnell and Rocco P.
Servedio",
title = "Learning juntas",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "206--212",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kim:2003:GRR,
author = "Jeong Han Kim and Van H. Vu",
title = "Generating random regular graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "213--222",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Achlioptas:2003:TRS,
author = "Dimitris Achlioptas and Yuval Peres",
title = "The threshold for random $k$-{SAT} is {$ 2^k (\ln 2 -
O(k)) $}",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "223--231",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Beier:2003:RKE,
author = "Rene Beier and Berthold V{\"o}cking",
title = "Random knapsack in expected polynomial time",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "232--241",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Bansal:2003:SSN,
author = "Nikhil Bansal and Kirk Pruhs",
title = "Server scheduling in the {$ L_p $} norm: a rising tide
lifts all boat",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "242--250",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Georgiou:2003:WCS,
author = "Chryssis Georgiou and Alexander Russell and Alex A.
Shvartsman",
title = "Work-competitive scheduling for cooperative computing
with dynamic groups",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "251--258",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fatourou:2003:TTL,
author = "Panagiota Fatourou and Faith Fich and Eric Ruppert",
title = "A tight time lower bound for space-optimal
implementations of multi-writer snapshots",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "259--268",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Hayes:2003:RCG,
author = "Thomas P. Hayes",
title = "Randomly coloring graphs of girth at least five",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "269--278",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Morris:2003:ESM,
author = "Ben Morris and Yuval Peres",
title = "Evolving sets and mixing",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "279--286",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Bobkov:2003:MLS,
author = "Sergey Bobkov and Prasad Tetali",
title = "Modified log-{Sobolev} inequalities, mixing and
hypercontractivity",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "287--296",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gilbert:2003:FBT,
author = "Anna Gilbert and Howard Karloff",
title = "On the fractal behavior of {TCP}",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "297--306",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Brodal:2003:LCO,
author = "Gerth St{\o}lting Brodal and Rolf Fagerberg",
title = "On the limits of cache-obliviousness",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "307--315",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Batu:2003:SAW,
author = "Tugkan Batu and Funda Erg{\"u}n and Joe Kilian and
Avner Magen and Sofya Raskhodnikova and Ronitt
Rubinfeld and Rahul Sami",
title = "A sublinear algorithm for weakly approximating edit
distance",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "316--324",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{ODonnell:2003:NDB,
author = "Ryan O'Donnell and Rocco A. Servedio",
title = "New degree bounds for polynomial threshold functions",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "325--334",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Bar-Yossef:2003:SLB,
author = "Ziv Bar-Yossef",
title = "Sampling lower bounds via information theory",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "335--344",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2003:SPH,
author = "Eli Ben-Sasson and Prahladh Harsha and Sofya
Raskhodnikova",
title = "Some {3CNF} properties are hard to test",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "345--354",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Kabanets:2003:DPI,
author = "Valentine Kabanets and Russell Impagliazzo",
title = "Derandomizing polynomial identity tests means proving
circuit lower bounds",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "355--364",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Gupta:2003:SBA,
author = "Anupam Gupta and Amit Kumar and Tim Roughgarden",
title = "Simpler and better approximation algorithms for
network design",
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pages = "365--372",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chen:2003:MMA,
author = "Jiangzhuo Chen and Rajmohan Rajaraman and Ravi
Sundaram",
title = "Meet and merge: approximation algorithms for confluent
flows",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "373--382",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Azar:2003:OOR,
author = "Yossi Azar and Edith Cohen and Amos Fiat and Haim
Kaplan and Harald Racke",
title = "Optimal oblivious routing in polynomial time",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "383--388",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Konemann:2003:PDM,
author = "Jochen K{\"o}nemann and R. Ravi",
title = "Primal-dual meets local search: approximating {MST}'s
with nonuniform degree bounds",
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pages = "389--395",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ajtai:2003:WCB,
author = "Miklos Ajtai",
title = "The worst-case behavior of {Schnorr}'s algorithm
approximating the shortest nonzero vector in a
lattice",
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pages = "396--406",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Regev:2003:NLB,
author = "Oded Regev",
title = "New lattice based cryptographic constructions",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "407--416",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Gennaro:2003:LBE,
author = "Rosario Gennaro and Yael Gertner and Jonathan Katz",
title = "Lower bounds on the efficiency of encryption and
digital signature schemes",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "417--425",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Damgard:2003:NIR,
author = "Ivan Damgard and Jens Groth",
title = "Non-interactive and reusable non-malleable commitment
schemes",
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pages = "426--437",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Krauthgamer:2003:IDG,
author = "Robert Krauthgamer and James R. Lee",
title = "The intrinsic dimensionality of graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "438--447",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Fakcharoenphol:2003:TBA,
author = "Jittat Fakcharoenphol and Satish Rao and Kunal
Talwar",
title = "A tight bound on approximating arbitrary metrics by
tree metrics",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "448--455",
year = "2003",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Rabinovich:2003:ADE,
author = "Yuri Rabinovich",
title = "On average distortion of embedding metrics into the
line and into {$ L_1 $}",
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pages = "456--462",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Bartal:2003:MRT,
author = "Yair Bartal and Nathan Linial and Manor Mendel and
Assaf Naor",
title = "On metric {Ramsey}-type phenomena",
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pages = "463--472",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dror:2003:TSP,
author = "Moshe Dror and Alon Efrat and Anna Lubiw and Joseph S.
B. Mitchell",
title = "Touring a sequence of polygons",
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pages = "473--482",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Gao:2003:WSP,
author = "Jie Gao and Li Zhang",
title = "Well-separated pair decomposition for the unit-disk
graph metric and its applications",
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pages = "483--492",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dey:2003:ASF,
author = "Tamal K. Dey and Joachim Giesen and Matthias John",
title = "Alpha-shapes and flow shapes are homotopy equivalent",
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pages = "493--502",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Awerbuch:2003:RTT,
author = "Baruch Awerbuch and Yossi Azar and Adam Meyerson",
title = "Reducing truth-telling online mechanisms to online
optimization",
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pages = "503--510",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Anshelevich:2003:NON,
author = "Elliot Anshelevich and Anirban Dasgupta and Eva Tardos
and Tom Wexler",
title = "Near-optimal network design with selfish agents",
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pages = "511--520",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Cole:2003:PNE,
author = "Richard Cole and Yevgeniy Dodis and Tim Roughgarden",
title = "Pricing network edges for heterogeneous selfish
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Chazelle:2003:SGA,
author = "Bernard Chazelle and Ding Liu and Avner Magen",
title = "Sublinear geometric algorithms",
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year = "2003",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Aronov:2003:DDT,
author = "Boris Aronov and J{\'a}nos Pach and Micha Sharir and
G{\'a}bor Tardos",
title = "Distinct distances in three and higher dimensions",
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pages = "541--546",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Aronov:2003:CTC,
author = "Boris Aronov and Vladlen Koltun and Micha Sharir",
title = "Cutting triangular cycles of lines in space",
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pages = "547--555",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Buchsbaum:2003:OVL,
author = "Adam L. Buchsbaum and Howard Karloff and Claire Kenyon
and Nick Reingold and Mikkel Thorup",
title = "{OPT} versus {LOAD} in dynamic storage allocation",
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pages = "556--564",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Kleinberg:2003:CLB,
author = "Robert Kleinberg and Tom Leighton",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Adler:2003:SPH,
author = "Micah Adler and Eran Halperin and Richard M. Karp and
Vijay V. Vazirani",
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pages = "575--584",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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}
@InProceedings{Halperin:2003:PI,
author = "Eran Halperin and Robert Krauthgamer",
title = "Polylogarithmic inapproximability",
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year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dinur:2003:NMP,
author = "Irit Dinur and Venkatesan Guruswami and Subhash Khot
and Oded Regev",
title = "A new multilayered {PCP} and the hardness of
hypergraph vertex cover",
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pages = "595--601",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Lu:2003:EOC,
author = "Chi-Jen Lu and Omer Reingold and Salil Vadhan and Avi
Wigderson",
title = "Extractors: optimal up to constant factors",
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pages = "602--611",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2003:REL,
author = "Eli Ben-Sasson and Madhu Sudan and Salil Vadhan and
Avi Wigderson",
title = "Randomness-efficient low degree tests and short {PCPs}
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pages = "612--621",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ostlin:2003:UHC,
author = "Anna Ostlin and Rasmus Pagh",
title = "Uniform hashing in constant time and linear space",
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pages = "622--628",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dietzfelbinger:2003:ARG,
author = "Martin Dietzfelbinger and Philipp Woelfel",
title = "Almost random graphs with simple hash functions",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "629--638",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Kaplan:2003:DRI,
author = "Haim Kaplan and Eyal Molad and Robert E. Tarjan",
title = "Dynamic rectangular intersection with priorities",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "639--648",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Thorup:2003:SED,
author = "Mikkel Thorup",
title = "Space efficient dynamic stabbing with fast queries",
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pages = "649--658",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Gal:2003:LBA,
author = "Anna Gal and Adi Rosen",
title = "Lower bounds on the amount of randomness in private
computation",
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year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Jayram:2003:CPL,
author = "T. S. Jayram and Subhash Khot and Ravi Kumar and Yuval
Rabani",
title = "Cell-probe lower bounds for the partial match
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pages = "667--672",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Jayram:2003:TAI,
author = "T. S. Jayram and Ravi Kumar and D. Sivakumar",
title = "Two applications of information complexity",
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pages = "673--682",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Lindell:2003:BCS,
author = "Yehuda Lindell",
title = "Bounded-concurrent secure two-party computation
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pages = "683--692",
year = "2003",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dyer:2003:ACD,
author = "Martin Dyer",
title = "Approximate counting by dynamic programming",
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pages = "693--699",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Alon:2003:TSD,
author = "Noga Alon and Asaf Shapira",
title = "Testing subgraphs in directed graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "700--709",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Itoh:2003:SSR,
author = "Toshiya Itoh and Yoshinori Takei and Jun Tarui",
title = "On the sample size of $k$-restricted min-wise
independent permutations and other $k$-wise
distributions",
crossref = "ACM:2003:PTF",
pages = "710--719",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Friedman:2003:PAS,
author = "Joel Friedman",
title = "A proof of {Alon}'s second eigenvalue conjecture",
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pages = "720--724",
year = "2003",
bibdate = "Tue Jan 13 06:21:07 MST 2004",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2004:RPP,
author = "Eli Ben-Sasson and Oded Goldreich and Prahladh Harsha
and Madhu Sudan and Salil Vadhan",
title = "Robust {PCPs} of proximity, shorter {PCPs} and
applications to coding",
crossref = "ACM:2004:PAA",
pages = "1--10",
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Wed Apr 5 05:59:11 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Holmerin:2004:NPO,
author = "Jonas Holmerin and Subhash Khot",
title = "A new {PCP} outer verifier with applications to
homogeneous linear equations and max-bisection",
crossref = "ACM:2004:PAA",
pages = "11--20",
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Wed Apr 5 05:59:11 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Chuzhoy:2004:ACH,
author = "Julia Chuzhoy and Sudipto Guha and Eran Halperi and
Sanjeev Khanna and Guy Kortsarz and Joseph (Seffi)
Nao",
title = "Asymmetric $k$-center is $ \log^*(n) $-hard to
approximate",
crossref = "ACM:2004:PAA",
pages = "21--27",
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Wed Apr 5 05:59:11 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Chuzhoy:2004:NHR,
author = "Julia Chuzhoy and Joseph (Seffi) Naor",
title = "New hardness results for congestion minimization and
machine scheduling",
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pages = "28--34",
year = "2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Albers:2004:PGA,
author = "Susanne Albers and Markus Schmidt",
title = "On the performance of greedy algorithms in packet
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pages = "35--44",
year = "2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Awerbuch:2004:ARE,
author = "Baruch Awerbuch and Robert D. Kleinberg",
title = "Adaptive routing with end-to-end feedback: distributed
learning and geometric approaches",
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pages = "45--53",
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Wed Apr 5 05:59:11 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Manku:2004:KTN,
author = "Gurmeet Singh Manku and Moni Naor and Udi Wieder",
title = "Know thy neighbor's neighbor: the power of lookahead
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pages = "54--63",
year = "2004",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Azar:2004:ZOP,
author = "Yossi Azar and Yossi Richter",
title = "The zero-one principle for switching networks",
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pages = "64--71",
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Wed Apr 5 05:59:11 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Alon:2004:ACN,
author = "Noga Alon and Assaf Naor",
title = "Approximating the cut-norm via {Grothendieck}'s
inequality",
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pages = "72--80",
year = "2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Spielman:2004:NLT,
author = "Daniel A. Spielman and Shang-Hua Teng",
title = "Nearly-linear time algorithms for graph partitioning,
graph sparsification, and solving linear systems",
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pages = "81--90",
year = "2004",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Cole:2004:DMI,
author = "Richard Cole and Lee-Ad Gottlieb and Moshe
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title = "Dictionary matching and indexing with errors and don't
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pages = "91--100",
year = "2004",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Finocchi:2004:SSP,
author = "Irene Finocchi and Giuseppe F. Italiano",
title = "Sorting and searching in the presence of memory faults
(without redundancy)",
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pages = "101--110",
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Wed Apr 5 05:59:11 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Ambainis:2004:QAD,
author = "Andris Ambainis",
title = "Quantum algorithms a decade after {Shor}",
crossref = "ACM:2004:PAA",
pages = "111--111",
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@InProceedings{Yao:2004:GEQ,
author = "Andrew Chi-Chih Yao",
title = "Graph entropy and quantum sorting problems",
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@InProceedings{Aaronson:2004:MFS,
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@InProceedings{Bar-Yossef:2004:ESQ,
author = "Ziv Bar-Yossef and T. S. Jayram and Iordanis
Kerenidis",
title = "Exponential separation of quantum and classical
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@InProceedings{Kortsarz:2004:AAK,
author = "G. Kortsarz and Z. Nutov",
title = "Approximation algorithm for $k$-node connected
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@InProceedings{Bienstock:2004:SFP,
author = "D. Bienstock and G. Iyengar",
title = "Solving fractional packing problems in {$ O^*(1 /
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@InProceedings{Chekuri:2004:ANM,
author = "Chandra Chekuri and Sanjeev Khanna and F. Bruce
Shepherd",
title = "The all-or-nothing multicommodity flow problem",
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pages = "156--165",
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@InProceedings{Bansal:2004:AAD,
author = "Nikhil Bansal and Avrim Blum and Shuchi Chawla and
Adam Meyerson",
title = "Approximation algorithms for deadline-{TSP} and
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@InProceedings{Czumaj:2004:EWM,
author = "Artur Czumaj and Christian Sohler",
title = "Estimating the weight of metric minimum spanning trees
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@InProceedings{Roditty:2004:FDR,
author = "Liam Roditty and Uri Zwick",
title = "A fully dynamic reachability algorithm for directed
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@InProceedings{Healy:2004:UNA,
author = "Alexander Healy and Salil Vadhan and Emanuele Viola",
title = "Using nondeterminism to amplify hardness",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Alur:2004:VPL,
author = "Rajeev Alur and P. Madhusudan",
title = "Visibly pushdown languages",
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@InProceedings{Chen:2004:LFR,
author = "Jianer Chen and Xiuzhen Huang and Iyad A. Kanj and Ge
Xia",
title = "Linear {FPT} reductions and computational lower
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pages = "212--221",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Arora:2004:EFG,
author = "Sanjeev Arora and Satish Rao and Umesh Vazirani",
title = "Expander flows, geometric embeddings and graph
partitioning",
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pages = "222--231",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Pass:2004:BCS,
author = "Rafael Pass",
title = "Bounded-concurrent secure multi-party computation with
a dishonest majority",
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pages = "232--241",
year = "2004",
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@InProceedings{Prabhakaran:2004:NNS,
author = "Manoj Prabhakaran and Amit Sahai",
title = "New notions of security: achieving universal
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pages = "242--251",
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@InProceedings{Harnik:2004:CTP,
author = "Danny Harnik and Moni Naor and Omer Reingold and Alon
Rosen",
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@InProceedings{Ishai:2004:BCT,
author = "Yuval Ishai and Eyal Kushilevitz and Rafail Ostrovsky
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title = "Batch codes and their applications",
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pages = "262--271",
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@InProceedings{Kenyon:2004:LDM,
author = "Claire Kenyon and Yuval Rabani and Alistair Sinclair",
title = "Low distortion maps between point sets",
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@InProceedings{Talwar:2004:BEA,
author = "Kunal Talwar",
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@InProceedings{Har-Peled:2004:CKM,
author = "Sariel Har-Peled and Soham Mazumdar",
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@InProceedings{Boissonnat:2004:IIS,
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title = "Isotopic implicit surface meshing",
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@InProceedings{Lovasz:2004:HRC,
author = "L{\'a}szl{\'o} Lov{\'a}sz and Santosh Vempala",
title = "Hit-and-run from a corner",
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@InProceedings{Dunagan:2004:SPT,
author = "John Dunagan and Santosh Vempala",
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@InProceedings{Chlebus:2004:CAR,
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@InProceedings{Elkin:2004:ULB,
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@InProceedings{Tardos:2004:NG,
author = "{\'E}va Tardos",
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@InProceedings{Beier:2004:TPW,
author = "Rene Beier and Berthold V{\"o}cking",
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pages = "343--352",
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@InProceedings{Levi:2004:PDA,
author = "Retsef Levi and Robin Roundy and David B. Shmoys",
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@InProceedings{Indyk:2004:ADG,
author = "Piotr Indyk",
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@InProceedings{Batu:2004:SAT,
author = "Tugkan Batu and Ravi Kumar and Ronitt Rubinfeld",
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@InProceedings{Fischer:2004:DTI,
author = "Eldar Fischer",
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@InProceedings{Correa:2004:AKT,
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@InProceedings{Gabow:2004:FPC,
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@InProceedings{Gupta:2004:BSA,
author = "Anupam Gupta and Martin P{\'a}l and R. Ravi and
Amitabh Sinha",
title = "Boosted sampling: approximation algorithms for
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pages = "417--426",
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@InProceedings{Shpilka:2004:DHT,
author = "Amir Shpilka and Avi Wigderson",
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@InProceedings{Guruswami:2004:BEB,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami",
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@InProceedings{Rozenman:2004:NFC,
author = "Eyal Rozenman and Aner Shalev and Avi Wigderson",
title = "A new family of {Cayley} expanders (?)",
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pages = "445--454",
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@InProceedings{Kelner:2004:SPE,
author = "Jonathan A. Kelner",
title = "Spectral partitioning, eigenvalue bounds, and circle
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pages = "455--464",
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@InProceedings{Aaronson:2004:LBL,
author = "Scott Aaronson",
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@InProceedings{Burgisser:2004:CCC,
author = "Peter B{\"u}rgisser and Felipe Cucker",
title = "Counting complexity classes for numeric computations
{II}: algebraic and semialgebraic sets",
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pages = "475--485",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Ajtai:2004:CAP,
author = "Mikl{\'o}s Ajtai",
title = "A conjecture about polynomial time computable
lattice-lattice functions",
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pages = "486--493",
year = "2004",
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@InProceedings{Santha:2004:QCQ,
author = "Miklos Santha and Mario Szegedy",
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@InProceedings{Reichardt:2004:QAO,
author = "Ben W. Reichardt",
title = "The quantum adiabatic optimization algorithm and local
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@InProceedings{Garg:2004:AAM,
author = "Rahul Garg and Sanjiv Kapoor",
title = "Auction algorithms for market equilibrium",
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@InProceedings{Devanur:2004:SCM,
author = "Nikhil R. Devanur",
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@InProceedings{Chen:2004:ATB,
author = "Jiangzhuo Chen and Robert D. Kleinberg and
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title = "(Almost) tight bounds and existence theorems for
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pages = "529--538",
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@InProceedings{Obata:2004:AMI,
author = "Kenji Obata",
title = "Approximate max-integral-flow\slash min-multicut
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@InProceedings{Patrascu:2004:LBD,
author = "Mihai P{\u{a}}tra{\c{s}}cu and Erik D. Demaine",
title = "Lower bounds for dynamic connectivity",
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pages = "546--553",
year = "2004",
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@InProceedings{Ailon:2004:LBL,
author = "Nir Ailon and Bernard Chazelle",
title = "Lower bounds for linear degeneracy testing",
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year = "2004",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
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@InProceedings{Kempe:2004:DAS,
author = "David Kempe and Frank McSherry",
title = "A decentralized algorithm for spectral analysis",
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@InProceedings{Kleinberg:2004:UMM,
author = "Jon Kleinberg and Mark Sandler",
title = "Using mixture models for collaborative filtering",
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@InProceedings{Wigderson:2004:DTB,
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@InProceedings{Goel:2004:STM,
author = "Ashish Goel and Sanatan Rai and Bhaskar
Krishnamachari",
title = "Sharp thresholds for monotone properties in random
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@InProceedings{Achlioptas:2004:TPV,
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random graph",
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@InProceedings{Feige:2004:SIR,
author = "Uriel Feige",
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@InProceedings{Fabrikant:2004:CPN,
author = "Alex Fabrikant and Christos Papadimitriou and Kunal
Talwar",
title = "The complexity of pure {Nash} equilibria",
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pages = "604--612",
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@InProceedings{Gairing:2004:CNE,
author = "Martin Gairing and Thomas L{\"u}cking and Marios
Mavronicolas and Burkhard Monien",
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@InProceedings{Halpern:2004:RSS,
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@InProceedings{Raz:2004:MLF,
author = "Ran Raz",
title = "Multi-linear formulas for permanent and determinant
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@InProceedings{Raz:2005:EWR,
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author = "Patrick Briest and Piotr Krysta and Berthold
V{\"o}cking",
title = "Approximation techniques for utilitarian mechanism
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pages = "39--48",
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author = "Gereon Frahling and Christian Sohler",
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author = "Mihai B{\u{a}}doiu and Julia Chuzhoy and Piotr Indyk
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author = "Mikolaj Bojanczyk and Thomas Colcombet",
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author = "Itai Benjamini and Oded Schramm and David B. Wilson",
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author = "Michal Kouck{\'y} and Pavel Pudl{\'a}k and Denis
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author = "Matthew Andrews and Lisa Zhang",
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author = "Mikhail Alekhnovich and Sanjeev Arora and Iannis
Tourlakis",
title = "Towards strong nonapproximability results in the
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@InProceedings{Basu:2005:CFB,
author = "Saugata Basu and Richard Pollack and
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author = "Saugata Basu",
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@InProceedings{Azar:2005:CPS,
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@InProceedings{Sanghvi:2005:RCT,
author = "Saurabh Sanghvi and Salil Vadhan",
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@InProceedings{Fortnow:2005:HSC,
author = "Lance Fortnow and Rahul Santhanam and Luca Trevisan",
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@InProceedings{Kaplan:2005:LAC,
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@InProceedings{Mossel:2005:LNP,
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Rajmohan Rajaraman and Ravi Sundaram",
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@InProceedings{Morris:2005:MTT,
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@InProceedings{Cryan:2005:ACI,
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@InProceedings{Vu:2005:SNR,
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@InProceedings{Tao:2005:RMS,
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@InProceedings{Adler:2005:TAO,
author = "Micah Adler and Jeff Edmonds and Jivri Matousek",
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@InProceedings{delaVega:2005:TDA,
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@InProceedings{Bansal:2006:SCP,
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@InProceedings{Roughgarden:2006:NTO,
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@InProceedings{Hayrapetyan:2006:ECC,
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@InProceedings{Ishai:2006:BBC,
author = "Yuval Ishai and Eyal Kushilevitz and Yehuda Lindell
and Erez Petrank",
title = "Black-box constructions for secure computation",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "99--108",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Kushilevitz:2006:ITS,
author = "Eyal Kushilevitz and Yehuda Lindell and Tal Rabin",
title = "Information-theoretically secure protocols and
security under composition",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "109--118",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Beimel:2006:PAS,
author = "Amos Beimel and Paz Carmi and Kobbi Nissim and Enav
Weinreb",
title = "Private approximation of search problems",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "119--128",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Raghavan:2006:CFW,
author = "Prabhakar Raghavan",
title = "The changing face of {Web} search: algorithms,
auctions and advertising",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "129--129",
year = "2006",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Achlioptas:2006:SSG,
author = "Dimitris Achlioptas and Federico Ricci-Tersenghi",
title = "On the solution-space geometry of random constraint
satisfaction problems",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "130--139",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Weitz:2006:CIS,
author = "Dror Weitz",
title = "Counting independent sets up to the tree threshold",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "140--149",
year = "2006",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Szegedy:2006:DPS,
author = "Mario Szegedy",
title = "The {DLT} priority sampling is essentially optimal",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "150--158",
year = "2006",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Daskalakis:2006:OPR,
author = "Constantinos Daskalakis and Elchanan Mossel and
S{\'e}bastien Roch",
title = "Optimal phylogenetic reconstruction",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "159--168",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Fatourou:2006:TST,
author = "Panagiota Fatourou and Faith Ellen Fich and Eric
Ruppert",
title = "Time-space tradeoffs for implementations of
snapshots",
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pages = "169--178",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ben-Or:2006:BAF,
author = "Michael Ben-Or and Elan Pavlov and Vinod
Vaikuntanathan",
title = "{Byzantine} agreement in the full-information model in
{$ O(\log n) $} rounds",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "179--186",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Antonakopoulos:2006:FLE,
author = "Spyridon Antonakopoulos",
title = "Fast leader-election protocols with bounded cheaters'
edge",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "187--196",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Cho:2006:PFD,
author = "Sung-woo Cho and Ashish Goel",
title = "Pricing for fairness: distributed resource allocation
for multiple objectives",
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pages = "197--204",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Charikar:2006:NOA,
author = "Moses Charikar and Konstantin Makarychev and Yury
Makarychev",
title = "Near-optimal algorithms for unique games",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "205--214",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Arora:2006:NAG,
author = "Sanjeev Arora and Eden Chlamtac",
title = "New approximation guarantee for chromatic number",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "215--224",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Vassilevska:2006:FMW,
author = "Virginia Vassilevska and Ryan Williams",
title = "Finding a maximum weight triangle in {$ n^{3 - \Delta
} $} time, with applications",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "225--231",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Patrascu:2006:TST,
author = "Mihai P{\~a}tra{\c{s}}cu and Mikkel Thorup",
title = "Time-space trade-offs for predecessor search",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "232--240",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dinur:2006:PTG,
author = "Irit Dinur",
title = "The {PCP} theorem by gap amplification",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "241--250",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Shapira:2006:CCT,
author = "Asaf Shapira",
title = "A combinatorial characterization of the testable graph
properties: it's all about regularity",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "251--260",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Borgs:2006:GLP,
author = "Christian Borgs and Jennifer Chayes and L{\'a}szl{\'o}
Lov{\'a}sz and Vera T. S{\'o}s and Bal{\'a}zs Szegedy
and Katalin Vesztergombi",
title = "Graph limits and parameter testing",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "261--270",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Abraham:2006:AME,
author = "Ittai Abraham and Yair Bartal and Ofer Neimany",
title = "Advances in metric embedding theory",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "271--286",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Nguyen:2006:ZKE,
author = "Minh-Huyen Nguyen and Salil Vadhan",
title = "Zero knowledge with efficient provers",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "287--295",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Watrous:2006:ZKA,
author = "John Watrous",
title = "Zero-knowledge against quantum attacks",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "296--305",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Micali:2006:LZK,
author = "Silvio Micali and Rafael Pass",
title = "Local zero knowledge",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "306--315",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Remy:2006:QPT,
author = "Jan Remy and Angelika Steger",
title = "A quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme for
minimum weight triangulation",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "316--325",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Clarkson:2006:BTU,
author = "Kenneth L. Clarkson",
title = "Building triangulations using $ \epsilon $-nets",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "326--335",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Asano:2006:DTC,
author = "Tetsuo Asano and Ji{\v{r}}{\'\i} Matou{\v{s}}ek and
Takeshi Tokuyama",
title = "The distance trisector curve",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "336--343",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dinur:2006:CHA,
author = "Irit Dinur and Elchanan Mossel and Oded Regev",
title = "Conditional hardness for approximate coloring",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "344--353",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Fellows:2006:CWM,
author = "Michael R. Fellows and Frances A. Rosamond and Udi
Rotics and Stefan Szeider",
title = "Clique-width minimization is {NP}-hard",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "354--362",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feldman:2006:HAT,
author = "Vitaly Feldman",
title = "Hardness of approximate two-level logic minimization
and {PAC} learning with membership queries",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "363--372",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Impagliazzo:2006:CER,
author = "Russell Impagliazzo",
title = "Can every randomized algorithm be derandomized?",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "373--374",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Feige:2006:FSB,
author = "Uriel Feige and Mohammad Mahdian",
title = "Finding small balanced separators",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "375--384",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Khandekar:2006:GPU,
author = "Rohit Khandekar and Satish Rao and Umesh Vazirani",
title = "Graph partitioning using single commodity flows",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "385--390",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Nesetril:2006:LTL,
author = "Jaroslav Ne{\v{s}}et{\v{r}}il and Patrice Ossona de
Mendez",
title = "Linear time low tree-width partitions and algorithmic
consequences",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "391--400",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Kawarabayashi:2006:ALC,
author = "Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi and Bojan Mohar",
title = "Approximating the list-chromatic number and the
chromatic number in minor-closed and odd-minor-closed
classes of graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "401--416",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Gurvits:2006:HPA,
author = "Leonid Gurvits",
title = "Hyperbolic polynomials approach to {Van der
Waerden\slash Schrijver--Valiant} like conjectures:
sharper bounds, simpler proofs and algorithmic
applications",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "417--426",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Aharonov:2006:PQA,
author = "Dorit Aharonov and Vaughan Jones and Zeph Landau",
title = "A polynomial quantum algorithm for approximating the
{Jones} polynomial",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "427--436",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Dinur:2006:FTB,
author = "Irit Dinur and Ehud Friedgut and Guy Kindler and Ryan
O'Donnell",
title = "On the {Fourier} tails of bounded functions over the
discrete cube",
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pages = "437--446",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Regev:2006:LPN,
author = "Oded Regev and Ricky Rosen",
title = "Lattice problems and norm embeddings",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "447--456",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Reingold:2006:PWR,
author = "Omer Reingold and Luca Trevisan and Salil Vadhan",
title = "Pseudorandom walks on regular digraphs and the {RL}
vs. {L} problem",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "457--466",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Plandowski:2006:EAS,
author = "Wojciech Plandowski",
title = "An efficient algorithm for solving word equations",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "467--476",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{DeMarzo:2006:OTA,
author = "Peter DeMarzo and Ilan Kremer and Yishay Mansour",
title = "Online trading algorithms and robust option pricing",
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pages = "477--486",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Panagiotou:2006:APM,
author = "Konstantinos Panagiotou and Alexander Souza",
title = "On adequate performance measures for paging",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "487--496",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Rao:2006:ECN,
author = "Anup Rao",
title = "Extractors for a constant number of polynomially small
min-entropy independent sources",
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pages = "497--506",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Nordstrom:2006:NPM,
author = "Jakob Nordstr{\"o}m",
title = "Narrow proofs may be spacious: separating space and
width in resolution",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "507--516",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Andrews:2006:LHD,
author = "Matthew Andrews and Lisa Zhang",
title = "Logarithmic hardness of the directed congestion
minimization problem",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "517--526",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Chuzhoy:2006:HCP,
author = "Julia Chuzhoy and Sanjeev Khanna",
title = "Hardness of cut problems in directed graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "527--536",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Devanur:2006:IGS,
author = "Nikhil R. Devanur and Subhash A. Khot and Rishi Saket
and Nisheeth K. Vishnoi",
title = "Integrality gaps for sparsest cut and minimum linear
arrangement problems",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "537--546",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Karloff:2006:EDM,
author = "Howard Karloff and Subhash Khot and Aranyak Mehta and
Yuval Rabani",
title = "On earthmover distance, metric labeling, and
$0$-extension",
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pages = "547--556",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Ailon:2006:ANN,
author = "Nir Ailon and Bernard Chazelle",
title = "Approximate nearest neighbors and the fast
{Johnson--Lindenstrauss} transform",
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pages = "557--563",
year = "2006",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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}
@InProceedings{Arya:2006:II,
author = "Sunil Arya and Theocharis Malamatos and David M.
Mount",
title = "On the importance of idempotence",
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pages = "564--573",
year = "2006",
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Cole:2006:SDP,
author = "Richard Cole and Lee-Ad Gottlieb",
title = "Searching dynamic point sets in spaces with bounded
doubling dimension",
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pages = "574--583",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
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@InProceedings{Angluin:2006:LCI,
author = "Dana Angluin and James Aspnes and Jiang Chen and
Yinghua Wu",
title = "Learning a circuit by injecting values",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "584--593",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gavinsky:2006:BEQ,
author = "Dmitry Gavinsky and Julia Kempe and Oded Regev and
Ronald de Wolf",
title = "Bounded-error quantum state identification and
exponential separations in communication complexity",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "594--603",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Hallgren:2006:LQC,
author = "Sean Hallgren and Cristopher Moore and Martin
R{\"o}tteler and Alexander Russell and Pranab Sen",
title = "Limitations of quantum coset states for graph
isomorphism",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "604--617",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Ambainis:2006:NQL,
author = "Andris Ambainis and Robert {\v{S}}palek and Ronald de
Wolf",
title = "A new quantum lower bound method,: with applications
to direct product theorems and time-space tradeoffs",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "618--633",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Zhang:2006:NUL,
author = "Shengyu Zhang",
title = "New upper and lower bounds for randomized and quantum
local search",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "634--643",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dobzinski:2006:TRM,
author = "Shahar Dobzinski and Noam Nisan and Michael Schapira",
title = "Truthful randomized mechanisms for combinatorial
auctions",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "644--652",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fischer:2006:FCW,
author = "Simon Fischer and Harald R{\"a}cke and Berthold
V{\"o}cking",
title = "Fast convergence to {Wardrop} equilibria by adaptive
sampling methods",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "653--662",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Fleischer:2006:SCS,
author = "Lisa Fleischer and Jochen K{\"o}nemann and Stefano
Leonardi and Guido Sch{\"a}fer",
title = "Simple cost sharing schemes for multicommodity
rent-or-buy and stochastic {Steiner} tree",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "663--670",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Barak:2006:SDS,
author = "Boaz Barak and Anup Rao and Ronen Shaltiel and Avi
Wigderson",
title = "$2$-source dispersers for sub-polynomial entropy and
{Ramsey} graphs beating the {Frankl--Wilson}
construction",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "671--680",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Zuckerman:2006:LDE,
author = "David Zuckerman",
title = "Linear degree extractors and the inapproximability of
max clique and chromatic number",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "681--690",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kamp:2006:DES,
author = "Jesse Kamp and Anup Rao and Salil Vadhan and David
Zuckerman",
title = "Deterministic extractors for small-space sources",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "691--700",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Akavia:2006:BOW,
author = "Adi Akavia and Oded Goldreich and Shafi Goldwasser and
Dana Moshkovitz",
title = "On basing one-way functions on {NP}-hardness",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "701--710",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
note = "See erratum \cite{Akavia:2010:EBO}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dubrov:2006:RCE,
author = "Bella Dubrov and Yuval Ishai",
title = "On the randomness complexity of efficient sampling",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "711--720",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Bansal:2006:QPU,
author = "Nikhil Bansal and Amit Chakrabarti and Amir Epstein
and Baruch Schieber",
title = "A quasi-{PTAS} for unsplittable flow on line graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "721--729",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Garg:2006:MAF,
author = "Naveen Garg and Amit Kumar",
title = "Minimizing average flow time on related machines",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "730--738",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Levi:2006:PNO,
author = "Retsef Levi and Robin O. Roundy and David B. Shmoys",
title = "Provably near-optimal sampling-based algorithms for
stochastic inventory control models",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "739--748",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Klein:2006:SSP,
author = "Philip N. Klein",
title = "A subset spanner for planar graphs, with application
to subset {TSP}",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "749--756",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chekuri:2006:EDP,
author = "Chandra Chekuri and Sanjeev Khanna and F. Bruce
Shepherd",
title = "Edge-disjoint paths in planar graphs with constant
congestion",
crossref = "ACM:2006:PTE",
pages = "757--766",
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Thu May 25 06:19:54 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Haitner:2007:SHC,
author = "Iftach Haitner and Omer Reingold",
title = "Statistically-hiding commitment from any one-way
function",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "1--10",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250792",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give a construction of statistically-hiding
commitment schemes (ones where the hiding property
holds information theoretically), based on the minimal
cryptographic assumption that one-way functions exist.
