%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.04",
%%%     date            = "12 August 2013",
%%%     time            = "17:30:10 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "sigcse1970.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "43972 25089 122816 1173945",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "ACM Special Interest Group on Computer
%%%                        Science Education; bibliography; BibTeX;
%%%                        SIGCSE Bulletin",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        ACM SIGCSE Bulletin (CODEN SIGSD3, ISSN
%%%                        0097-8418), for the decade 1970--1979.  The
%%%                        journal began publishing with volume 1,
%%%                        number 1, in February 1969.  The journal
%%%                        usually appears four times a year.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has World-Wide Web sites at
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/sigcse/
%%%                            http://www.sigcse.org/
%%%
%%%                        with tables of contents at
%%%
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/sigcse/newsletter
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.04, the year coverage looked
%%%                        like this:
%%%
%%%                             1970 (  37)    1984 (   0)    1998 (   0)
%%%                             1971 (  24)    1985 (   0)    1999 (   0)
%%%                             1972 (  43)    1986 (   0)    2000 (   0)
%%%                             1973 (  58)    1987 (   0)    2001 (   0)
%%%                             1974 (  78)    1988 (   0)    2002 (   0)
%%%                             1975 (  85)    1989 (   0)    2003 (   0)
%%%                             1976 ( 120)    1990 (   0)    2004 (   0)
%%%                             1977 (  73)    1991 (   0)    2005 (   0)
%%%                             1978 ( 131)    1992 (   0)    2006 (   0)
%%%                             1979 (  78)    1993 (   0)    2007 (   0)
%%%                             1981 (   0)    1995 (   0)    2009 (   1)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        727
%%%                             Proceedings:      1
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  728
%%%
%%%                        This bibliography was constructed primarily
%%%                        from data in the ACM Portal database, and
%%%                        from the many bibliographies in the TeX User
%%%                        Group and BibNet Project archives, and the
%%%                        Karlsruhe Computer Science bibliography
%%%                        archive.
%%%
%%%                        Numerous errors in the sources noted above
%%%                        have been corrected.  Spelling has been
%%%                        verified with the UNIX spell and GNU ispell
%%%                        programs using the exception dictionary
%%%                        stored in the companion file with extension
%%%                        .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen as
%%%                        name:year:abbrev, where name is the family
%%%                        name of the first author or editor, year is a
%%%                        4-digit number, and abbrev is a 3-letter
%%%                        condensation of important title words.
%%%                        Citation labels were automatically generated
%%%                        by software developed for the BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, with the help of
%%%                        ``bibsort -byvolume''.  The bibsort utility
%%%                        is available from
%%%
%%%                            http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibsort
%%%                            ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/bibsort
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================

@Preamble{
    "\hyphenation{ }" #
    "\ifx \undefined \circled \def \circled #1{(#1)}\fi" #
    "\ifx \undefined \reg \def \reg {\circled{R}}\fi" #
    "\ifx \undefined \TM \def \TM {${}^{\sc TM}$} \fi"
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-COMP-MATH-APPL        = "Computers and Mathematics with
                                  Applications"}

@String{j-COMPUTERWORLD         = "ComputerWorld"}

@String{j-MATHEMATIKA           = "Mathematika"}

@String{j-SIGCSE                = "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group
                                  on Computer Science Education)"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Publishers and their addresses:

@String{pub-ACM                 = "ACM Press"}
@String{pub-ACM:adr             = "New York, NY 10036, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries, in publication order (with
%%% `bibsort -byvolume'):

@Article{Zinn:1970:ASS,
  author =       "Karl Zinn",
  title =        "Abstracts of {SJCC '70} session on computers in
                 education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8--10",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873628.873629",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:41 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Matula:1970:CPD,
  author =       "D. W. Matula",
  title =        "Course and program descriptions",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12--15",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873628.873630",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:41 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:PEPa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15--18",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873628.873631",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:41 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Forsythe:1970:SQE,
  author =       "G. Forsythe",
  title =        "Syllabi and qualifying examinations for the {Ph.D.} in
                 computer science at {Stanford University} (continued)",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--28",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873628.873632",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:41 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1970:CSE,
  author =       "Gerald L. Engel",
  title =        "Computer science education in small colleges",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14--30",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873634.873635",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Brady:1970:ISC,
  author =       "Allen H. Brady",
  title =        "The introductory and service courses in computing:
                 some experiences and a critical assessment",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "31--36",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873634.873636",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lions:1970:PEP,
  author =       "John Lions",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "37--41",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873634.873637",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Corneil:1970:SUT,
  author =       "Derek G. Corneil",
  title =        "The syllabus for the 1970 {University of Toronto}
                 {Ph.D.} written comprehensive examination",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "41--43",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873634.873638",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nievergelt:1970:SLL,
  author =       "J. Nievergelt",
  title =        "Syllabus for low level performance for the qualifying
                 examination in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "43--53",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873634.873639",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hammer:1970:UCS,
  author =       "Preston C. Hammer",
  title =        "Undergraduate computer science education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873642",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Armstrong:1970:BUC,
  author =       "Russell M. Armstrong and Emmett K. Platt",
  title =        "Business and the university computer science
                 department: the left-hand side of a dialogue",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "6--8",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873643",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Korfhage:1970:VIP,
  author =       "Robert R. Korfhage",
  title =        "Visiting industrial professors and sabbaticals in
                 industry",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9--12",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873644",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bauer:1970:SDU,
  author =       "Michael A. Bauer",
  title =        "A student-designed undergraduate program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13--17",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873645",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cowan:1970:LSU,
  author =       "D. D. Cowan and R. B. Roden",
  title =        "A large-scale undergraduate programme in computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18--23",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873646",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nielsen:1970:NCC,
  author =       "Norman R. Nielsen",
  title =        "Network computing for computer science departments",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24--29",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873647",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hunt:1970:CST,
  author =       "Earl Hunt",
  title =        "The computer science teaching laboratory at the
                 {University of Washington}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30--33",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873648",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Aiken:1970:CRF,
  author =       "Robert M. Aiken",
  title =        "A course on the relationship of formal language theory
                 to automata",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34--40",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873649",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Matula:1970:ECA,
  author =       "David W. Matula",
  title =        "The emergence of computational arithmetic as a
                 component of the computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "41--44",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873650",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Denning:1970:PCS,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Principles of computer system organization",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "45--55",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873651",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Graham:1970:TSP,
  author =       "Robert M. Graham",
  title =        "Teaching systems programming and software design:
                 problems and solutions",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "56--60",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873652",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Moon:1970:CCS,
  author =       "B. A. M. Moon",
  title =        "The challenge of computer science in {New Zealand}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "61--68",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873653",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Some aspects of computer science education in New
                 Zealand are discussed and the role of the universities
                 is assessed. While there is much common ground with
                 countries overseas there are also particular local
                 conditions to be met. It is suggested that the first
                 priority is the setting up of an honours degree program
                 and a course outline is proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Snyder:1970:CSI,
  author =       "Mitchell Snyder",
  title =        "Computer science in {Israel}'s institutions of higher
                 learning",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "69--74",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873654",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nievergelt:1970:CES,
  author =       "J. Nievergelt and Wenneth J. Travers",
  title =        "Computer education for secondary school mathematics
                 teachers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "75--83",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873655",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Komar:1970:LAE,
  author =       "Joseph A. Komar",
  title =        "Liberal arts education in computers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "84--105",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873656",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sterling:1970:EUI,
  author =       "T. Sterling and S. Pollack",
  title =        "Experience with a ``universal'' introductory course in
                 computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "106--112",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873657",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{deCampo:1970:ICS,
  author =       "Leila de Campo",
  title =        "Introducing the computer at a small liberal arts
                 college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "113--117",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873658",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Description of a computer course to attract humanities
                 oriented students. Current computer projects in Music,
                 Art, Social Science and English were discussed. PL/I
                 was the language used. In addition to the basic
                 instructions, string manipulation and tape and disk
                 processing were covered. Problems were geared to a
                 non-mathematical group and covered alphabetic arrays
                 and text scanning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Brillinger:1970:CPI,
  author =       "P. C. Brillinger and D. D. Cowan",
  title =        "A complete package for introducing computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "118--126",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873641.873659",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Faced with the challenge of teaching large numbers of
                 students without sacrificing quality, we have developed
                 a complete ``package'' for teaching introductory
                 computer science. This package consists of textbooks,
                 notes, problem sets, labtutorial arrangements,
                 instructional software, and visual aids for lectures,
                 all developed at the University of Waterloo.The
                 textbooks are ``FORTRAN IV WITH WATFOR AND WATFIV'' and
                 ``AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECTRE COMPUTER''. The first
                 text provides a thorough introduction to FORTRAN
                 programming, whereas the second describes a
                 hypothetical computer used for teaching purposes to
                 introduce concepts in assembly language programming and
                 machine organization. Notes supplement the texts by
                 covering elementary ideas from boolean algebra,
                 switching and automata theory, and hardware design.