Our construction employs two-phase commitment schemes,
recently constructed by Nguyen, Ong and Vadhan (FOCS
'06), and universal one-way hash functions introduced
and constructed by Naor and Yung (STOC '89) and Rompel
(STOC '90).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "cryptography; one-way functions; statistically hiding
and computationally binding commitment",
}
@InProceedings{Katz:2007:ABB,
author = "Jonathan Katz",
title = "On achieving the 'best of both worlds' in secure
multiparty computation",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "11--20",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250793",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Two settings are typically considered for secure
multiparty computation, depending on whether or not a
majority of the parties are assumed to be honest.
Protocols designed under this assumption provide `full
security' (and, in particular, guarantee output
delivery and fairness) when this assumption is correct;
however, if half or more of the parties are dishonest
then security is completely compromised. On the other
hand, protocols tolerating arbitrarily-many faults do
not provide fairness or guaranteed output delivery even
if only a single party is dishonest. It is natural to
wonder whether it is possible to achieve the `best of
both worlds': namely, a single protocol that
simultaneously achieves the best possible security in
both the above settings. Ishai, et al. (Crypto 2006)
recently addressed this question, and ruled out
constant-round protocols of this type.\par
As our main result, we completely settle the question
by ruling out protocols using any (expected) polynomial
number of rounds. Given this stark negative result, we
then ask what can be achieved if we are willing to
assume simultaneous message transmission (or,
equivalently, a non-rushing adversary). In this
setting, we show that impossibility still holds for
logarithmic-round protocols. We also show, for any
polynomial $p$, a protocol (whose round complexity
depends on $p$ ) that can be simulated to within
closeness {$ O(1 / p) $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "secure computation",
}
@InProceedings{Ishai:2007:ZKS,
author = "Yuval Ishai and Eyal Kushilevitz and Rafail Ostrovsky
and Amit Sahai",
title = "Zero-knowledge from secure multiparty computation",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "21--30",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250794",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a general construction of a zero-knowledge
proof for an NP relation {$ R(x, w) $} which only makes
a black-box use of a secure protocol for a related
multi-party functionality $f$. The latter protocol is
only required to be secure against a small number of
`honest but curious' players. As an application, we can
translate previous results on the efficiency of secure
multiparty computation to the domain of zero-knowledge,
improving over previous constructions of efficient
zero-knowledge proofs. In particular, if verifying
{$R$} on a witness of length $m$ can be done by a
circuit {$C$} of size $s$, and assuming one-way
functions exist, we get the following types of
zero-knowledge proof protocols.\par
\begin{description} \item[Approaching the witness
length.] If {$C$} has constant depth over $ \land $, $
\lor $, $ \oplus $, $ \lnot $ gates of unbounded
fan-in, we get a zero-knowledge protocol with
communication complexity $m$ \cdot$ \poly (k) $ \cdot$
\polylog (s) $, where $k$ is a security parameter. Such
a protocol can be implemented in either the standard
interactive model or, following a trusted setup, in a
non-interactive model.\par
\item[`Constant-rate' zero-knowledge.] For an arbitrary
circuit {$C$} of size $s$ and a bounded fan-in, we get
a zero-knowledge protocol with communication complexity
{$ O(s) + \poly (k) $}. Thus, for large circuits, the
ratio between the communication complexity and the
circuit size approaches a constant. This improves over
the {$ O(k s) $} complexity of the best previous
protocols.\par
\end{description}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "black-box reductions; cryptography; secure
computation; zero-knowledge",
}
@InProceedings{Chan:2007:VDC,
author = "Timothy M. Chan and Mihai P{\u{a}}tra{\c{s}}cu",
title = "{Voronoi} diagrams in $ n \cdot 2^{o(\sqrt {(\lg \lg
n)})} $ time",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "31--39",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250796",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We reexamine fundamental problems from computational
geometry in the allword RAM model, where input
coordinates are integers that fit in a machine word. We
develop a new algorithm for offline point location, a
two-dimensional analog of sorting where one needs to
order points with respect to segments. This result
implies, for example, that the Voronoi diagram of $n$
points in the plane can be constructed in (randomized)
time $n$ \cdot{$ 2^{O(\sqrt {(\lg \lg n)})} $}. Similar
bounds hold for numerous other geometric problems, such
as three-dimensional convex hulls, planar Euclidean
minimum spanning trees, line segment intersection, and
triangulation of non-simple polygons.\par
In FOCS'06, we developed a data structure for online
point location, which implied a bound of {$ O(n \lg n)
/ (\lg \lg n) $} for Voronoi diagrams and the other
problems. Our current bounds are dramatically better,
and a convincing improvement over the classic {$ O(n
\lg n) $} algorithms. As in the field of integer
sorting, the main challenge is to find ways to
manipulate information, while avoiding the online
problem (in that case, predecessor search).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computational geometry; convex hulls; point location;
segment intersection; sorting; word-RAM algorithms",
}
@InProceedings{Patrascu:2007:LBD,
author = "Mihai Patrascu",
title = "Lower bounds for 2-dimensional range counting",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "40--46",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250797",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Proving lower bounds for range queries has been an
active topic of research since the late 70s, but so far
nearly all results have been limited to the (rather
restrictive) semigroup model. We consider one of the
most basic range problem, orthogonal range counting in
two dimensions, and show almost optimal bounds in the
group model and the (holy grail) cell-probe
model.\par
Specifically, we show the following bounds, which were
known in the semigroup model, but are major
improvements in the more general models:* In the group
and cell-probe models, a static data structure of size
{$ n \lg^{O(1)} n $} requires {$ \Omega (\lg n \lg \lg
n) $} time per query. This is an exponential
improvement over previous bounds, and matches known
upper bounds.* In the group model, a dynamic data
structure takes time {$ \Omega ((\lg n \lg \lg n)^2) $}
per operation. This is close to the {$ O(\lg^2 n) $}
upper bound, where as the previous lower bound was {$
\Omega (\lg n) $}.\par
Proving such (static and dynamic) bounds in the group
model has been regarded as an important challenge at
least since [Fredman, JACM 1982] and [Chazelle, FOCS
1986].",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "cell-probe complexity; lower bounds; orthogonal range
queries",
}
@InProceedings{Basu:2007:CCM,
author = "Saugata Basu",
title = "Combinatorial complexity in {$O$}-minimal geometry",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "47--56",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250798",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this paper we prove tight bounds on the
combinatorial and topological complexity of sets dened
in terms of $n$ denable sets belonging to some fixed
denable family of sets in an $o$-minimal structure.
This generalizes the combinatorial parts of similar
bounds known in the case of semi-algebraic and
semi-Pfaffian sets, and as a result vastly increases
the applicability of results on combinatorial and
topological complexity of arrangements studied in
discrete and computational geometry. As a sample
application, we extend a Ramsey-type theorem due to
Alon et al. [3], originally proved for semi-algebraic
sets of fixed description complexity to this more
general setting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$O$-minimal structures; Betti numbers; combinatorial
complexity",
}
@InProceedings{Furer:2007:FIM,
author = "Martin F{\"u}rer",
title = "Faster integer multiplication",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "57--66",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250800",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "For more than 35 years, the fastest known method for
integer multiplication has been the
Sch{\"o}nhage-Strassen algorithm running in time {$ O(n
\log n \log \log n) $}. Under certain restrictive
conditions there is a corresponding {$ \Omega (n \log
n) $} lower bound. The prevailing conjecture has always
been that the complexity of an optimal algorithm is {$
\Theta (n \log n) $}. We present a major step towards
closing the gap from above by presenting an algorithm
running in time {$ n \log n, 2^{O(\log * n)}
$}.\par
The main result is for Boolean circuits as well as for
multitape Turing machines, but it has consequences to
other models of computation as well.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "complexity; computer arithmetic; discrete Fourier
transform; FFT; integer multiplication",
}
@InProceedings{Bjorklund:2007:FMM,
author = "Andreas Bj{\"o}rklund and Thore Husfeldt and Petteri
Kaski and Mikko Koivisto",
title = "{Fourier} meets {M{\"o}bius}: fast subset
convolution",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "67--74",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250801",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a fast algorithm for the subset convolution
problem: given functions $f$ and $g$ defined on the
lattice of subsets of an $n$-element set $n$, compute
their subset convolution $ f * g $, defined for {$ S
\subseteq N $} by {$ [(f * g)(S) = [T \subseteq S] f(T)
g(S / T)] $} where addition and multiplication is
carried out in an arbitrary ring. Via M{\"o}bius
transform and inversion, our algorithm evaluates the
subset convolution in {$ O(n^2 2^n) $} additions and
multiplications, substantially improving upon the
straightforward {$ O(3^n) $} algorithm. Specifically,
if the input functions have an integer range {$ [ - M,
- M + 1, \ldots {}, M] $}, their subset convolution
over the ordinary sum--product ring can be computed in
{$ \tilde {O}(2^n \log M) $} time; the notation {$
\tilde {O} $} suppresses polylogarithmic factors.
Furthermore, using a standard embedding technique we
can compute the subset convolution over the max--sum or
min--sum semiring in {$ \tilde {O}(2^n M) $}
time.\par
To demonstrate the applicability of fast subset
convolution, we present the first {$ \tilde {O}(2^k n^2
+ n m) $} algorithm for the Steiner tree problem in
graphs with $n$ vertices, $k$ terminals, and $m$ edges
with bounded integer weights, improving upon the {$
\tilde {O}(3^k n + 2^k n^2 + n m) $} time bound of the
classical Dreyfus-Wagner algorithm. We also discuss
extensions to recent {$ \tilde {O}(2^n) $}-time
algorithms for covering and partitioning problems
(Bj{\"o}rklund and Husfeldt, FOCS 2006; Koivisto, FOCS
2006).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "convolution; M{\"o}bius transform; Steiner tree",
}
@InProceedings{Nissim:2007:SSS,
author = "Kobbi Nissim and Sofya Raskhodnikova and Adam Smith",
title = "Smooth sensitivity and sampling in private data
analysis",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "75--84",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250803",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We introduce a new, generic framework for private data
analysis. The goal of private data analysis is to
release aggregate information about a data set while
protecting the privacy of the individuals whose
information the data set contains. Our framework allows
one to release functions $f$ of the data with
instance-based additive noise. That is, the noise
magnitude is determined not only by the function we
want to release, but also by the database itself. One
of the challenges is to ensure that the noise magnitude
does not leak information about the database. To
address that, we calibrate the noise magnitude to the
smooth sensitivity of $f$ on the database $x$ --- a
measure of variability of $f$ in the neighborhood of
the instance $x$. The new framework greatly expands the
applicability of output perturbation, a technique for
protecting individuals' privacy by adding a small
amount of random noise to the released statistics. To
our knowledge, this is the first formal analysis of the
effect of instance-based noise in the context of data
privacy.\par
Our framework raises many interesting algorithmic
questions. Namely,to apply the framework one must
compute or approximate the smooth sensitivity of $f$ on
$x$. We show how to do this efficiently for several
different functions, including the median and the cost
of the minimum spanning tree. We also give a generic
procedure based on sampling that allows one to release
$ f(x) $ accurately on many databases $x$. This
procedure is applicable even when no efficient
algorithm for approximating smooth sensitivity of $f$
is known or when $f$ is given as a black box. We
illustrate the procedure by applying it to $k$-SED
($k$-means) clustering and learning mixtures of
Gaussians.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "clustering; output perturbation; privacy preserving
data mining; private data analysis; sensitivity",
}
@InProceedings{Dwork:2007:PPL,
author = "Cynthia Dwork and Frank McSherry and Kunal Talwar",
title = "The price of privacy and the limits of {LP} decoding",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "85--94",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250804",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "This work is at the intersection of two lines of
research. One line, initiated by Dinurand Nissim,
investigates the price, in accuracy, of protecting
privacy in a statistical database. The second, growing
from an extensive literature on compressed sensing (see
in particular the work of Donoho and collaborators
[4,7,13,11])and explicitly connected to
error-correcting codes by Cand{\`e}s and Tao ([4]; see
also [5,3]), is in the use of linear programming for
error correction.\par
Our principal result is the discovery of a sharp
threshold $ \rho $ *$ \angle $ 0.239, so that if $ \rho
$ A is a random $ m \times n $ encoding matrix of
independently chosen standard Gaussians, where {$ m =
O(n) $}, then with overwhelming probability over choice
of {$A$}, for all {$ x \in R^n $}, LP decoding corrects
$ \lfloor \rho m \rfloor $ arbitrary errors in the
encoding {$ A x $}, while decoding can be made to fail
if the error rate exceeds $ \rho * $. Our bound
resolves an open question of Cand{\`e}s, Rudelson, Tao,
and Vershynin [3] and (oddly, but explicably) refutes
empirical conclusions of Donoho [11] and Cand{\`e}s et
al [3]. By scaling and rounding we can easily transform
these results to obtain polynomial-time decodable
random linear codes with polynomial-sized alphabets
tolerating any $ \rho $. \par
In the context of privacy-preserving datamining our
results say that any privacy mechanism, interactive or
non-interactive, providing reasonably accurate answers
to a 0.761 fraction of randomly generated weighted
subset sum queries, and arbitrary answers on the
remaining 0.239 fraction, is blatantly non-private.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "basis pursuit; compressed sensing; LP decoding;
privacy",
}
@InProceedings{Kenyon-Mathieu:2007:HRF,
author = "Claire Kenyon-Mathieu and Warren Schudy",
title = "How to rank with few errors",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "95--103",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250806",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a polynomial time approximation scheme
(PTAS) for the minimum feedback arc set problem on
tournaments. A simple weighted generalization gives a
PTAS for Kemeny-Young rank aggregation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithm; feedback arc set;
Kemeny--Young rank aggregation; max acyclic subgraph;
polynomial-time approximation scheme; tournament
graphs",
}
@InProceedings{Guha:2007:AAB,
author = "Sudipto Guha and Kamesh Munagala",
title = "Approximation algorithms for budgeted learning
problems",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "104--113",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250807",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present the first approximation algorithms for a
large class of budgeted learning problems. One classic
example of the above is the budgeted multi-armed bandit
problem. In this problem each arm of the band it has an
unknown reward distribution on which a prior is
specified as input. The knowledge about the underlying
distribution can be refined in the exploration phase by
playing the arm and observing the rewards. However,
there is a budget on the total number of plays allowed
during exploration. After this exploration phase,the
arm with the highest (posterior) expected reward is
chosen for exploitation. The goal is to design the
adaptive exploration phase subject to a budget
constraint on the number of plays, in order to maximize
the expected reward of the arm chosen for exploitation.
While this problem is reasonably well understood in the
infinite horizon discounted reward setting, the
budgeted version of the problem is NP-Hard. For this
problem and several generalizations, we provide
approximate policies that achieve a reward within
constant factor of the reward optimal policy. Our
algorithms use a novel linear program rounding
technique based on stochastic packing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "algorithms; approximation; learning",
}
@InProceedings{Asadpour:2007:AAM,
author = "Arash Asadpour and Amin Saberi",
title = "An approximation algorithm for max-min fair allocation
of indivisible goods",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "114--121",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250808",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this paper we give the first approximation
algorithm for the problem of max-min fair allocation of
indivisible goods. The approximation ratio of our
algorithm is {$ \Omega (1 / (\sqrt {k} \log^3 k)) $}.
As a part of our algorithm, we design an iterative
method for rounding a fractional matching on a tree
which might be of independent interest.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; game theory; randomized
rounding",
}
@InProceedings{Bayati:2007:SDA,
author = "Mohsen Bayati and David Gamarnik and Dimitriy Katz and
Chandra Nair and Prasad Tetali",
title = "Simple deterministic approximation algorithms for
counting matchings",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "122--127",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250809",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We construct a deterministic fully polynomial time
approximation scheme (FPTAS) for computing the total
number of matchings in a bounded degree graph.
Additionally, for an arbitrary graph, we construct a
deterministic algorithm for computing approximately the
number of matchings within running time {$ \exp
(O(\sqrt {n} \log^2 n)) $}, where $n$ is the number of
vertices.\par
Our approach is based on the correlation decay
technique originating in statistical physics.
Previously this approach was successfully used for
approximately counting the number of independent sets
and colorings in some classes of graphs [1, 24, 6].Thus
we add another problem to the small, but growing, class
of P-complete problems for which there is now a
deterministic FPTAS.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "correlation decay; FPTAS; matching; partition
function",
}
@InProceedings{Mossel:2007:SIS,
author = "Elchanan Mossel and Sebastien Roch",
title = "On the submodularity of influence in social networks",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "128--134",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250811",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We prove and extend a conjecture of Kempe, Kleinberg,
and Tardos (KKT) on the spread of influence in social
networks.\par
A social network can be represented by a directed graph
where the nodes are individuals and the edges indicate
a form of social relationship. A simple way to model
the diffusion of ideas, innovative behavior, or
`word-of-mouth' effects on such a graph is to consider
an increasing process of `infected' (or active) nodes:
each node becomes infected once an activation function
of the set of its infected neighbors crosses a certain
threshold value. Such a model was introduced by KKT in
[7,8] where the authors also impose several natural
assumptions: the threshold values are (uniformly)
random to account for our lack of knowledge of the true
values; and the activation functions are monotone and
submodular, i.e. have `diminishing returns.' The
monotonicity condition indicates that a node is more
likely to become active if more of its neighbors are
active, while the submodularity condition, indicates
that the marginal effect of each neighbor is decreasing
when the set of active neighbors increases.\par
For an initial set of active nodes $s$, let $ \sigma $
(S) denote the expected number of active nodes at
termination. Here we prove a conjecture of KKT: we show
that the function $ \sigma $ (S) is submodular under
the assumptions above. We prove the same result for the
expected value of any monotone, submodular function of
the set of active nodes at termination.\par
In other words, our results demonstrate that `local'
submodularity is preserved `globally' under diffusion
processes. This is of natural computational interest,
as many optimization problems have good approximation
algorithms for submodular functions. In particular, our
results coupled with an argument in [7] imply that a
greedy algorithm gives an $ (1 - 1 / e - \epsilon)
$-approximation algorithm for maximizing $ \sigma $ (S)
among all sets $s$ of a given size. This result has
important practical implications for many social
network analysis problems, notably viral marketing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "coupling; social networks; submodularity; viral
marketing",
}
@InProceedings{Borgs:2007:FME,
author = "Christian Borgs and Jennifer Chayes and Constantinos
Daskalakis and Sebastien Roch",
title = "First to market is not everything: an analysis of
preferential attachment with fitness",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "135--144",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250812",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The design of algorithms on complex networks, such as
routing, ranking or recommendation algorithms, requires
a detailed understanding of the growth characteristics
of the networks of interest, such as the Internet,the
web graph, social networks or online communities. To
this end, preferential attachment, in which the
popularity (or relevance) of a node is determined by
its degree, is a well-known and appealing random graph
model, whose predictions are in accordance with
experiments on the web graph and several social
networks. However, its central assumption, that the
popularity of the nodes depends only on their degree,
is not a realistic one, since every node has
potentially some intrinsic quality which can
differentiate its attractiveness from other nodes with
similar degrees.\par
In this paper, we provide a rigorous analysis of
preferential attachment with fitness, suggested by
Bianconi and Barab{\'a}si and studied by Motwani and
Xu, in which the degree of a vertex is scaled by its
quality to determine its attractiveness. Including
quality considerations in the classical preferential
attachment model provides a much more realistic
description of many complex networks, such as the web
graph, and allows to observe a much richer behavior in
the growth dynamics of these networks. Specifically,
depending on the shape of the distribution from which
the qualities of the vertices are drawn, we observe
three distinct phases, namely a first-mover-advantage
phase, a fit-get-richer phase and an
innovation-pays-off phase. We precisely characterize
the properties of the quality distribution that result
in each of these phases and we compute the exact growth
dynamics for each phase. The dynamics provide rich
information about the quality of the vertices, which
can be very useful in many practical contexts,
including ranking algorithms for the web,
recommendation algorithms, as well as the study of
social networks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Bose--Einstein condensation; LYA urns; P{\'o}
preferential attachment; random graphs",
}
@InProceedings{Andrews:2007:SMW,
author = "Matthew Andrews and Kyomin Jung and Alexander
Stolyar",
title = "Stability of the max-weight routing and scheduling
protocol in dynamic networks and at critical loads",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "145--154",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250813",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study the stability of the max-weight protocol for
combined routing and scheduling in communication
networks. Previous work has shown that this protocol is
stable for adversarial multicommodity traffic in
subcritically loaded static networks and for
single-commodity traffic in critically loaded dynamic
networks. We show: The max-weight protocol is stable
for adversarial multicommodity traffic in adversarial
dynamic networks whenever the network is subcritically
loaded. The max-weight protocol is stable for fixed
multicommodity traffic in fixed networks even if the
network is critically loaded.\par
The latter result has implications for the running time
of the max-weight protocol when it is used to solve
multicommodity flow problems. In particular, for a
fixed problem instance we show that if the value of the
optimum solution is known, the max-weight protocol
finds a flow that is within a (1-$ \epsilon $ )-factor
of optimal in time {$ O(1 / \epsilon) $} (improving the
previous bound of {$ O(1 / \epsilon^2) $}). If the
value of the optimum solution is not known, we show how
to apply the max-weight algorithm in a binary search
procedure that runs in {$ O(1 / \epsilon) $} time.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "routing; scheduling; stability",
}
@InProceedings{Attiya:2007:TBA,
author = "Hagit Attiya and Keren Censor",
title = "Tight bounds for asynchronous randomized consensus",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "155--164",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250814",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A distributed consensus algorithm allows $n$ processes
to reach a common decision value starting from
individual inputs. Wait-free consensus, in which a
process always terminates within a finite number of its
own steps, is impossible in an asynchronous
shared-memory system. However, consensus becomes
solvable using randomization when a process only has to
terminate with probability 1. Randomized consensus
algorithms are typically evaluated by their total step
complexity, which is the expected total number of steps
taken by all processes.\par
This work proves that the total step complexity of
randomized consensus is {$ \Theta (n^2) $} in an
asynchronous shared memory system using multi-writer
multi-reader registers. The bound is achieved by
improving both the lower and the upper bounds for this
problem.\par
In addition to improving upon the best previously known
result by a factor of $ \log^2 n $, the lower bound
features a greatly streamlined proof. Both goals are
achieved through restricting attention to a set of
layered executions and using an isoperimetric
inequality for analyzing their behavior.\par
The matching algorithm decreases the expected total
step complexity by a $ \log n $ factor, by leveraging
the multi-writing capability of the shared registers.
Its correctness proof is facilitated by viewing each
execution of the algorithm as a stochastic process and
applying Kolmogorov's inequality.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "distributed computing; isoperimetric inequality; lower
bound; randomized algorithms; shared-memory",
}
@InProceedings{Chuzhoy:2007:HRC,
author = "Julia Chuzhoy and Venkatesan Guruswami and Sanjeev
Khanna and Kunal Talwar",
title = "Hardness of routing with congestion in directed
graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "165--178",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250816",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Given as input a directed graph on $n$ vertices and a
set of source-destination pairs, we study the problem
of routing the maximum possible number of
source-destination pairs on paths, such that at most {$
c(N) $} paths go through any edge. We show that the
problem is hard to approximate within an {$ N^\Omega (1
/ c(N)) $} factor even when we compare to the optimal
solution that routes pairs on edge-disjoint paths,
assuming NP doesn't have {$ N^{O(\log logN)} $}-time
randomized algorithms. Here the congestion {$ c(N) $}
can be any function in the range {$ 1 \leq c(N) \leq
\alpha \log N / \log \log N $} for some absolute
constant $ \alpha > 0 $. The hardness result is in the
right ballpark since a factor {$ N^{O(1 / c(N))} $}
approximation algorithm is known for this problem, via
rounding a natural multicommodity-flow relaxation. We
also give a simple integrality gap construction that
shows that the multicommodity-flow relaxation has an
integrality gap of {$ N^{\Omega (1 / c)} $} for $c$
ranging from $1$ to {$ \Theta ((\log n) / (\log \log
n)) $}.\par
A solution to the routing problem involves selecting
which pairs to be routed and what paths to assign to
each routed pair. Two natural restrictions can be
placed on input instances to eliminate one of these
aspects of the problem complexity. The first
restriction is to consider instances with perfect
completeness; an optimal solution is able to route all
pairs with congestion 1 in such instances. The second
restriction to consider is the unique paths property
where each source-destination pair has a unique path
connecting it in the instance. An important aspect of
our result is that it holds on instances with any one
of these two restrictions. Our hardness construction
with the perfect completeness restriction allows us to
conclude that the directed congestion minimization
problem, where the goal is to route all pairs with
minimum congestion, is hard to approximate to within a
factor of {$ \Omega (\log N / \log \log N) $}. On the
other hand, the hardness construction with unique paths
property allows us to conclude an {$ N^{\Omega (1 / c)}
$} inapproximability bound also for the all-or-nothing
flow problem. This is in a sharp contrast to the
undirected setting where the all-or-nothing flow
problem is known to be approximable to within a
poly-logarithmic factor.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "all-or-nothing flow; congestion minimization;
edge-disjoint paths; hardness of approximation;
integrality gap; multicommodity flow",
}
@InProceedings{Chuzhoy:2007:PFC,
author = "Julia Chuzhoy and Sanjeev Khanna",
title = "Polynomial flow-cut gaps and hardness of directed cut
problems",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "179--188",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250817",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study the multicut and the sparsest cut problems in
directed graphs. In the multicut problem, we are a
given an $n$-vertex graph {$G$} along with $k$
source-sink pairs, and the goal is to find the minimum
cardinality subset of edges whose removal separates all
source-sink pairs. The sparsest cut problem has the
same input, but the goal is to find a subset of edges
to delete so as to minimize the ratio of deleted edges
to the number of source-sink pairs that are separated
by this deletion. The natural linear programming
relaxation for multicut corresponds, by LP-duality, to
the well-studied maximum (fractional) multicommodity
flow problem, while the natural LP-relaxation for
sparsest cut corresponds to maximum concurrent flow.
Therefore, the integrality gap of the linear
programming relaxation for multicut/sparsest cut is
also the flow-cut gap: the maximum ratio, achievable
for any graph,between the maximum flow value and the
minimum cost solution for the corresponding cut
problem. Starting with the celebrated max flow-mincut
theorem of Ford and Fulkerson, flow-cut gaps have
played a central role in combinatorial optimization.
For many NP-hard network optimization problems, the
best known approximation guarantee corresponds to our
understanding of the appropriate flow-cut gap.\par
Our first result is that the flow-cut gap between
maximum multicommodity flow and minimum multicut is ~{$
\Omega $} (n$^{1 / 7}$ ) in directed graphs. We show a
similar result for the gap between maximum concurrent
flow and sparsest cut in directed graphs. These results
improve upon a long-standing lower bound of {$ \Omega
(\log n) $} for both types of flow-cut gaps. We notice
that these polynomially large flow-cut gaps are in a
sharp contrast to the undirected setting where both
these flow-cut gaps are known to be {$ \Theta (\log n)
$}. Our second result is that both directed multicut
and sparsest cut are hard to approximate to within a
factor of {$ 2^{\Omega (log{1 - \epsilon }n)} $} for
any constant $ \epsilon > 0 $, unless NP $ \subseteq $
ZPP. This improves upon the recent {$ \Omega (\log n /
\log \log n) $}-hardness result for these problems. We
also show that existence of PCP's for NP with perfect
completeness, polynomially small soundness, and
constant number of queries would imply a polynomial
factor hardness of approximation for both these
problems. All our results hold for directed acyclic
graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "concurrent flow; directed multicut; directed sparsest
cut; flow-cut gaps; hardness of approximation;
multicommodity flow",
}
@InProceedings{Austrin:2007:BMS,
author = "Per Austrin",
title = "Balanced {MAX 2-SAT} might not be the hardest",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "189--197",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250818",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We show that, assuming the Unique Games Conjecture, it
is NP-hard to approximate MAX2SAT within {$
\alpha_{LLZ}^- $} +$ \epsilon $, where {$ 0.9401 <
\alpha_{\rm LLZ} < 0.9402 $} is the believed
approximation ratio of the algorithm of Lewin, Livnat
and Zwick [28].\par
This result is surprising considering the fact that
balanced instances of MAX2SAT, i.e., instances where
each variable occurs positively and negatively equally
often, can be approximated within 0.9439. In
particular, instances in which roughly 68\% of the
literals are unnegated variables and 32\% are negated
appear less amenable to approximation than instances
where the ratio is 50\%--50\%.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "inapproximability; Max 2-Sat; unique games
conjecture",
}
@InProceedings{Guruswami:2007:QPI,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami and Prasad Raghavendra",
title = "A 3-query {PCP} over integers",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "198--206",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250819",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A classic result due to Haastad established that for
every constant $ \epsilon $ > 0, given an
overdetermined system of linear equations over a finite
field {$ F_q $} where each equation depends on exactly
3 variables and at least a fraction $ (1 - \epsilon) $
of the equations can be satisfied, it is NP-hard to
satisfy even a fraction $ (1 / q + \epsilon) $ of the
equations.\par
In this work, we prove the analog of H{\aa}stad's
result for equations over the integers (as well as the
reals). Formally, we prove that for every $ \epsilon $,
$ \delta > 0 $, given a system of linear equations with
integer coefficients where each equation is on 3
variables, it is NP-hard to distinguish between the
following two cases: (i) There is an assignment of
integer values to the variables that satisfies at least
a fraction $ (1 - \epsilon) $ of the equations, and
(ii) No assignment even of real values to the variables
satisfies more than a fraction $ \delta $ of the
equations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "hardness of approximation; linearity testing;
probabilistically checkable proofs; sparse linear
equations",
}
@InProceedings{Dunagan:2007:ICP,
author = "John Dunagan and Nicholas J. A. Harvey",
title = "Iteratively constructing preconditioners via the
conjugate gradient method",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "207--216",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250821",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider the problem of solving a symmetric,
positive definite system of linear equations. The most
well-known and widely-used method for solving such
systems is the preconditioned Conjugate Gradient
method. The performance of this method depends
crucially on knowing a good preconditioner matrix. We
show that the Conjugate Gradient method itself can
produce good preconditioners as a by-product. These
preconditioners allow us to derive new asymptotic
bounds on the time to solve multiple related linear
systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "conjugate gradient method; preconditioning",
}
@InProceedings{Kiefer:2007:CNM,
author = "Stefan Kiefer and Michael Luttenberger and Javier
Esparza",
title = "On the convergence of {Newton}'s method for monotone
systems of polynomial equations",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "217--226",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250822",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Monotone systems of polynomial equations (MSPEs) are
systems of fixed-point equations {$ X_1 = f_1 (X_1,
\ldots {}, X_n), \ldots {}, X_n = f_n (X_1, \ldots {},
X_n) $} where each $ f_i $ is a polynomial with
positive real coefficients. The question of computing
the least non-negative solution of a given MSPE {$ X =
f(X) $} arises naturally in the analysis of stochastic
context-free grammars, recursive Markov chains, and
probabilistic pushdown automata. While the Kleene
sequence $ f(0), f(f(0)), \ldots {} $ always converges
to the least solution $ \mu f $, if it exists, the
number of iterations needed to compute the first $i$
bits of $ \mu f $ may grow exponentially in $i$.
Etessami and Yannakakis have recently adapted Newton's
iterative method to MSPEs and proved that the Newton
sequence converges at least as fast as the Kleene
sequence and exponentially faster in many cases. They
conjecture that, given an MSPE of size $m$, the number
of Newton iterations needed to obtain $i$ accurate bits
of $ \mu f $ grows polynomially in $i$ and $m$. In this
paper we show that the number of iterations grows
linearly in $i$ for strongly connected MSPEs and may
grow exponentially in $m$ for general MSPEs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "fixed-point equations; formal verification of
software; Newton's method; probabilistic pushdown
systems",
}
@InProceedings{Arora:2007:CPD,
author = "Sanjeev Arora and Satyen Kale",
title = "A combinatorial, primal-dual approach to semidefinite
programs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "227--236",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250823",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Semidefinite programs (SDP) have been used in many
recent approximation algorithms. We develop a general
primal-dual approach to solve SDPs using a
generalization of the well-known multiplicative weights
update rule to symmetric matrices. For a number of
problems, such as Sparsest Cut and Balanced Separator
in undirected and directed weighted graphs, and the Min
UnCut problem, this yields combinatorial approximation
algorithms that are significantly more efficient than
interior-point methods. The design of our primal-dual
algorithms is guided by a robust analysis of rounding
algorithms used to obtain integer solutions from
fractional ones.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "balanced separator; matrix multiplicative weights; min
UnCut; semidefinite programming; sparsest cut",
}
@InProceedings{Gilbert:2007:OSA,
author = "A. C. Gilbert and M. J. Strauss and J. A. Tropp and R.