                 Consequently, we endeavour in this course to introduce
                 students to various aspects of computer science, not
                 just programming.Nevertheless, programming is a major
                 part of computer science, and we feel that considerable
                 hands-on experience is essential to a student's
                 education. We provide unlimited access to the computer
                 for all students with a turnaround time between one and
                 two minutes for small jobs. This service is made
                 possible by our fast FORTRAN compiler, WATFOR, which
                 permits the computing centre to process between 3000
                 and 7000 undergraduate jobs daily on an IBM S/360 model
                 75. In addition, we simulate the SPECTRE machine via an
                 interpreter, also with unlimited access to students.For
                 lectures, we have prepared substantial lecture material
                 in a set of 35 mm slides. We feel that this mode of
                 presentation has numerous advantages for a large
                 multi-section course, some of which are better
                 visibility for students, easy review possibilities,
                 lecturer cues, uniformity throughout the various
                 sections, and improvement of presentation by new and
                 inexperienced lecturers.This course is offered to
                 approximately 1300 students yearly at Waterloo. Each
                 student has two hours of lectures per week, as well as
                 biweekly tests and problem sessions in alternate weeks.
                 In order to assist us in the development of our
                 package, we try to obtain as much student feedback as
                 possible through the distribution of an extensive
                 questionnaire to all students taking the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Forsythe:1970:CSM,
  author =       "G. E. Forsythe and B. A. Galler and J. Hartmanis and
                 A. J. Perlis and J. F. Traub",
  title =        "Computer science and mathematics",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--29",
  month =        sep # "\slash " # oct,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873661.873662",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/f/forsythe-george-elmer.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wegner:1970:STG,
  author =       "Peter Wegner",
  title =        "Some thoughts on graduate education in computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30--40",
  month =        sep # "\slash " # oct,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873661.873663",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science is a rapidly growing discipline which
                 is having an impact not only on computer specialists
                 but also on the wider scientific community. Its
                 development in the next decade will be determined both
                 by specific technical issues internal to the discipline
                 and by the ``sociology'' of a growing discipline whose
                 great practical utility has tended to overshadow the
                 intrinsic conceptual richness of the subject matter.
                 Educational policy in computer science should be
                 governed in part by practical considerations such as
                 the supply and demand of computer scientists, in part
                 by general considerations of educational purpose and
                 educational policy, and in part by technical
                 considerations concerning specific subject matter, The
                 present discussion is deliberately biased towards an
                 ``ideal'' world where questions of educational purpose
                 and motivation take precedence over practical
                 considerations. Four aspects of computer science are
                 considered below, each of which is loosely related to
                 graduate education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nartker:1970:CPD,
  author =       "T. A. Nartker",
  title =        "Course and program descriptions",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41--53",
  month =        sep # "\slash " # oct,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873661.873664",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "At the current time, there is intense interest in
                 Computer Science Education within the academic
                 community. Symposia have been and are being held (4),
                 recommendations for degree programs have been made (1,
                 3), a special interest group within ACM (SIGCSE) is
                 growing and discussion at national meetings is lively.
                 Little information is available, however, on what
                 specific curriculum are being offered. This report
                 presents the curriculum leading to a Bachelor of
                 Science degree in Computer Science which is currently
                 offered at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and
                 Technology. The curriculum reflects our prejudices and
                 local constraints. Because Computer Science involves
                 such a wide spectrum of subject matter and because New
                 Mexico Tech is a small college (total enrollment is
                 about 800 students), the report specifically addresses
                 the problem of building a viable curriculum within
                 constraints imposed by the small college environment.
                 The author invites any questions, comments or criticism
                 from readers concerned about Computer Science
                 Education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1970:CUC,
  author =       "Gerald L. Engel",
  title =        "Comments on an undergraduate computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "54--55",
  month =        sep # "\slash " # oct,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873661.873665",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:PEPb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "55--55",
  month =        sep # "\slash " # oct,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873661.873666",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ein-Dor:1970:SAC,
  author =       "Phillip Ein-Dor and Norman Lyons",
  title =        "Systems analysis in computer science education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "16--21",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873668.873669",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper points out the failure of computer system
                 management to keep pace with the increasing economic
                 importance of computers. The authors see the problem as
                 one of orientation for the field of computer science
                 and, especially, computer science education. Curriculum
                 modifications are suggested which could help alleviate
                 the situation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Forsythe:1970:PEP,
  author =       "George E. Forsythe",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "37--43",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873668.873670",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Findler:1970:PDQ,
  author =       "Nicholas V. Findler",
  title =        "{Ph.D.} qualifying exam questions in artificial
                 intelligence and symbol manipulation at the {State
                 University of New York at Buffalo}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "43--47",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873668.873671",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dershem:1970:PRC,
  author =       "Herbert L. Dershem",
  title =        "Problem related to card games for an introductory
                 programming course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "48--49",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873668.873672",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rosin:1971:FNC,
  author =       "Robert F. Rosin",
  title =        "{Fortran} and the new culture",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10--11",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873675",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rose:1971:ATA,
  author =       "Lawrence L. Rose and Neil D. Jones and Bruce H.