Vershynin",
title = "One sketch for all: fast algorithms for compressed
sensing",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "237--246",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250824",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Compressed Sensing is a new paradigm for acquiring the
compressible signals that arise in many applications.
These signals can be approximated using an amount of
information much smaller than the nominal dimension of
the signal. Traditional approaches acquire the entire
signal and process it to extract the information. The
new approach acquires a small number of nonadaptive
linear measurements of the signal and uses
sophisticated algorithms to determine its information
content. Emerging technologies can compute these
general linear measurements of a signal at unit cost
per measurement.\par
This paper exhibits a randomized measurement ensemble
and a signal reconstruction algorithm that satisfy four
requirements: 1. The measurement ensemble succeeds for
all signals, with high probability over the random
choices in its construction. 2. The number of
measurements of the signal is optimal, except for a
factor polylogarithmic in the signal length. 3. The
running time of the algorithm is polynomial in the
amount of information in the signal and polylogarithmic
in the signal length. 4. The recovery algorithm offers
the strongest possible type of error guarantee.
Moreover, it is a fully polynomial approximation scheme
with respect to this type of error bound.\par
Emerging applications demand this level of performance.
Yet no other algorithm in the literature simultaneously
achieves all four of these desiderata.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation; embedding; group testing; sketching;
sparse approximation; sublinear algorithms",
}
@InProceedings{Lynch:2007:DCT,
author = "Nancy A. Lynch",
title = "Distributed computing theory: algorithms,
impossibility results, models, and proofs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "247--247",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250826",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "distributed computing theory",
}
@InProceedings{Vu:2007:CNR,
author = "Van H. Vu and Terence Tao",
title = "The condition number of a randomly perturbed matrix",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "248--255",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250828",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Let {$M$} be an arbitrary $n$ by $n$ matrix. We study
the condition number a random perturbation {$ M + N_n
$} of {$M$}, where {$ N_n $} is a random matrix. It is
shown that, under very general conditions on {$M$} and
{$ M_n $}, the condition number of {$ M + N_n $} is
polynomial in $n$ with very high probability. The main
novelty here is that we allow {$ N_n $} to have
discrete distribution.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "singular values",
}
@InProceedings{Talwar:2007:BAW,
author = "Kunal Talwar and Udi Wieder",
title = "Balanced allocations: the weighted case",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "256--265",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250829",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We investigate balls-and-bins processes where $m$
weighted balls a replaced into $n$ bins using the
`power of two choices' paradigm,whereby a ball is
inserted into the less loaded of two randomly chosen
bins. The case where each of the $m$ balls has unit
weight had been studied extensively. In a seminal paper
Azar et.al. showed that when $ m = n $ the most loaded
bin has {$ \Theta (\log \log n) $} balls with high
probability. Surprisingly, the gap in load between the
heaviest bin and the average bin does not increase with
$m$ and was shown by Berenbrink et al to be {$ \Theta
(\log \log n) $} with high probability for arbitrarily
large $m$. We generalize this result to the weighted
case where balls have weights drawn from an arbitrary
weight distribution. We show that as long as the weight
distribution has finite second moment and satisfies a
mild technical condition, the gap between the weight of
the heaviest bin and the weight of the average bin is
independent of the number balls thrown. This is
especially striking when considering heavy tailed
distributions such as Power-Law and Log-Normal
distributions. In these cases, as more balls are
thrown,heavier and heavier weights are encountered.
Nevertheless with high probability, the imbalance in
the load distribution does not increase. Furthermore,
if the fourth moment of the weight distribution is
finite, the expected value of the gap is shown to be
independent of the number of balls.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "balls and bins; the multiple choice paradigm",
}
@InProceedings{Yekhanin:2007:TQL,
author = "Sergey Yekhanin",
title = "Towards 3-query locally decodable codes of
subexponential length",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "266--274",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250830",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A q-query Locally Decodable Code (LDC) encodes an
$n$-bit message $x$ as an $n$-bit codeword {$ C(x) $},
such that one can probabilistically recover any bit $
x_i $ of the message by querying only $q$ bits of the
codeword {$ C(x) $}, even after some constant fraction
of codeword bits has been corrupted. We give new
constructions of three query LDCs of vastly shorter
length than that of previous constructions.
Specifically, given any Mersenne prime $ p = 2^t - 1 $,
we design three query LDCs of length {$ N = (n^{1 / t})
$}, for every $n$. Based on the largest known Mersenne
prime, this translates to a length of less than $ \exp
(n^{10^{-7}}) $, compared to $ \exp (n^{1 / 2}) $ in
the previous constructions. It has often been
conjectured that there are infinitely many Mersenne
primes. Under this conjecture, our constructions yield
three query locally decodable codes of length {$ N =
\exp (n^{O(1 / (\log \log n))}) $} for infinitely many
$n$.\par
We also obtain analogous improvements for Private
Information Retrieval (PIR) schemes. We give 3-server
PIR schemes with communication complexity of {$
O(n^{10^{-7}}) $} to access an $n$-bit database,
compared to the previous best scheme with complexity {$
O(n^{1 / 5.25}) $}. Assuming again that there are
infinitely many Mersenne primes, we get 3-server PIR
schemes of communication complexity {$ n^{O(1 / (\log
\log n))} $} for infinitely many $n$.\par
Previous families of LDCs and PIR schemes were based on
the properties of low-degree multivariate polynomials
over finite fields. Our constructions are completely
different and are obtained by constructing a large
number of vectors in a small dimensional vector space
whose inner products are restricted to lie in an
algebraically nice set.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "locally decodable codes; Mersenne primes; private
information retrieval",
}
@InProceedings{Santhanam:2007:CLB,
author = "Rahul Santhanam",
title = "Circuit lower bounds for {Merlin--Arthur} classes",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "275--283",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250832",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "advice; average-case lower bounds; circuit lower
bounds; Merlin--Arthur games; pseudo-random
generators",
}
@InProceedings{Shpilka:2007:IDA,
author = "Amir Shpilka",
title = "Interpolation of depth-3 arithmetic circuits with two
multiplication gates",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "284--293",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250833",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetic circuits; depth-3; exact learning;
interpolation",
}
@InProceedings{Sherstov:2007:SAD,
author = "Alexander A. Sherstov",
title = "Separating {AC$^0$} from depth-2 majority circuits",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "294--301",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250834",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We prove that AC$^0$ cannot be efficiently simulated
by MAJ${}^\circ $MAJ circuits. Namely, we construct an
AC$^0$ circuit of depth 3 that requires MAJ${}^\circ
$MAJ circuits of size {$ 2^\Omega (n^{1 / 5}) $}. This
matches Allender's classic result that AC$^0$ can be
simulated by MAJ${}^\circ $MAJ${}^\circ $MAJ circuits
of quasipolynomial size.\par
Our proof is based on communication complexity. To
obtain the above result, we develop a novel technique
for communication lower bounds, the Degree/Discrepancy
Theorem. This technique is a separate contribution of
our paper. It translates lower bounds on the threshold
degree of a Boolean function into upper bounds on the
discrepancy of a related function. Upper bounds on the
discrepancy, in turn, immediately imply communication
lower bounds as well as lower bounds against threshold
circuits.\par
As part of our proof, we use the Degree/Discrepancy
Theorem to obtain an explicit AC$^0$ circuit of depth 3
that has discrepancy {$ 2^{- \Omega (n^{1 / 5})} $},
under an explicit distribution. This yields the first
known AC$^0$ function with exponentially small
discrepancy. Finally, we apply our work to learning
theory, showing that polynomial-size DNF and CNF
formulas have margin complexity {$ 2^{\Omega (n^{1 /
5})} $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "AC$^0$; communication complexity; discrepancy;
threshold circuits",
}
@InProceedings{Schoenebeck:2007:TIG,
author = "Grant Schoenebeck and Luca Trevisan and Madhur
Tulsiani",
title = "Tight integrality gaps for {Lov{\'a}sz--Schrijver}
{LP} relaxations of vertex cover and max cut",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "302--310",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250836",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study linear programming relaxations of Vertex
Cover and Max Cut arising from repeated applications of
the `lift-and-project' method of Lov{\'a}sz and
Schrijver starting from the standard linear programming
relaxation.\par
For Vertex Cover, Arora, Bollobas, Lov{\'a}sz and
Tourlakis prove that the integrality gap remains at
least $ 2 - \epsilon $ after {$ \Omega_{\epsilon }
(\log n) $} rounds, where $n$ is the number of
vertices, and Tourlakis proves that integrality gap
remains at least $ 1.5 - \epsilon $ after {$ \Omega
((\log n)^2) $} rounds. Fernandez de la Vega and Kenyon
prove that the integrality gap of Max Cut is at most $
12 + \epsilon $ after any constant number of rounds.
(Their result also applies to the more powerful
Sherali--Adams method.)\par
We prove that the integrality gap of Vertex Cover
remains at least $ 2 - \epsilon $ after {$
\Omega_{\epsilon }(n) $} rounds, and that the
integrality gap of Max Cut remains at most $ 1 / 2 +
\epsilon $ after {$ \Omega_{\epsilon }(n) $} rounds.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; integrality gap; linear
programming; Lov{\'a}sz--Schrijver hierarchy",
}
@InProceedings{Dantchev:2007:RCG,
author = "Stefan S. Dantchev",
title = "Rank complexity gap for {Lov{\'a}sz--Schrijver} and
Sherali--Adams proof systems",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "311--317",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250837",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We prove a dichotomy theorem for the rank of the
uniformly generated (i.e. expressible in First-Order
(FO) Logic) propositional tautologies in both the
Lov{\'a}sz--Schrijver (LS) and Sherali--Adams (SA)
proof systems. More precisely, we first show that the
propositional translations of FO formulae that are
universally true, i.e. hold in all finite and infinite
models, have LS proofs whose rank is constant,
independently from the size of the (finite) universe.
In contrast to that, we prove that the propositional
formulae that hold in all finite models but fail in
some infinite structure require proofs whose SA rank
grows poly-logarithmically with the size of the
universe.\par
Up to now, this kind of so-called `Complexity Gap'
theorems have been known for Tree-like Resolution and,
in somehow restricted forms, for the Resolution and
Nullstellensatz proof systems. As far as we are aware,
this is the first time the Sherali--Adams
lift-and-project method has been considered as a
propositional proof system. An interesting feature of
the SA proof system is that it is static and
rank-preserving simulates LS, the Lov{\'a}sz--Schrijver
proof system without semidefinite cuts.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "complexity gap theorems; lift and project methods;
Lov{\'a}sz--Schrijver proof system; lower bounds;
propositional proof complexity",
}
@InProceedings{Pagh:2007:LPC,
author = "Anna Pagh and Rasmus Pagh and Milan Ruzic",
title = "Linear probing with constant independence",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "318--327",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250839",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Hashing with linear probing dates back to the 1950s,
and is among the most studied algorithms. In recent
years it has become one of the most important hash
table organizations since it uses the cache of modern
computers very well. Unfortunately, previous analyses
rely either on complicated and space consuming hash
functions, or on the unrealistic assumption of free
access to a truly random hash function. Already Carter
and Wegman, in their seminal paper on universal
hashing, raised the question of extending their
analysis to linear probing.\par
However, we show in this paper that linear probing
using a pairwise independent family may have expected
logarithmic cost per operation. On the positive side,
we show that 5-wise independence is enough to ensure
constant expected time per operation. This resolves the
question of finding a space and time efficient hash
function that provably ensures good performance for
linear probing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "hashing; linear probing",
}
@InProceedings{Franceschini:2007:OSS,
author = "Gianni Franceschini and S. Muthukrishnan",
title = "Optimal suffix selection",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "328--337",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250840",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Given a string {$ S[1 \cdots n] $}, the suffix
selection problem is to find the $k$-th
lexicographically smallest amongst the $n$ suffixes {$
S[i \cdots n] $}, for $ i = 1, \ldots {}, n $. In
particular, the fundamental question is if selection
can be performed more efficiently than sorting all the
suffixes.\par
If one considered $n$ numbers, they can be sorted using
{$ \Theta (n \log n) $} comparisons and the classical
result from 70's is that selection can be done using {$
O(n) $} comparisons. Thus selection is provably more
efficient than sorting, for $n$ numbers.\par
Suffix sorting can be done using {$ \Theta (n \log n)
$} comparisons, but does suffix selection need suffix
sorting? We settle this fundamental problem by
presenting an optimal, deterministic algorithm for
suffix selection using {$ O(n) $} comparisons.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "order statistics; selection; strings; suffixes",
}
@InProceedings{Dobzinski:2007:LVB,
author = "Shahar Dobzinski and Noam Nisan",
title = "Limitations of {VCG}-based mechanisms",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "338--344",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250842",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider computationally-efficient
incentive-compatible mechanisms that use the VCG
payment scheme, and study how well they can approximate
the social welfare in auction settings. We present a
novel technique for setting lower bounds on the
approximation ratio of this type of mechanisms.
Specifically, for combinatorial auctions among
submodular (and thus also subadditive) bidders we prove
an {$ \Omega (m^{1 / 6}) $} lower bound, which is close
to the known upper bound of {$ O(m^{1 / 2}) $}, and
qualitatively higher than the constant factor
approximation possible from a purely computational
point of view.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "combinatorial auctions; incentive compatibility",
}
@InProceedings{Hart:2007:CCU,
author = "Sergiu Hart and Yishay Mansour",
title = "The communication complexity of uncoupled {Nash}
equilibrium procedures",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "345--353",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250843",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study the question of how long it takes players to
reach a Nash equilibrium in uncoupled setups, where
each player initially knows only his own payoff
function. We derive lower bounds on the communication
complexity of reaching a Nash equilibrium, i.e., on the
number of bits that need to be transmitted, and thus
also on the required number of steps. Specifically, we
show lower bounds that are exponential in the number of
players in each one of the following cases: (1)
reaching a pure Nash equilibrium; (2) reaching a pure
Nash equilibrium in a Bayesian setting; and (3)
reaching a mixed Nash equilibrium. We then show that,
in contrast, the communication complexity of reaching a
correlated equilibrium is polynomial in the number of
players.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; computational game theory",
}
@InProceedings{Wu:2007:PRD,
author = "Fang Wu and Li Zhang",
title = "Proportional response dynamics leads to market
equilibrium",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "354--363",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250844",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "One of the main reasons of the recent success of peer
to peer (P2P)file sharing systems such as BitTorrent is
their built-in tit-for-tat mechanism. In this paper, we
model the bandwidth allocation in a P2P system as an
exchange economy and study a tit-for-tat dynamics,
namely the proportional response dynamics, in this
economy. In a proportional response dynamics each
player distributes its good to its neighbors
proportional to the utility it received from them in
the last period. We show that this dynamics not only
converges but converges to a market equilibrium, a
standard economic characterization of efficient
exchanges in a competitive market. In addition, for
some classes of utility functions we consider, it
converges much faster than the classical tat process
and any existing algorithms for computing market
equilibria.\par
As a part of our proof we study the double
normalization of a matrix, an operation that linearly
scales the rows of a matrix so that each row sums to a
prescribed positive number, followed by a similar
scaling of the columns. We show that the iterative
double normalization process of any non-negative matrix
always converges. This complements the previous studies
in matrix scaling that has focused on the convergence
condition of the process when the row and column
normalizations are considered as separate steps.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "matrix equilibrium; matrix scaling; peer to peer
sharing; proportional response dynamics",
}
@InProceedings{Jain:2007:EGM,
author = "Kamal Jain and Vijay V. Vazirani",
title = "{Eisenberg--Gale} markets: algorithms and structural
properties",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "364--373",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250845",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We define a new class of markets, the Eisenberg--Gale
markets. This class contains Fisher's linear market,
markets from the resource allocation framework of
Kelly, as well as numerous interesting new markets. We
obtain combinatorial, strongly polynomial algorithms
for several markets in this class.\par
Our algorithms have a simple description as ascending
price auctions. Our algorithms lead to insights into
the efficiency, fairness, rationality of solutions, and
competition monotonicity of these markets. A
classification of Eisenberg--Gale markets w.r.t. these
properties reveals a surprisingly rich set of
possibilities.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "convex programs; equilibria; KKT conditions; markets;
primal-dual algorithms; resource allocation",
}
@InProceedings{Heggernes:2007:ICF,
author = "Pinar Heggernes and Christophe Paul and Jan Arne Telle
and Yngve Villanger",
title = "Interval completion with few edges",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "374--381",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250847",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present an algorithm with runtime {$ O(k^{(2k)} n^3
* m) $} for the following NP-complete problem: Given an
arbitrary graph {$G$} on $n$ vertices and $m$ edges,
can we obtain an interval graph by adding at most $k$
new edges to {$G$}? This resolves the long-standing
open question, first posed by Kaplan, Shamir and
Tarjan, of whether this problem could be solved in time
{$ f(k) * n^{O(1)} $}. The problem has applications in
Physical Mapping of DNA and in Profile Minimization for
Sparse Matrix Computations. For the first application,
our results show tractability for the case of a small
number $k$ of false negative errors, and for the
second, a small number $k$ of zero elements in the
envelope.\par
Our algorithm performs bounded search among possible
ways of adding edges to a graph to obtain an interval
graph, and combines this with a greedy algorithm when
graphs of a certain structure are reached by the
search. The presented result is surprising, as it was
not believed that a bounded search tree algorithm would
suffice to answer the open question affirmatively.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "branching; edge completion; FPT algorithm; interval
graphs; physical mapping; profile minimization",
}
@InProceedings{Kawarabayashi:2007:CCN,
author = "Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi and Buce Reed",
title = "Computing crossing number in linear time",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "382--390",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250848",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We show that for every fixed $k$, there is a linear
time algorithm that decides whether or not a given
graph has crossing number at most $k$, and if this is
the case, computes a drawing of the graph in the plane
with at most $k$ crossings. This answers the question
posed by Grohe (STOC'01 and JCSS 2004). Our algorithm
can be viewed as a generalization of the seminal result
by Hopcroft and Tarjan lin1, which determines if a
given graph is planar in linear time.\par
Our algorithm can also be compared to the algorithms by
Mohar (STOC'96 and Siam J. Discrete Math 2001), for
testing the embeddability of an input graph in a fixed
surface. For each surface $s$, Mohar describes an
algorithm which yields either an embedding of {$G$} in
$s$ or a minor of {$G$} which is not embeddable in $s$
and is minimal with this property.\par
The same approach allows us to obtain linear time
algorithms for the same question for a variety of other
crossing numbers. We can also determine in linear time
if an input graph can be made planar by the deletion of
$k$ edges (for fixed $k$ ).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "crossing number; linear time algorithm; tree-width",
}
@InProceedings{Anshelevich:2007:TBM,
author = "Elliot Anshelevich and Adriana Karagiozova",
title = "Terminal backup, {$3$D} matching, and covering cubic
graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "391--400",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250849",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We define a problem called Simplex Matching, and show
that it is solvable in polynomial time. While Simplex
Matching is interesting in its own right as a
nontrivial extension of non-bipartite min-cost
matching, its main value lies in many(seemingly very
different) problems that can be solved using our
algorithm. For example, suppose that we are given a
graph with terminal nodes, non-terminal nodes, and edge
costs. Then, the Terminal Backup problem, which
consists of finding the cheapest forest connecting
every terminal to at least one other terminal, is
reducible to Simplex Matching. Simplex Matching is also
useful for various tasks that involve forming groups of
at least two members, such as project assignment and
variants of facility location.\par
In an instance of Simplex Matching, we are given a
hypergraph {$H$} with edge costs, and edge size at most
3. We show how to find the min-cost perfect matching of
{$H$} efficiently, if the edge costs obey a simple and
realistic inequality that we call the SimplexCondition.
The algorithm we provide is relatively simple to
understand and implement, but difficult to prove
correct. In the process of this proof we show some
powerful new results about covering cubic graphs with
simple combinatorial objects.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "polynomial time; simplex matching; terminal backup",
}
@InProceedings{Cai:2007:HAA,
author = "Jin-Yi Cai and Pinyan Lu",
title = "Holographic algorithms: from art to science",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "401--410",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250850",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We develop the theory of holographic algorithms. We
define a basis manifold and give characterizations of
algebraic varieties of realizable symmetric generators
and recognizers on this manifold. We present a
polynomial time decision algorithm for the simultaneous
realizability problem. Using the general machinery we
are able to give unexpected holographic algorithms for
some counting problems, modulo certain Mersenne type
integers. These counting problems are P-complete
without the moduli. Going beyond symmetric signatures,
we define $d$-admissibility and $d$-realizability for
general signatures, and give a characterization of
$2$-admissibility.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "holographic algorithms; matchgates; signatures",
}
@InProceedings{Holenstein:2007:PRS,
author = "Thomas Holenstein",
title = "Parallel repetition: simplifications and the
no-signaling case",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "411--419",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250852",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Consider a game where a refereed chooses $ (x, y) $
according to a publicly-known distribution {$ P_X Y $},
sends $x$ to Alice, and $y$ to Bob. Without
communicating with each other, Alice responds with a
value `$a$' and Bob responds with a value `$b$'. Alice
and Bob jointly win if a publicly-known predicate {$
Q(x, y, a, b) $} holds. Let such a game be given and
assume that the maximum probability that Alice and Bob
can win is $ v < 1 $. Raz (SIAM J. Comput. 27, 1998)
shows that if the game is repeated $n$ times in
parallel, then the probability that Alice and Bob win
all games simultaneously is at most $ v'^{(n / \log
(s))} $, where $s$ is the maximal number of possible
responses from Alice and Bob in the initial game, and $
v' $ is a constant depending only on $v$. In this work,
we simplify Raz's proof in various ways and thus
shorten it significantly. Further we study the case
where Alice and Bob are not restricted to local
computations and can use any strategy which does not
imply communication among them.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "parallel repetition; probabilistically checkable
proofs",
}
@InProceedings{Pass:2007:EPR,
author = "Rafael Pass and Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam",
title = "An efficient parallel repetition theorem for
{Arthur--Merlin} games",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "420--429",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250853",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We show a parallel-repetition theorem for
constant-round Arthur--Merlin Games, using an efficient
reduction. As a consequence, we show that parallel
repetition reduces the soundness-error at an optimal
rate (up to a negligible factor) in constant-round
public-coin argument systems, and constant-round
public-coinproofs of knowledge. The former of these
results resolves an open question posed by Bellare,
Impagliazzo and Naor (FOCS '97).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Arthur--Merlin games; computationally-sound arguments;
parallel repetition; proofs of knowledge; public-coin
protocols",
}
@InProceedings{Shaltiel:2007:LEU,
author = "Ronen Shaltiel and Christopher Umans",
title = "Low-end uniform hardness vs. randomness tradeoffs for
{AM}",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "430--439",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250854",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In 1998, Impagliazzo and Wigderson [18] proved a
hardness vs. randomness tradeoff for BPP in the uniform
setting,which was subsequently extended to give optimal
tradeoffs for the full range of possible hardness
assumptions by Trevisan and Vadhan [29] (in a slightly
weaker setting). In 2003, Gutfreund,Shaltiel and
Ta-Shma [11] proved a uniform hardness vs. randomness
tradeoff for AM, but that result only worked on the
`high-end' of possible hardness assumptions.\par
In this work, we give uniform hardness vs. randomness
tradeoffs for AM that are near-optimal for the full
range of possible hardness assumptions. Following [11],
we do this by constructing a hitting-set-generator
(HSG) for AM with `resilient reconstruction.' Our
construction is a recursive variant of the
Miltersen-Vinodchandran HSG [24], the only known HSG
construction with this required property. The main new
idea is to have the reconstruction procedure operate
implicitly and locally on superpolynomially large
objects, using tools from PCPs(low-degree testing,
self-correction) together with a novel use of
extractors that are built from Reed--Muller codes [28,
26] for a sort of locally-computable error-reduction.
As a consequence we obtain gap theorems for AM (and AM
$ \cap $ coAM) that state, roughly, that either AM (or
AM $ \cap $ coAM)protocols running in time t(n) can
simulate all of EXP('Arthur--Merlin games are
powerful'), or else all of AM (or AM $ \cap $ coAM) can
be simulated in nondeterministic time s(n)
('Arthur--Merlin games can be derandomized'), for a
near-optimal relationship between t(n) and s(n). As in
GST, the case of AM $ \cap $ coAM yields a particularly
clean theorem that is of special interest due to the
wide array of cryptographic and other problems that lie
in this class.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Arthur--Merlin games; derandomization; hardness vs.
randomness tradeoff; hitting-set generator",
}
@InProceedings{Goldwasser:2007:VDC,
author = "Shafi Goldwasser and Dan Gutfreund and Alexander Healy
and Tali Kaufman and Guy N. Rothblum",
title = "Verifying and decoding in constant depth",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "440--449",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250855",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We develop a general approach for improving the
efficiency of a computationally bounded receiver
interacting with a powerful and possibly malicious
sender. The key idea we use is that of delegating some
of the receiver's computation to the (potentially
malicious) sender. This idea was recently introduced by
Goldwasser et al. [14] in the area of program checking.
A classic example of such a sender-receiver setting is
interactive proof systems. By taking the sender to be a
(potentially malicious) prover and the receiver to be a
verifier, we show that ($p$-prover) interactive proofs
with $k$ rounds of interaction are equivalent to
($p$-prover) interactive proofs with k+O(1) rounds,
where the verifier is in NC$^0$. That is, each round of
the verifier's computation can be implemented in
constant parallel time. As a corollary, we obtain
interactive proof systems, with (optimally) constant
soundness, for languages in AM and NEXP, where the
verifier runs in constant parallel-time.\par
Another, less immediate sender-receiver setting arises
in considering error correcting codes. By taking the
sender to be a (potentially corrupted) codeword and the
receiver to be a decoder, we obtain explicit families
of codes that are locally (list-)decodable by
constant-depth circuits of size polylogarithmic in the
length of the codeword. Using the tight connection
between locally list-decodable codes and average-case
complexity, we obtain a new, more efficient, worst-case
to average-case reduction for languages in EXP.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "constant-depth circuits; error-correcting codes;
interactive proofs",
}
@InProceedings{Hayes:2007:RCP,
author = "Thomas P. Hayes and Juan C. Vera and Eric Vigoda",
title = "Randomly coloring planar graphs with fewer colors than
the maximum degree",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "450--458",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250857",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study Markov chains for randomly sampling
$k$-colorings of a graph with maximum degree $ \delta
$. Our main result is a polynomial upper bound on the
mixing time of the single-site update chain known as
the Glauber dynamics for planar graphs when {$ k =
\Omega (\delta / \log \delta) $}. Our results can be
partially extended to the more general case where the
maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of the graph
is at most $ \delta^{1 - \epsilon } $, for fixed $
\epsilon > 0 $.\par
The main challenge when $ k \leq \delta + 1 $ is the
possibility of `frozen' vertices, that is, vertices for
which only one color is possible, conditioned on the
colors of its neighbors. Indeed, when {$ \delta = O(1)
$}, even a typical coloring can have a constant
fraction of the vertices frozen. Our proofs rely on
recent advances in techniques for bounding mixing time
using `local uniformity' properties.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "coupling; graph coloring; Markov chain Monte Carlo
(MCMC); planar graphs",
}
@InProceedings{Goldberg:2007:ITP,
author = "Leslie Ann Goldberg and Mark Jerrum",
title = "Inapproximability of the {Tutte} polynomial",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "459--468",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250858",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The Tutte polynomial of a graph {$G$} is a
two-variable polynomial {$ T(G; x, y) $} that encodes
many interesting properties of the graph. We study the
complexity of the following problem, for rationals $x$
and $y$: take as input a graph {$G$}, and output a
value which is a good approximation to {$ T(G; x, y)
$}. We are interested in determining for which points $
(x, y) $ there is a fully polynomial randomised
approximation scheme (FPRAS) for {$ T(G; x, y) $}. Our
main contribution is a substantial widening of the
region known to be non-FPRASable.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation; complexity; Tutte polynomial",
}
@InProceedings{Haviv:2007:TBH,
author = "Ishay Haviv and Oded Regev",
title = "Tensor-based hardness of the shortest vector problem
to within almost polynomial factors",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "469--477",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250859",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We show that unless NP $ \subseteq $ RTIME $ (2^{\poly
(\log n)}) $, for any $ \epsilon > 0 $ there is no
polynomial-time algorithm approximating the Shortest
Vector Problem (SVP) on $n$-dimensional lattices in the
$ l_p $ norm $ (1 \leq q, p) $. This improves the
previous best factor of $ 2^{(\log n) 1 / 2 - \epsilon
} $ under the same complexity assumption due to Khot.
Under the stronger assumption NP $ \not \subseteq $
RSUBEXP, we obtain a hardness factor of $ n^{c / (\log
\log n)} $ for some $ c > 0 $.\par
Our proof starts with Khot's SVP instances from that
are hard to approximate to within some constant. To
boost the hardness factor we simply apply the standard
tensor product of lattices. The main novel part is in
the analysis, where we show that Khot's lattices behave
nicely under tensorization. At the heart of the
analysis is a certain matrix inequality which was first
used in the context of lattices by de Shalit and
Parzanchevski.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "hardness of approximation; lattices; tensor product",
}
@InProceedings{Peikert:2007:LAL,
author = "Chris Peikert and Alon Rosen",
title = "Lattices that admit logarithmic worst-case to
average-case connection factors",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "478--487",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250860",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We exhibit an average-case problem that is as hard as
finding $ \gamma (n) $-approximate shortest nonzero
vectors in certain $n$-dimensional lattices in the
worst case, for {$ \gamma (n) = O(\sqrt {\log n}) $}.
The previously best known factor for any non-trivial
class of lattices was {$ \gamma (n) = \tilde {O}(n)
$}.\par
Our results apply to families of lattices having
special algebraic structure. Specifically, we consider
lattices that correspond to ideals in the ring of
integers of an algebraic number field. The worst-case
problem we rely on is to find approximate shortest
vectors in these lattices, under an appropriate form of
preprocessing of the number field.\par
For the connection factors $ \gamma (n) $ we achieve,
the corresponding decision problems on ideal lattices
are not known to be NP-hard; in fact, they are in P.
However, the search approximation problems still appear
to be very hard. Indeed, ideal lattices are
well-studied objects in computational number theory,
and the best known algorithms for them seem to perform
no better than the best known algorithms for general
lattices.\par
To obtain the best possible connection factor, we
instantiate our constructions with infinite families of
number fields having constant root discriminant. Such
families are known to exist and are computable, though
no efficient construction is yet known. Our work
motivates the search for such constructions. Even
constructions of number fields having root discriminant
up to {$ O(n^{2 / 3 - \epsilon }) $} would yield
connection factors better than {$ \tilde {O}(n)
$}.\par
As an additional contribution, we give reductions
between various worst-case problems on ideal lattices,
showing for example that the shortest vector problem is
no harder than the closest vector problem. These
results are analogous to previously-known reductions
for general lattices.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "algebraic number theory; lattices; worst-case to
average-case reductions",
}
@InProceedings{Rodl:2007:PTH,
author = "V. R{\"o}dl and M. Schacht",
title = "Property testing in hypergraphs and the removal
lemma",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "488--495",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250862",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Property testers are efficient, randomized algorithms
which recognize if an input graph (or other
combinatorial structure) satisfies a given property or
if it is `far' from exhibiting it. Generalizing several
earlier results, Alon and Shapira showed that
hereditary graph properties are testable (with
one-sided error). In this paper we prove the analogous
result for hypergraphs. This result is an immediate
consequence of a (hyper)graph theoretic statement,
which is an extension of the so-called removal lemma.
The proof of this generalization relies on the
regularity method for hypergraphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "hereditary properties; hypergraphs; property testing;
regularity lemma; removal lemma",
}
@InProceedings{Alon:2007:TWA,
author = "Noga Alon and Alexandr Andoni and Tali Kaufman and
Kevin Matulef and Ronitt Rubinfeld and Ning Xie",
title = "Testing $k$-wise and almost $k$-wise independence",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "496--505",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250863",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this work, we consider the problems of testing
whether a distribution over $ (0, 1^n) $ is $k$-wise
(resp. $ (\epsilon, k) $-wise) independent using
samples drawn from that distribution.\par
For the problem of distinguishing $k$-wise independent
distributions from those that are $ \delta $-far from
$k$-wise independence in statistical distance, we upper
bound the number of required samples by {$ \tilde
{O}(n^k / \delta^2) $} and lower bound it by {$ \Omega
(n^{k - 1 / 2} / \delta) $} (these bounds hold for
constant $k$, and essentially the same bounds hold for
general $k$ ). To achieve these bounds, we use Fourier
analysis to relate a distribution's distance from
$k$-wise independence to its biases, a measure of the
parity imbalance it induces on a set of variables. The
relationships we derive are tighter than previously
known, and may be of independent interest.\par
To distinguish $ (\epsilon, k) $-wise independent
distributions from those that are $ \delta $-far from $
(\epsilon, k) $-wise independence in statistical
distance, we upper bound the number of required samples
by {$ O(k \log n / \delta^2 \epsilon^2) $} and lower
bound it by {$ \Omega (\sqrt k \log n / 2^k (\epsilon +
\delta) \sqrt {\log 1 / 2^k} (\epsilon + \delta)) $}.