                 Barnes",
  title =        "{Automata}: a teaching aid for mathematical machines",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12--20",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873676",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses a practical programming language
                 specially designed to aid teachers and students of
                 Computer Science courses which deal with mathematical
                 machines. The first section outlines the motivation for
                 developing such a language in the Computer Science
                 curriculum. Next the criteria which were used to design
                 the language are listed. The characteristics of {$<$
                 u$>$Automata$<$}/{u$>$}, the interpreter of this
                 language, are discussed next. Concluding remarks note
                 the results of using {$<$ u$>$Automata$<$}/{u$>$} as a
                 teaching aid in three Computer Science courses at the
                 Pennsylvania State University. The User's Guide to {$<$
                 u$>$Automata$<$}/{u$>$} is attached as the Appendix.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Shneiderman:1971:CSE,
  author =       "Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "Computer science education and social relevance",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21--24",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873677",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The rise of computer science as a theoretical
                 discipline should not be allowed to proceed without
                 promoting the study of the social implications and
                 applications of the field. This paper describes an
                 undergraduate course whose primary goal is to foster an
                 understanding of how computers can be used for socially
                 relevant purposes. The students were required to
                 propose and execute a project which could benefit
                 people directly. The projects are described and
                 suggestions for further work are given.The rapid rise
                 of Computer Science as a major field of university
                 study is unprecedented. In 25 years digital computers
                 have risen from a laboratory experiment to a
                 full-fledged academic discipline. Most major
                 universities have created Departments of Computer
                 Science and offer advanced degrees.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sammet:1971:PTU,
  author =       "Jean E. Sammet",
  title =        "Proposed technological updating course for
                 programmers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "25--33",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873678",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Zimmerman:1971:CFE,
  author =       "E. C. Zimmerman",
  title =        "Computing facilities and efforts at a small liberal
                 arts college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "34--35",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873679",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Schwenkel:1971:RND,
  author =       "Frieder Schwenkel",
  title =        "Remarks on the {Notre Dame} computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "36--40",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873680",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:PEP,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "40--46",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873681",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Maurer:1971:PDP,
  author =       "Ward Douglas Maurer",
  title =        "Ph. {D} prelim exams in computer systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--47",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873674.873682",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1971:CSI,
  author =       "G. L. Engel",
  title =        "Computer science instruction in small colleges --- an
                 initial report",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8--18",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382210.382211",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nelson:1971:KSU,
  author =       "Bradley Nelson",
  title =        "{Kansas State University}'s traveling seminar",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19--21",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382210.382494",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Golde:1971:ISC,
  author =       "Hellmut Golde",
  title =        "Introducing students to computer science literature
                 --- an approach",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21--25",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382210.382495",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Aiken:1971:PRG,
  author =       "Robert M. Aiken",
  title =        "Professionalism, relevance and graduate study in
                 computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "25--27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382210.382496",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Vickers:1971:ISL,
  author =       "F. D. Vickers",
  title =        "An information system for a large course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "7--10",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382212.382213",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stubbs:1971:BDP,
  author =       "D. F. Stubbs and N. W. Webre",
  title =        "{Bachelor}'s degree program in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10--14",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382212.382505",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wegner:1971:PCS,
  author =       "Peter Wegner",
  title =        "Problem of computer science education in small
                 colleges",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15--18",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382212.382506",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "These notes are a summary of views developed by the
                 author during a visit to three small colleges under the
                 auspices of the ACM College Consulting Service. The
                 technological, financial and sociological problems at
                 each of the colleges were remarkably similar, and it is
                 hoped that this report may serve a purpose both in
                 acquainting the computer science profession with the
                 problems of small colleges and in helping small
                 colleges to gain some perspective with regard to the
                 purposes and problems of computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Aiken:1971:PEP,
  author =       "Robert M. Aiken",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects: some thoughts on the
                 examples of program assignments for a senior level
                 programming course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19--24",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382212.382507",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Abrams:1971:MPS,
  author =       "M. D. Abrams and J. H. Pugsley",
  title =        "{M.S}. program with specialization in computers:
                 department of electrical engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25--37",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382212.382508",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Heilman:1971:RED,
  author =       "R. L. Heilman and G. P. Ashby",
  title =        "Re-evaluation of debugging in the computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15--18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382214.382215",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Reisman:1971:HCC,
  author =       "Sorel Reisman",
  title =        "A hypothetical computer configuration",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--21",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382214.382497",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The following is a suggestion for the format of a
                 12-digit pseudo-computer word. This scheme can be used
                 for instructors of introductory computer science
                 courses to discuss more effectively the relationship
                 between hardware and software at the machine language
                 level as well as between high level and low level
                 languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Calingaert:1971:OFL,
  author =       "Peter Calingaert",
  title =        "An oral foreign language requirement for the {Ph.D}.",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21--23",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382214.382498",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ralston:1971:FFC,
  author =       "Anthony Ralston",
  title =        "{Fortran} and the first course in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24--29",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382214.382499",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to assess realistically
                 and practically the merits and demerits of Fortran as
                 the language to be used in a first course in computer
                 science. To do this computer science education is first
                 considered as a process in which successive courses
                 should aim at increasingly greater depth of
                 understanding as in, for example, mathematics
                 education. Then the aims of first courses in computer
                 science are considered. It is concluded that Fortran is
                 a quite adequate vehicle for the student to use in
                 writing programs. It is further concluded that, despite
                 its manifest imperfections, Fortran is also adequate
                 for the purpose of teaching programming language
                 concepts and programming techniques. Thus, it is
                 finally concluded that, since Fortran will continue to
                 be with us, it can be used, warts and all, and that the
                 best should be made of it. Even if a weed, Fortran has
                 surely not prevented the blooming of more than one
                 hundred other flowers (i.e., computer languages). But,
                 in terms of ubiquity, these other flowers almost all
                 are puny growths indeed. Except for Cobol, Fortran is
                 clearly the most used higher level language today. And
                 it stands preeminent as the language most often taught
                 in college and university first courses in computer
                 science and ``for 'scientific' problems...it will
                 probably remain (the most important programming
                 language) for some period of time'' (3). Yet we have
                 such statements as ``Fortran is dead'' (6) and ``It is
                 remarkable that it would be difficult to find a
                 language that would meet these important requirements
                 (natural and clear expression of program structure and
                 data, exhibition of basic features and structuring
                 principles) to a lesser degree than...Fortran'' (8). My
                 purpose here is neither to bury Fortran nor to praise
                 it but to try to assess realistically and practically
                 its usefulness in a first course in computer science. I
                 was originally moved to write this article by the
                 recent article of Wirth (8) which I consider to be a
                 beautiful exposition of an ideal in program
                 construction and instruction. But, while I do not
                 disagree, except perhaps in emphasis, with the
                 quotation above from this article, I think this
                 quotation, if taken literally, implies something quite
                 wrong about the value of Fortran in a first course in
                 computer science by implying something pedagogically
                 incorrect about teaching programming. I shall try to
                 elucidate this below. Yes, Fortran is dead in the sense
                 that Rosin (6)means, namely that ``intellectually it is
                 dead.'' But in this sense so is calculus dead in all of
                 the wide variety of courses taught to college freshmen
                 and high school seniors. So what? The purpose of first
                 courses in calculus is not and cannot be to teach
                 students material on the intellectual frontier of
                 mathematics. Can it be said of calculus, any more than
                 of Fortran, that its current use in an introductory
                 course ``tends to propagate its intellectual
                 moribundity'' (6)? The trouble with such negative
                 remarks about the use of Fortran in introductory
                 programming courses is not that they are too critical
                 of Fortran but rather that they display a
                 misunderstanding of the teaching of almost any subject
                 with some intellectual depth by postulating a pedagogic
                 ideal which can be attained with few, if any students.
                 It is natural when teaching any introductory course to
                 wish to maximize the intellectual content of the course
                 by presenting, in addition to material on purely
                 mechanical skills, subject matter of real intellectual
                 content. But it is folly to expect the beginning
                 student to grasp significant concepts in depth. (Or, if
                 this is possible, then the depth is not very great; if
                 this is the case in computer science, then perhaps we
                 should rethink our pretensions that it is a
                 discipline.) For example, it is not expected that the
                 graduate of a first year course in calculus will
                 understand what a derivative is in depth although he
                 may be very proficient in mechanical differentiation. I
                 recall myself only realizing, after taking courses in
                 advanced calculus and real analysis, how little I had
                 really understood the concept of derivative when I had
                 first studied it in an introductory course. It is in a
                 similar context that we must look at the teaching of
                 programming. The objectives of a first course in
                 computer science must be to teach the student some
                 conceptual aspects of programming, programming
                 languages and computer science in addition to teaching
                 him how to use a particular language. But unless and
                 until we are willing to admit that there are
                 programming language concepts which, while they may be
                 {$<$ u$>$ introduced$<$}/{u$>$} in a first course,
                 cannot be expected to be {$<$ u$>$
                 understood$<$}/{u$>$} in depth by the vast majority of
                 students until later, more advanced courses, there is
                 danger that attempts will be made to make the first
                 course something it cannot and should not be. And we
                 shall run the danger of falling into the same trap as
                 other disciplines of orienting our teaching so much to
                 our own majors that we shall ill serve the majority who
                 are non-majors, with the inevitable result that an
                 increasing number of non-computer science departments
                 will decide to teach (badly) programming to their own
                 majors. Of course, the current problem with most
                 introductory courses in computer science is not that
                 they attempt too much but rather too little. But an
                 increasing number of first courses, particularly at
                 leading universities, are attempting to teach the first
                 course at a reasonable intellectual level. It is,
                 therefore, just at this time during the transition from
                 the just-teach-a-language course to a real computer
                 science course that it is important to give some real
                 thought to what that first course should be and the
                 place of a language like Fortran in it. In the
                 remainder of this paper I shall address this
                 question.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1971:IAC,
  author =       "G. Engel",
  title =        "Input from {ACM Curriculum Committee on Computer
                 Science}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30--39",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382214.382500",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Vickers:1971:DCS,
  author =       "F. D. Vickers",
  title =        "Data on computer science departments\slash curricula",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40--45",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382214.382501",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bunt:1971:DA,
  author =       "R. B. Bunt",
  title =        "Dissertation abstracts",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46--52",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Tartar:1972:UEC,
  author =       "J. Tartar and J. P. Penny",
  title =        "Undergraduate education in computing science: some
                 immediate problems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--7",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873686",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mathis:1972:DMU,
  author =       "Robert F. Mathis and Douglas S. Kerr",
  title =        "Development of a multifacetted undergraduate program
                 in computer and information science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8--12",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873687",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer and Information Science Departments are
                 usually organized, as was the one at The Ohio State
                 University, by combining already existing courses in
                 computer programming and applications from other
                 departments into one department and adding a few extra
                 courses. This paper is a report concerning how this was
                 done at Ohio State and how the Department has developed
                 since. Suggestions are also included for the
                 organization of new departments at other schools. The
                 report has been arranged in four main sections: a
                 description of the development of the department at
                 Ohio State, a unifying philosophy of the field, a
                 description of the Ohio State undergraduate curriculum
                 in Computer and Information Science, and suggestions
                 for new curricula at other schools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1972:EEC,
  author =       "Gerald L. Engel and Bruce H. Barnes",
  title =        "The effect of environment on computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13--18",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873688",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Caviness:1972:SMC,
  author =       "B. F. Caviness and G. E. Collins",
  title =        "Symbolic mathematical computation in a Ph. {D}.
                 computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--23",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873689",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{West:1972:PAI,
  author =       "Sheridan J. West",
  title =        "Providing adequate instruction to data processing
                 students spread over a wide geographical area",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24--26",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873691",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Loveman:1972:CAP,
  author =       "David B. Loveman",
  title =        "A course in advanced programming for undergraduate
                 computer science majors",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--36",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873692",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Roth:1972:CSC,
  author =       "R. Waldo Roth",
  title =        "A computer science curriculum for a liberal arts
                 college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "37--37",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873693",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Austing:1972:CSE,
  author =       "Richard Austing and Gerald Engel",
  title =        "Computer science education in small colleges",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "38--38",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873694",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{deGrasse:1972:RCH,
  author =       "Richard V. deGrasse",
  title =        "Remote computing in higher education: prospects for
                 the future",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--41",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873696",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Eckhouse:1972:CSL,
  author =       "Richard H. Eckhouse",
  title =        "The computer science laboratory",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "42--45",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873697",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stark:1972:CSN,
  author =       "Richard H. Stark",
  title =        "Computer science needs its laboratory",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--48",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873698",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Adams:1972:ISC,
  author =       "J. M. Adams and D. H. Haden",
  title =        "Introductory service courses in the computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--52",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873700",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Martin:1972:CAI,
  author =       "Don Martin",
  title =        "Computer aided instruction in system dynamics",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--56",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873701",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{DesJardins:1972:RCS,
  author =       "R. B. DesJardins",
  title =        "The responsibilities of computer science in continuing
                 education for managers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "57--59",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873702",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Malkin:1972:CST,
  author =       "Judith G. Malkin",
  title =        "Computer science for teachers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "60--66",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873703",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Aiken:1972:EOT,
  author =       "R. M. Aiken",
  title =        "Experiences and observations on teaching computer
                 programming and simulation concepts to high school
                 students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--71",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873704",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Whithed:1972:TAD,
  author =       "Marshall H. Whithed",
  title =        "Technological analysis and democratic policy-making",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--85",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873706",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The paper centers upon the implications of technical
                 analytical methodologies, especially those which are
                 computer-based, for public policy-making. A generalized
                 analysis of the lack of suitable educational and
                 experimental background of most public policy-makers is
                 presented, and it is suggested that this lack makes it
                 difficult for such officials to adequately evaluate
                 technical analyses. Means to ameliorate this problem
                 are discussed, and a model of policy-maker/computer
                 methodology interface is presented. The example used is
                 based on a computer simulation model and related
                 methodologies which are presently developed for HUD to
                 study New Town fiscal and economic viability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Steinberg:1972:SPP,
  author =       "David I. Steinberg",
  title =        "A student project on political redistricting by
                 computer",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "86--89",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873707",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nielsen:1972:SRC,
  author =       "Norman R. Nielsen",
  title =        "Social responsibility and computer education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--96",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873708",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lee:1972:CSC,
  author =       "Hans E. Lee",
  title =        "Computers in society: a course description, purpose
                 and rationale",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "97--102",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873709",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Andrews:1972:CY,
  author =       "W. B. Andrews",
  title =        "The computer and you",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--109",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873710",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Krall:1972:RUR,
  author =       "Edward J. Krall",
  title =        "Results of the use of a recursive function
                 translator",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "110--115",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873712",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "A recursive function interpreter was used to good
                 effect in an undergraduate course in elementary
                 automata theory. Although the functions were translated
                 into combinations of Turing machines, the interpreter
                 is not to be construed to be a Turing Table processor.