Although these bounds are an exponential improvement
(in terms of $n$ and $k$ ) over the corresponding
bounds for testing $k$-wise independence, we give
evidence that the time complexity of testing $
(\epsilon, k) $-wise independence is unlikely to be $
\poly (n, 1 / \epsilon, 1 / \delta) $ for {$ k = \Theta
(\log n) $}, since this would disprove a plausible
conjecture concerning the hardness of finding hidden
cliques in random graphs. Under the conjecture, our
result implies that for, say, $ k = \log n $ and $
\epsilon $ = 1 / $ n^{0.99} $, there is a set of $
(\epsilon, k) $-wise independent distributions, and a
set of distributions at distance $ \delta = 1 /
n^{0.51} $ from $ (\epsilon, k) $-wise independence,
which are indistinguishable by polynomial time
algorithms.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$k$-wise independence; almost $k$-wise independence;
Fourier analysis; hidden clique; property testing",
}
@InProceedings{Samorodnitsky:2007:LDT,
author = "Alex Samorodnitsky",
title = "Low-degree tests at large distances",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "506--515",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250864",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We define tests of Boolean functions which distinguish
between linear (or quadratic) polynomials, and
functions which are very far, in an appropriate sense,
from these polynomials. The tests have optimal or
nearly optimal trade-offs between soundness and the
number of queries.\par
A central step in our analysis of quadraticity tests is
the proof of an inverse theorem for the third Gowers
uniformity norm of Boolean functions.\par
The last result implies that it is possible to estimate
efficiently the distance from the second-order
Reed--Muller code on inputs lying far beyond its
list-decoding radius.\par
Our main technical tools are Fourier analysis on {$
Z_2^n $} and methods from additive number theory. We
observe that these methods can be used to give a tight
analysis of the Abelian Homomorphism testing problem
for some families of groups, including powers of {$ Z_p
$}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "low-degree tests",
}
@InProceedings{Gavinsky:2007:ESO,
author = "Dmitry Gavinsky and Julia Kempe and Iordanis Kerenidis
and Ran Raz and Ronald de Wolf",
title = "Exponential separations for one-way quantum
communication complexity, with applications to
cryptography",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "516--525",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250866",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give an exponential separation between one-way
quantum and classical communication protocols for two
partial Boolean functions, both of which are variants
of the Boolean Hidden Matching Problem of Bar-Yossef et
al. Earlier such an exponential separation was known
only for a relational version of the Hidden Matching
Problem. Our proofs use the Fourier coefficients
inequality of Kahn, Kalai, and Linial. We give a number
of applications of this separation. In particular, in
the bounded-storage model of cryptography we exhibit a
scheme that is secure against adversaries with a
certain amount of classical storage, but insecure
against adversaries with a similar (or even much
smaller) amount of quantum storage; in the setting of
privacy amplification, we show that there are strong
extractors that yield a classically secure key, but are
insecure against a quantum adversary.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; cryptography; quantum",
}
@InProceedings{Hoyer:2007:NWM,
author = "Peter Hoyer and Troy Lee and Robert Spalek",
title = "Negative weights make adversaries stronger",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "526--535",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250867",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The quantum adversary method is one of the most
successful techniques for proving lower bounds on
quantum query complexity. It gives optimal lower bounds
for many problems, has application to classical
complexity in formula size lower bounds, and is
versatile with equivalent formulations in terms of
weight schemes, eigen values, and Kolmogorov
complexity. All these formulations rely on the
principle that if an algorithm successfully computes a
function then, in particular, it is able to distinguish
between inputs which map to different values.\par
We present a stronger version of the adversary method
which goes beyond this principle to make explicit use
of the stronger condition that the algorithm actually
computes the function. This new method, which we call
ADV+-, has all the advantages of the old: it is a lower
bound on bounded-error quantum query complexity, its
square is a lower bound on formula size, and it behaves
well with respect to function composition. Moreover
ADV+- is always at least as large as the adversary
method ADV, and we show an example of a monotone
function for which ADV+-(f)=Omega(ADV(f)$^{1.098}$ ).
We also give examples showing that ADV+- does not face
limitations of ADV like the certificate complexity
barrier and the property testing barrier.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "adversary method; certificate complexity barrier;
formula size; lower bounds; quantum computing; quantum
query complexity",
}
@InProceedings{Moore:2007:IQS,
author = "Cristopher Moore and Alexander Russell and Piotr
Sniady",
title = "On the impossibility of a quantum sieve algorithm for
graph isomorphism",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "536--545",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250868",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "It is known that any quantum algorithm for Graph
Isomorphism that works within the framework of the
hidden subgroup problem (HSP) must perform highly
entangled measurements across {$ \Omega (n \log n) $}
coset states. One of the only known models for how such
a measurement could be carried out efficiently is
Kuperberg's algorithm for the HSP in the dihedral
group, in which quantum states are adaptively combined
and measured according to the decomposition of tensor
products into irreducible representations. This
`quantum sieve' starts with coset states, and works its
way down towards representations whose probabilities
differ depending on, for example, whether the hidden
subgroup is trivial or nontrivial.\par
In this paper we show that no such approach can produce
a polynomial-time quantum algorithm for Graph
Isomorphism. Specifically, we consider the natural
reduction of Graph Isomorphism to the HSP over the
wreath product {$ S_n \wreathproduct Z_2 $}. Using a
recently proved bound on the irreducible characters of
{$ S_n $}, we show that no algorithm in this family can
solve Graph Isomorphism in less than {$ e^{\Omega
(\sqrt {n})} $} time, no matter what adaptive rule it
uses to select and combine quantum states. In
particular, algorithms of this type can offer
essentially no improvement over the best known
classical algorithms, which run in time {$ e^{O(\sqrt
{n \log n})} $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "graph isomorphism problem; quantum computation",
}
@InProceedings{Kakade:2007:PGA,
author = "Sham M. Kakade and Adam Tauman Kalai and Katrina
Ligett",
title = "Playing games with approximation algorithms",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "546--555",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250870",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In an online linear optimization problem, on each
period $t$, an online algorithm chooses {$ s_t \in S $}
from a fixed (possibly infinite) set {$S$} of feasible
decisions. Nature (who may be adversarial) chooses a
weight vector {$ w_t \in R $}, and the algorithm incurs
cost $ c(s_t, w_t) $, where $c$ is a fixed cost
function that is linear in the weight vector. In the
full-information setting, the vector $ w_t $ is then
revealed to the algorithm, and in the bandit setting,
only the cost experienced, $ c(s_t, w_t) $, is
revealed. The goal of the online algorithm is to
perform nearly as well as the best fixed {$ s \in S $}
in hindsight. Many repeated decision-making problems
with weights fit naturally into this framework, such as
online shortest-path, online TSP, online clustering,
and online weighted set cover.\par
Previously, it was shown how to convert any efficient
exact offline optimization algorithm for such a problem
into an efficient online bandit algorithm in both the
full-information and the bandit settings, with average
cost nearly as good as that of the best fixed {$ s \in
S $} in hindsight. However, in the case where the
offline algorithm is an approximation algorithm with
ratio $ \alpha > 1 $, the previous approach only worked
for special types of approximation algorithms. We show
how to convert any offline approximation algorithm for
a linear optimization problem into a corresponding
online approximation algorithm, with a polynomial
blowup in runtime. If the offline algorithm has an $
\alpha $-approximation guarantee, then the expected
cost of the online algorithm on any sequence is not
much larger than $ \alpha $ times that of the best {$ s
\in S $}, where the best is chosen with the benefit of
hindsight. Our main innovation is combining Zinkevich's
algorithm for convex optimization with a geometric
transformation that can be applied to any approximation
algorithm. Standard techniques generalize the above
result to the bandit setting, except that a
`Barycentric Spanner' for the problem is also
(provably) necessary as input. Our algorithm can also
be viewed as a method for playing large repeated games,
where one can only compute approximate best-responses,
rather than best-responses.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; online linear optimization;
regret minimization",
}
@InProceedings{Englert:2007:RBG,
author = "Matthias Englert and Harald R{\"a}cke and Matthias
Westermann",
title = "Reordering buffers for general metric spaces",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "556--564",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250871",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the reordering buffer problem, we are given an
input sequence of requests for service each of which
corresponds to a point in a metric space. The cost of
serving the requests heavily depends on the processing
order. Serving a request induces cost corresponding to
the distance between itself and the previously served
request, measured in the underlying metric space. A
reordering buffer with storage capacity $k$ can be used
to reorder the input sequence in a restricted fashion
so as to construct an output sequence with lower
service cost. This simple and universal framework is
useful for many applications in computer science and
economics, e.g., disk scheduling, rendering in computer
graphics, or painting shops in car plants.\par
In this paper, we design online algorithms for the
reordering buffer problem. Our main result is a
strategy with a polylogarithmic competitive ratio for
general metric spaces. Previous work on the reordering
buffer problem only considered very restricted metric
spaces. We obtain our result by first developing a
deterministic algorithm for arbitrary weighted trees
with a competitive ratio of {$ O(D \cdot \log k) $},
where {$D$} denotes the unweighted diameter of the
tree, i.e., the maximum number of edges on a path
connecting two nodes. Then we show how to improve this
competitive ratio to {$ O(\log^2 k) $} for metric
spaces that are derived from HSTs. Combining this
result with the results on probabilistically
approximating arbitrary metrics by tree metrics, we
obtain a randomized strategy for general metric spaces
that achieves a competitive ratio of {$ O(\log^2 k
\cdot \log n) $} in expectation against an oblivious
adversary. Here $n$ denotes the number of distinct
points in the metric space. Note that the length of the
input sequence can be much larger than $n$.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "general metric spaces; online algorithms; reordering
buffer; sorting buffer",
}
@InProceedings{Gutoski:2007:TGT,
author = "Gus Gutoski and John Watrous",
title = "Toward a general theory of quantum games",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "565--574",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250873",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study properties of quantum strategies, which are
complete specifications of a given party's actions in
any multiple-round interaction involving the exchange
of quantum information with one or more other parties.
In particular, we focus on a representation of quantum
strategies that generalizes the Choi--Jamiolkowski
representation of quantum, with respect to which each
strategy is described by a single operations. This new
representation associates with each strategy a positive
semidefinite operator acting only on the tensor product
of its input and output spaces. Various facts about
such representations are established, and two
applications are discussed: the first is a new and
conceptually simple proof of Kitaev's lower bound for
strong coin-flipping, and the second is a proof of the
exact characterization QRG = EXP of the class of
problems having quantum refereed games.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Choi--Jamiolkowski representation; coin-flipping;
interactive proof systems; quantum game theory; quantum
strategies",
}
@InProceedings{Magniez:2007:SQW,
author = "Frederic Magniez and Ashwin Nayak and Jeremie Roland
and Miklos Santha",
title = "Search via quantum walk",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "575--584",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250874",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We propose a new method for designing quantum search
algorithms for finding a `marked' element in the state
space of a classical Markov chain. The algorithm is
based on a quantum walk {\`a} la Szegedy [25] that is
defined in terms of the Markov chain. The main new idea
is to apply quantum phase estimation to the quantum
walk in order to implement an approximate reflection
operator. This operator is then used in an amplitude
amplification scheme. As a result we considerably
expand the scope of the previous approaches of Ambainis
[6] and Szegedy [25]. Our algorithm combines the
benefits of these approaches in terms of being able to
find marked elements, incurring the smaller cost of the
two,and being applicable to a larger class of Markov
chain. In addition,it is conceptually simple, avoids
several technical difficulties in the previous
analyses, and leads to improvements in various aspects
of several algorithms based on quantum walk.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "amplitude amplification; hitting time; Markov chain;
phase estimation; phase gap; quantum walk; recursive
amplitude amplification; reflection operator; search;
spectral gap",
}
@InProceedings{Vassilevska:2007:APB,
author = "Virginia Vassilevska and Ryan Williams and Raphael
Yuster",
title = "All-pairs bottleneck paths for general graphs in truly
sub-cubic time",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "585--589",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250876",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the all-pairs bottleneck paths (APBP) problem
(a.k.a. all-pairs maximum capacity paths), one is given
a directed graph with real non-negative capacities on
its edges and is asked to determine, for all pairs of
vertices $s$ and $t$, the capacity of a single path for
which a maximum amount of flow can be routed from $s$
to $t$. The APBP problem was first studied in
operations research, shortly after the introduction of
maximum flows and all-pairs shortest paths.\par
We present the first truly sub-cubic algorithm for APBP
in general dense graphs. In particular, we give a
procedure for computing the (max, min)-product of two
arbitrary matrices over {$ R \cup (\infty, - \infty) $}
in {$ O(n^{2 + \Omega / 3}) \leq O(n^{2.792}) $} time,
where $n$ is the number of vertices and {$ \Omega $} is
the exponent for matrix multiplication over rings.
Using this procedure, an explicit maximum bottleneck
path for any pair of nodes can be extracted in time
linear in the length of the path.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "bottleneck path; matrix multiplication; maximum
capacity path; subcubic",
}
@InProceedings{Chan:2007:MAA,
author = "Timothy M. Chan",
title = "More algorithms for all-pairs shortest paths in
weighted graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "590--598",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250877",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the first part of the paper, we reexamine the
all-pairs shortest paths (APSP) problem and present a
new algorithm with running time approaching {$ O(n^3 /
\log^2 n) $}, which improves all known algorithms for
general real-weighted dense graphs and is perhaps close
to the best result possible without using fast matrix
multiplication, modulo a few $ \log \log n $
factors.\par
In the second part of the paper, we use fast matrix
multiplication to obtain truly subcubic APSP algorithms
for a large class of `geometrically weighted' graphs,
where the weight of an edge is a function of the
coordinates of its vertices. For example, for graphs
embedded in Euclidean space of a constant dimension
$d$, we obtain a time bound near {$ O(n^{3 - (3 -
\omega) / (2d + 4)}) $}, where $ \omega < 2.376 $; in
two dimensions, this is {$ O(n^{2.922}) $}. Our
framework greatly extends the previously considered
case of small-integer-weighted graphs, and incidentally
also yields the first truly subcubic result (near {$
O(n^3 - (3 - \omega) / 4) = O(n^{2.844}) $} time) for
APSP in real-vertex-weighted graphs, as well as an
improved result (near {$ O(n^{(3 + \omega) / 2}) =
O(n^{2.688}) $} time) for the all-pairs {\em
lightest\/} shortest path problem for
small-integer-weighted graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computational geometry; graph algorithms; matrix
multiplication; shortest paths",
}
@InProceedings{Pap:2007:SNR,
author = "Gyula Pap",
title = "Some new results on node-capacitated packing of
{$A$}-paths",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "599--604",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250878",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this paper we propose a (semi-strongly) polynomial
time algorithm to find a maximum packing subject to
node-capacities, and thus we obtain a generalization of
Keijsper, Pendavingh and Stougie algorithm concerning
edge-capacities. Our method is based on Gerards'
strongly polynomial time algorithm to find a maximum
b-matching in a graph, which is based on a so-called
Proximity Lemma. Our node-capacitated {$A$}-path
packing algorithm first constructs a maximum fractional
packing by using an ellipsoid method subroutine, then
takes its integer part to obtain a near-optimal
integral packing, and finally we construct a maximum
integer packing by a short sequence of augmentations.
This short sequence of augmentations is constructed by
applying the version of Gerards' Proximity Lemma,
specially formulated for the node-capacitated
{$A$}-path packing problem.\par
In addition, we also state some related results on the
fractional packing problem. We prove the primal- and
dual integrality of the corresponding linear program.
We mention that the fractional packing problem reduces
to the matroid fractional matching problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "algorithms; node-capacities; paths-packing",
}
@InProceedings{Hariharan:2007:MGH,
author = "Ramesh Hariharan and Telikepalli Kavitha and Debmalya
Panigrahi and Anand Bhalgat",
title = "An {$ \tilde {O}(m n) $} {Gomory--Hu} tree
construction algorithm for unweighted graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "605--614",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250879",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a fast algorithm for computing a Gomory--Hu
tree or cut tree for an unweighted undirected graph {$
G = (V, E) $}. The expected running time of our
algorithm is {$ \tilde {O}(m c) $} where {$ |E| = m $}
and $c$ is the maximum $u$-$v$ edge connectivity, where
{$ u, v \in V $}. When the input graph is also simple
(i.e., it has no parallel edges), then the $u$-$v$ edge
connectivity for each pair of vertices $u$ and $v$ is
at most $ n - 1 $; so the expected running time of our
algorithm for simple unweighted graphs is {$ \tilde
{O}(m n) $}.\par
All the algorithms currently known for constructing a
Gomory--Hu tree [8,9] use $ n - 1 $ minimum $s$-$t$ cut
(i.e., max flow) subroutines. This in conjunction with
the current fastest {$ \tilde {O}(n^{20 / 9}) $} max
flow algorithm due to Karger and Levine [11] yields the
current best running time of {$ \tilde {O}(n^{20 / 9}
n) $} for Gomory--Hu tree construction on simple
unweighted graphs with $m$ edges and $n$ vertices. Thus
we present the first {$ \tilde {O}(m n) $} algorithm
for constructing a Gomory--Hu tree for simple
unweighted graphs. We do not use a max flow subroutine
here; we present an efficient tree packing algorithm
for computing Steiner edge connectivity and use this
algorithm as our main subroutine. The advantage in
using a tree packing algorithm for constructing a
Gomory--Hu tree is that the work done in computing a
minimum Steiner cut for a Steiner set {$ S \subseteq V
$} can be reused for computing a minimum Steiner cut
for certain Steiner sets {$ S' \subseteq S $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "cut tree; edge connectivity; Gomory--Hu tree; min cut;
steiner edge connectivity",
}
@InProceedings{Indyk:2007:UPE,
author = "Piotr Indyk",
title = "Uncertainty principles, extractors, and explicit
embeddings of $ l_2 $ into $ l_1 $",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "615--620",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250881",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give an explicit construction of a constant
distortion embedding {$F$} of $ l_2^n $ into $ l_1^m $,
with $ m = n^{1 + o(1)} $. As a bonus, our embedding
also has good computational properties: for any input
$x$, {$ F x $} can be computed in $ n^{1 + o(1)} $
time. The previously known mappings required {$ \Omega
(n^2) $} evaluation time.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "extractors; norm embeddings; uncertainty principles",
}
@InProceedings{Brinkman:2007:VCR,
author = "Bo Brinkman and Adriana Karagiozova and James R. Lee",
title = "Vertex cuts, random walks, and dimension reduction in
series-parallel graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "621--630",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250882",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider questions about vertex cuts in graphs,
random walks in metric spaces, and dimension reduction
in {$ L_1 $} and {$ L_2 $}; these topics are intimately
connected because they can each be reduced to the
existence of various families of real-valued Lipschitz
maps on certain metric spaces. We view these issues
through the lens of shortest-path metrics on
series-parallel graphs, and we discuss the implications
for a variety of well-known open problems. Our main
results follow.\par
Every $n$-point series-parallel metric embeds into $
l_1^{dom} $ with {$ O(\sqrt {\log n}) $} distortion,
matching a lower bound of Newman and Rabinovich. Our
embeddings yield an {$ O(\sqrt {\log n}) $}
approximation algorithm for vertex sparsest cut in such
graphs, as well as an {$ O(\sqrt {\log k}) $}
approximate max-flow/min-vertex-cut theorem for
series-parallel instances with $k$ terminals, improving
over the {$ O(\log n) $} and {$ O(\log k) $} bounds for
general graphs.\par
Every $n$-point series-parallel metric embeds with
distortion {$D$} into $ l_1^d $ with {$ d = n^{(1 /
\Omega (D^2))} $}, matching the dimension reduction
lower bound of Brinkman and Charikar.\par
There exists a constant {$ C > 0 $} such that if {$ (X,
d) $} is a series-parallel metric then for every
stationary, reversible Markov chain {$ {Z_t}_{t =
0}^{\infty } $} on {$X$}, we have for all $ t \geq 0 $,
{$ E[d(Z_t, Z_0)^2] \leq C t $}\cdot{$, E[d(Z_0,
Z_1)^2]$}. More generally, we show that series-parallel
metrics have Markov type 2. This generalizes a result
of Naor, Peres, Schramm, and Sheffield for trees.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; dimension reduction; metric
embeddings",
}
@InProceedings{Abraham:2007:LEM,
author = "Ittai Abraham and Yair Bartal and Ofer Neiman",
title = "Local embeddings of metric spaces",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "631--640",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250883",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In many application areas, complex data sets are often
represented by some metric space and metric embedding
is used to provide a more structured representation of
the data. In many of these applications much greater
emphasis is put on the preserving the local structure
of the original space than on maintaining its complete
structure. This is also the case in some networking
applications where `small world' phenomena in
communication patterns has been observed. Practical
study of embedding has indeed involved with finding
embeddings with this property. In this paper we
initiate the study of local embeddings of metric spaces
and provide embeddings with distortion depending solely
on the local structure of the space.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "metric embedding",
}
@InProceedings{Deshpande:2007:SBD,
author = "Amit Deshpande and Kasturi Varadarajan",
title = "Sampling-based dimension reduction for subspace
approximation",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "641--650",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250884",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give a randomized bi-criteria algorithm for the
problem of finding a $k$-dimensional subspace that
minimizes the {$ L_p $}-error for given points, i.e.,
$p$-th root of the sum of $p$-th powers of distances to
given points,for any $ p \geq 1 $. Our algorithm runs
in time {$ \tilde {O}(m n \cdot p k^3 (k /
\epsilon)^{2p}) $} and produces a subset of size {$
\tilde {O}(p k^2 (k / \epsilon)^{2p}) $} from the given
points such that, with high probability, the span of
these points gives a (1+$ \epsilon $ )-approximation to
the optimal $k$-dimensional subspace. We also show a
dimension reduction type of result for this problem
where we can efficiently find a subset of size
\tilde{O} (pk$^{2(p + 1)}$ + (k/$ \epsilon $ )$^{p +
2}$ ) such that, with high probability, their span
contains a $k$-dimensional subspace that gives (1+$
\epsilon $ )-approximation to the optimum. We prove
similar results for the corresponding projective
clustering problem where we need to find multiple
$k$-dimensional subspaces.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "subspace approximation",
}
@InProceedings{Lau:2007:SND,
author = "Lap Chi Lau and Joseph (Seffi) Naor and Mohammad R.
Salavatipour and Mohit Singh",
title = "Survivable network design with degree or order
constraints",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "651--660",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250886",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; bounded degree; iterative
rounding; network design; NP-hard problems",
}
@InProceedings{Singh:2007:AMB,
author = "Mohit Singh and Lap Chi Lau",
title = "Approximating minimum bounded degree spanning trees to
within one of optimal",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "661--670",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250887",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the Minimum Bounded Degree Spanning Tree problem,
we are given an undirected graph with a degree upper
bound {$ B_v $} on each vertex v, and the task is to
find a spanning tree of minimum cost which satisfies
all the degree bounds. Let OPT be the cost of an
optimal solution to this problem. In this paper, we
present a polynomial time algorithm which returns a
spanning tree {$T$} of cost at most OPT and {$ d_T (v)
\leq B_v + 1 $} for all $v$, where {$ d_T(v) $} denotes
the degree of $v$ in {$T$}. This generalizes a result
of F{\"u}rer and Raghavachari [8] to weighted graphs,
and settles a 15-year-old conjecture of Goemans [10]
affirmatively. The algorithm generalizes when each
vertex $v$ has a degree lower bound {$ A_v $} and a
degree upper bound {$ B_v $}, and returns a spanning
tree with cost at most OPT and {$ A_v - 1 \leq d_T(v)
\leq B_v + 1 $} for all $v$. This is essentially the
best possible. The main technique used is an extension
of the iterative rounding method introduced by Jain
[12] for the design of approximation algorithms.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithm; bounded degree; iterative
rounding; spanning trees",
}
@InProceedings{Agarwal:2007:IAD,
author = "Amit Agarwal and Noga Alon and Moses S. Charikar",
title = "Improved approximation for directed cut problems",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "671--680",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250888",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present improved approximation algorithms for
directed multicut and directed sparsest cut. The
current best known approximation ratio for these
problems is {$ O(n^{1 / 2}) $}. We obtain an {$ \tilde
{O}(n^{11 / 23}) $}-approximation. Our algorithm works
with the natural LP relaxation used in prior work. We
use a randomized rounding algorithm with a more
sophisticated charging scheme and analysis to obtain
our improvement. This also implies a {$ \tilde
{O}(n^{11 / 23}) $} upper bound on the ratio between
the maximum multicommodity flow and minimum multicut in
directed graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithm; directed multicut; directed
sparsest cut; linear programming relaxation",
}
@InProceedings{Donovan:2007:DCN,
author = "P. Donovan and B. Shepherd and A. Vetta and G.
Wilfong",
title = "Degree-constrained network flows",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "681--688",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250889",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A $d$-furcated flow is a network flow whose support
graph has maximum out degree $d$. Take a single-sink
multi-commodity flow problem on any network and with
any set of routing demands. Then we show that the
existence of feasible fractional flow with node
congestion one implies the existence of a $d$-furcated
flow with congestion at most $ 1 + 1 / (d - 1) $, for $
d \geq 2 $. This result is tight, and so the congestion
gap for $d$-furcated flows is bounded and exactly equal
to $ 1 + 1 / (d - 1) $. For the case $ d = 1 $
(confluent flows), it is known that the congestion gap
is unbounded, namely {$ \Theta (\log n) $}. Thus,
allowing single-sink multicommodity network flows to
increase their maximum out degree from one to two
virtually eliminates this previously observed
congestion gap.\par
As a corollary we obtain a factor $ 1 + 1 / (d - 1)
$-approximation algorithm for the problem of finding a
minimum congestion $d$-furcated flow; we also prove
that this problem is max SNP-hard. Using known
techniques these results also extend to
degree-constrained unsplittable routing,where each
individual demand must be routed along a unique path.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "congestion; network flow",
}
@InProceedings{Beame:2007:LBR,
author = "Paul Beame and T. S. Jayram and Atri Rudra",
title = "Lower bounds for randomized read\slash write stream
algorithms",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "689--698",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250891",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Motivated by the capabilities of modern storage
architectures, we consider the following generalization
of the data stream model where the algorithm has
sequential access to multiple streams. Unlike the data
stream model, where the stream is read only, in this
new model (introduced in [8,9]) the algorithms can also
write onto streams. There is no limit on the size of
the streams but the number of passes made on the
streams is restricted. On the other hand, the amount of
internal memory used by the algorithm is scarce,
similar to data stream model.\par
We resolve the main open problem in [7] of proving
lower bounds in this model for algorithms that are
allowed to have 2-sided error. Previously, such lower
bounds were shown only for deterministic and 1-sided
error randomized algorithms [9,7]. We consider the
classical set disjointness problem that has proved to
be invaluable for deriving lower bounds for many other
problems involving data streams and other randomized
models of computation. For this problem, we show a
near-linear lower bound on the size of the internal
memory used by a randomized algorithm with 2-sided
error that is allowed to have o(\log N/\log \log N)
passes over the streams. This bound is almost optimal
since there is a simple algorithm that can solve this
problem using logarithmic memory if the number of
passes over the streams.\par
Applications include near-linear lower bounds on the
internal memory for well-known problems in the
literature:(1) approximately counting the number of
distinct elements in the input ({$ F_0 $}); (2)
approximating the frequency of the mod of an input
sequence ({$ F*_{\infty } $}); (3) computing the join
of two relations; and (4) deciding if some node of an
XML document matches an XQuery (or XPath) query. Our
techniques involve a novel direct-sum type of argument
that yields lower bounds for many other problems. Our
results asymptotically improve previously known bounds
for any problem even in deterministic and 1-sided error
models of computation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; data stream algorithms",
}
@InProceedings{Linial:2007:LBC,
author = "Nati Linial and Adi Shraibman",
title = "Lower bounds in communication complexity based on
factorization norms",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "699--708",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250892",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We introduce a new method to derive lower bounds on
randomized and quantum communication complexity. Our
method is based on factorization norms, a notion from
Banach Space theory. This approach gives us access to
several powerful tools from this area such as normed
spaces duality and Grothendiek's inequality. This
extends the arsenal of methods for deriving lower
bounds in communication complexity. As we show,our
method subsumes most of the previously known general
approaches to lower bounds on communication complexity.
Moreover, we extend all (but one) of these lower bounds
to the realm of quantum communication complexity with
entanglement. Our results also shed some light on the
question how much communication can be saved by using
entanglement. It is known that entanglement can save
one of every two qubits, and examples for which this is
tight are also known. It follows from our results that
this bound on the saving in communication is tight
almost always.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; discrepancy; factorization
norms; Fourier analysis",
}
@InProceedings{Braverman:2007:CNC,
author = "Mark Braverman and Michael Yampolsky",
title = "Constructing non-computable {Julia} sets",
crossref = "ACM:2007:SPA",
pages = "709--716",
year = "2007",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1250790.1250893",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:28:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "While most polynomial Julia sets are computable, it
has been recently shown [12] that there exist
non-computable Julia sets. The proof was
non-constructive, and indeed there were doubts as to
whether specific examples of parameters with
non-computable Julia sets could be constructed. It was
also unknown whether the non-computability proof can be
extended to the filled Julia sets. In this paper we
give an answer to both of these questions, which were
the main open problems concerning the computability of
polynomial Julia sets.\par
We show how to construct a specific polynomial with a
non-computable Julia set. In fact, in the case of Julia
sets of quadratic polynomials we give a precise
characterization of Julia sets with computable
parameters. Moreover, assuming a widely believed
conjecture in Complex Dynamics, we give a poly-time
algorithm for computing a number $c$ such that the
Julia set {$ J_{z^2 + c z} $} is non-computable.\par
In contrast with these results, we show that the filled
Julia set of a polynomial is always computable.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computability; dynamical systems; Julia sets; real
computation",
}
@InProceedings{Rao:2008:PRP,
author = "Anup Rao",
title = "Parallel repetition in projection games and a
concentration bound",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "1--10",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374378",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In a two player game, a referee asks two cooperating
players (who are not allowed to communicate) questions
sampled from some distribution and decides whether they
win or not based on some predicate of the questions and
their answers. The parallel repetition of the game is
the game in which the referee samples $n$ independent
pairs of questions and sends corresponding questions to
the players simultaneously. The players may now answer
each question in a way that depends on the other
questions they are asked.\par
If the players cannot win the original game with
probability better than $ (1 - \epsilon) $, what's the
best they can do in the repeated game? We improve
earlier results of Raz and Holenstein, which showed
that the players cannot win all copies in the repeated
game with probability better than {$ (1 -
\epsilon^3)^{\Omega (n / c)} $} (here $c$ is the length
of the answers in the game), in the following ways: We
prove the bound {$ (1 - \epsilon^2)^{\Omega (n)} $} as
long as the game is a `projection game', the type of
game most commonly used in hardness of approximation
results. Our bound is independent of the answer length
and has a better dependence on $ \epsilon $. By the
recent work of Raz, this bound is essentially tight. A
consequence of this bound is to the Unique Games
Conjecture of Khot. Many tight or almost tight hardness
of approximation results have been proved using the
Unique Games Conjecture, so it would be very
interesting to prove this conjecture. We make progress
towards this goal by showing that it suffices to prove
the following easier statement: {Unique Games
Conjecture} For every $ \delta $, $ \epsilon > 0 $,
there exists an alphabet size {$ M(\epsilon) $} such
that it is NP-hard to distinguish a Unique Game with
alphabet size {$M$} for which a $ 1 - \epsilon^2 $
fraction of the constraints can be satisfied from one
in which a $ 1 - \epsilon^{1 - \delta } $ fraction of
the constraints can be satisfied. We also prove a
concentration bound for parallel repetition (of general
games) showing that for any constant $ 0 < \delta <
\epsilon $, the probability that the players win a $ (1
- \epsilon + \delta) $ fraction of the games in the
parallel repetition is at most {$ \exp ( - \Omega
(\delta^4 n / c)) $}. An application of this is in
testing Bell Inequalities. Our result implies that the
parallel repetition of the CHSH game can be used to get
an experiment that has a very large classical versus
quantum gap.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "CHSH game; parallel repetition; unique games
conjecture",
}
@InProceedings{Manokaran:2008:SGU,
author = "Rajsekar Manokaran and Joseph (Seffi) Naor and Prasad
Raghavendra and Roy Schwartz",
title = "{SDP} gaps and {UGC} hardness for multiway cut,
$0$-extension, and metric labeling",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "11--20",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374379",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The connection between integrality gaps and
computational hardness of discrete optimization
problems is an intriguing question. In recent years,
this connection has prominently figured in several
tight UGC-based hardness results. We show in this paper
a direct way of turning integrality gaps into hardness
results for several fundamental classification
problems. Specifically, we convert linear programming
integrality gaps for the Multiway Cut, 0-Extension, and
Metric Labeling problems into UGC-based hardness
results. Qualitatively, our result suggests that if the
unique games conjecture is true then a linear
relaxation of the latter problems studied in several
papers (so-called earthmover linear program) yields the
best possible approximation. Taking this a step
further, we also obtain integrality gaps for a
semi-definite programming relaxation matching the
integrality gaps of the earthmover linear program.
Prior to this work, there was an intriguing possibility
of obtaining better approximation factors for labeling
problems via semi-definite programming.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "integrality gaps; linear and semidefinite programming;
metric labelling; multiway cut; unique games
conjecture",
}
@InProceedings{Arora:2008:UGE,
author = "Sanjeev Arora and Subhash A. Khot and Alexandra Kolla
and David Steurer and Madhur Tulsiani and Nisheeth K.
Vishnoi",
title = "Unique games on expanding constraint graphs are easy:
extended abstract",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "21--28",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374380",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present an efficient algorithm to find a good
solution to the Unique Games problem when the
constraint graph is an expander.\par
We introduce a new analysis of the standard SDP in this
case that involves correlations among distant vertices.
It also leads to a parallel repetition theorem for
unique games when the graph is an expander.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; expander graphs;
semidefinite programming",
}
@InProceedings{Bodirsky:2008:CTC,
author = "Manuel Bodirsky and Jan Kara",
title = "The complexity of temporal constraint satisfaction
problems",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "29--38",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374382",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A {\em temporal constraint language\/} is a set of
relations that has a first-order definition in {$ (b Q,
<) $}, the dense linear order of the rational numbers.
We present a complete complexity classification of the
constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) for temporal
constraint languages: if the constraint language is
contained in one out of nine temporal constraint
languages, then the CSP can be solved in polynomial
time; otherwise, the CSP is NP-complete. Our proof
combines model-theoretic concepts with techniques from
universal algebra, and also applies the so-called
product Ramsey theorem, which we believe will be useful
in similar contexts of constraint satisfaction
complexity classification.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "complexity; constraint satisfaction; temporal
reasoning",
}
@InProceedings{Nandakumar:2008:EET,
author = "Satyadev Nandakumar",
title = "An effective ergodic theorem and some applications",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "39--44",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374383",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "This work is a synthesis of recent advances in
computable analysis with the theory of algorithmic
randomness. In this theory, we try to strengthen
probabilistic laws, i.e., laws which hold with
probability 1, to laws which hold in their pointwise
effective form --- i.e., laws which hold for every
individual constructively random point. In a
tour-de-force, V'yugin proved an effective version of
the Ergodic Theorem which holds when the probability
space, the transformation and the random variable are
computable. However, V'yugin's Theorem cannot be
directly applied to many examples, because all
computable functions are continuous, and many
applications use discontinuous functions.\par
We prove a stronger effective ergodic theorem to
include a restriction of Braverman's `graph-computable
functions'. We then use this to give effective ergodic
proofs of the effective versions of Levy-Kuzmin and
Khinchin Theorems relating to continued fractions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "algorithmic randomness; ergodic theorem",
}
@InProceedings{Das:2008:ASS,
author = "Abhimanyu Das and David Kempe",
title = "Algorithms for subset selection in linear regression",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "45--54",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374384",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study the problem of selecting a subset of $k$
random variables to observe that will yield the best
linear prediction of another variable of interest,
given the pairwise correlations between the observation
variables and the predictor variable. Under
approximation preserving reductions, this problem is
equivalent to the `sparse approximation' problem of
approximating signals concisely. The subset selection
problem is NP-hard in general; in this paper, we
propose and analyze exact and approximation algorithms
for several special cases of practical interest.
Specifically, we give an FPTAS when the covariance
matrix has constant bandwidth, and exact algorithms
when the associated covariance graph, consisting of
edges for pairs of variables with non-zero correlation,
forms a tree or has a large (known) independent set.
Furthermore, we give an exact algorithm when the
variables can be embedded into a line such that the
covariance decreases exponentially in the distance, and
a constant-factor approximation when the variables have
no `conditional suppressor variables'. Much of our
reasoning is based on perturbation results for the R^2
multiple correlation measure, which is frequently used
as a natural measure for `goodness-of-fit statistics'.
It lies at the core of our FPTAS, and also allows us to
extend our exact algorithms to approximation algorithms
when the matrix `nearly' falls into one of the above
classes. We also use our perturbation analysis to prove
approximation guarantees for the widely used `Forward
Regression' heuristic under the assumption that the
observation variables are nearly independent.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "sparse approximation; subset selection",
}
@InProceedings{Rexford:2008:RIR,
author = "Jennifer Rexford",
title = "Rethinking {Internet} routing",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "55--56",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374386",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Internet routing introduces many interesting
challenges, far beyond the basic problem of computing
paths on a graph. This talk presents an overview of
several open research questions in Internet routing,
with the broader goal of placing the design of future
routing architectures on a stronger theoretical
foundation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Internet; protocol; routing",
}
@InProceedings{Levin:2008:IRG,
author = "Hagay Levin and Michael Schapira and Aviv Zohar",
title = "Interdomain routing and games",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "57--66",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374388",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a game-theoretic model that captures many
of the intricacies of interdomain routing in today's
Internet. In this model, the strategic agents are
source nodes located on a network, who aim to send
traffic to a unique destination node. The interaction
between the agents is dynamic and complex --
asynchronous, sequential, and based on partial
information. Best-reply dynamics in this model capture
crucial aspects of the interdomain routing protocol de
facto, namely the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).\par
We study complexity and incentive-related issues in
this model. Our main results are showing that in
realistic and well-studied settings, BGP is
incentive-compatible. I.e., not only does myopic
behaviour of all players converge to a `stable' routing
outcome, but no player has motivation to unilaterally
deviate from the protocol. Moreover, we show that even
coalitions of players of any size cannot improve their
routing outcomes by collaborating. Unlike the vast
majority of works in mechanism design, our results do
not require any monetary transfers (to or by the
agents).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "BGP; distributed algorithmic mechanism design; selfish
routing",
}
@InProceedings{Vondrak:2008:OAS,
author = "Jan Vondrak",
title = "Optimal approximation for the {Submodular Welfare
Problem} in the value oracle model",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "67--74",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374389",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the Submodular Welfare Problem, $m$ items are to be
distributed among $n$ players with utility functions
w$_i$: 2$^{[m]}$ \rightarrow {$ R_+ $}. The utility
functions are assumed to be monotone and submodular.
Assuming that player $i$ receives a set of items {$ S_i
$}, we wish to maximize the total utility {$ \sum_{i =
1}^n w_i (S_i) $}. In this paper, we work in the value
oracle model where the only access to the utility
functions is through a black box returning {$ w_i (S)
$} for a given set {$S$}. Submodular Welfare is in fact
a special case of the more general problem of
submodular maximization subject to a matroid
constraint: {$ \max {f(S) : S \in I} $}, where $f$ is
monotone submodular and {$I$} is the collection of
independent sets in some matroid.\par
For both problems, a greedy algorithm is known to yield
a 1/2-approximation [21, 16]. In special cases where
the matroid is uniform ({$ I = S : |S| \leq k $}) [20]
or the submodular function is of a special type [4, 2],
a $ (1 - 1 / e) $-approximation has been achieved and
this is optimal for these problems in the value oracle
model [22, 6, 15]. A $ (1 - 1 / e) $-approximation for
the general Submodular Welfare Problem has been known
only in a stronger demand oracle model [4], where in
fact $ 1 - 1 / e $ can be improved [9].\par
In this paper, we develop a randomized {\em continuous
greedy algorithm\/} which achieves a $ (1 - 1 / e)
$-approximation for the Submodular Welfare Problem in
the value oracle model. We also show that the special
case of $n$ equal players is approximation resistant,
in the sense that the optimal $ (1 - 1 / e)
$-approximation is achieved by a uniformly random
solution. Using the {\em pipage rounding\/} technique
[1, 2], we obtain a $ (1 - 1 / e) $-approximation for
submodular maximization subject to any matroid
constraint. The continuous greedy algorithm has a
potential of wider applicability, which we demonstrate
on the examples of the Generalized Assignment Problem
and the AdWords Assignment Problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "combinatorial auctions; matroids; submodular
functions",
}
@InProceedings{Hartline:2008:OMD,
author = "Jason D. Hartline and Tim Roughgarden",
title = "Optimal mechanism design and money burning",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "75--84",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374390",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Mechanism design is now a standard tool in computer
science for aligning the incentives of self-interested
agents with the objectives of a system designer. There
is, however, a fundamental disconnect between the
traditional application domains of mechanism design
(such as auctions) and those arising in computer
science (such as networks): while monetary `transfers'
(i.e., payments) are essential for most of the known
positive results in mechanism design, they are
undesirable or even technologically infeasible in many
computer systems. Classical impossibility results imply
that the reach of mechanisms without transfers is
severely limited. Computer systems typically do have
the ability to reduce service quality--routing systems
can drop or delay traffic, scheduling protocols can
delay the release of jobs, and computational payment
schemes can require computational payments from users
(e.g., in spam-fighting systems). Service degradation
is tantamount to requiring that users `burn money', and
such `payments' can be used to influence the
preferences of the agents at a cost of degrading the
social surplus. We develop a framework for the design
and analysis of `money-burning mechanisms' to maximize
the residual surplus-the total value of the chosen
outcome minus the payments required. Our primary
contributions are the following. * We define a general
template for prior-free optimal mechanism design that
explicitly connects Bayesian optimal mechanism design,
the dominant paradigm in economics, with worst-case
analysis. In particular, we establish a general and
principled way to identify appropriate performance
benchmarks in prior-free mechanism design. * For
general single-parameter agent settings, we
characterize the Bayesian optimal money-burning
mechanism. * For multi-unit auctions, we design a
near-optimal prior-free money-burning mechanism: for
every valuation profile, its expected residual surplus
is within a constant factor of our benchmark, the
residual surplus of the best Bayesian optimal mechanism
for this profile. * For multi-unit auctions, we
quantify the benefit of general transfers over
money-burning: optimal money-burning mechanisms always
obtain a logarithmic fraction of the full social
surplus, and this bound is tight.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "mechanism design; money burning; optimal mechanism
design",
}
@InProceedings{Sherstov:2008:PMM,
author = "Alexander A. Sherstov",
title = "The pattern matrix method for lower bounds on quantum
communication",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "85--94",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374392",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In a breakthrough result, Razborov (2003) gave optimal
lower bounds on the communication complexity of every
function $f$ of the form f(x,y)=D(|x AND y|) for some
D:{0,1,\ldots{},n}->{0,1}, in the bounded-error quantum
model with and without prior entanglement. This was
proved by the multidimensional discrepancy method. We
give an entirely different proof of Razborov's result,
using the original, one-dimensional discrepancy method.
This refutes the commonly held intuition (Razborov
2003) that the original discrepancy method fails for
functions such as DISJOINTNESS. More importantly, our
communication lower bounds hold for a much broader
class of functions for which no methods were available.
Namely, fix an arbitrary function f:{0,1}$^{n / 4}$
->{0,1} and let A be the Boolean matrix whose columns
are each an application of $f$ to some subset of the
variables x$_1$, x$_2$, \ldots{},x$_n$. We prove that
the communication complexity of A in the bounded-error
quantum model with and without prior entanglement is {$
\Omega (d) $}, where $d$ is the approximate degree of
$f$. From this result, Razborov's lower bounds follow
easily. Our result also establishes a large new class
of total Boolean functions whose quantum communication
complexity (regardless of prior entanglement) is at
best polynomially smaller than their classical
complexity. Our proof method is a novel combination of
two ingredients. The first is a certain equivalence of
approximation and orthogonality in Euclidean $n$-space,
which follows by linear-programming duality. The second
is a new construction of suitably structured matrices
with low spectral norm, the pattern matrices, which we
realize using matrix analysis and the Fourier transform
over {$ (Z_2)^n $}. The method of this paper has
recently inspired important progress in multiparty
communication complexity.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximate degree of Boolean functions; bounded-error
communication; lower bounds; quantum communication
complexity",
}
@InProceedings{Gavinsky:2008:CIC,
author = "Dmitry Gavinsky",
title = "Classical interaction cannot replace a quantum
message",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "95--102",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374393",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We demonstrate a two-player communication problem that
can be solved in the one-way quantum model by a 0-error
protocol of cost {$ O(\log n) $} but requires
exponentially more communication in the classical
interactive (bounded error) model.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; quantum",
}
@InProceedings{Reichardt:2008:SPB,
author = "Ben W. Reichardt and Robert Spalek",
title = "Span-program-based quantum algorithm for evaluating
formulas",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "103--112",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374394",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give a quantum algorithm for evaluating formulas
over an extended gate set, including all two- and
three-bit binary gates (e.g., NAND, 3-majority). The
algorithm is optimal on read-once formulas for which
each gate's inputs are balanced in a certain
sense.\par
The main new tool is a correspondence between a
classical linear-algebraic model of computation, `span
programs,' and weighted bipartite graphs. A span
program's evaluation corresponds to an eigenvalue-zero
eigenvector of the associated graph. A quantum computer
can therefore evaluate the span program by applying
spectral estimation to the graph.\par
For example, the classical complexity of evaluating the
balanced ternary majority formula is unknown, and the
natural generalization of randomized alpha-beta pruning
is known to be suboptimal. In contrast, our algorithm
generalizes the optimal quantum AND-OR formula
evaluation algorithm and is optimal for evaluating the
balanced ternary majority formula.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "balanced ternary majority formula; formula evaluation;
gadget graphs; quantum adversary bound; quantum
algorithms; quantum computing; quantum phase
estimation; quantum walks; span programs; spectral
analysis",
}
@InProceedings{Goldwasser:2008:DCI,
author = "Shafi Goldwasser and Yael Tauman Kalai and Guy N.
Rothblum",
title = "Delegating computation: interactive proofs for
muggles",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "113--122",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374396",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this work we study interactive proofs for tractable
languages. The (honest) prover should be efficient and
run in polynomial time, or in other words a `muggle'.
The verifier should be super-efficient and run in
nearly-linear time. These proof systems can be used for
delegating computation: a server can run a computation
for a client and interactively prove the correctness of
the result. The client can verify the result's
correctness in nearly-linear time (instead of running
the entire computation itself). Previously, related
questions were considered in the Holographic Proof
setting by Babai, Fortnow, Levin and Szegedy, in the
argument setting under computational assumptions by
Kilian, and in the random oracle model by Micali. Our
focus, however, is on the original interactive proof
model where no assumptions are made on the
computational power or adaptiveness of dishonest
provers. Our main technical theorem gives a public coin
interactive proof for any language computable by a
log-space uniform Boolean circuit with depth $d$ and
input length $n$. The verifier runs in time $ (n + d)
\times \polylog (n) $ and space {$ O(\log (n)) $}, the
communication complexity is $ d \times \polylog (n) $,
and the prover runs in time $ \poly (n) $. In
particular, for languages computable by log-space
uniform NC (circuits of $ \polylog (n) $ depth), the
prover is efficient, the verifier runs in time $ n
\times \polylog (n) $ and space {$ O(\log (n)) $}, and
the communication complexity is $ \polylog (n) $. Using
this theorem we make progress on several questions: We
show how to construct short (polylog size)
computationally sound non-interactive certificates of
correctness for any log-space uniform NC computation,
in the public-key model. The certificates can be
verified in quasi-linear time and are for a designated
verifier: each certificate is tailored to the
verifier's public key. This result uses a recent
transformation of Kalai and Raz from public-coin
interactive proofs to one-round arguments. The
soundness of the certificates is based on the existence
of a PIR scheme with polylog communication. Interactive
proofs with public-coin, log-space, poly-time verifiers
for all of P. This settles an open question regarding
the expressive power of proof systems with such
verifiers. Zero-knowledge interactive proofs with
communication complexity that is quasi-linear in the
witness, length for any NP language verifiable in NC,
based on the existence of one-way functions.
Probabilistically checkable arguments (a model due to
Kalai and Raz) of size polynomial in the witness length
(rather than the instance length) for any NP language
verifiable in NC, under computational assumptions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "delegation; interactive proofs; muggles",
}
@InProceedings{Juba:2008:USC,
author = "Brendan Juba and Madhu Sudan",
title = "Universal semantic communication {I}",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "123--132",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374397",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Is it possible for two intelligent beings to
communicate meaningfully, without any common language
or background? This question has interest on its own,
but is especially relevant in the context of modern
computational infrastructures where an increase in the
diversity of computers is making the task of
inter-computer interaction increasingly burdensome.
Computers spend a substantial amount of time updating
their software to increase their knowledge of other
computing devices. In turn, for any pair of
communicating devices, one has to design software that
enables the two to talk to each other. Is it possible
instead to let the two computing entities use their
intelligence (universality as computers) to learn each
others' behavior and attain a common understanding?
What is `common understanding?' We explore this
question in this paper.\par
To formalize this problem, we suggest that one should
study the `goal of communication:' why are the two
entities interacting with each other, and what do they
hope to gain by it? We propose that by considering this
question explicitly, one can make progress on the
question of universal communication.\par
We start by considering a computational setting for the
problem where the goal of one of the interacting
players is to gain some computational wisdom from the
other player. We show that if the second player is
`sufficiently' helpful and powerful, then the first
player can gain significant computational power
(deciding PSPACE complete languages).\par
Our work highlights some of the definitional issues
underlying the task of formalizing universal
communication, but also suggests some interesting
phenomena and highlights potential tools that may be
used for such communication.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computational complexity; interaction; linguistics",
}
@InProceedings{Fortnow:2008:IIC,
author = "Lance Fortnow and Rahul Santhanam",
title = "Infeasibility of instance compression and succinct
{PCPs} for {NP}",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "133--142",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374398",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The OR-SAT problem asks, given Boolean formulae {$
\Phi_1, \ldots {}, \Phi_m $} each of size at most $n$,
whether at least one of the {$ \Phi_i $}'s is
satisfiable. We show that there is no reduction from
OR-SAT to any set A where the length of the output is
bounded by a polynomial in $n$, unless NP $ \subseteq $
coNP/poly, and the Polynomial-Time Hierarchy collapses.
This result settles an open problem proposed by
Bodlaender et. al. [4] and Harnik and Naor [15] and has
a number of implications. A number of parametric NP
problems, including Satisfiability, Clique, Dominating
Set and Integer Programming, are not instance
compressible or polynomially kernelizable unless NP $
\subseteq $ coNP/poly. Satisfiability does not have
PCPs of size polynomial in the number of variables
unless NP $ \subseteq $ coNP/poly. An approach of
Harnik and Naor to constructing collision-resistant
hash functions from one-way functions is unlikely to be
viable in its present form. (Buhrman-Hitchcock) There
are no subexponential-size hard sets for NP unless NP
is in co-NP/poly. We also study probabilistic variants
of compression, and show various results about and
connections between these variants. To this end, we
introduce a new strong derandomization hypothesis, the
Oracle Derandomization Hypothesis, and discuss how it
relates to traditional derandomization assumptions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "cryptography; instance compression; parameterized
complexity; polynomial hierarchy; succinct PCPs",
}
@InProceedings{Goldwasser:2008:CAP,
author = "Shafi Goldwasser and Dan Gutfreund and Alexander Healy
and Tali Kaufman and Guy N. Rothblum",
title = "A (de)constructive approach to program checking",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "143--152",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374399",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Program checking, program self-correcting and program
self-testing were pioneered by [Blum and Kannan] and
[Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld] in the mid eighties as a new
way to gain confidence in software, by considering
program correctness on an input by input basis rather
than full program verification. Work in the field of
program checking focused on designing, for specific
functions, checkers, testers and correctors which are
more efficient than the best program known for the
function. These were designed utilizing specific
algebraic, combinatorial or completeness properties of
the function at hand. In this work we introduce a novel
composition methodology for improving the efficiency of
program checkers. We use this approach to design a
variety of program checkers that are provably more
efficient, in terms of circuit depth, than the optimal
program for computing the function being checked.
Extensions of this methodology for the cases of program
testers and correctors are also presented. In
particular, we show: For all $ i \geq 1 $, every
language in RNC$^i$ (that is NCO-hard under
NCZ-reductions) has a program checker in RNC$^{i - 1}$.
In addition, for all $ i \geq 1 $, every language in
RNC$^i$ (that is NCO-hard under ACZ-reductions) has a
program corrector, tester and checker in RAC$^{i - 1}$.
This is the first time checkers are designed for a wide
class of functions characterized only by its
complexity, rather than by algebraic or combinatorial
properties. This characterization immediately yields
new and efficient checkers for languages such as graph
connectivity, perfect matching and bounded-degree graph
isomorphism. Constant-depth checkers, testers and
correctors for matrix multiplication, inversion,
determinant and rank. All previous program checkers,
testers and correctors for these problems run in nearly
logarithmic depth. Moreover, except for matrix
multiplication, they all require the use of the library
notion of [Blum-Luby-Rubinfeld], in which checkers have
access to a library of programs for various matrix
functions, rather than only having access to a program
for the function being checked. Furthermore, we provide
conditions under which program libraries can be
eliminated. Important ingredients in these results are
new and very efficient checkers for complete languages
in low complexity classes (e.g. NCO). These
constructions are based on techniques that were
developed in the field of cryptography.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "program checking; program correcting; program
testing",
}
@InProceedings{Fakcharoenphol:2008:AAV,
author = "Jittat Fakcharoenphol and Bundit Laekhanukit",
title = "An $ o(\log^2 k) $-approximation algorithm for the
$k$-vertex connected spanning subgraph problem",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "153--158",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374401",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present an {$ O(\log n \cdot \log k)
$}-approximation algorithm for the problem of finding
$k$-vertex connected spanning subgraph of minimum cost,
where $n$ is the number of vertices in the input graph,
and $k$ is the connectivity requirement. Our algorithm
works for both directed and undirected graphs. The best
known approximation guarantees for these problems are
{$ O(\ln k \cdot \min \{ \sqrt {k}, \frac {n}{n - k}
\ln k \}) $} by Kortsarz and Nutov, and {$ O(\ln {k})
$} in the case of undirected graphs where $ n \geq 6
k^2 $ by Cheriyan, Vempala, and Vetta. Our algorithm is
the first that has a polylogarithmic guarantee for all
values of $k$.\par
Combining our algorithm with the algorithm of Kortsarz
and Nutov in case of small $k$, e.g., $ k < n / 2 $, we
have an {$ O(\log^2 k) $}-approximation
algorithm.\par
As in previous work, we use the Frank-Tardos algorithm
for finding $k$-outconnected subgraphs as a subroutine.
However, with a structural lemmas that we proved, we
are able to show that we need only partial solutions
returned by the Frank-Tardos algorithm; thus, we can
avoid paying the whole cost of the optimal solution
every time the algorithm is applied.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$k$-connected spanning subgraphs; approximation
algorithms for NP-hard problems; network design",
}
@InProceedings{Thorup:2008:MWC,
author = "Mikkel Thorup",
title = "Minimum $k$-way cuts via deterministic greedy tree
packing",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "159--166",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374402",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a simple and fast deterministic algorithm
for the minimum $k$-way cut problem in a capacitated
graph, that is, finding a set of edges with minimum
total capacity whose removal splits the graph into at
least $k$ components. The algorithm packs {$ O(m k^3
\log n) $} trees. Each new tree is a minimal spanning
tree with respect to the edge utilizations, and the
utilization of an edge is the number of times it has
been used in previous spanning trees divided by its
capacity. We prove that each minimum $k$-way cut is
crossed at most 2k-2 times by one of the trees. We can
enumerate all such cuts in ~O(n$^{2k}$ ) time, which is
hence the running time of our algorithm producing all
minimum $k$-way cuts. The previous fastest
deterministic algorithm of Kamidoi et al. [SICOMP'06]
took {$ O(n^{(4 + o(1))k}) $} time, so this is a
near-quadratic improvement. Moreover, we essentially
match the {$ O(n^{(2 - o(1))k}) $} running time of the
Monto Carlo (no correctness guarantee) randomized
algorithm of Karger and Stein [JACM'96].",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$k$-way cuts; tree packing",
}
@InProceedings{Chakraborty:2008:NDV,
author = "Tanmoy Chakraborty and Julia Chuzhoy and Sanjeev
Khanna",
title = "Network design for vertex connectivity",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "167--176",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374403",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study the survivable network design problem (SNDP)
for vertex connectivity. Given a graph {$ G(V, E) $}
with costs on edges, the goal of SNDP is to find a
minimum cost subset of edges that ensures a given set
of pairwise vertex connectivity requirements. When all
connectivity requirements are between a special vertex,
called the source, and vertices in a subset T $
\subseteq $ V, called terminals, the problem is called
the single-source SNDP. Our main result is a randomized
{$ k^{O(k^2)} \log^4 $ n}-approximation algorithm for
single-source SNDP where $k$ denotes the largest
connectivity requirement for any source-terminal pair.
In particular, we get a poly-logarithmic approximation
for any constant $k$. Prior to our work, no non-trivial
approximation guarantees were known for this problem
for any $ k \geq 3 $. We also show that SNDP is {$
k^{\Omega (1)} $}-hard to approximate and provide an
elementary construction that shows that the
well-studied set-pair linear programming relaxation for
this problem has an {$ \Omega (k^{1 / 3}) $}
integrality gap.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; hardness of approximation;
network design; vertex connectivity",
}
@InProceedings{Chen:2008:FPA,
author = "Jianer Chen and Yang Liu and Songjian Lu and Barry
O'Sullivan and Igor Razgon",
title = "A fixed-parameter algorithm for the directed feedback
vertex set problem",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "177--186",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374404",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The (parameterized) feedback vertex set problem on
directed graphs, which we refer to as the DFVS problem,
is defined as follows: given a directed graph {$G$} and
a parameter $k$, either construct a feedback vertex set
of at most $k$ vertices in {$G$} or report that no such
set exists. Whether or not the DFVS problem is
fixed-parameter tractable has been a well-known open
problem in parameterized computation and complexity,
i.e., whether the problem can be solved in time {$ f(k)
n^{O(1)} $} for some function $f$. In this paper we
develop new algorithmic techniques that result in an
algorithm with running time {$ 4^k k! n^{O(1)} $} for
the DFVS problem, thus showing that this problem is
fixed-parameter tractable.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "parameterized complexity",
}
@InProceedings{Peikert:2008:LTF,
author = "Chris Peikert and Brent Waters",
title = "Lossy trapdoor functions and their applications",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "187--196",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374406",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We propose a new general primitive called lossy
trapdoor functions (lossy TDFs), and realize it under a
variety of different number theoretic assumptions,
including hardness of the decisional Diffie--Hellman
(DDH) problem and the worst-case hardness of lattice
problems.\par
Using lossy TDFs, we develop a new approach for
constructing several important cryptographic
primitives, including (injective) trapdoor functions,
collision-resistant hash functions, oblivious transfer,
and chosen ciphertext-secure cryptosystems. All of the
constructions are simple, efficient, and
black-box.\par
These results resolve some long-standing open problems
in cryptography. They give the first known injective
trapdoor functions based on problems not directly
related to integer factorization, and provide the first
known CCA-secure cryptosystem based solely on the
worst-case complexity of lattice problems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "public key encryption; trapdoor functions",
}
@InProceedings{Gentry:2008:THL,
author = "Craig Gentry and Chris Peikert and Vinod
Vaikuntanathan",
title = "Trapdoors for hard lattices and new cryptographic
constructions",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "197--206",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374407",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We show how to construct a variety of `trapdoor'
cryptographic tools assuming the worst-case hardness of
standard lattice problems (such as approximating the
length of the shortest nonzero vector to within certain
polynomial factors). Our contributions include a new
notion of trapdoor function with preimage sampling,
simple and efficient `hash-and-sign' digital signature
schemes, and identity-based encryption. A core
technical component of our constructions is an
efficient algorithm that, given a basis of an arbitrary
lattice, samples lattice points from a discrete
Gaussian probability distribution whose standard
deviation is essentially the length of the longest
Gram--Schmidt vector of the basis. A crucial security
property is that the output distribution of the
algorithm is oblivious to the particular geometry of
the given basis.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "lattice-based cryptography; trapdoor functions",
}
@InProceedings{Gama:2008:FSL,
author = "Nicolas Gama and Phong Q. Nguyen",
title = "Finding short lattice vectors within {Mordell}'s
inequality",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "207--216",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374408",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The celebrated Lenstra-Lenstra-Lov{\'a}sz lattice
basis reduction algorithm (LLL) can naturally be viewed
as an algorithmic version of Hermite's inequality on
Hermite's constant. We present a polynomial-time
blockwise reduction algorithm based on duality which
can similarly be viewed as an algorithmic version of
Mordell's inequality on Hermite's constant. This
achieves a better and more natural approximation factor
for the shortest vector problem than Schnorr's
algorithm and its transference variant by Gama,
Howgrave-Graham, Koy and Nguyen. Furthermore, we show
that this approximation factor is essentially tight in
the worst case.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "lattice reduction; LLL; Schnorr's algorithm; slide
reduction; transference reduction.",
}
@InProceedings{Attiya:2008:TRL,
author = "Hagit Attiya and Danny Hendler and Philipp Woelfel",
title = "Tight {RMR} lower bounds for mutual exclusion and
other problems",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "217--226",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374410",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We investigate the remote memory references (RMRs)
complexity of deterministic processes that communicate
by reading and writing shared memory in asynchronous
cache-coherent and distributed shared-memory
multiprocessors. We define a class of algorithms that
we call order encoding. By applying
information-theoretic arguments, we prove that every
order encoding algorithm, shared by $n$ processes, has
an execution that incurs {$ \Omega (n \log n) $} RMRs.
From this we derive the same lower bound for the mutual
exclusion, bounded counter and store/collect
synchronization problems. The bounds we obtain for
these problems are tight. It follows from the results
of [10] that our lower bounds hold also for algorithms
that can use comparison primitives and
load-linked/store-conditional in addition to reads and
writes. Our mutual exclusion lower bound proves a
longstanding conjecture of Anderson and Kim.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "bounded counter; information theory; lower-bound
techniques; mutual exclusion; shared-memory;
store\slash collect object",
}
@InProceedings{Cote:2008:RSH,
author = "Aaron Cot{\'e} and Adam Meyerson and Laura Poplawski",
title = "Randomized $k$-server on hierarchical binary trees",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "227--234",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374411",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We design a randomized online algorithm for $k$-server
on binary trees with hierarchical edge lengths, with
expected competitive ratio {$ O(\log \Delta) $}, where
{$ \Delta $} is the diameter of the metric. This is one
of the first $k$-server algorithms with competitive
ratio poly-logarithmic in the natural problem
parameters, and represents substantial progress on the
randomized $k$-server conjecture. Extending the
algorithm to trees of higher degree would give a
competitive ratio of {$ O(\log^2 \Delta \log n) $} for
the $k$-server problem on general metrics with $n$
points and diameter {$ \Delta $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$k$-server; online competitive analysis",
}
@InProceedings{Bansal:2008:RCA,
author = "Nikhil Bansal and Niv Buchbinder and Joseph (Seffi)
Naor",
title = "Randomized competitive algorithms for generalized
caching",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "235--244",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374412",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider online algorithms for the generalized
caching problem. Here we are given a cache of size $k$
and pages with arbitrary sizes and fetching costs.
Given a request sequence of pages, the goal is to
minimize the total cost of fetching the pages into the
cache. We give an online algorithm with competitive
ratio {$ O(\log^2 k) $}, which is the first algorithm
for the problem with competitive ratio sublinear in
$k$. We also give improved {$ O(\log k) $}-competitive
algorithms for the special cases of the Bit Model and
Fault model. In the Bit Model, the fetching cost is
proportional to the size of the page and in the Fault
model all fetching costs are uniform. Previously, an {$
O(\log^2 k) $}-competitive algorithm due to Irani [14]
was known for both of these models. Our algorithms are
based on an extension of the primal-dual framework for
online algorithms which was developed by Buchbinder and
Naor [7]. We first generate an {$ O(\log k)
$}-competitive fractional algorithm for the problem.
This is done by using a strengthened LP formulation
with knapsack-cover constraints, where exponentially
many constraints are added upon arrival of a new
request. Second, we round online the fractional
solution and obtain a randomized online algorithm. Our
techniques provide a unified framework for caching
algorithms and are substantially simpler than those
previously used.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arbitrary sizes; arbitrary weights; caching; knapsack
cover inequalities; online algorithms; primal-dual
analysis",
}
@InProceedings{Raghavendra:2008:OAI,
author = "Prasad Raghavendra",
title = "Optimal algorithms and inapproximability results for
every {CSP}?",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "245--254",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374414",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Semidefinite Programming(SDP) is one of the strongest
algorithmic techniques used in the design of
approximation algorithms. In recent years, Unique Games
Conjecture(UGC) has proved to be intimately connected
to the limitations of Semidefinite
Programming.\par
Making this connection precise, we show the following
result: If UGC is true, then for every constraint
satisfaction problem(CSP) the best approximation ratio
is given by a certain simple SDP. Specifically, we show
a generic conversion from SDP integrality gaps to UGC
hardness results for every CSP. This result holds both
for maximization and minimization problems over
arbitrary finite domains.\par
Using this connection between integrality gaps and
hardness results we obtain a generic polynomial-time
algorithm for all CSPs. Assuming the Unique Games
Conjecture, this algorithm achieves the optimal
approximation ratio for every CSP.\par
Unconditionally, for all 2-CSPs the algorithm achieves
an approximation ratio equal to the integrality gap of
a natural SDP used in literature. Further the algorithm
achieves at least as good an approximation ratio as the
best known algorithms for several problems like MaxCut,
Max2Sat, MaxDiCut and Unique Games.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "constraint satisfaction problem; dictatorship tests;
rounding schemes; semidefinite programming; unique
games conjecture",
}
@InProceedings{Racke:2008:OHD,
author = "Harald R{\"a}cke",
title = "Optimal hierarchical decompositions for congestion
minimization in networks",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "255--264",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374415",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Hierarchical graph decompositions play an important
role in the design of approximation and online
algorithms for graph problems. This is mainly due to
the fact that the results concerning the approximation
of metric spaces by tree metrics (e.g. [10,11,14,16])
depend on hierarchical graph decompositions. In this
line of work a probability distribution over tree
graphs is constructed from a given input graph, in such
a way that the tree distances closely resemble the
distances in the original graph. This allows it, to
solve many problems with a distance-based cost function
on trees, and then transfer the tree solution to
general undirected graphs with only a logarithmic loss
in the performance guarantee. The results about
oblivious routing [30,22] in general undirected graphs
are based on hierarchical decompositions of a different
type in the sense that they are aiming to approximate
the bottlenecks in the network (instead of the
point-to-point distances). We call such decompositions
cut-based decompositions. It has been shown that they
also can be used to design approximation and online
algorithms for a wide variety of different problems,
but at the current state of the art the performance
guarantee goes down by an {$ O(\log^2 n \log \log n)
$}-factor when making the transition from tree networks
to general graphs. In this paper we show how to
construct cut-based decompositions that only result in
a logarithmic loss in performance, which is
asymptotically optimal. Remarkably, one major
ingredient of our proof is a distance-based
decomposition scheme due to Fakcharoenphol, Rao and
Talwar [16]. This shows an interesting relationship
between these seemingly different decomposition
techniques. The main applications of the new
decomposition are an optimal {$ O(\log n)
$}-competitive algorithm for oblivious routing in
general undirected graphs, and an {$ O(\log n)
$}-approximation for Minimum Bisection, which improves
the {$ O(\log^{1.5} n) $} approximation by Feige and
Krauthgamer [17].",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximating metrics by tree metrics; oblivious
routing",
}
@InProceedings{Gopalan:2008:LDR,
author = "Parikshit Gopalan and Adam R. Klivans and David
Zuckerman",
title = "List-decoding {Reed--Muller} codes over small fields",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "265--274",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374417",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present the first local list-decoding algorithm for
the $ r^{\rm th} $ order Reed--Muller code {$ {\rm
RM}(2, m) $} over {$ \mathbb {F}_2 $} for $ r \geq 2 $.
Given an oracle for a received word {$ R : \mathbb
{F}_2^m \rightarrow \mathbb {F}_2 $}, our randomized
local list-decoding algorithm produces a list
containing all degree $r$ polynomials within relative
distance $ (2^{-r} - \epsilon) $ from {$R$} for any $
\epsilon < 0 $ in time $ \poly (m^r, \epsilon^{-r}) $.
The list size could be exponential in $m$ at radius $
2^{-r} $, so our bound is optimal in the local setting.
Since {$ {\rm RM}(2, m) $} has relative distance $
2^{-r} $, our algorithm beats the Johnson bound for $ r
\geq 2 $.\par
In the setting where we are allowed running-time
polynomial in the block-length, we show that
list-decoding is possible up to even larger radii,
beyond the minimum distance. We give a deterministic
list-decoder that works at error rate below {$ J(2^{1 -
r}) $}, where {$ J(\delta) $} denotes the Johnson
radius for minimum distance $ \delta $. This shows that
{$ {\rm RM}(2, m) $} codes are list-decodable up to
radius $ \eta $ for any constant $ \eta < 1 / 2 $ in
time polynomial in the block-length.\par
Over small fields {$ \mathbb {F}_q $}, we present
list-decoding algorithms in both the global and local
settings that work up to the list-decoding radius. We
conjecture that the list-decoding radius approaches the
minimum distance (like over {$ \mathbb {F} $}), and
prove this holds true when the degree is divisible by $
q - 1 $.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "fitting polynomials; list-decoding; Reed--Muller
codes; self-correctors",
}
@InProceedings{Dinur:2008:DGH,
author = "Irit Dinur and Elena Grigorescu and Swastik Kopparty
and Madhu Sudan",
title = "Decodability of group homomorphisms beyond the
{Johnson} bound",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "275--284",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374418",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Given a pair of finite groups {$G$} and {$H$}, the set
of homomorphisms from {$G$} to {$H$} form an
error-correcting code where codewords differ in at
least 1/2 the coordinates. We show that for every pair
of abelian groups {$G$} and {$H$}, the resulting code
is (locally) list-decodable from a fraction of errors
arbitrarily close to its distance. At the heart of this
result is the following combinatorial result: There is
a fixed polynomial $p$ such that for every pair of
abelian groups {$G$} and {$H$}, if the maximum fraction
of agreement between two distinct homomorphisms from
{$G$} to {$H$} is {$ \Lamda $}, then for every $
\epsilon > 0 $ and every function {$ f : G \rightarrow
H $}, the number of homomorphisms that have agreement
{$ \Lamda + \epsilon $} with $f$ is at most $ p(1 /
\epsilon) $. We thus give a broad class of codes whose
list-decoding radius exceeds the `Johnson bound'.