                 The results in this paper reflect both the author's
                 subjective judgment, and the compilation of statistics
                 from a questionnaire given to the students.The primary
                 effect was not the understanding of Turing machines or
                 recursive functions but rather the enthusiasm for such
                 study evidenced by the computer science students taking
                 the course. The evaluation of the interpreter is an
                 on-going process, extending even to students on the
                 sophomore and junior level.This paper describes both
                 the simulator and the effects of its use, as well as
                 some general principles concerning such devices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Adams:1972:PCS,
  author =       "J. Mack Adams and William H. Inmon and Jim Shirley",
  title =        "{PL\slash I} in the computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "116--126",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873713",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kildall:1972:AEA,
  author =       "Gary A. Kildall and Alan B. Roberts",
  title =        "{ALGOL-E}: an experimental approach to the study of
                 programming languages",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "127--135",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873714",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ivey:1972:PLT,
  author =       "William Max Ivey and Larry C. Eversole",
  title =        "A programming language for the teaching of algorithmic
                 analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "136--140",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873715",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Morris:1972:CSS,
  author =       "Glenn Morris",
  title =        "Computer supported study of chemical equilibria",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "141--143",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873716",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Alter:1972:ECS,
  author =       "Ronald Alter and Thaddeus B. Curtz",
  title =        "An experimental computer science problem seminar",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "144--153",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873717",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Parnas:1972:CSE,
  author =       "D. L. Parnas",
  title =        "A course on software engineering techniques",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "154--159",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873718",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ellis:1972:TCD,
  author =       "Robert A. Ellis and Donald F. Wann",
  title =        "Teaching computer design using macromodules",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "160--162",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873684.873719",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:44 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the teaching of computer design
                 using a new and quite unusual hardware aid,
                 macromodules. Of all the new areas emerging in Computer
                 Science the teaching of computer structures, from an
                 engineering viewpoint, has continually challenged the
                 professional educator. This has in a sense presented a
                 dilemma to him: for digital computer system design
                 requires a broad look at a variety of configurations,
                 but also seems to require a comprehensive examination
                 of individual circuit details in order to remain in a
                 practical atmosphere. As is well known, such detailed
                 investigation of many systems is virtually impossible
                 in the time allotted in most cirricula.Introduction of
                 the macromodular concept, however, has permitted
                 individual students, in one or two semesters, to
                 achieve {$<$ u$>$ realizable$<$}/{u$>$} designs of such
                 devices as I/O channels, microprogrammed machines,
                 complete small digital computers, floating point
                 arithmetic systems and list processing hardware.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Zelkowitz:1972:SRC,
  author =       "Marvin Zelkowitz",
  title =        "Space requirements for computer programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10--11",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873721.873722",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "While core is becoming relatively inexpensive, there
                 are applications where program size is important. A
                 project is described using a PDP 8 which demonstrates
                 that significant programs can be written with a minimum
                 of main memory.In learning to program, the students at
                 many universities have access to a large central
                 computer. For the most part, they can ignore time and
                 space requirements in their programs. Usually this is a
                 valid assumption since computing time is becoming less
                 expensive; however, with the proliferation of
                 minicomputers, there are many applications where space
                 is at a premium, and the programmer must consider this
                 limitation in his design.At the University of Maryland
                 a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 8 computer was made
                 available to graduate students at the Computer Science
                 Center. It was a minimum configuration of 4K 12 bit
                 memory and a teletype. Students were forced to program
                 for a machine with little main memory and no mass
                 storage device. One such exercise, which demonstrated
                 the amount of programming which can be accomplished in
                 a small memory, will now be described.The PDP 8 memory
                 is divided into 32 pages of 128 words each. By
                 convention the top page is not used by any DEC software
                 other than the binary loader, a program which is used
                 to load all other software into the machine. This lead
                 (sic) to the project of having students write debugging
                 programs which fit into this top page. Since a locally
                 written binary loader was written in 74 words, that
                 meant 54 words were available in which the student had
                 to write an interesting program.The results of that
                 assignment clearly demonstrated that significant
                 programs could be written in a minimum of space. Some
                 of the programs which resulted were: a dump program
                 which dumped core onto the teletype at 8 words per
                 line, a modify program which displayed the contents of
                 a memory location onto the teletype and enabled the
                 user to change the contents of a location via the
                 teletype, and a punch program which punched a paper
                 tape of specified core segments in a format which
                 enabled it to be reloaded by the binary loader at a
                 later time. These programs, in a very crude manner,
                 approximated the facilities available in the standard
                 DEC debugging program ODT (1), however, each one was
                 significantly shorter, and only took 10 seconds to load
                 from a teletype --- thus it was useful for debugging
                 programs since no high speed I/O device was
                 available.This example has some important consequences.
                 While core is becoming less expensive, there are still
                 applications where size is important. Instructors of
                 programming courses should not completely lose sight of
                 that fact. While one shouldn't stress size over all
                 other considerations, the above exercise shows that
                 small programs can do relatively powerful things, even
                 on a relatively simple PDP 8 computer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hedrick:1972:PMT,
  author =       "G. E. Hedrick",
  title =        "A pedagogical model for top-down syntax analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11--13",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873721.873723",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pollack:1972:LSS,
  author =       "Seymour M. Pollack",
  title =        "A look at the second {SIGCSE} technical symposium",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14--15",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873721.873724",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Shaw:1972:ICC,
  author =       "Mary Shaw",
  title =        "Immigration course in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16--27",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873721.873725",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Reilly:1972:PEP,
  author =       "Edwin D. Reilly",
  title =        "Problems, exams, projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "28--28",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873721.873726",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bailey:1972:O,
  author =       "T. E. Bailey",
  title =        "Ouchless {I}/{O}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "8--18",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873728.873730",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The teaching of FORTRAN I/O in a beginning computer
                 programming course at Oklahoma State University has
                 been totally integrated into the course in order to
                 overcome the boredom and unpleasantness that students
                 may experience when I/O is presented in a single block.
                 Presenting the material in this manner has allowed
                 students to handle rather sophisticated I/O early in
                 the course with minimal difficulty.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Leininger:1972:CRS,
  author =       "C. W. Leininger",
  title =        "Computer related studies at a college of arts,
                 sciences and education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18--35",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873728.873732",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jordan:1972:RCS,
  author =       "Sara R. Jordan",
  title =        "Review of {``Computer Science Laboratory Exercises''
                 by F. D. Federighi and E. D. Reilly, Jr. Riedinger \&
                 Riedinger, Schenectady, N. Y., 1971}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36--36",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/873728.873734",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Willoughby:1972:UPD,
  author =       "Theodore C. Willoughby",
  title =        "An upside down {PH.D}. program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "8--10",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382224.382225",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Beidler:1972:SWE,
  author =       "John A. Beidler",
  title =        "A simulator which emphasizes addressing techniques",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "11--18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382224.382453",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{DuWorks:1972:APD,
  author =       "Robert J. DuWorks and Steven W. Smoliar",
  title =        "The arrogant programmer: {Dijkstra} and {Wegner}
                 considered harmful",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--21",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382224.382454",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{LaFrance:1972:CSL,
  author =       "Jacques LaFrance and Waldo Roth",
  title =        "Computer science for liberal arts colleges",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22--31",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382224.382455",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rood:1972:PEP,
  author =       "Robert E. Rood",
  title =        "Problems, Exams, and Projects: Computer systems
                 {U302}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "32--44",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Staff:1972:CDP,
  author =       "{ACM SIGCSE Bulletin Staff}",
  title =        "Correction to ``Degree Programs in Computer Science,
                 Processing, Etc.",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45--46",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bolz:1973:ICE,
  author =       "Harold A. Bolz",
  title =        "Impact of computers on engineering education
                 (Abstract)",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808063",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Considering the revolutionary effects that computer
                 technology has had on various elements of American
                 life, including banking, retailing, hotel and airline
                 reservations, periodical circulation, business
                 management, industrial inventories, etc., it seems
                 strange that computerized methods have not had a
                 greater impact on engineering education than is evident
                 today. This is especially strange in the light of the
                 fact that many basic advances in computer theory and
                 design have been made through research performed in our
                 engineering colleges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ashenhurst:1973:ICS,
  author =       "Robert L. Ashenhurst",
  title =        "Implications for computer science departments of the
                 {ACM} information systems curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2--5",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808064",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The ACM Curriculum Committee on Computer Education for
                 Management last year issued a report containing a
                 variety of curriculum recommendations for graduate
                 professional programs in information systems [1]. The
                 work of the Committee has been supported by the
                 National Science Foundation.* A brief summary of the
                 recommendations is given in the Proceedings of ACM 72
                 [2]. The report addresses the need for information
                 systems programs as stand-alone offerings, or as part
                 of Master's level education in graduate business
                 schools, computer science departments, or other
                 graduate departments. The implications of these
                 recommendations for computer science departments may be
                 addressed under three headings, depending on the role
                 of the department as: (i) including offerings relevant
                 to information systems in its regular Master's degree
                 program; (ii) participating in the offering of an
                 independent program leading to an MS degree in
                 information systems, but as a collaborator with another
                 unit, e.g., a business school; or (iii) undertaking to
                 offer an independent program entirely on its own.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dey:1973:IMT,
  author =       "Suhrit K. Dey",
  title =        "Inductive methods of teaching programming languages",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6--8",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808065",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In this cult, computer programming is one of the most
                 modern needs in every academic discipline. Students
                 majoring in various subjects are inclined spontaneously
                 to take at least the first course of computer
                 programming with an expectation that they will be
                 capable of writing programs in their special fields of
                 interest. What they mostly learn is the structure of
                 the language and the basic rules and regulations
                 governing its use. Possibly they write few programs,
                 usually similar to those discussed in the classroom.