Examples of such codes are rare in the literature, and
for the ones that do exist, `combinatorial' techniques
to analyze their list-decodability are limited. Our
work is an attempt to add to the body of such
techniques. We use the fact that abelian groups
decompose into simpler ones and thus codes derived from
homomorphisms over abelian groups may be viewed as
certain `compositions' of simpler codes. We give
techniques to lift list-decoding bounds for the
component codes to bounds for the composed code. We
believe these techniques may be of general interest.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Hadamard codes; list decoding; sublinear time
algorithms",
}
@InProceedings{Meir:2008:CCL,
author = "Or Meir",
title = "Combinatorial construction of locally testable codes",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "285--294",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374419",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "An error correcting code is said to be locally
testable if there is a test that checks whether a given
string is a codeword, or rather far from the code, by
reading only a constant number of symbols of the
string. Locally Testable Codes (LTCs) were first
systematically studied by Goldreich and Sudan (J. ACM
53(4)) and since then several Constructions of LTCs
have been suggested.\par
While the best known construction of LTCs by Ben-Sasson
and Sudan (STOC 2005) and Dinur (J. ACM 54(3)) achieves
very efficient parameters, it relies heavily on
algebraic tools and on PCP machinery. In this work we
present a new and arguably simpler construction of LTCs
that is purely combinatorial, does not rely on PCP
machinery and matches the parameters of the best known
construction. However, unlike the latter construction,
our construction is not entirely explicit.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "locally testable codes; PCPs of proximity;
probabilistically checkable proofs",
}
@InProceedings{Kleinberg:2008:BOS,
author = "Jon Kleinberg and {\'E}va Tardos",
title = "Balanced outcomes in social exchange networks",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "295--304",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1376994",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The study of bargaining has a long history, but many
basic settings are still rich with unresolved
questions. In particular, consider a set of agents who
engage in bargaining with one another,but instead of
pairs of agents interacting in isolation,agents have
the opportunity to choose whom they want to negotiate
with, along the edges of a graph representing
social-network relations. The area of network exchange
theory in sociology has developed a large body of
experimental evidence for the way in which people
behave in such network-constrained bargaining
situations, and it is a challenging problem to develop
models that are both mathematically tractable and in
general agreement with the results of these
experiments.\par
We analyze a natural theoretical model arising in
network exchange theory, which can be viewed as a
direct extension of the well-known Nash bargaining
solution to the case of multiple agents interacting on
a graph. While this generalized Nash bargaining
solution is surprisingly effective at picking up even
subtle differences in bargaining power that have been
observed experimentally on small examples, it has
remained an open question to characterize the values
taken by this solution on general graphs, or to find an
efficient means to compute it.\par
Here we resolve these questions, characterizing the
possible values of this bargaining solution, and giving
an efficient algorithm to compute the set of possible
values. Our result exploits connections to the
structure of matchings in graphs, including
decomposition theorems for graphs with perfect
matchings, and also involves the development of new
techniques. In particular, the values we are seeking
turn out to correspond to a novel combinatorially
defined point in the interior of a fractional
relaxation of the matching problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "bargaining; game theory; network exchange theory;
social networks",
}
@InProceedings{Chen:2008:PCM,
author = "Yiling Chen and Sharad Goel and David M. Pennock",
title = "Pricing combinatorial markets for tournaments",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "305--314",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374421",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In a prediction market, agents trade assets whose
value is tied to a future event, for example the
outcome of the next presidential election. Asset prices
determine a probability distribution over the set of
possible outcomes. Typically, the outcome space is
small, allowing agents to directly trade in each
outcome, and allowing a market maker to explicitly
update asset prices. Combinatorial markets, in
contrast, work to estimate a full joint distribution of
dependent observations, in which case the outcome space
grows exponentially. In this paper, we consider the
problem of pricing combinatorial markets for
single-elimination tournaments. With $n$ competing
teams, the outcome space is of size 2$^{n - 1}$. We
show that the general pricing problem for tournaments
is P-hard. We derive a polynomial-time algorithm for a
restricted betting language based on a Bayesian network
representation of the probability distribution. The
language is fairly natural in the context of
tournaments, allowing for example bets of the form
`team $i$ wins game $k$'. We believe that our betting
language is the first for combinatorial market makers
that is both useful and tractable. We briefly discuss a
heuristic approximation technique for the general
case.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Bayesian networks; combinatorial markets; logarithmic
market scoring rule; prediction markets; tournaments",
}
@InProceedings{Cole:2008:FCT,
author = "Richard Cole and Lisa Fleischer",
title = "Fast-converging tatonnement algorithms for one-time
and ongoing market problems",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "315--324",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374422",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Why might markets tend toward and remain near
equilibrium prices? In an effort to shed light on this
question from an algorithmic perspective, this paper
formalizes the setting of Ongoing Markets, by contrast
with the classic market scenario, which we term
One-Time Markets. The Ongoing Market allows trade at
non-equilibrium prices, and, as its name suggests,
continues over time. As such, it appears to be a more
plausible model of actual markets.\par
For both market settings, this paper defines and
analyzes variants of a simple tatonnement algorithm
that differs from previous algorithms that have been
subject to asymptotic analysis in three significant
respects: the price update for a good depends only on
the price, demand, and supply for that good, and on no
other information; the price update for each good
occurs distributively and asynchronously; the
algorithms work (and the analyses hold) from an
arbitrary starting point.\par
Our algorithm introduces a new and natural update rule.
We show that this update rule leads to fast convergence
toward equilibrium prices in a broad class of markets
that satisfy the weak gross substitutes property. These
are the first analyses for computationally and
informationally distributed algorithms that demonstrate
polynomial convergence.\par
Our analysis identifies three parameters characterizing
the markets, which govern the rate of convergence of
our protocols. These parameters are, broadly speaking:
1. A bound on the fractional rate of change of demand
for each good with respect to fractional changes in its
price. 2. A bound on the fractional rate of change of
demand for each good with respect to fractional changes
in wealth. 3. The closeness of the market to a Fisher
market (a market with buyers starting with money
alone).\par
We give two types of protocols. The first type assumes
global knowledge of only (an upper bound on) the first
parameter. For this protocol, we also provide a
matching lower bound in terms of these parameters for
the One-Time Market. Our second protocol, which is
analyzed for the One-Time Market alone, assumes no
global knowledge whatsoever.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "market equilibria; tatonnement",
}
@InProceedings{Ben-Aroya:2008:CCA,
author = "Avraham Ben-Aroya and Amnon Ta-Shma",
title = "A combinatorial construction of almost-{Ramanujan}
graphs using the zig-zag product",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "325--334",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374424",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Reingold, Vadhan and Wigderson [21] introduced the
graph zig-zag product. This product combines a large
graph and a small graph into one graph, such that the
resulting graph inherits its size from the large graph,
its degree from the small graph and its spectral gap
from both. Using this product they gave the
first\par
fully-explicit combinatorial construction of expander
graphs. They showed how to construct {$D$}-regular
graphs having spectral gap {$ 1 - O(D^{-1 / 3}) $}. In
the same paper, they posed the open problem of whether
a similar graph product could be used to achieve the
almost-optimal spectral gap {$ 1 - O(D^{-1 / 2})
$}.\par
In this paper we propose a generalization of the
zig-zag product that combines a large graph and several
small graphs. The new product gives a better relation
between the degree and the spectral gap of the
resulting graph. We use the new product to give a
fully-explicit combinatorial construction of
{$D$}-regular graphs having spectral gap {$ 1 - D^{-1 /
2 + o(1)} $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "expander graphs; zig-zag product",
}
@InProceedings{ODonnell:2008:OSA,
author = "Ryan O'Donnell and Yi Wu",
title = "An optimal {SDP} algorithm for max-cut, and equally
optimal long code tests",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "335--344",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374425",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Let {$G$} be an undirected graph for which the
standard Max-Cut SDP relaxation achieves at least a $c$
fraction of the total edge weight, $ 1 / 2 [1 / 2, 1] $
by {$ {\rm GapSDP}(c) = \inf \{ s : (c, s) {\rm \ is an
SDP gap} \} $}. In this paper we complete a long line
of work [15, 14, 20, 36, 19, 17, 13, 28] by determining
the entire SDP gap curve; we show {$ {\rm GapSDP}(c) =
S(c) $} for a certain explicit (but complicated to
state) function {$S$}. In particular, our lower bound
{$ {\rm GapSDP}(c) - S(c) $} is proved via a
polynomial-time --- {$ R P R^2 $} --- algorithm. Thus
we have given an efficient, optimal SDP-rounding
algorithm for Max-Cut. The fact that it is {$ R P R^2
$} confirms a conjecture of Feige and Langberg [17]. We
also describe and analyze the tight connection between
SDP gaps and Long Code tests (and the constructions of
[25, 3, 4]). Using this connection, we give optimal
Long Code tests for Max-Cut. Combining these with
results implicit in [27, 29] and ideas from [19], we
derive the following conclusions: --- The Max-Cut SDP
gap curve subject to triangle inequalities is also
given by {$ S(c) $}. --- No {$ R P R^2 $} algorithm can
be guaranteed to find cuts of value larger than {$ S(c)
$} in graphs where the optimal cut is $c$. (Contrast
this with the fact that in the graphs exhibiting the
$c$ vs. {$ S(c) $} SDP gap, our {$ R P R^2 $} algorithm
actually finds the optimal cut.) --- Further, no
polynomial-time algorithm of any kind can have such a
guarantee, assuming P $ \neq $ NP and the Unique Games
Conjecture.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "hardness of approximation; max-cut; semidefinite
programming",
}
@InProceedings{Khot:2008:HLI,
author = "Subhash Khot and Rishi Saket",
title = "On hardness of learning intersection of two
halfspaces",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "345--354",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374426",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We show that unless NP = RP, it is hard to (even)
weakly PAC-learn intersection of two halfspaces in R^n
using a hypothesis which is a function of up to l
linear threshold functions for any integer l.
Specifically, we show that for every integer $l$ and an
arbitrarily small constant $ \epsilon > 0 $, unless NP
= RP, no polynomial time algorithm can distinguish
whether there is an intersection of two halfspaces that
correctly classifies a given set of labeled points in
{$ R^n $}, or whether any function of $l$ linear
threshold functions can correctly classify at most
1/2+$ \epsilon $ fraction of the points.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation; halfspaces; hardness; learning",
}
@InProceedings{Skopalik:2008:IPN,
author = "Alexander Skopalik and Berthold V{\"o}cking",
title = "Inapproximability of pure {Nash} equilibria",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "355--364",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374428",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The complexity of computing pure Nash equilibria in
congestion games was recently shown to be PLS-complete.
In this paper, we therefore study the complexity of
computing approximate equilibria in congestion games.
An alpha-approximate equilibrium, for $ \alpha $ > 1,
is a state of the game in which none of the players can
make an $ \alpha $-greedy step, i.e., an unilateral
strategy change that decreases the player's cost by a
factor of at least $ \alpha $. Our main result shows
that finding an $ \alpha $-approximate equilibrium of a
given congestion game is sc PLS-complete, for any
polynomial-time computable $ \alpha $ > 1. Our analysis
is based on a gap introducing PLS-reduction from FLIP,
i.e., the problem of finding a local optimum of a
function encoded by an arbitrary circuit. As this
reduction is tight it additionally implies that
computing an $ \alpha $-approximate equilibrium
reachable from a given initial state by a sequence of $
\alpha $-greedy steps is PSPACE-complete. Our results
are in sharp contrast to a recent result showing that
every local search problem in PLS admits a fully
polynomial time approximation scheme.\par
In addition, we show that there exist congestion games
with states such that any sequence of $ \alpha $-greedy
steps leading from one of these states to an $ \alpha
$-approximate Nash equilibrium has exponential length,
even if the delay functions satisfy a bounded-jump
condition. This result shows that a recent result about
polynomial time convergence for $ \alpha $-greedy steps
in congestion games satisfying the bounded-jump
condition is restricted to symmetric games only.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation; congestion games; local search",
}
@InProceedings{Borgs:2008:MFT,
author = "Christian Borgs and Jennifer Chayes and Nicole
Immorlica and Adam Tauman Kalai and Vahab Mirrokni and
Christos Papadimitriou",
title = "The myth of the {Folk Theorem}",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "365--372",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374429",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A well-known result in game theory known as `the Folk
Theorem' suggests that finding Nash equilibria in
repeated games should be easier than in one-shot games.
In contrast, we show that the problem of finding any
(approximate) Nash equilibrium for a three-player
infinitely-repeated game is computationally intractable
(even when all payoffs are in {-1,0,1}), unless all of
PPAD can be solved in randomized polynomial time. This
is done by showing that finding Nash equilibria of
(k+1)-player infinitely-repeated games is as hard as
finding Nash equilibria of $k$-player one-shot games,
for which PPAD-hardness is known (Daskalakis, Goldberg
and Papadimitriou, 2006; Chen, Deng and Teng, 2006;
Chen, Teng and Valiant, 2007). This also explains why
no computationally-efficient learning dynamics, such as
the `no regret' algorithms, can be `rational' (in
general games with three or more players) in the sense
that, when one's opponents use such a strategy, it is
not in general a best reply to follow suit.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "folk theorem; Nash equilibrium; PPAD",
}
@InProceedings{Blum:2008:RMP,
author = "Avrim Blum and MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi and Katrina
Ligett and Aaron Roth",
title = "Regret minimization and the price of total anarchy",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "373--382",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374430",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We propose weakening the assumption made when studying
the price of anarchy: Rather than assume that
self-interested players will play according to a Nash
equilibrium (which may even be computationally hard to
find), we assume only that selfish players play so as
to minimize their own regret. Regret minimization can
be done via simple, efficient algorithms even in many
settings where the number of action choices for each
player is exponential in the natural parameters of the
problem. We prove that despite our weakened
assumptions, in several broad classes of games, this
`price of total anarchy' matches the Nash price of
anarchy, even though play may never converge to Nash
equilibrium. In contrast to the price of anarchy and
the recently introduced price of sinking, which require
all players to behave in a prescribed manner, we show
that the price of total anarchy is in many cases
resilient to the presence of Byzantine players, about
whom we make no assumptions. Finally, because the price
of total anarchy is an upper bound on the price of
anarchy even in mixed strategies, for some games our
results yield as corollaries previously unknown bounds
on the price of anarchy in mixed strategies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "algorithmic game theory; Nash equilibria; regret
minimization",
}
@InProceedings{Valiant:2008:TSP,
author = "Paul Valiant",
title = "Testing symmetric properties of distributions",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "383--392",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374432",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We introduce the notion of a Canonical Tester for a
class of properties on distributions, that is, a tester
strong and general enough that `a distribution property
in the class is testable if and only if the Canonical
Tester tests it'. We construct a Canonical Tester for
the class of symmetric properties of one or two
distributions, satisfying a certain weak continuity
condition. Analyzing the performance of the Canonical
Tester on specific properties resolves several open
problems, establishing lower bounds that match known
upper bounds: we show that distinguishing between
entropy $ \beta $ on distributions over $ [n] $
requires $ n^{\alpha / \beta - o(1)} $ samples, and
distinguishing whether a pair of distributions has
statistical distance $ \beta $ requires $ n^{1 - o(1)}
$ samples. Our techniques also resolve a conjecture
about a property that our Canonical Tester does not
apply to: distinguishing identical distributions from
those with statistical distance $ > \beta $ requires {$
\Omega (n^{2 / 3}) $} samples.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "continuity; distribution testing; multivariate
statistics; property testing; Vandermonde matrices",
}
@InProceedings{Benjamini:2008:EMC,
author = "Itai Benjamini and Oded Schramm and Asaf Shapira",
title = "Every minor-closed property of sparse graphs is
testable",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "393--402",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374433",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Testing a property {$P$} of graphs in the bounded
degree model deals with the following problem: given a
graph {$G$} of bounded degree $d$ we should distinguish
(with probability 0.9, say) between the case that {$G$}
satisfies {$P$} and the case that one should add\slash
remove at least $ \epsilon d n $ edges of {$G$} to make
it satisfy {$P$}. In sharp contrast to property testing
of dense graphs, which is relatively well understood,
very few properties are known to be testable in bounded
degree graphs with a constant number of queries. In
this paper we identify for the first time a large (and
natural) family of properties that can be efficiently
tested in bounded degree graphs, by showing that every
minor-closed graph property can be tested with a
constant number of queries. As a special case, we infer
that many well studied graph properties, like being
planar, outer-planar, series-parallel, bounded genus,
bounded tree-width and several others, are testable
with a constant number of queries. None of these
properties was previously known to be testable even
with $ o(n) $ queries. The proof combines results from
the theory of graph minors with results on convergent
sequences of sparse graphs, which rely on martingale
arguments.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "graph algorithms; minor closed properties; property
testing",
}
@InProceedings{Kaufman:2008:APT,
author = "Tali Kaufman and Madhu Sudan",
title = "Algebraic property testing: the role of invariance",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "403--412",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374434",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We argue that the symmetries of a property being
tested play a central role in property testing. We
support this assertion in the context of algebraic
functions, by examining properties of functions mapping
a vector space {$ K^n $} over a field {$K$} to a
subfield {$F$}. We consider ({$F$}-)linear properties
that are invariant under linear transformations of the
domain and prove that an {$ O(1) $}-local
`characterization' is a necessary and sufficient
condition for {$ O(1) $}-local testability. when {$ |K|
= O(1) $}. (A local characterization of a property is a
definition of a property in terms of local constraints
satisfied by functions exhibiting a property.) For the
subclass of properties that are invariant under {\em
affine\/} transformations of the domain, we prove that
the existence of a single {$ O(1) $}-local constraint
implies {$ O(1) $}-local testability. These results
generalize and extend the class of algebraic
properties, most notably linearity and low-degree-ness,
that were previously known to be testable. In
particular, the extensions include properties satisfied
by functions of degree linear in $n$ that turn out to
be {$ O(1) $}-locally testable. Our results are proved
by introducing a new notion that we term `formal
characterizations'. Roughly this corresponds to
characterizations that are given by a single local
constraint and its permutations under linear
transformations of the domain. Our main testing result
shows that local formal characterizations essentially
imply local testability. We then investigate properties
that are linear-invariant and attempt to understand
their local formal characterizability. Our results here
give coarse upper and lower bounds on the locality of
constraints and characterizations for linear-invariant
properties in terms of some structural parameters of
the property we introduce. The lower bounds rule out
any characterization, while the upper bounds give
formal characterizations. Combining the two gives a
test for all linear-invariant properties with local
characterizations. We believe that invariance of
properties is a very interesting notion to study in the
context of property testing in general and merits a
systematic study. In particular, the class of
linear-invariant and affine-invariant properties
exhibits a rich variety among algebraic properties and
offer better intuition about algebraic properties than
the more limited class of low-degree functions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "error-correcting codes; locally testable codes;
sublinear time algorithms",
}
@InProceedings{Gordon:2008:CFS,
author = "Dov S. Gordon and Hazay Carmit and Jonathan Katz and
Yehuda Lindell",
title = "Complete fairness in secure two-party computation",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "413--422",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374436",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the setting of secure two-party computation, two
mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some
function of their inputs while preserving, to the
extent possible, various security properties such as
privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property
is fairness, which guarantees that if either party
receives its output, then the other party does too.
Cleve (STOC 1986) showed that complete fairness cannot
be achieved in general in the two-party setting;
specifically, he showed (essentially) that it is
impossible to compute Boolean XOR with complete
fairness. Since his work, the accepted folklore has
been that nothing non-trivial can be computed with
complete fairness, and the question of complete
fairness in secure two-party computation has been
treated as closed since the late '80s.\par
In this paper, we demonstrate that this widely held
folklore belief is false by showing completely-fair
secure protocols for various non-trivial two-party
functions including Boolean AND/OR as well as Yao's
`millionaires' problem'. Surprisingly, we show that it
is even possible to construct completely-fair protocols
for certain functions containing an `embedded XOR',
although in this case we also prove a lower bound
showing that a super-logarithmic number of rounds are
necessary. Our results demonstrate that the question of
completely-fair secure computation without an honest
majority is far from closed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "cryptography; fairness; secure computation",
}
@InProceedings{Kol:2008:GEI,
author = "Gillat Kol and Moni Naor",
title = "Games for exchanging information",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "423--432",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374437",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider the rational versions of two of the
classical problems in foundations of cryptography:
secret sharing and multiparty computation, suggested by
Halpern and Teague (STOC 2004). Our goal is to design
games and fair strategies that encourage rational
participants to exchange information about their inputs
for their mutual benefit, when the only mean of
communication is a broadcast channel.\par
We show that protocols for the above information
exchanging tasks, where players' values come from a
bounded domain, cannot satisfy some of the most
desirable properties. In contrast, we provide a
rational secret sharing scheme with simultaneous
broadcast channel in which shares are taken from an
unbounded domain, but have finite (and polynomial
sized) expectation.\par
Previous schemes (mostly cryptographic) have required
computational assumptions, making them inexact and
susceptible to backward induction, or used stronger
communication channels. Our scheme is
non-cryptographic, immune to backward induction, and
satisfies a stronger rationality concept (strict Nash
equilibrium). We show that our solution can also be
used to construct an $ \epsilon $-Nash equilibrium
secret sharing scheme for the case of a
non-simultaneous broadcast channel.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "backward induction; cryptography; game theory;
multiparty computation; Nash equilibrium; secret
sharing",
}
@InProceedings{Ishai:2008:CCC,
author = "Yuval Ishai and Eyal Kushilevitz and Rafail Ostrovsky
and Amit Sahai",
title = "Cryptography with constant computational overhead",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "433--442",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374438",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Current constructions of cryptographic primitives
typically involve a large multiplicative computational
overhead that grows with the desired level of security.
We explore the possibility of implementing basic
cryptographic primitives, such as encryption,
authentication, signatures, and secure two-party
computation, while incurring only a constant
computational overhead compared to insecure
implementations of the same tasks. Here we make the
usual security requirement that the advantage of any
polynomial-time attacker must be negligible in the
input length.\par
We obtain affirmative answers to this question for most
central cryptographic primitives under plausible,
albeit sometimes nonstandard, intractability
assumptions. We start by showing that
pairwise-independent hash functions can be computed by
linear-size circuits, disproving a conjecture of
Mansour, Nisan, and Tiwari (STOC 1990). This
construction does not rely on any unproven assumptions
and is of independent interest. Our hash functions can
be used to construct message authentication schemes
with constant overhead from any one-way function. Under
an intractability assumption that generalizes a
previous assumption of Alekhnovich (FOCS 2003), we get
(public and private key) encryption schemes with
constant overhead. Using an exponentially strong
version of the previous assumption, we get signature
schemes of similar complexity. Assuming the existence
of pseudorandom generators in NC $z$ with polynomial
stretch together with the existence of an (arbitrary)
oblivious transfer protocol, we get similar results for
the seemingly very complex task of secure two-party
computation. More concretely, we get general protocols
for secure two-party computation in the semi-honest
model in which the two parties can be implemented by
circuits whose size is a constant multiple of the size
$s$ of the circuit to be evaluated. In the malicious
model, we get protocols whose communication complexity
is a constant multiple of $s$ and whose computational
complexity is slightly super-linear in $s$. For natural
relaxations of security in the malicious model that are
still meaningful in practice, we can also keep the
computational complexity linear in $s$. These results
extend to the case of a constant number of parties,
where an arbitrary subset of the parties can be
corrupted.\par
Our protocols rely on non-black-box techniques, and
suggest the intriguing possibility that the ultimate
efficiency in this area of cryptography can be obtained
via such techniques.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "constant computational overhead; cryptography;
universal hashing",
}
@InProceedings{Goyal:2008:VCT,
author = "Navin Goyal and Neil Olver and F. B. Shepherd",
title = "The {VPN} conjecture is true",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "443--450",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374440",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider the following network design problem. We
are given an undirected graph {$ G = (V, E) $} with
edges costs $ c(e) $ and a set of terminal nodes {$W$}.
A {\em hose} demand matrix for {$W$} is any symmetric
matrix {$ [D_{i, j}] $} such that for each $i$, {$ \sum
j \neq i D_{i, j} \leq 1 $}. We must compute the
minimum cost edge capacities that are able to support
the oblivious routing of every hose matrix in the
network.\par
An oblivious routing template, in this context, is a
simple path {$ P_{i, j} $} for each pair {$ i, j \in W
$}. Given such a template, if we are to route a demand
matrix {$D$}, then for each $ i, j $ we send {$ D_{i,
j} $} units of flow along each {$ P_{i, j} $}.
Fingerhut et al. and Gupta et al. obtained a
$2$-approximation for this problem, using a solution
template in the form of a tree. It has been widely
asked and subsequently conjectured [Italiano 2006] that
this solution actually results in the optimal capacity
for the single path VPN design problem; this has become
known as the VPN conjecture. The conjecture has
previously been proven for some restricted classes of
graphs [Hurkens 2005, Grandoni 2007, Fiorini 2007]. Our
main theorem establishes that this conjecture is true
in general graphs. This also gives the first polynomial
time algorithm for the single path VPN problem. We also
show that the multipath version of the conjecture is
false.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "network design; oblivious routing; robust
optimization",
}
@InProceedings{Daitch:2008:FAL,
author = "Samuel I. Daitch and Daniel A. Spielman",
title = "Faster approximate lossy generalized flow via interior
point algorithms",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "451--460",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374441",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present asymptotically faster approximation
algorithms for the generalized flow problems in which
multipliers on edges are at most $1$. For this lossy
version of the maximum generalized flow problem, we
obtain an additive $ \epsilon $ approximation of the
maximum flow in time {$ O(m^{3 / 2} \log (U /
\epsilon)^2) $}, where $m$ is the number of edges in
the graph, all capacities are integers in the range
\{1, \ldots{}, U\}, and all loss multipliers are ratios
of integers in this range. For minimum cost lossy
generalized flow with costs in the range \{1,\ldots{},
U\}, we obtain a flow that has value within an additive
$ \epsilon $ of the maximum value and cost at most the
optimal cost. In many parameter ranges, these
algorithms improve over the previously fastest
algorithms for the generalized maximum flow problem by
a factor of $ m^{1 / 2} $ and for the minimum cost
generalized flow problem by a factor of approximately $
m^{1 / 2} $ / $ \epsilon^2 $. The algorithms work by
accelerating traditional interior point algorithms by
quickly solving the system of linear equations that
arises in each step. The contributions of this paper
are twofold. First, we analyze the performance of
interior point algorithms with approximate linear
system solvers. This analysis alone provides an
algorithm for the standard minimum cost flow problem
that runs in time {$ O(m^{3 / 2} \log U) $}--an
improvement of roughly {$ O(n / m^{1 / 2}) $} over
previous algorithms. Second, we examine the linear
equations that arise when using an interior point
algorithm to solve generalized flow problems. We
observe that these belong to the family of symmetric
M-matrices, and we then develop {$ O(m) $}-time
algorithms for solving linear systems in these
matrices. These algorithms reduce the problem of
solving a linear system in a symmetric {$M$}-matrix to
that of solving {$ O(\log n) $} linear systems in
symmetric diagonally-dominant matrices, which we can do
in time {$ O(m) $} using the algorithm of Spielman and
Teng. All of our algorithms operate on numbers of bit
length at most {$ O(\log n U / \epsilon) $}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; interior-point algorithms;
linear programming; network flows",
}
@InProceedings{Orecchia:2008:PGS,
author = "Lorenzo Orecchia and Leonard J. Schulman and Umesh V.
Vazirani and Nisheeth K. Vishnoi",
title = "On partitioning graphs via single commodity flows",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "461--470",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374442",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this paper we obtain improved upper and lower
bounds for the best approximation factor for Sparsest
Cut achievable in the cut-matching game framework
proposed in Khandekar et al. [9]. We show that this
simple framework can be used to design combinatorial
algorithms that achieve {$ O(\log n) $} approximation
factor and whose running time is dominated by a
poly-logarithmic number of single-commodity max-flow
computations. This matches the performance of the
algorithm of Arora and Kale [2]. Moreover, we also show
that it is impossible to get an approximation factor of
better than {$ \Omega (\sqrt {\log n}) $} in the
cut-matching game framework. These results suggest that
the simple and concrete abstraction of the cut-matching
game may be powerful enough to capture the essential
features of the complexity of Sparsest Cut.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "edge-separator; graph partitioning; matrix
exponential; single-commodity max-flow; sparsest cut;
spectral method",
}
@InProceedings{Kawarabayashi:2008:GMI,
author = "Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi and Bojan Mohar",
title = "Graph and map isomorphism and all polyhedral
embeddings in linear time",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "471--480",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374443",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "For every surface {$S$} (orientable or
non-orientable), we give a linear time algorithm to
test the graph isomorphism of two graphs, one of which
admits an embedding of face-width at least 3 into
{$S$}. This improves a previously known algorithm whose
time complexity is {$ n^{O(g)} $}, where $g$ is the
genus of {$S$}. This is the first algorithm for which
the degree of polynomial in the time complexity does
not depend on $g$. The above result is based on two
linear time algorithms, each of which solves a problem
that is of independent interest. The first of these
problems is the following one. Let {$S$} be a fixed
surface. Given a graph {$G$} and an integer $ k \geq 3
$, we want to find an embedding of {$G$} in {$S$} of
face-width at least $k$, or conclude that such an
embedding does not exist. It is known that this problem
is NP-hard when the surface is not fixed. Moreover, if
there is an embedding, the algorithm can give all
embeddings of face-width at least $k$, up to Whitney
equivalence. Here, the face-width of an embedded graph
{$G$} is the minimum number of points of {$G$} in which
some non-contractible closed curve in the surface
intersects the graph. In the proof of the above
algorithm, we give a simpler proof and a better bound
for the theorem by Mohar and Robertson concerning the
number of polyhedral embeddings of 3-connected graphs.
The second ingredient is a linear time algorithm for
map isomorphism and Whitney equivalence. This part
generalizes the seminal result of Hopcroft and Wong
that graph isomorphism can be decided in linear time
for planar graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "graph isomorphism; linear time algorithm; map
isomorphism",
}
@InProceedings{Umans:2008:FPF,
author = "Christopher Umans",
title = "Fast polynomial factorization and modular composition
in small characteristic",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "481--490",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374445",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We obtain randomized algorithms for factoring degree
$n$ univariate polynomials over F\_q that use {$
O(n^{1.5 + o(1)} + n^{1 + o(1)} \log q) $} field
operations, when the characteristic is at most $
n^{o(1)} $. When $ \log q < n $, this is asymptotically
faster than the best previous algorithms (von zur
Gathen \& Shoup (1992) and Kaltofen \& Shoup (1998));
for $ \log q \geq n $, it matches the asymptotic
running time of the best known algorithms.\par
The improvements come from a new algorithm for modular
composition of degree $n$ univariate polynomials, which
is the asymptotic bottleneck in fast algorithms for
factoring polynomials over finite fields. The best
previous algorithms for modular composition use {$
O(n^{(omega + 1) / 2}) $} field operations, where omega
is the exponent of matrix multiplication (Brent & Kung
(1978)), with a slight improvement in the exponent
achieved by employing fast rectangular matrix
multiplication (Huang & Pan (1997)).\par
We show that modular composition and multipoint
evaluation of multivariate polynomials are essentially
equivalent in the sense that an algorithm for one
achieving exponent $ \alpha $ implies an algorithm for
the other with exponent $ \alpha + o(1) $, and vice
versa. We then give a new algorithm that requires {$
O(n^{1 + o(1)}) $} field operations when the
characteristic is at most $ n^{o(1)} $, which is
optimal up to lower order terms.\par
Our algorithms do not rely on fast matrix
multiplication, in contrast to all previous
subquadratic algorithms for these problems. The main
operations are fast univariate polynomial arithmetic,
multipoint evaluation, and interpolation, and
consequently the algorithms could be feasible in
practice.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "modular composition; multipoint evaluation; polynomial
factorization",
}
@InProceedings{Cai:2008:QLB,
author = "Jin-Yi Cai and Xi Chen and Dong Li",
title = "A quadratic lower bound for the permanent and
determinant problem over any characteristic $ \neq 2
$",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "491--498",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374446",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In Valiant's theory of arithmetic complexity, the
classes VP and VNP are analogs of P and NP. A
fundamental problem concerning these classes is the
Permanent and Determinant Problem: Given a field {$F$}
of characteristic $ \neq 2 $, and an integer $n$, what
is the minimum $m$ such that the permanent of an $ n
\times n $ matrix {$ X = (x_{i, j}) $} can be expressed
as a determinant of an $ m \times m $ matrix, where the
entries of the determinant matrix are affine linear
functions of $ x_{i, j} $'s, and the equality is in {$
F[X] $}. Mignon and Ressayre (2004) [11] proved a
quadratic lower bound {$ m = \Omega (n^2) $} for fields
of characteristic $0$. We extend the Mignon-Ressayre
quadratic lower bound to all fields of characteristic $
\neq 2 $.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetic complexity; determinant; finite field;
permanent",
}
@InProceedings{De:2008:FIM,
author = "Anindya De and Piyush P. Kurur and Chandan Saha and
Ramprasad Saptharishi",
title = "Fast integer multiplication using modular arithmetic",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "499--506",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374447",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give an {$ O(N \log N 2^{O(\log *N)}) $} algorithm
for multiplying two {$N$}-bit integers that improves
the {$ O(N \log N \log \log N) $} algorithm by
Sch{\"o}nhage--Strassen. Both these algorithms use
modular arithmetic. Recently, F{\"u}rer gave an {$ O(N
\log N 2^{O(\log *N)}) $} algorithm which however uses
arithmetic over complex numbers as opposed to modular
arithmetic. In this paper, we use multivariate
polynomial multiplication along with ideas from
F{\"u}rer's algorithm to achieve this improvement in
the modular setting. Our algorithm can also be viewed
as a $p$-adic version of F{\"u}rer's algorithm. Thus,
we show that the two seemingly different approaches to
integer multiplication, modular and complex arithmetic,
are similar.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computational algebra; integer multiplication; modular
arithmetic",
}
@InProceedings{Shpilka:2008:ROP,
author = "Amir Shpilka and Ilya Volkovich",
title = "Read-once polynomial identity testing",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "507--516",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374448",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this paper we study the problems of polynomial
identity testing (PIT) and reconstruction of read-once
formulas. The following are some deterministic
algorithms that we obtain. An {$ n^{O(k^2)} $}
algorithm for checking whether given $k$ ROFs sum to
zero or not. An {$ n^{O(d + k^2)} $} time algorithm for
checking whether a black box holding the sum of $k$
depth $d$ ROFs computes the zero polynomial. In other
words, we provide a hitting set of size {$ n^{O(d +
k^2)} $} for the sum of $k$ depth $d$ ROFs. This
implies an {$ n^{O(d)} $} deterministic algorithm for
the reconstruction of depth $d$ ROFs. A hitting set of
size {$ \exp (\tilde {O}(\sqrt {n} + k^2)) $} for the
sum of $k$ ROFs (without depth restrictions). This
implies a sub-exponential time deterministic algorithm
for black-box identity testing and reconstructing of
ROFs. To the best of our knowledge our results give the
first polynomial time (non black-box) and
sub-exponential time (black-box) identity testing
algorithms for the sum of (a constant number of) ROFs.