                 The students' expectations were not fulfilled and their
                 enthusiasm in programming fades.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Fisher:1973:SIP,
  author =       "P. Fisher and W. Hankley and V. Wallentine",
  title =        "Separation of introductory programming and language
                 instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9--14",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808066",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The common instructional approach in first programming
                 courses is to consider jointly programming technique
                 and coding in a particular language. This has the
                 inherent disadvantage of focusing on language details
                 at the expense of the skills of problem solving. As an
                 alternative, a separated, but coordinated, course in
                 programming concepts and a laboratory on language
                 coding are proposed. We submit that this approach
                 allows emphasis to be placed on the creative aspects of
                 problem solving and programming, and that it allows an
                 efficiency in concepts instruction, through avoidance
                 of language details, and an efficiency in language
                 instruction by using algorithms developed in the
                 concepts course. A suggested selection of concepts is
                 given, and the separation of responsibilities between
                 the program development and coding are illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Goddard:1973:SCS,
  author =       "Alton R. Goddard",
  title =        "Structure and content of service courses in computer
                 science for other disciplines",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15--17",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808067",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the
                 problems with, hopefully, some suggestions or lessons
                 learned from past experiences to provide guidelines for
                 workable solutions to these problems. Some
                 universities, including the one where I am presently
                 employed, permit graduate students in doctoral programs
                 to take two courses in statistics and two courses in
                 Computer Science in lieu of a satisfactory knowledge of
                 two foreign languages. The courses in Computer Science
                 and statistics are referred to as ``research tool
                 courses.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Salton:1973:IPC,
  author =       "Gerard Salton",
  title =        "Introductory programming at Cornell",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "18--20",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808068",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The computer science department at Cornell is a
                 graduate department. Approximately sixty degree
                 candidates are formally enrolled in the computer
                 science degree program, nearly all of them as Ph.D.
                 candidates. There is no formal undergraduate major in
                 computer science, although it is possible for really
                 tenacious undergraduates in the College of Arts and
                 Sciences, and in Engineering to obtain an undergraduate
                 degree in computer science by special petition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Morgan:1973:ALP,
  author =       "Howard L. Morgan and James C. Kinard",
  title =        "{ASAP}: a language and philosophy for teaching file
                 processing",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21--23",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808069",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Because large file processing applications are the
                 dominant activity on computers today, it has been a
                 surprise that computer science departments, and
                 particularly schools of business, have been so lax in
                 the attention given to the subject. It is still true
                 that most students receive training in languages such
                 as FORTRAN and BASIC, which must certainly color their
                 opinion of the ability and purpose of computers. Surely
                 few of us would expect a person who is going to be
                 employed in commercial computing to be primarily
                 concerned with the programming of calculations. Rather,
                 what that person will end up doing is requesting and
                 examining information stored in a relatively large data
                 base. It is our contention that such people can be
                 trained in a manner which is directly transferrable to
                 problems in large file processing. Moreover, with this
                 training as the first introduction to computing, one
                 can place computational algorithm languages in their
                 proper context in the commercial world. The ASAP
                 information processing software system, developed by
                 one of us (Morgan) along with Professors Richard Conway
                 and William Maxwell at Cornell University, is a tool
                 for this training. (This software system has been
                 described in the Computing Newsletter for Schools of
                 Business, Daniel Couger, Editor, under the title ``Data
                 Management System Available for Instructional Use.'')
                 The emergence of the generalized data base management
                 systems (GDBMS) over the past few years has clearly
                 been one of the most significant developments in
                 administrative data processing. These systems had their
                 origins in the report generators and statistical
                 packages of the mid-sixties, but are not logically
                 complete-they are capable of creating and maintaining a
                 relatively sophisticated data base, as well as
                 selectively retrieving and updating information in that
                 data base. Well over a thousand computing installations
                 have now got more than fifty of these systems running
                 (see the article by T. William Olle, ``Data Base
                 Management Systems''', in Datamation, 15 November
                 1970).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nievergelt:1973:AIC,
  author =       "Jurg Nievergelt and Edward M. Reingold",
  title =        "Automating introductory computer science courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24--25",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808070",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a project we have recently
                 started for automating introductory computer science
                 courses. Why should these courses be automated? At the
                 University of Illinois there are currently about 2000
                 students per semester taking various introductory
                 programming courses: engineers, social scientists,
                 teachers, physical scientists, computer science majors,
                 etc., each group having its own particular needs. These
                 courses are taught in sections of about 100 students
                 each, with an additional hour of discussion in groups
                 of about 20 students. In our experience it is very
                 difficult to organize these courses in such a way that
                 students both learn something and are happy with the
                 material presented. The main difficulty seems to come
                 from the fact that a beginning programmer needs a lot
                 of individual help, and this cannot be provided in
                 large sections. We are now convinced that these courses
                 cannot be improved within the current setup, and since
                 enrollments in these courses are increasing, the
                 situation is bound to grow worse unless something new
                 is tried. We assume that the situation we have
                 described is typical of many large universities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Schweppe:1973:DIM,
  author =       "Earl J. Schweppe",
  title =        "Dynamic instructional models of computer organizations
                 and programming languages",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "26--31",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808071",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Although there has been much progress over the years,
                 students learning computer organizations and
                 programming languages are usually still working with
                 the computer through several layers of confusion and
                 delay. Highly responsive interactive computer systems
                 have recently become available which make it possible
                 to create dynamic instructional models of computer
                 organizations and programming languages. With proper
                 development of these systems, such models can
                 economically be used to give the student a more vivid
                 experience with the computing machine and a more vital
                 means of learning to program. Models of computer
                 organization can allow the student to ``see'' the inner
                 workings of a computing machine as it executes an
                 instruction or a program which has been entered
                 mnemonically at the assembly language level. Models of
                 higher level programming languages can provide the
                 student with constant ``help'' by presenting
                 alternatives, checking acceptability of inputs,
                 supplying amplifications of correct inputs, displaying
                 syntactic structures to be completed, and prompting him
                 as necessary at any point. Such models should also help
                 provide a more productive environment for accomplished
                 programmers to develop and debug programs. Exploratory
                 models of each of these types have been implemented on
                 a small interactive computer system to demonstrate
                 these techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cable:1973:CET,
  author =       "Frank Cable",
  title =        "Computer education in two-year institutions: --- {A}
                 natural point of supply for hireable, operational,
                 {EDP}-applications programmers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "32--37",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808072",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This is a personal opinion paper, loaded with obvious
                 prejudices and unsupported charges and claims. As such,
                 it is more fitting that it be presented at Union Square
                 to a convention of rabble-rousers than as an argument
                 to the SIGCSE. The positions may be personal and
                 biased, but they are deeply and dearly held by the
                 author (a very sensitive soul) and were acquired over
                 many years of creating the ills he is now trying to
                 dis-own. It is also important to note that these views
                 are not shared throughout his department and certainly
                 not throughout his university.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pitts:1973:TYC,
  author =       "Gerald N. Pitts and Barry Bateman",
  title =        "A two year computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "38--40",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808073",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The accelerated accumulation of knowledge in recent
                 years has illustrated graphically the value of
                 developing human resources to their most usable form at
                 an early point in each person's life span. Not only is
                 this early development important to the continued
                 growth of the nation but to the expanded life style and
                 earned human dignity of each individual. Traditional
                 education techniques have fallen short in this regard.