In addition, we introduce and study the read-once
testing problem (ROT for short): Given an arithmetic
circuit computing a polynomial P(x), decide whether
there is a ROF computing P(x). If there is such a
formula then output it. Otherwise output `No'. We show
that most previous algorithms for polynomial identity
testing can be strengthen to yield algorithms for the
ROT problem. In particular we give ROT algorithms for:
Depth-2 circuits (circuits computing sparse
polynomials), Depth-3 circuits with bounded top fan-in
(both in the black-box and non black-box settings,
where the running time depends on the model),
non-commutative formulas and sum of $k$ ROFs. The
running time of the ROT algorithm is essentially the
same running time as the corresponding PIT algorithm
for the class. The main tool in most of our results is
a new connection between polynomial identity testing
and reconstruction of read-once formulas. Namely, we
show that in any model that is closed under partial
derivatives (that is, a partial derivative of a
polynomial computed by a circuit in the model, can also
be computed by a circuit in the model) and that has an
efficient deterministic polynomial identity testing
algorithm, we can also answer the read-once testing
problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetic circuits; bounded depth circuits; identity
testing; read-once formulas; reconstruction",
}
@InProceedings{ODonnell:2008:CPP,
author = "Ryan O'Donnell and Rocco A. Servedio",
title = "The {Chow Parameters} problem",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "517--526",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374450",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In the 2nd Annual FOCS (1961), C. K. Chow proved that
every Boolean threshold function is uniquely determined
by its degree-0 and degree-1 Fourier coefficients.
These numbers became known as the Chow Parameters.
Providing an algorithmic version of Chow's theorem ---
i.e., efficiently constructing a representation of a
threshold function given its Chow Parameters --- has
remained open ever since. This problem has received
significant study in the fields of circuit complexity,
game theory and the design of voting systems, and
learning theory. In this paper we effectively solve the
problem, giving a randomized PTAS with the following
behavior: Theorem: Given the Chow Parameters of a
Boolean threshold function $f$ over $n$ bits and any
constant $ \epsilon $ > 0, the algorithm runs in time
{$ O(n^2 \log^2 n) $} and with high probability outputs
a representation of a threshold function $ f' $ which
is $ \epsilon $-close to $f$. Along the way we prove
several new results of independent interest about
Boolean threshold functions. In addition to various
structural results, these include the following new
algorithmic results in learning theory (where threshold
functions are usually called `halfspaces'): An {$
\tilde {O}(n^2) $}-time uniform distribution algorithm
for learning halfspaces to constant accuracy in the
`Restricted Focus of Attention' (RFA) model of
Ben-David et al. [3]. This answers the main open
question of [6]. An {$ O(n^2) $}-time agnostic-type
learning algorithm for halfspaces under the uniform
distribution. This contrasts with recent results of
Guruswami and Raghavendra [21] who show that the
learning problem we solve is NP-hard under general
distributions. As a special case of the latter result
we obtain the fastest known algorithm for learning
halfspaces to constant accuracy in the uniform
distribution PAC learning model. For constant $
\epsilon $ our algorithm runs in time ~O(n^2), which
substantially improves on previous bounds and nearly
matches the {$ \Omega (n^2) $} bits of training data
that any successful learning algorithm must use.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Boolean function; chow parameters; Fourier analysis;
threshold function",
}
@InProceedings{Gopalan:2008:ALD,
author = "Parikshit Gopalan and Adam Tauman Kalai and Adam R.
Klivans",
title = "Agnostically learning decision trees",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "527--536",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374451",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give a query algorithm for agnostically learning
decision trees with respect to the uniform distribution
on inputs. Given black-box access to an *arbitrary*
binary function $f$ on the $n$-dimensional hypercube,
our algorithm finds a function that agrees with $f$ on
almost (within an epsilon fraction) as many inputs as
the best size-t decision tree, in time poly(n,t,1$
\epsilon $ ).\par
This is the first polynomial-time algorithm for
learning decision trees in a harsh noise model. We also
give a *proper* agnostic learning algorithm for juntas,
a sub-class of decision trees, again using membership
queries.\par
Conceptually, the present paper parallels recent work
towards agnostic learning of halfspaces (Kalai et al,
2005); algorithmically, it is more challenging. The
core of our learning algorithm is a procedure to
implicitly solve a convex optimization problem over the
{$ L_1 $} ball in $ 2^n $ dimensions using an
approximate gradient projection method.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "agnostic learning; decision trees; learning in the
presence of noise",
}
@InProceedings{Dasgupta:2008:RPT,
author = "Sanjoy Dasgupta and Yoav Freund",
title = "Random projection trees and low dimensional
manifolds",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "537--546",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374452",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a simple variant of the $k$-d tree which
automatically adapts to intrinsic low dimensional
structure in data without having to explicitly learn
this structure.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$k$-$d$ tree; curse of dimension; manifold; random
projection",
}
@InProceedings{Lovett:2008:ICG,
author = "Shachar Lovett and Roy Meshulam and Alex
Samorodnitsky",
title = "Inverse conjecture for the {Gowers norm} is false",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "547--556",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374454",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Let $p$ be a fixed prime number and {$N$} be a large
integer. The `Inverse Conjecture for the Gowers Norm'
states that if the `$d$-th Gowers norm' of a function
{$ f : F^N_p $} to {$ F_p $} is non-negligible, that is
larger than a constant independent of {$N$}, then $f$
has a non-trivial correlation with a degree $ d - 1 $
polynomial. The conjecture is known to hold for $ d =
2, 3 $ and for any prime $p$. In this paper we show the
conjecture to be false for $ p = 2 $ and for $ d = 4 $,
by presenting an explicit function whose 4-th Gowers
norm is non-negligible, but whose correlation with any
polynomial of degree 3 is exponentially small.
Essentially the same result, with different bounds for
correlation, was independently obtained by Green and
Tao. Their analysis uses a modification of a
Ramsey-type argument of Alon and Beigel to show
inapproximability of certain functions by low-degree
polynomials. We observe that a combination of our
results with the argument of Alon and Beigel implies
the inverse conjecture to be false for any prime $p$,
for $ d = p^2 $.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Gowers norm; low degree tests; multivariate
polynomials",
}
@InProceedings{Lovett:2008:UPG,
author = "Shachar Lovett",
title = "Unconditional pseudorandom generators for low degree
polynomials",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "557--562",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374455",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We give an explicit construction of pseudorandom
generators against low degree polynomials over finite
fields. We show that the sum of $ 2^d $ small-biased
generators with error {$ \epsilon^2 O(d) $} is a
pseudorandom generator against degree $d$ polynomials
with error $ \epsilon $. This gives a generator with
seed length {$ 2^{O(d)} \log (n / \epsilon) $}. Our
construction follows the recent breakthrough result of
Bogdanov and Viola. Their work shows that the sum of
$d$ small-biased generators is a pseudo-random
generator against degree $d$ polynomials, assuming the
Inverse Gowers Conjecture. However, this conjecture is
only proven for $ d = 2, 3 $. The main advantage of our
work is that it does not rely on any unproven
conjectures.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Fourier analysis; low degree tests; pseudorandom
generators",
}
@InProceedings{Spielman:2008:GSE,
author = "Daniel A. Spielman and Nikhil Srivastava",
title = "Graph sparsification by effective resistances",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "563--568",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374456",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present a nearly-linear time algorithm that
produces high-quality sparsifiers of weighted graphs.
Given as input a weighted graph {$ G = (V, E, w) $} and
a parameter $ \epsilon > 0 $, we produce a weighted
subgraph {$ H = (V, {\~ E}, {\~ w}) $} of {$G$} such
that {$ |{\~ E}| = O(n \log n / \epsilon^2) $} and for
all vectors $x$ in {$ R^V $}. {$ (1 - \epsilon)
\sum_{u, v} \in E (x(u) - x(v))^2 w_{u, v} \leq
\sum_{u, v} \in {\~ E}(x(u) - x(v))^2 {\~ w}_{u, v}
\leq (1 + \epsilon) \sum_{u_v} \in E(x(u) - x(v))^2
w_{u, v} $}. This improves upon the sparsifiers
constructed by Spielman and Teng, which had {$ O(n
\log^c n) $} edges for some large constant $c$, and
upon those of Benczur and Karger, which only satisfied
(1) for $x$ in {$ \{ 0, 1 \}^V $}. We conjecture the
existence of sparsifiers with {$ O(n) $} edges, noting
that these would generalize the notion of expander
graphs, which are constant-degree sparsifiers for the
complete graph. A key ingredient in our algorithm is a
subroutine of independent interest: a nearly-linear
time algorithm that builds a data structure from which
we can query the approximate effective resistance
between any two vertices in a graph in {$ O(\log n) $}
time.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "electrical flows; random sampling; spectral graph
theory",
}
@InProceedings{ODonnell:2008:STA,
author = "Ryan O'Donnell",
title = "Some topics in analysis of {Boolean} functions",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "569--578",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374458",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "This article accompanies a tutorial talk given at the
40th ACM STOC conference. In it, we give a brief
introduction to Fourier analysis of Boolean functions
and then discuss some applications: Arrow's Theorem and
other ideas from the theory of Social Choice; the
Bonami-Beckner Inequality as an extension of
Chernoff/Hoeffding bounds to higher-degree polynomials;
and, hardness for approximation algorithms.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "analysis of Boolean functions; Fourier analysis",
}
@InProceedings{Impagliazzo:2008:UDP,
author = "Russell Impagliazzo and Ragesh Jaiswal and Valentine
Kabanets and Avi Wigderson",
title = "Uniform direct product theorems: simplified,
optimized, and derandomized",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "579--588",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374460",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The classical Direct-Product Theorem for circuits says
that if a Boolean function $ f : {0, 1}^n \rightarrow
{0, 1} $ is somewhat hard to compute on average by
small circuits, then the corresponding $k$-wise direct
product function $ f^k(x_1, \ldots {}, x_k) = (f(x_1),
\ldots {}, f(x_k)) $ (where each $ x_i \rightarrow {0,
1}^n $ ) is significantly harder to compute on average
by slightly smaller circuits. We prove a fully uniform
version of the Direct-Product Theorem with
information-theoretically optimal parameters, up to
constant factors. Namely, we show that for given $k$
and $ \epsilon $, there is an efficient randomized
algorithm {$A$} with the following property. Given a
circuit {$C$} that computes $ f^k $ on at least $
\epsilon $ fraction of inputs, the algorithm A outputs
with probability at least $ 3 / 4 $ a list of {$ O(1 /
\epsilon) $} circuits such that at least one of the
circuits on the list computes $f$ on more than $ 1 -
\delta $ fraction of inputs, for {$ \delta = O((\log 1
/ \epsilon) / k) $}. Moreover, each output circuit is
an AC$^0$ circuit (of size $ \poly (n, k, \log 1 /
\delta, 1 / \epsilon) $ ), with oracle access to the
circuit {$C$}. Using the Goldreich--Levin decoding
algorithm [5], we also get a fully uniform version of
Yao's XOR Lemma [18] with optimal parameters, up to
constant factors. Our results simplify and improve
those in [10]. Our main result may be viewed as an
efficient approximate, local, list-decoding algorithm
for direct-product codes (encoding a function by its
values on all $k$-tuples) with optimal parameters. We
generalize it to a family of `derandomized'
direct-product codes, which we call intersection codes,
where the encoding provides values of the function only
on a subfamily of $k$-tuples. The quality of the
decoding algorithm is then determined by sampling
properties of the sets in this family and their
intersections. As a direct consequence of this
generalization we obtain the first derandomized direct
product result in the uniform setting, allowing
hardness amplification with only constant (as opposed
to a factor of $k$ ) increase in the input length.
Finally, this general setting naturally allows the
decoding of concatenated codes, which further yields
nearly optimal derandomized amplification.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "direct product code; direct product theorem; XOR
code",
}
@InProceedings{Shaltiel:2008:HAP,
author = "Ronen Shaltiel and Emanuele Viola",
title = "Hardness amplification proofs require majority",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "589--598",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374461",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Hardness amplification is the fundamental task of
converting a $ \delta $-hard function $ f : (0, 1)^n
\rightarrow (0, 1) $ into a ($ 1 / 2 - \epsilon $
)-hard function {$ \Amp (f) $}, where $f$ is $ \gamma
$-hard if small circuits fail to compute $f$ on at
least a $ \gamma $ fraction of the inputs. Typically, $
\epsilon $, $ \delta $ are small (and $ \delta = 2^{-k}
$ captures the case where $f$ is worst-case hard).
Achieving {$ \epsilon = 1 / n^{\Omega (1)} $} is a
prerequisite for cryptography and most
pseudorandom-generator constructions.\par
In this paper we study the complexity of black-box
proofs of hardness amplification. A class of circuits
cal {$D$} {\em proves\/} a hardness amplification
result if for any function $h$ that agrees with {$ \Amp
(f) $} on a $ 1 / 2 + e $ fraction of the inputs there
exists an oracle circuit {$ D \in D $} such that {$ D^h
$} agrees with $f$ on a $ 1 - \delta $ fraction of the
inputs. We focus on the case where every {$ D \in D $}
makes {\em non-adaptive\/} queries to $h$. This setting
captures most hardness amplification techniques. We
prove two main results:\par
(1) The circuits in {$D$} `can be used' to compute the
majority function on $ 1 / \epsilon $ bits. In
particular, these circuits have large depth when $
\epsilon \leq 1 / \poly \log n $. \par
(2) The circuits in {$D$} must make {$ \Omega \log (1 /
\delta) / e^2 $} oracle queries.\par
Both our bounds on the depth and on the number of
queries are tight up to constant factors.\par
Our results explain why hardness amplification
techniques have failed to transform known lower bounds
against constant-depth circuit classes into strong
average-case lower bounds. When coupled with the
celebrated `Natural Proofs' result by Razborov and
Rudich (J. CSS '97) and the pseudorandom functions by
Naor and Reingold (J. ACM '04), our results show that
{\em standard techniques for hardness amplification can
only be applied to those circuit classes for which
standard techniques cannot prove circuit lower
bounds.}\par
Our results reveal a contrast between Yao's XOR Lemma
({$ \Amp (f) := f(x_1) \oplus \ldots {} \oplus f(x_t)
\in z o $} and the Direct-Product Lemma {$ (\Amp (f) :=
f(x_1) \circ \ldots {} \circ f(x_t) \in z o^t) $}; here
{$ \Amp (f) $} is non-Boolean). Our results (1) and (2)
apply to Yao's XOR lemma, whereas known proofs of the
direct-product lemma violate both (1) and (2).\par
One of our contributions is a new technique to handle
`non-uniform' reductions, i.e. the case when {$D$}
contains many circuits.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "amplification; average-case complexity; black-box;
constant-depth circuits; hardness; majority; natural
proofs",
}
@InProceedings{Jain:2008:DPT,
author = "Rahul Jain and Hartmut Klauck and Ashwin Nayak",
title = "Direct product theorems for classical communication
complexity via subdistribution bounds: extended
abstract",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "599--608",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374462",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A basic question in complexity theory is whether the
computational resources required for solving $k$
independent instances of the same problem scale as $k$
times the resources required for one instance. We
investigate this question in various models of
classical communication complexity. We introduce a new
measure, the subdistribution bound, which is a
relaxation of the well-studied rectangle or corruption
bound in communication complexity. We nonetheless show
that for the communication complexity of Boolean
functions with constant error, the subdistribution
bound is the same as the latter measure, up to a
constant factor. We prove that the one-way version of
this bound tightly captures the one-way public-coin
randomized communication complexity of any relation,
and the two-way version bounds the two-way public-coin
randomized communication complexity from below. More
importantly, we show that the bound satisfies the
strong direct product property under product
distributions for both one- and two-way protocols, and
the weak direct product property under arbitrary
distributions for two-way protocols. These results
subsume and strengthen, in a unified manner, several
recent results on the direct product question. The
simplicity and broad applicability of our technique is
perhaps an indication of its potential to solve yet
more challenging questions regarding the direct product
problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; direct product; information
theory; rectangle bounds; subdistribution bounds",
}
@InProceedings{Blum:2008:LTA,
author = "Avrim Blum and Katrina Ligett and Aaron Roth",
title = "A learning theory approach to non-interactive database
privacy",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "609--618",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374464",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We demonstrate that, ignoring computational
constraints, it is possible to release
privacy-preserving databases that are useful for all
queries over a discretized domain from any given
concept class with polynomial VC-dimension. We show a
new lower bound for releasing databases that are useful
for halfspace queries over a continuous domain. Despite
this, we give a privacy-preserving polynomial time
algorithm that releases information useful for all
halfspace queries, for a slightly relaxed definition of
usefulness. Inspired by learning theory, we introduce a
new notion of data privacy, which we call
distributional privacy, and show that it is strictly
stronger than the prevailing privacy notion,
differential privacy.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "learning theory; non-interactive database privacy",
}
@InProceedings{Feldman:2008:ELA,
author = "Vitaly Feldman",
title = "Evolvability from learning algorithms",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "619--628",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374465",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Valiant has recently introduced a framework for
analyzing the capabilities and the limitations of the
evolutionary process of random change guided by
selection. In his framework the process of acquiring a
complex functionality is viewed as a substantially
restricted form of PAC learning of an unknown function
from a certain set of functions. Valiant showed that
classes of functions evolvable in his model are also
learnable in the statistical query (SQ) model of Kearns
and asked whether the converse is true.\par
We show that evolvability is equivalent to learnability
by a restricted form of statistical queries. Based on
this equivalence we prove that for any fixed
distribution {$D$} over the instance space, every class
of functions learnable by SQs over {$D$} is evolvable
over {$D$}. Previously, only the evolvability of
monotone conjunctions of Boolean variables over the
uniform distribution was known. On the other hand, we
prove that the answer to Valiant's question is negative
when distribution-independent evolvability is
considered. To demonstrate this, we develop a technique
for proving lower bounds on evolvability and use it to
show that decision lists and linear threshold functions
are not evolvable in a distribution-independent way.
This is in contrast to distribution-independent
learnability of decision lists and linear threshold
functions in the statistical query model.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "evolvability; PAC learning; statistical query",
}
@InProceedings{Kalai:2008:ABP,
author = "Adam Tauman Kalai and Yishay Mansour and Elad Verbin",
title = "On agnostic boosting and parity learning",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "629--638",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374466",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "The motivating problem is agnostically learning parity
functions, i.e., parity with arbitrary or adversarial
noise. Specifically, given random labeled examples from
an *arbitrary* distribution, we would like to produce
an hypothesis whose accuracy nearly matches the
accuracy of the best parity function. Our algorithm
runs in time {$ 2^{O(n / log n)} $}, which matches the
best known for the easier cases of learning parities
with random classification noise (Blum et al, 2003) and
for agnostically learning parities over the uniform
distribution on inputs (Feldman et al, 2006).\par
Our approach is as follows. We give an agnostic
boosting theorem that is capable of nearly achieving
optimal accuracy, improving upon earlier studies
(starting with Ben David et al, 2001). To achieve this,
we circumvent previous lower bounds by altering the
boosting model. We then show that the (random noise)
parity learning algorithm of Blum et al (2000) fits our
new model of agnostic weak learner. Our agnostic
boosting framework is completely general and may be
applied to other agnostic learning problems. Hence, it
also sheds light on the actual difficulty of agnostic
learning by showing that full agnostic boosting is
indeed possible.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "agnostic boosting; agnostic learning; learning parity
with noise; sub-exponential algorithms",
}
@InProceedings{Haussler:2008:CHW,
author = "David Haussler",
title = "Computing how we became human",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "639--640",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374468",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "With our ability to sequence entire genomes, we have
for the first time the opportunity to compare the
genomes of present day species, and deduce the
trajectories by which they diversified from a common
ancestral genome. For example, starting with a small
shrew-like ancestor in the Cretaceous period about 100
million years ago, the different species of placental
mammals radiated outward, creating a stunning diversity
of forms from whales to armadillos to humans. From the
genomes of present-day species, it is possible to
computationally reconstruct what most of the DNA bases
in the genome of the common ancestor of placental
mammals must have looked like, and deduce most of the
changes that lead to humans. In so doing, we discover
how Darwinian evolution has shaped us at the molecular
level.\par
Because most random mutations to functionally important
regions of DNA reduce fitness, these changes usually
disappear over time, in a process known as negative
selection. From its unusually high conservation between
species, it is immediately evident that at least 5\% of
the human genome has been under negative selection
during most of mammalian evolution, and is hence likely
to be functionally important. Protein-coding genes and
structural RNA genes stand out among the negatively
selected regions because of their distinctive pattern
of restricted DNA base substitutions, insertions and
deletions. However, most of the DNA under negative
selection in mammalian genomes, and indeed in
vertebrate genomes in general, does not appear to be
part of protein-coding or structural RNA genes, and
shares no sequence similarity with any DNA in the
genomes of invertebrates. Experimental evidence
suggests that many of these unclassified
vertebrate-conserved DNA elements serve to regulate
genes involved in embryonic development. A significant
amount of this material appears to have been put into
place by the movement of transposons, mobile DNA
elements that are derived from ancient viruses, the
remnants of which constitute at least half of our
genome. This provides new evidence for older theories
of McClintock and later Britten and Davidson that
mobile DNA elements played a significant role in the
evolution of plant and animal gene regulatory
networks.\par
Overlaid on the background of negative selection, we
occasionally see a short segment of DNA that has
changed rapidly in a particular lineage, suggesting
possible positive selection for a modified function in
that lineage. The most dramatic example of this in the
last 5 million years of human evolution occurs in a
previously unstudied RNA gene expressed in the
developing cerebral cortex, known as Human Accelerated
Region 1 (HAR1). This gene is turned on only in a
select set of neurons, during the time in fetal
development when these neurons orchestrate the
formation of the substantially larger cortex of the
human brain. It will be many years before the biology
of such examples is fully understood, but right now we
relish the opportunity to get a first peek at the
molecular tinkering that transmuted our animal
ancestors into humans.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "genomes; mammalian evolution; selection; transposons",
}
@InProceedings{Chakrabarti:2008:RLB,
author = "Amit Chakrabarti and Graham Cormode and Andrew
McGregor",
title = "Robust lower bounds for communication and stream
computation",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "641--650",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374470",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study the communication complexity of evaluating
functions when the input data is randomly allocated
(according to some known distribution) amongst two or
more players, possibly with information overlap. This
naturally extends previously studied variable partition
models such as the best-case and worst-case partition
models [32,29]. We aim to understand whether the
hardness of a communication problem holds for almost
every allocation of the input, as opposed to holding
for perhaps just a few atypical partitions.\par
A key application is to the heavily studied data stream
model. There is a strong connection between our
communication lower bounds and lower bounds in the data
stream model that are `robust' to the ordering of the
data. That is, we prove lower bounds for when the order
of the items in the stream is chosen not adversarially
but rather uniformly (or near-uniformly) from the set
of all permutations. This random-order data stream
model has attracted recent interest, since lower bounds
here give stronger evidence for the inherent hardness
of streaming problems. Our results include the first
random-partition communication lower bounds for
problems including multi-party set disjointness and
gap-Hamming-distance. Both are tight. We also extend
and improve previous results [19,7] for a form of
pointer jumping that is relevant to the problem of
selection (in particular, median finding).
Collectively, these results yield lower bounds for a
variety of problems in the random-order data stream
model, including estimating the number of distinct
elements, approximating frequency moments, and quantile
estimation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; data streams; lower bounds",
}
@InProceedings{Mironov:2008:SAE,
author = "Ilya Mironov and Moni Naor and Gil Segev",
title = "Sketching in adversarial environments",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "651--660",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374471",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We formalize a realistic model for computations over
massive data sets. The model, referred to as the {\em
adversarial sketch model}, unifies the well-studied
sketch and data stream models together with a
cryptographic flavor that considers the execution of
protocols in `hostile environments', and provides a
framework for studying the complexity of many tasks
involving massive data sets.\par
The adversarial sketch model consists of several
participating parties: honest parties, whose goal is to
compute a pre-determined function of their inputs, and
an adversarial party. Computation in this model
proceeds in two phases. In the first phase, the
adversarial party chooses the inputs of the honest
parties. These inputs are sets of elements taken from a
large universe, and provided to the honest parties in
an on-line manner in the form of a sequence of insert
and delete operations. Once an operation from the
sequence has been processed it is discarded and cannot
be retrieved unless explicitly stored. During this
phase the honest parties are not allowed to
communicate. Moreover, they do not share any secret
information and any public information they share is
known to the adversary in advance. In the second phase,
the honest parties engage in a protocol in order to
compute a pre-determined function of their
inputs.\par
In this paper we settle the complexity (up to
logarithmic factors) of two fundamental problems in
this model: testing whether two massive data sets are
equal, and approximating the size of their symmetric
difference. We construct explicit and efficient
protocols with sublinear sketches of essentially
optimal size, poly-logarithmic update time during the
first phase, and poly-logarithmic communication and
computation during the second phase. Our main technical
contribution is an explicit and deterministic encoding
scheme that enjoys two seemingly conflicting
properties: incrementality and high distance, which may
be of independent interest.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "data stream model; massive data sets; sketch model",
}
@InProceedings{Barkol:2008:CPR,
author = "Omer Barkol and Yuval Ishai and Enav Weinreb",
title = "Communication in the presence of replication",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "661--670",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374472",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider the following problem. Suppose that a big
amount of data is distributed among several parties, so
that each party misses only few pieces of data. The
parties wish to perform some global computation on the
data while minimizing the communication between them.
This situation is common in many real-life scenarios. A
naive solution to this problem is to first perform a
synchronization step, letting one party learn all
pieces of data, and then let this party perform the
required computation locally. We study the question of
obtaining better solutions to the problem, focusing
mainly on the case of computing low-degree polynomials
via non-interactive protocols. We present interesting
connections between this problem and the well studied
cryptographic problem of secret sharing. We use this
connection to obtain nontrivial upper bounds and lower
bounds using results and techniques from the domain of
secret sharing. The relation with open problems from
the area of secret sharing also provides evidence for
the difficulty of resolving some of the questions we
leave open.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "communication complexity; secret sharing; simultaneous
messages",
}
@InProceedings{Balcan:2008:DFC,
author = "Maria-Florina Balcan and Avrim Blum and Santosh
Vempala",
title = "A discriminative framework for clustering via
similarity functions",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "671--680",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374474",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Problems of clustering data from pairwise similarity
information are ubiquitous in Computer Science.
Theoretical treatments typically view the similarity
information as ground-truth and then design algorithms
to (approximately) optimize various graph-based
objective functions. However, in most applications,
this similarity information is merely based on some
heuristic; the ground truth is really the unknown
correct clustering of the data points and the real goal
is to achieve low error on the data. In this work, we
develop a theoretical approach to clustering from this
perspective. In particular, motivated by recent work in
learning theory that asks `what natural properties of a
similarity (or kernel) function are sufficient to be
able to learn well?' we ask `what natural properties of
a similarity function are sufficient to be able to
cluster well?'\par
To study this question we develop a theoretical
framework that can be viewed as an analog of the PAC
learning model for clustering, where the object of
study, rather than being a concept class, is a class of
(concept, similarity function) pairs, or equivalently,
a property the similarity function should satisfy with
respect to the ground truth clustering. We then analyze
both algorithmic and information theoretic issues in
our model. While quite strong properties are needed if
the goal is to produce a single approximately-correct
clustering, we find that a number of reasonable
properties are sufficient under two natural
relaxations: (a) list clustering: analogous to the
notion of list-decoding, the algorithm can produce a
small list of clusterings (which a user can select
from) and (b) hierarchical clustering: the algorithm's
goal is to produce a hierarchy such that desired
clustering is some pruning of this tree (which a user
could navigate). We develop a notion of the clustering
complexity of a given property (analogous to notions of
capacity in learning theory), that characterizes its
information-theoretic usefulness for clustering. We
analyze this quantity for several natural
game-theoretic and learning-theoretic properties, as
well as design new efficient algorithms that are able
to take advantage of them. Our algorithms for
hierarchical clustering combine recent
learning-theoretic approaches with linkage-style
methods. We also show how our algorithms can be
extended to the inductive case, i.e., by using just a
constant-sized sample, as in property testing. The
analysis here uses regularity-type results of [FK] and
[AFKK].",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "clustering; learning; similarity functions",
}
@InProceedings{Kleinberg:2008:MAB,
author = "Robert Kleinberg and Aleksandrs Slivkins and Eli
Upfal",
title = "Multi-armed bandits in metric spaces",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "681--690",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374475",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In a multi-armed bandit problem, an online algorithm
chooses from a set of strategies in a sequence of $n$
trials so as to maximize the total payoff of the chosen
strategies. While the performance of bandit algorithms
with a small finite strategy set is quite well
understood, bandit problems with large strategy sets
are still a topic of very active investigation,
motivated by practical applications such as online
auctions and web advertisement. The goal of such
research is to identify broad and natural classes of
strategy sets and payoff functions which enable the
design of efficient solutions.\par
In this work we study a very general setting for the
multi-armed bandit problem in which the strategies form
a metric space, and the payoff function satisfies a
Lipschitz condition with respect to the metric. We
refer to this problem as the `Lipschitz MAB problem'.
We present a complete solution for the multi-armed
problem in this setting. That is, for every metric
space (L,X) we define an isometry invariant Max Min
COV(X) which bounds from below the performance of
Lipschitz MAB algorithms for {$X$}, and we present an
algorithm which comes arbitrarily close to meeting this
bound. Furthermore, our technique gives even better
results for benign payoff functions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "covering dimension; metric spaces; multi-armed bandit
problem; online learning",
}
@InProceedings{Awerbuch:2008:SDG,
author = "Baruch Awerbuch and Rohit Khandekar",
title = "Stateless distributed gradient descent for positive
linear programs",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "691--700",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374476",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We develop a framework of distributed and stateless
solutions for packing and covering linear programs,
which are solved by multiple agents operating in a
cooperative but uncoordinated manner. Our model has a
separate `agent' controlling each variable and an agent
is allowed to read-off the current values only of those
constraints in which it has non-zero coefficients. This
is a natural model for many distributed applications
like flow control, maximum bipartite matching, and
dominating sets.\par
The most appealing feature of our algorithms is their
simplicity and polylogarithmic convergence. For the
packing LP {$ \max \{ c x | A x = 0 \} $}, the
algorithm associates a dual variable {$ y_i = \exp [1
\epsilon * (A_i x / b_{i - 1})] $} for each constraint
$i$ and each agent $j$ iteratively increases (resp.
decreases) $ x_j $ multiplicatively if {$ A_j^T y $} is
too small (resp. large) as compared to $ c_j $. Our
algorithm starting from a feasible solution, always
maintains feasibility, and computes a $ (1 + \epsilon)
$ approximation in {$ \poly ((\ln (m n A_{\rm max}))
\epsilon) $} rounds. Here $m$ and $n$ are number of
rows and columns of {$A$} and {$ A_{\rm max} $}, also
known as the `width' of the LP, is the ratio of maximum
and minimum non-zero entries {$ A_i j / (b_i c_j) $}.
Similar algorithm works for the covering LP {$ \min {by
| A^T y \geq c, y \geq 0} $} as well.\par
While exponential dual variables are used in several
packing\slash covering LP algorithms before [25, 9, 13,
12, 26, 16], this is the first algorithm which is both
stateless and has polylogarithmic convergence. Our
algorithms can be thought of as applying distributed
gradient descent\slash ascent on a carefully chosen
potential. Our analysis differs from those of previous
multiplicative update based algorithms and argues that
while the current solution is far away from optimality,
the potential function decreases/increases by a
significant factor.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "distributed and stateless algorithms; fast
convergence; gradient descent; linear programming",
}
@InProceedings{Nordstrom:2008:TOS,
author = "Jakob Nordstr{\"o}m and Johan H{\aa}stad",
title = "Towards an optimal separation of space and length in
resolution",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "701--710",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374478",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Most state-of-the-art satisfiability algorithms today
are variants of the DPLL procedure augmented with
clause learning. The main bottleneck for such
algorithms, other than the obvious one of time, is the
amount of memory used. In the field of proof
complexity, the resources of time and memory correspond
to the length and space of resolution proofs. There has
been a long line of research trying to understand these
proof complexity measures, as well as relating them to
the width of proofs, i.e., the size of the largest
clause in the proof, which has been shown to be
intimately connected with both length and space. While
strong results have been proven for length and width,
our understanding of space is still quite poor. For
instance, it has remained open whether the fact that a
formula is provable in short length implies that it is
also provable in small space (which is the case for
length versus width), or whether on the contrary these
measures are completely unrelated in the sense that
short proofs can be arbitrarily complex with respect to
space.\par
In this paper, we present some evidence that the true
answer should be that the latter case holds and provide
a possible roadmap for how such an optimal separation
result could be obtained. We do this by proving a tight
bound of {$ \Theta (\sqrt {n}) $} on the space needed
for so-called pebbling contradictions over pyramid
graphs of size $n$.\par
Also, continuing the line of research initiated by
(Ben-Sasson 2002) into trade-offs between different
proof complexity measures, we present a simplified
proof of the recent length-space trade-off result in
(Hertel and Pitassi 2007), and show how our ideas can
be used to prove a couple of other exponential
trade-offs in resolution.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "length; lower bound; pebbling; proof complexity;
resolution; separation; space",
}
@InProceedings{Raz:2008:EFL,
author = "Ran Raz",
title = "Elusive functions and lower bounds for arithmetic
circuits",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "711--720",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374479",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "A basic fact in linear algebra is that the image of
the curve $ f(x) = (x^1, x^2, x^3, \ldots {}, x^m) $,
say over {$C$}, is not contained in any $ m - 1 $
dimensional affine subspace of {$ C^m $}. In other
words, the image of $f$ is not contained in the image
of any polynomial-mapping {$ \Gamma : C^{m - 1}
\rightarrow C^m $} of degree~1 (that is, an affine
mapping). Can one give an explicit example for a
polynomial curve {$ f : C \rightarrow C^m $}, such
that, the image of $f$ is not contained in the image of
any polynomial-mapping {$ \Gamma : C^{m - 1}
\rightarrow C^m $} of degree 2? In this paper, we show
that problems of this type are closely related to
proving lower bounds for the size of general arithmetic
circuits. For example, any explicit $f$ as above (with
the right notion of explicitness) implies
super-polynomial lower bounds for computing the
permanent over~{$C$}. More generally, we say that a
polynomial-mapping {$ f : F^n \rightarrow F^m $} is $
(s, r) $-elusive, if for every polynomial-mapping {$
\Gamma : F^s \rightarrow F^m $} of degree $r$, {$ I
m(f) \not \subset I m(\Gamma) $}. We show that for many
settings of the parameters $ n, m, s, r $, explicit
constructions of elusive polynomial-mappings imply
strong (up to exponential) lower bounds for general
arithmetic circuits. Finally, for every $r$, of degree
{$ O(r) $}, that is $ (s, r) $-elusive for {$ s = n^{1
+ \Omega (1 / r)} $}. We use this to construct for any
$r$, an explicit example for an $n$-variate polynomial
of total-degree {$ O(r) $}, with coefficients in $ \{
0, 1, \} $ such that, any depth $r$ arithmetic circuit
for this polynomial (over any field) is of size {$ \geq
n^{1 + \Omega (1 / r)} $}. In particular, for any
constant $r$, this gives a constant degree polynomial,
such that, any depth $r$ arithmetic circuit for this
polynomial is of size {$ \geq n^{1 + \Omega (1)} $}.