                 Students have graduated from two year colleges, four
                 year colleges, and graduate programs with ill defined
                 capabilities directed toward no specific area within
                 the world of work. Human resource capability loss has
                 been staggering and in some instances, irreparable harm
                 has resulted. In recognizing the problem and its
                 wide-spread ramifications the Federal Government as
                 well as State Governments have developed programs of
                 career education for junior and four year colleges.
                 Central Texas College in Killeen, Texas, is one of
                 these development areas and provides an excellent two
                 year associate degree in Computer Science. The
                 curriculum and text requirements are presented in this
                 paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sticha:1973:ECS,
  author =       "Philip E. Sticha",
  title =        "Experience with computer science at a two year
                 college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "41--44",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808074",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A little over five years ago Essex Community College
                 moved from its quarters in churches, former barracks,
                 and a local high school to a campus in northeast
                 Baltimore County, Maryland, and began a period of
                 dynamic growth which saw the faculty double twice in
                 two years and the student enrollment grow from less
                 than 2000 to more than 5000 today. With new staff and
                 facilities, Essex began to develop new career programs
                 and to strengthen the two year transfer programs
                 already in existence. This paper relates the situations
                 and experiences of the Division of Science and
                 Mathematics and the Division of Business and Industrial
                 Management in planning and implementing courses and
                 programs in computer science. Discussed in historical
                 order are: the creation of our first programming
                 courses and the selection of computer hardware, the
                 planning of career programs in data processing and
                 computer technology, and the problems expected in
                 implementing these programs and in establishing
                 transfer programs in computer science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Atchison:1973:CSP,
  author =       "William F. Atchison",
  title =        "Computer science preparation for secondary school
                 teachers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "45--47",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808075",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Computers have now become an extremely important
                 factor in society. It is thus important that education
                 about computers, their use, and the role they are
                 playing in the development and functioning of society
                 be undertaken as soon as feasible in the educational
                 process. A logical place for this undertaking is in the
                 secondary school or perhaps even at the junior high
                 school level. Computers can serve the secondary teacher
                 as an instructional tool for problem formulation and
                 problem solution as well as for learning scientific
                 ideas. Computers can help provide motivation for much
                 of the work in mathematics, as well as in science and
                 business. They can also provide the necessary tool to
                 promote and carry out the applied and practical side of
                 subjects, which is receiving far more realistic
                 attention today. They thus can help the teacher combat
                 the all too prevalent notion that mathematics and
                 sometimes science are too theoretical. Since a well
                 trained teacher with appropriate computer science
                 education is the key to this educational problem,
                 primary attention will be given to the teacher training
                 problem. Another reason for this emphasis is that not
                 enough is being done in our colleges currently. It is
                 hoped that this presentation will call attention to
                 this need and help motivate educators to further action
                 to solve the problem in the teacher training area,
                 which in turn will take care of the problem in the
                 secondary school itself.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Heimer:1973:TTC,
  author =       "Ralph T. Heimer and Lars C. Jansson",
  title =        "Teacher training in computer education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "48--50",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808076",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "It is the intent of this paper to describe a computer
                 education course now available for pre-and in-service
                 secondary school mathematics teachers at the
                 Pennsylvania State University. The development of the
                 present syllabus has been evolutionary and extends back
                 over a period of years, predating the IFIP Outline
                 Guides (4), but at the same time speaking to many of
                 the same considerations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Fu:1973:CSE,
  author =       "Kuan-Chen Fu and Benjamin Koo",
  title =        "Computer science education for an overlooked group ---
                 high school teachers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--52",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808077",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Since the advent of the electronic computer,
                 revolutionary changes have been made in modern society.
                 As a natural consequence, modernization of the
                 curricula has been called for in our educational
                 system, which includes the grade schools, high schools,
                 and colleges. In the last decade, mathematics courses
                 in the grade schools have been completely overhauled by
                 the introduction of the basic concepts of set theory,
                 group theory and the Boolean algebra. Thus, a good
                 mathematics foundation has been laid for the students
                 for their future computer application. On the other
                 hand, courses which contain computer oriented methods
                 and theories have also been instituted in the college
                 curricula of many academic disciplines such as
                 engineering, medicine, mathematics, economics,
                 business, science, management, etc. However, the
                 initiation of an introductory computer course in the
                 high schools is surprisingly sparse.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{McGinley:1973:TTU,
  author =       "Pamela R. E. McGinley",
  title =        "The training of teachers in the use of computers in
                 the classroom",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--55",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808078",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The ever increasing use of computers for school
                 administrative and instructional programs poses a
                 continuing challenge for educators. School personnel
                 and students need an intelligent understanding of the
                 computer and its advantages in order to best utilize
                 its potential. Recognition of this need has brought
                 about various agencies and commercial groups offering
                 courses that give the administrators and teachers this
                 knowledge. The main differences of the approach
                 presented here vs. the usual university course is that
                 it might be best taught by a team of outside
                 consultants with expertise. Besides their specialized
                 training, it often works out to be the least costly in
                 the long run.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1973:DSU,
  author =       "G. L. Engel and N. D. Jones",
  title =        "Discrete structures in the undergraduate computer
                 science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "56--59",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808079",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A course in discrete mathematical structures has been
                 included as a necessary component of a program in all
                 major curriculum studies in computer science. This
                 paper discusses this type of course with respect to
                 problems encountered in its implementation due to its
                 central position in the curriculum. Recommendations are
                 made regarding the level, content, and handling of the
                 course, based on several years' experience in teaching
                 the material.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Yeh:1973:NDT,
  author =       "Raymond T. Yeh and Donald I. Good and David R.
                 Musser",
  title =        "New directions in teaching the fundamentals of
                 computer science --- discrete structures and
                 computational analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "60--67",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808080",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Since the publication of the Curriculum 68 report of
                 the ACM Committee [CUR 68], undergraduate computer
                 science programs have undergone substantial changes.