Previously, only lower bounds of the type {$ \Omega (n
\lambda_r (n)) $}, where $ \lambda_r (n) $ are
extremely slowly growing functions (e.g., $ \lambda_5
(n) = \log n $, and $ \lambda_7 (n) = \log * \log * n $
), were known for constant-depth arithmetic circuits
for polynomials of constant degree.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetic circuits; bounded depth circuits; circuit
complexity; lower bounds",
}
@InProceedings{Rossman:2008:CDC,
author = "Benjamin Rossman",
title = "On the constant-depth complexity of $k$-clique",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "721--730",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374480",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We prove a lower bound of $ \omega (n^{k / 4}) $ on
the size of constant-depth circuits solving the
$k$-clique problem on $n$-vertex graphs (for every
constant $k$ ). This improves a lower bound of $ \omega
(n^{k / 89 d^2}) $ due to Beame where $d$ is the
circuit depth. Our lower bound has the advantage that
it does not depend on the constant $d$ in the exponent
of $n$, thus breaking the mold of the traditional
size-depth tradeoff.\par
Our $k$-clique lower bound derives from a stronger
result of independent interest. Suppose $ f_n : 0, 1^{n
/ 2} \rightarrow \{ 0, 1 \} $ is a sequence of
functions computed by constant-depth circuits of size
{$ O(n^t) $}. Let {$G$} be an Erd{\H{o}}s-R{\'e}nyi
random graph with vertex set $ \{ 1, \ldots {}, n \} $
and independent edge probabilities $ n^{- \alpha } $
where $ \alpha \leq 1 / 2 t - 1 $. Let {$A$} be a
uniform random $k$-element subset of $ \{ 1, \ldots {},
n \} $ (where $k$ is any constant independent of $n$ )
and let {$ K_A $} denote the clique supported on {$A$}.
We prove that {$ f_n (G) = f_n (G \cup K_A) $}
asymptotically almost surely.\par
These results resolve a long-standing open question in
finite model theory (going back at least to Immerman in
1982). The $m$-variable fragment of first-order logic,
denoted by {$ {\rm FO}^m $}, consists of the
first-order sentences which involve at most $m$
variables. Our results imply that the bounded variable
hierarchy {$ {\rm FO}^1 \subset {\rm FO}^2 \subset
\ldots {} \subset {\rm FO}^m \subset \ldots {} $} is
strict in terms of expressive power on finite ordered
graphs. It was previously unknown that {$ {\rm FO}^3 $}
is less expressive than full first-order logic on
finite ordered graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "$k$-clique; AC$^0$; bounded variable hierarchy;
circuit complexity; constant-depth circuits;
first-order logic",
}
@InProceedings{Aaronson:2008:ANB,
author = "Scott Aaronson and Avi Wigderson",
title = "Algebrization: a new barrier in complexity theory",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "731--740",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374481",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "Any proof of P $ \neq $ NP will have to overcome two
barriers: relativization and natural proofs. Yet over
the last decade, we have seen circuit lower bounds (for
example, that PP does not have linear-size circuits)
that overcome both barriers simultaneously. So the
question arises of whether there is a third barrier to
progress on the central questions in complexity
theory.\par
In this paper we present such a barrier, which we call
algebraic relativization or algebrization. The idea is
that, when we relativize some complexity class
inclusion, we should give the simulating machine access
not only to an oracle A, but also to a low-degree
extension of A over a finite field or ring.\par
We systematically go through basic results and open
problems in complexity theory to delineate the power of
the new algebrization barrier. First, we show that all
known non-relativizing results based on arithmetization
-- both inclusions such as IP=PSPACE and MIP=NEXP, and
separations such as MAEXP not in P/poly -- do indeed
algebrize. Second, we show that almost all of the major
open problems -- including P versus NP, P versus RP,
and NEXP versus P/poly -- will require non-algebrizing
techniques. In some cases algebrization seems to
explain exactly why progress stopped where it did: for
example, why we have superlinear circuit lower bounds
for PromiseMA but not for NP.\par
Our second set of results follows from lower bounds in
a new model of algebraic query complexity, which we
introduce in this paper and which is interesting in its
own right. Some of our lower bounds use direct
combinatorial and algebraic arguments, while others
stem from a surprising connection between our model and
communication complexity. Using this connection, we are
also able to give an MA-protocol for the Inner Product
function with {$ O(\sqrt {n} \log n) $} communication
(essentially matching a lower bound of Klauck).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetization; communication complexity; interactive
proofs; low-degree polynomials; oracles; query
complexity",
}
@InProceedings{Dvir:2008:HRT,
author = "Zeev Dvir and Amir Shpilka and Amir Yehudayoff",
title = "Hardness-randomness tradeoffs for bounded depth
arithmetic circuits",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "741--748",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374482",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "In this paper we show that lower bounds for bounded
depth arithmetic circuits imply derandomization of
polynomial identity testing for bounded depth
arithmetic circuits. More formally, if there exists an
explicit polynomial $ f(x_1, \ldots {}, x_m) $ that
cannot be computed by a depth $d$ arithmetic circuit of
small size then there exists an efficient deterministic
algorithm to test whether a given depth $ d - 8 $
circuit is identically zero or not (assuming the
individual degrees of the tested circuit are not too
high). In particular, if we are guaranteed that the
circuit computes a multilinear polynomial then we can
perform the identity test efficiently. To the best of
our knowledge this is the first hardness-randomness
tradeoff for bounded depth arithmetic circuits. The
above results are obtained using the arithmetic
Nisan-Wigderson generator of Impagliazzo and Kabanets
together with a new theorem on bounded depth circuits,
which is the main technical contribution of our work.
This theorem deals with polynomial equations of the
form {$ P(x_1, \ldots {}, x_n, y) \equiv 0 $} and shows
that if {$P$} has a circuit of depth $d$ and size $s$
and if the polynomial $ f(x_1, \ldots {}, x_n) $
satisfies {$ P(x_1, \ldots {}, x_n, f(x_1, \ldots {},
x_n)) \equiv 0 $} then $f$ has a circuit of depth $ d +
3 $ and size {$ O(s \times r + m^r) $}, where $m$ is
the degree of $f$ and $r$ is the highest degree of the
variable $y$ appearing in {$P$}. In the other direction
we observe that the methods of Impagliazzo and Kabanets
imply that if we can derandomize polynomial identity
testing for bounded depth circuits then NEXP does not
have bounded depth arithmetic circuits. That is, either
NEXP $ \not \subset $ P/poly or the Permanent is not
computable by polynomial size bounded depth arithmetic
circuits.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetic circuits; bounded depth circuits;
hardness-randomness tradeoffs; identity testing; lower
bounds",
}
@InProceedings{Choi:2008:OQC,
author = "Sung-Soon Choi and Jeong Han Kim",
title = "Optimal query complexity bounds for finding graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "749--758",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374484",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We consider the problem of finding an unknown graph by
using two types of queries with an additive property.
Given a graph, an additive query asks the number of
edges in a set of vertices while a cross-additive query
asks the number of edges crossing between two disjoint
sets of vertices. The queries ask sum of weights for
the weighted graphs. These types of queries were
partially motivated in DNA shotgun sequencing and
linkage discovery problem of artificial
intelligence.\par
For a given unknown weighted graph {$G$} with $n$
vertices, $m$ edges, and a certain mild condition on
weights, we prove that there exists a non-adaptive
algorithm to find the edges of {$G$} using {$ O(m \log
n / \log m) $} queries of both types provided that $ m
\geq n^{\epsilon } $ for any constant $ \epsilon $ > 0.
For an unweighted graph, it is shown that the same
bound holds for all range of $m$.\par
This settles a conjecture of Grebinski [23] for finding
an unweighted graph using additive queries. We also
consider the problem of finding the Fourier
coefficients of a certain class of pseudo-Boolean
functions. A similar coin weighing problem is also
considered.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "coin weighing problem; combinatorial group testing;
combinatorial search; Fourier coefficient; graph
finding; Littlewood--Offord theorem; pseudo-Boolean
function",
}
@InProceedings{Lau:2008:AAB,
author = "Lap Chi Lau and Mohit Singh",
title = "Additive approximation for bounded degree survivable
network design",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "759--768",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374485",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We study a general network design problem with
additional degree constraints. Given connectivity
requirements r$_{uv}$ for all pairs of vertices, a
Steiner network is a graph in which there are at least
r$_{uv}$ edge-disjoint paths between $u$ and $v$ for
all pairs of vertices $u$, $v$. In the MINIMUM
BOUNDED-DEGREE STEINER NETWORK problem, we are given an
undirected graph {$G$} with an edge cost for each edge,
a connectivity requirement $ r_{uv} $ for each pair of
vertices $u$ and $v$, and a degree upper bound for each
vertex $v$. The task is to find a minimum cost Steiner
network which satisfies all the degree upper
bounds.\par
The aim of this paper is to design approximation
algorithms that minimize the total cost and the degree
violation simultaneously. Our main results are the
following:\par
There is a polynomial time algorithm which returns a
Steiner forest of cost at most 2 OPT and the degree
violation at each vertex is at most 3, where OPT is the
cost of an optimal solution which satisfies all the
degree bounds.\par
There is a polynomial time algorithm which returns a
Steiner network of cost at most 2 OPT and the degree
violation at each vertex is at most $ 6 r_{\rm max} + 3
$, where OPT is the cost of an optimal solution which
satisfies all the degree bounds, and $ r_{\rm max} :=
\max_{u, v} \{ r_{u, v} \} $.\par
These results achieve the best known guarantees for
both the total cost and the degree violation
simultaneously. As corollaries, these results provide
the first additive approximation algorithms for finding
low degree subgraphs including Steiner forests,
$k$-edge-connected subgraphs, and Steiner networks. The
algorithms develop on the iterative relaxation method
applied to a natural linear programming relaxation as
in [10, 16, 22]. The new algorithms avoid paying a
multiplicative factor of two on the degree bounds even
though the algorithm can only pick edges with
fractional value $ 1 / 2 $. This is based on a stronger
characterization of the basic so-algorithm is nearly
tight.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; bounded degree; iterative
rounding; Steiner tree; survivable network design",
}
@InProceedings{Bansal:2008:AGD,
author = "Nikhil Bansal and Rohit Khandekar and Viswanath
Nagarajan",
title = "Additive guarantees for degree bounded directed
network design",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "769--778",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374486",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We present polynomial-time approximation algorithms
for some degree-bounded directed network design
problems. Our main result is for intersecting
supermodular connectivity with degree bounds: given a
directed graph {$ G = (V, E) $} with non-negative
edge-costs, a connectivity requirement specified by an
intersecting supermodular function $f$, and upper
bounds $ a_v $, {$ b_v_{v \in V} $} on in-degrees and
out-degrees of vertices, find a minimum-cost
$f$-connected subgraph of {$G$} that satisfies the
degree bounds. We give a bicriteria approximation
algorithm that for any $ 0 \leq \epsilon \leq 1 / 2 $,
computes an $f$-connected subgraph with in-degrees at
most $ \lceil $ a_v / (1 - \epsilon) $ \rceil $ + 4$, o
u t - d e g r e e s a t m o s t $ \lceil$ b_v / (1 -
\epsilon) $ \rceil$ + 4 $, and cost at most $ 1 /
\epsilon $ times the optimum. This includes, as a
special case, the minimum-cost degree-bounded
arborescence problem. We also obtain similar results
for the (more general) class of crossing supermodular
requirements. Our result extends and improves the ($ 3
a_v + 4, 3 b_v + 4, 3 $ )-approximation of Lau et al.
Setting $ \epsilon = 0 $, our result gives the first
purely additive guarantee for the unweighted versions
of these problems. Our algorithm is based on rounding
an LP relaxation for the problem. We also prove that
the above cost-degree trade-off (even for the
degree-bounded arborescence problem) is optimal
relative to the natural LP relaxation. For every $ 0 <
\epsilon < 1 $, we show an instance where any
arborescence with out-degrees at most {$ b_v / (1 -
\epsilon) + O(1) $} has cost at least $ 1 - o(1) /
\epsilon $ times the optimal LP value. For the special
case of finding a minimum degree arborescence (without
costs), we give a stronger $ + 2 $ additive
approximation. This improves on a result of Lau et al.
[13] that gives a {$ 2 \Delta * + 2 $} guarantee, and
Klein et al. [11] that gives a {$ (1 + \epsilon) \Delta
* + O(\log_{1 + \epsilon } n) $} bound, where {$ \Delta
* $} is the degree of the optimal arborescence. As a
corollary of our result, we (almost) settle a
conjecture of Bang-Jensen et al. [1] on low-degree
arborescences. Our algorithms use the iterative
rounding technique of Jain, which was used by Lau et
al. and Singh and Lau in the context of degree-bounded
network design. It is however non-trivial to extend
these techniques to the directed setting without
incurring a multiplicative violation in the degree
bounds. This is due to the fact that known polyhedral
characterization of arborescences has the
cut-constraints which, along with degree-constraints,
are unsuitable for arguing the existence of integral
variables in a basic feasible solution. We overcome
this difficulty by enhancing the iterative rounding
steps and by means of stronger counting arguments. Our
counting technique is quite general, and it also
simplifies the proofs of many previous results. We also
apply the technique to undirected graphs. We consider
the minimum crossing spanning tree problem: given an
undirected edge-weighted graph {$G$}, edge-subsets {$
{E_i}_{i = 1}^k $}, and non-negative integers $
{b_i}_{i = 1}^k $, find a minimum-cost spanning tree
(if it exists) in {$G$} that contains at most $ b_i $
edges from each set {$ E_i $}. We obtain a $ + (r - 1)
$ additive approximation for this problem, when each
edge lies in at most $r$ sets; this considerably
improves the result of Bilo et al. A special case of
this problem is degree-bounded minimum spanning tree,
and our result gives a substantially easier proof of
the recent $ + 1 $ approximation of Singh and Lau.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "approximation algorithms; directed graphs; network
design",
}
@InProceedings{Frieze:2008:LRG,
author = "Alan Frieze and Santosh Vempala and Juan Vera",
title = "Logconcave random graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "779--788",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374487",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We propose the following model of a random graph on
$n$ vertices. Let {$F$} be a distribution in {$
R_+^{n(n - 1) / 2} $} with a coordinate for every pair
$ i, j $ with $ 1 \leq i, j \leq n $. Then {$ G_{F, p}
$} is the distribution on graphs with $n$ vertices
obtained by picking a random point {$X$} from {$F$} and
defining a graph on $n$ vertices whose edges are pairs
$ i, j $ for which {$ X_{i, j} \leq p $}. The standard
Erd{\H{o}}s--R{\'e}nyi model is the special case when
{$F$} is uniform on the $0$--$1$ unit cube. We
determine basic properties such as the connectivity
threshold for quite general distributions. We also
consider cases where the {$ X_{i, j} $} are the edge
weights in some random instance of a combinatorial
optimization problem. By choosing suitable
distributions, we can capture random graphs with
interesting properties such as triangle-free random
graphs and weighted random graphs with bounded total
weight.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "random graphs",
}
@InProceedings{Barto:2008:GPC,
author = "Libor Barto and Marcin Kozik and Todd Niven",
title = "Graphs, polymorphisms and the complexity of
homomorphism problems",
crossref = "ACM:2008:SPA",
pages = "789--796",
year = "2008",
DOI = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1374376.1374488",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:31:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
abstract = "We use a connection between polymorphisms and the
structure of smooth digraphs to prove the conjecture of
Bang-Jensen and Hell from 1990 and, as a consequence, a
conjecture of Bang-Jensen, Hell and MacGillivray from
1995. The conjectured characterization of
computationally complex coloring problems for smooth
digraphs is proved using tools of universal algebra. We
cite further graph results obtained using this new
approach. The proofs are based in an universal
algebraic framework developed for the Constraint
Satisfaction Problem and the CSP dichotomy conjecture
of Feder and Vardi in particular.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computational complexity; constraint satisfaction
problem; graph homomorphism; polymorphism; universal
algebra",
}
@InProceedings{Wigderson:2009:WLV,
author = "Avi Wigderson",
title = "The work of {Leslie Valiant}",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "1--2",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Arora:2009:MPA,
author = "Sanjeev Arora and Constantinos Daskalakis and David
Steurer",
title = "Message passing algorithms and improved {LP}
decoding",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "3--12",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gopalan:2009:LDT,
author = "Parikshit Gopalan and Venkatesan Guruswami and Prasad
Raghavendra",
title = "List decoding tensor products and interleaved codes",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "13--22",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Guruswami:2009:AAC,
author = "Venkatesan Guruswami",
title = "Artin automorphisms, cyclotomic function fields, and
folded list-decodable codes",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "23--32",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cheng:2009:DRG,
author = "Qi Cheng and Daqing Wan",
title = "A deterministic reduction for the gap minimum distance
problem: [extended abstract]",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "33--38",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Efremenko:2009:QLD,
author = "Klim Efremenko",
title = "3-query locally decodable codes of subexponential
length",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "39--44",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Sellie:2009:ELR,
author = "Linda Sellie",
title = "Exact learning of random {DNF} over the uniform
distribution",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "45--54",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Babai:2009:PTT,
author = "L{\'a}szl{\'o} Babai and Robert Beals and {\'A}kos
Seress",
title = "Polynomial-time theory of matrix groups",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "55--64",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2009:ADS,
author = "Eli Ben-Sasson and Swastik Kopparty",
title = "Affine dispersers from subspace polynomials",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "65--74",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Daskalakis:2009:OPN,
author = "Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos H.
Papadimitriou",
title = "On oblivious {PTAS}'s for {Nash} equilibrium",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "75--84",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gafni:2009:EBS,
author = "Eli Gafni",
title = "The extended {BG}-simulation and the characterization
of $t$-resiliency",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "85--92",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cardinal:2009:EAP,
author = "Jean Cardinal and Samuel Fiorini and Gwena{\"e}l Joret
and Rapha{\"e}l M. Jungers and J. Ian Munro",
title = "An efficient algorithm for partial order production",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "93--100",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Bernstein:2009:NOO,
author = "Aaron Bernstein and David Karger",
title = "A nearly optimal oracle for avoiding failed vertices
and edges",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "101--110",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Barenboim:2009:DCL,
author = "Leonid Barenboim and Michael Elkin",
title = "Distributed $ (\delta + 1) $-coloring in linear (in $
\delta $ ) time",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "111--120",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Friedrich:2009:NPL,
author = "Tobias Friedrich and Thomas Sauerwald",
title = "Near-perfect load balancing by randomized rounding",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "121--130",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Impagliazzo:2009:NDP,
author = "Russell Impagliazzo and Valentine Kabanets and Avi
Wigderson",
title = "New direct-product testers and 2-query {PCPs}",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "131--140",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Goldreich:2009:POT,
author = "Oded Goldreich and Dana Ron",
title = "On proximity oblivious testing",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "141--150",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Blais:2009:TJN,
author = "Eric Blais",
title = "Testing juntas nearly optimally",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "151--158",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Shapira:2009:GCT,
author = "Asaf Shapira",
title = "{Green}'s conjecture and testing linear-invariant
properties",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "159--166",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Goldwasser:2009:ALC,
author = "Shafi Goldwasser",
title = "{Athena} lecture: Controlling Access to Programs?",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "167--168",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gentry:2009:FHE,
author = "Craig Gentry",
title = "Fully homomorphic encryption using ideal lattices",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "169--178",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Lin:2009:UFC,
author = "Huijia Lin and Rafael Pass and Muthuramakrishnan
Venkitasubramaniam",
title = "A unified framework for concurrent security: universal
composability from stand-alone non-malleability",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "179--188",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Lin:2009:NMA,
author = "Huijia Lin and Rafael Pass",
title = "Non-malleability amplification",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "189--198",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Andoni:2009:AED,
author = "Alexandr Andoni and Krzysztof Onak",
title = "Approximating edit distance in near-linear time",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "199--204",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Clarkson:2009:NLA,
author = "Kenneth L. Clarkson and David P. Woodruff",
title = "Numerical linear algebra in the streaming model",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "205--214",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Nguyen:2009:FEA,
author = "Nam H. Nguyen and Thong T. Do and Trac D. Tran",
title = "A fast and efficient algorithm for low-rank
approximation of a matrix",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "215--224",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Yoshida:2009:ICT,
author = "Yuichi Yoshida and Masaki Yamamoto and Hiro Ito",
title = "An improved constant-time approximation algorithm for
maximum matchings",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "225--234",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Andersen:2009:FSC,
author = "Reid Andersen and Yuval Peres",
title = "Finding sparse cuts locally using evolving sets",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "235--244",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Lee:2009:GGF,
author = "James R. Lee and Anastasios Sidiropoulos",
title = "On the geometry of graphs with a forbidden minor",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "245--254",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Batson:2009:TRS,
author = "Joshua D. Batson and Daniel A. Spielman and Nikhil
Srivastava",
title = "Twice-{Ramanujan} sparsifiers",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "255--262",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Trevisan:2009:MCS,
author = "Luca Trevisan",
title = "Max cut and the smallest eigenvalue",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "263--272",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chambers:2009:HFC,
author = "Erin W. Chambers and Jeff Erickson and Amir Nayyeri",
title = "Homology flows, cohomology cuts",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "273--282",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Charikar:2009:IGS,
author = "Moses Charikar and Konstantin Makarychev and Yury
Makarychev",
title = "Integrality gaps for {Sherali--Adams} relaxations",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "283--292",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Mathieu:2009:SAR,
author = "Claire Mathieu and Alistair Sinclair",
title = "{Sherali--Adams} relaxations of the matching
polytope",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "293--302",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Tulsiani:2009:CGR,
author = "Madhur Tulsiani",
title = "{CSP} gaps and reductions in the {Lasserre}
hierarchy",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "303--312",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Karpinski:2009:LTA,
author = "Marek Karpinski and Warren Schudy",
title = "Linear time approximation schemes for the
{Gale--Berlekamp} game and related minimization
problems",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "313--322",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Lee:2009:NMS,
author = "Jon Lee and Vahab S. Mirrokni and Viswanath Nagarajan
and Maxim Sviridenko",
title = "Non-monotone submodular maximization under matroid and
knapsack constraints",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "323--332",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Peikert:2009:PKC,
author = "Chris Peikert",
title = "Public-key cryptosystems from the worst-case shortest
vector problem: extended abstract",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "333--342",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Moser:2009:CPL,
author = "Robin A. Moser",
title = "A constructive proof of the {Lov{\'a}sz} local lemma",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "343--350",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Ghosh:2009:UUM,
author = "Arpita Ghosh and Tim Roughgarden and Mukund
Sundararajan",
title = "Universally utility-maximizing privacy mechanisms",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "351--360",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Feldman:2009:PC,
author = "Dan Feldman and Amos Fiat and Haim Kaplan and Kobbi
Nissim",
title = "Private coresets",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "361--370",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dwork:2009:DPR,
author = "Cynthia Dwork and Jing Lei",
title = "Differential privacy and robust statistics",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "371--380",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dwork:2009:CDP,
author = "Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor and Omer Reingold and Guy
N. Rothblum and Salil Vadhan",
title = "On the complexity of differentially private data
release: efficient algorithms and hardness results",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "381--390",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Liu:2009:QAU,
author = "Yi-Kai Liu",
title = "Quantum algorithms using the curvelet transform",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "391--400",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Ta-Shma:2009:SSE,
author = "Amnon Ta-Shma",
title = "Short seed extractors against quantum storage",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "401--408",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cleve:2009:EDT,
author = "Richard Cleve and Daniel Gottesman and Michele Mosca
and Rolando D. Somma and David Yonge-Mallo",
title = "Efficient discrete-time simulations of continuous-time
quantum query algorithms",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "409--416",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Aharonov:2009:DLQ,
author = "Dorit Aharonov and Itai Arad and Zeph Landau and Umesh
Vazirani",
title = "The detectability lemma and quantum gap
amplification",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "417--426",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Lattanzi:2009:AN,
author = "Silvio Lattanzi and D. Sivakumar",
title = "Affiliation networks",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "427--434",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chechik:2009:FTS,
author = "S. Chechik and M. Langberg and David Peleg and L.
Roditty",
title = "Fault-tolerant spanners for general graphs",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "435--444",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kawarabayashi:2009:HCD,
author = "Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi and Bruce Reed",
title = "{Hadwiger}'s conjecture is decidable",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "445--454",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Vassilevska:2009:FMC,
author = "Virginia Vassilevska and Ryan Williams",
title = "Finding, minimizing, and counting weighted subgraphs",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "455--464",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kushilevitz:2009:CCC,
author = "Eyal Kushilevitz and Enav Weinreb",
title = "On the complexity of communication complexity",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "465--474",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Viola:2009:BPL,
author = "Emanuele Viola",
title = "Bit-probe lower bounds for succinct data structures",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "475--482",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Austrin:2009:RSI,
author = "Per Austrin and Johan H{\aa}stad",
title = "Randomly supported independence and resistance",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "483--492",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{ODonnell:2009:CHS,
author = "Ryan O'Donnell and Yi Wu",
title = "Conditional hardness for satisfiable {3-CSPs}",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "493--502",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chen:2009:NAA,
author = "Jing Chen and Silvio Micali",
title = "A new approach to auctions and resilient mechanism
design",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "503--512",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Roughgarden:2009:IRP,
author = "Tim Roughgarden",
title = "Intrinsic robustness of the price of anarchy",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "513--522",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Even-dar:2009:CRM,
author = "Eyal Even-dar and Yishay Mansour and Uri Nadav",
title = "On the convergence of regret minimization dynamics in
concave games",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "523--532",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kleinberg:2009:MUO,
author = "Robert Kleinberg and Georgios Piliouras and Eva
Tardos",
title = "Multiplicative updates outperform generic no-regret
learning in congestion games: extended abstract",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "533--542",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Bateni:2009:MAD,
author = "MohammadHossein Bateni and Moses Charikar and
Venkatesan Guruswami",
title = "{MaxMin} allocation via degree lower-bounded
arborescences",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "543--552",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Montenegro:2009:HLD,
author = "Ravi Montenegro and Prasad Tetali",
title = "How long does it take to catch a wild kangaroo?",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "553--560",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kannan:2009:RWP,
author = "Ravi Kannan and Hariharan Narayanan",
title = "Random walks on polytopes and an affine interior point
method for linear programming",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "561--570",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Martinelli:2009:MTS,
author = "Fabio Martinelli and Alistair Sinclair",
title = "Mixing time for the solid-on-solid model",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "571--580",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Sly:2009:RPM,
author = "Allan Sly",
title = "Reconstruction for the {Potts} model",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "581--590",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dietzfelbinger:2009:TLB,
author = "Martin Dietzfelbinger and Philipp Woelfel",
title = "Tight lower bounds for greedy routing in uniform small
world rings",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "591--600",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dodis:2009:NME,
author = "Yevgeniy Dodis and Daniel Wichs",
title = "Non-malleable extractors and symmetric key
cryptography from weak secrets",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "601--610",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Haitner:2009:IE,
author = "Iftach Haitner and Omer Reingold and Salil Vadhan and
Hoeteck Wee",
title = "Inaccessible entropy",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "611--620",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Dodis:2009:CAI,
author = "Yevgeniy Dodis and Yael Tauman Kalai and Shachar
Lovett",
title = "On cryptography with auxiliary input",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "621--630",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chalopin:2009:EPG,
author = "J{\'e}r{\'e}mie Chalopin and Daniel Gon{\c{c}}alves",
title = "Every planar graph is the intersection graph of
segments in the plane: extended abstract",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "631--638",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Aronov:2009:SSN,
author = "Boris Aronov and Esther Ezra and Micha Shair",
title = "Small-size $ \epsilon $-nets for axis-parallel
rectangles and boxes",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "639--648",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Rabani:2009:ECS,
author = "Yuval Rabani and Amir Shpilka",
title = "Explicit construction of a small epsilon-net for
linear threshold functions",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "649--658",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gupta:2009:CFA,
author = "Anupam Gupta and Amit Kumar",
title = "A constant-factor approximation for stochastic
{Steiner} forest",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "659--668",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Azar:2009:MIR,
author = "Yossi Azar and Iftah Gamzu and Xiaoxin Yin",
title = "Multiple intents re-ranking",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "669--678",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Chadha:2009:CAM,
author = "Jivitej S. Chadha and Naveen Garg and Amit Kumar and
V. N. Muralidhara",
title = "A competitive algorithm for minimizing weighted flow
time on unrelatedmachines with speed augmentation",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "679--684",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Gupta:2009:OSS,
author = "Anupam Gupta and Ravishankar Krishnaswamy and R.
Ravi",
title = "Online and stochastic survivable network design",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "685--694",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Impagliazzo:2009:AAA,
author = "Russell Impagliazzo and Valentine Kabanets and
Antonina Kolokolova",
title = "An axiomatic approach to algebrization",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "695--704",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kolaitis:2009:RGP,
author = "Phokion G. Kolaitis and Swastik Kopparty",
title = "Random graphs and the parity quantifier",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "705--714",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Cai:2009:HPC,
author = "Jin-Yi Cai and Pinyan Lu and Mingji Xia",
title = "{Holant} problems and counting {CSP}",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "715--724",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Kun:2009:NLA,
author = "G{\'a}bor Kun and Mario Szegedy",
title = "A new line of attack on the dichotomy conjecture",
crossref = "ACM:2009:SPA",
pages = "725--734",
year = "2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:23 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@InProceedings{Akavia:2010:EBO,
author = "Adi Akavia and Oded Goldreich and Shafi Goldwasser and
Dana Moshkovitz",
title = "Erratum for: {{\em On basing one-way functions on
NP-hardness}}",
crossref = "ACM:2010:PAI",
pages = "795--796",
year = "2010",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:42:57 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib",
note = "See \cite{Akavia:2006:BOW}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
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%%% Cross-referenced entries must come last:
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "computational complexity; computer programming;
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booktitle = "{Proceedings of the Thiry-Fourth Annual ACM Symposium
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Canada, May 19--21, 2002}",
title = "{Proceedings of the Thiry-Fourth Annual ACM Symposium
on Theory of Computing, Montr{\'e}al, Qu{\'e}bec,
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13--15, 2004}",
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bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:35:01 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib;
z3950.bibsys.no:2100/BIBSYS",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@Proceedings{ACM:2008:SPA,
editor = "{ACM}",
booktitle = "{STOC '08: proceedings of the 40th Annual ACM
Symposium on Theory of Computing, Victoria, British
Columbia, Canada, May 17--20, 2008}",
title = "{STOC '08: proceedings of the 40th Annual ACM
Symposium on Theory of Computing, Victoria, British
Columbia, Canada, May 17--20, 2008}",
publisher = pub-ACM,
address = pub-ACM:adr,
pages = "xv + 798",
year = "2008",
ISBN = "1-60558-047-3",
ISBN-13 = "978-1-60558-047-0",
LCCN = "QA76.6 .A152 2008",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 20 18:35:01 MDT 2008",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib;
z3950.bibsys.no:2100/BIBSYS",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
@Proceedings{ACM:2009:SPA,
editor = "{ACM}",
booktitle = "{STOC '09: proceedings of the 2009 ACM International
Symposium on Theory of Computing, Bethesda, Maryland,
USA, May 31--June 2, 2009}",
title = "{STOC '09: proceedings of the 2009 ACM International
Symposium on Theory of Computing, Bethesda, Maryland,
USA, May 31--June 2, 2009}",
publisher = pub-ACM,
address = pub-ACM:adr,
pages = "xiii + 736",
year = "2009",
ISBN = "1-60558-613-7",
ISBN-13 = "978-1-60558-613-7",
LCCN = "QA75.5 .A22 2009",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:36:45 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib;
z3950.bibsys.no:2100/BIBSYS",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "41st annual STOC meeting.",
}
@Proceedings{ACM:2010:PAI,
editor = "{ACM}",
booktitle = "{Proceedings of the 2010 ACM International Symposium
on Theory of Computing: June 5--8, 2010, Cambridge, MA,
USA}",
title = "{Proceedings of the 2010 ACM International Symposium
on Theory of Computing: June 5--8, 2010, Cambridge, MA,
USA}",
publisher = pub-ACM,
address = pub-ACM:adr,
pages = "xiv + 797",
year = "2010",
ISBN = "1-60558-817-2",
ISBN-13 = "978-1-60558-817-9",
LCCN = "QA 76.6 .A152 2010",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 1 10:37:53 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/stoc2000.bib;
z3950.gbv.de:20011/gvk",
URL = "http://www.gbv.de/dms/tib-ub-hannover/63314455x.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "42nd annual STOC meeting.",
}