                 Notably, many courses previously taught at the graduate
                 level have shifted down to the undergraduate level; new
                 areas have developed and consolidated but were not
                 covered by the ACM report. These facts make it
                 necessary to revise and update the Curriculum 68
                 report. An important factor which could help the
                 revision is the actual experience gained through the
                 development of many new undergraduate computer science
                 programs since the publication of Curriculum 68 report
                 five years ago. More specifically, most recommendations
                 of the ACM report contain just the subject areas to be
                 taught. The actual teaching experiences of these
                 courses have formulated certain basic philosophies and
                 formats of presentation. It is helpful, in our opinion,
                 to compare the merits of these philosophies and formats
                 of presentation. In this paper, we shall discuss the
                 basic philosophies and formats of presentation of two
                 undergraduate computer science courses --- Introduction
                 to Discrete Structures, and Computational Analysis. The
                 former coincides with the B3 course of the Curriculum
                 68 report; the latter is a new course not covered by
                 the ACM report.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Connolly:1973:CJC,
  author =       "Frank W. Connolly",
  title =        "A community\slash junior college view of {Curriculum
                 '68}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--69",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808081",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Q: What is a junior or community college? A: A college
                 that offers two years of a four year undergraduate
                 degree. Based on such an answer it would be assumed
                 that the difference between a four-year and a two-year
                 college is just that-one offers four years of education
                 and the other only two. The assumption, however, fails
                 to recognize two less obvious but major differences
                 between the two types of institutions: educational
                 objectives, and student population. Differences in
                 these factors affect all areas of a college including
                 curricula offerings and faculty selection. For purposes
                 of this discussion we will examine these two factors
                 (educational objectives and student population) only in
                 terms of computer related curricula.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{LaFrance:1973:CSL,
  author =       "Jacques LaFrance and R. Waldo Roth",
  title =        "Computer science for liberal arts colleges: a report
                 of a workshop held at {Wheaton College, Wheaton,
                 Illinois, July 12--14, 1972}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "70--76",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808082",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In response to interest expressed at the second SIGCSE
                 symposium in St. Louis in March, 1972, on the subject
                 of computer science education appropriate for the
                 liberal arts college, a workshop was held at the campus
                 of Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois, July 12-14,
                 1972. The object of the workshop was to involve
                 representatives from liberal arts colleges in a
                 discussion of computer science curricula that would be
                 relevant for such schools. In the past most of the work
                 on computer science curricula has been done by
                 representatives from large universities, and there has
                 been some question as to whether such a committee could
                 deal effectively with the problems of limited resources
                 and talent that characterize computer science in most
                 liberal arts colleges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Helkanoff:1973:MPC,
  author =       "M. A. Helkanoff",
  title =        "An {M.S}. program in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "77--82",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808083",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The present paper describes and discusses a proposed
                 M.S. program in Computer Science prepared by the author
                 for the New Curriculum Committee in Computer Science.
                 Although the paper includes many suggestions and
                 comments made by members of the committee, it still
                 does not necessarily represent a final version of the
                 proposed program, and, indeed, one of the motivations
                 for including it at this SIGCSE symposium is to elicit
                 further comments and suggestions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rheinboldt:1973:CRC,
  author =       "Werner C. Rheinboldt",
  title =        "The {CUPM} recommendations on a computational
                 mathematics program and on the impact of computers on
                 undergraduate mathematics courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "83--85",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808084",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The growing influence of modern electronic computing
                 in many fields of knowledge has contributed to a
                 dramatic increase and diversification in the
                 application of mathematics to other disciplines. No
                 longer are the uses of mathematics confined exclusively
                 to the physical sciences and engineering; they are
                 found with increasing frequency in the social,
                 behavioral, and life sciences as well. At the same time
                 the use of the computer has led to different
                 requirements for the solution process in mathematics
                 itself. Theory construction and model building have
                 assumed a different dimension; in addition to knowing
                 existence theorems, the user of mathematics must know
                 constructive methods for solving problems, and he must
                 have the means to ascertain the efficiency as well as
                 the correctness of these methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Highland:1973:ITF,
  author =       "Harold Joseph Highland and Charles B. Thompson",
  title =        "An integrated [two- and four- year] curriculum in
                 information processing at a state technical college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "86--90",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808085",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper is a report of one effort to develop a new
                 curriculum in information processing to provide for:
                 [1] a two-year program, which can be integrated into
                 [2] a four-year program at our College, and
                 simultaneously [3] articulate the transfer of graduates
                 from neighboring community colleges into the upper
                 division permitting the full transfer of 64 college
                 credits.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mapp:1973:PBI,
  author =       "George A. Mapp",
  title =        "A proposal for a {B.S.} in information systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--94",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808086",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Most of the existing computer science and
                 data-processing programs are either
                 vocationally-oriented aiming at entry-level positions,
                 or theoretical programs with no direct career
                 orientation. By contrast, this program aims at a
                 synthesis of theoretical, ``design-strategy'' and
                 practical approaches. By design strategy approach we
                 mean emphasizing a particular type of system, i.e.,
                 real-time data-base management or a particular
                 application, i.e., payroll, registration and how that
                 will affect the design constraints from analysis to
                 implementation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mills:1973:SCP,
  author =       "H. D. Mills",
  title =        "On the structure of a computing profession",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "97--101",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808087",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Computer systems are dangerously out of control in
                 several dimensions today. They are out of control with
                 respect to social integrity, with respect to fiscal
                 integrity, and with respect to cost and productivity.
                 It is a simple matter for a knowledgeable person to
                 abuse privacy and privileged information in computer
                 systems, to obtain information and to change it without
                 authorization. Such illegal acts can be used for social
                 ill or financial ill-to invade privacy, to embezzle, to
                 defraud. But where dishonesty is possible and
                 occasionally may occur, an honest and industrious lack
                 of competence has produced a staggering over-kill in
                 cost and effort in programming. This overkill cost has
                 two dimensions itself-first, in the cost of producing
                 programs, and second in the cost of the inefficiency
                 with which they control the hardware. It is not the
                 least farfetched to imagine that each of these overkill
                 costs are of the order of ten times that which is
                 possible. That is, we are paying ten times too much for
                 our programs, and they are getting only one tenth as
                 must work as they should out of the hardware.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gorsline:1973:CSE,
  author =       "George W. Gorsline and Duff {Green III}",
  title =        "Computer science education through a rearview mirror:
                 Experiences with {Curriculum 68} at {Virginia
                 Polytechnic Institute and State University}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "102--105",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808088",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The state of development of computer science, the
                 views of the computer professionals regarding
                 educational objectives, and the extent and types of
                 post-school employment opportunities constitute the
                 meta-environment for our educational efforts. In
                 addition, an educational program must be conceived,
                 born, grow and live (or die) in the immediate
                 environment of its host educational institution. The
                 goals, the priorities, the financial exigencies, and
                 the academic politics of the university are as
                 important to the program as are the students, the
                 faculty, the curriculum, and the meta-environment. The
                 host institution for the computer science program
                 discussed in this paper is Virginia Polytechnic
                 Institute and State University (VPI {\&} SU/Virginia
                 Tech). It is an aspiring, growing, southern
                 border-state, non-urban, land-grant institution
                 [9,11].",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gotterer:1973:CSM,
  author =       "Malcolm H. Gotterer and Bruce H. Barnes",
  title =        "The computer science {M.S}. graduate",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "106--109",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808089",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In this paper we discuss a survey recently completed
                 of graduates of Penn State who earned the M.S. in
                 Computer Science degree. The purpose of this survey was
                 to permit an evaluation of the effectiveness of the
                 curriculum in preparing students to meet the job
                 requirements of their employers. Of equal importance
                 was the former student's evaluation of the program
                 after having had a period in which to reflect. In this
                 paper we report some of the more important findings of
                 the survey.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rahimi:1973:ECS,
  author =       "M. A. Rahimi and H. G. Hedges",
  title =        "Evolution of a computer science academic program in a
                 college of engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "110--114",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808090",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Since 1956 the academic program in Computer Science at
                 Michigan State University has grown from a single
                 course offering to the stature of a regular academic
                 department offering bachelor's, master's and doctoral
                 degrees and serving over 1700 students in a single
                 term. The development of this program from its
                 beginnings through its growth to its present size and
                 stature is traced in this paper. Included are
                 descriptions of the current undergraduate and graduate
                 programs and a compilation of the resource allocations
                 to the department over the several years. Growth of the
                 Computer Laboratory facilities is also indicated along
                 with a listing of courses offered to non-majors and a
                 summary of interactions with other units of the
                 university.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Semple:1973:ECS,
  author =       "Wolsey A. Semple",
  title =        "Evolution of a computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "115--118",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808091",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "At Howard University there is an assortment of analog
                 and digital computers, some of which are coupled to
                 form hybrid computing devices. The University's IBM
                 360/50 is an operating system time sharing or
                 multi-program facility. In addition to time sharing
                 terminals around the campus, there are also remote job
                 entry stations and satelite computers to the IBM 360.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Forbrich:1973:UCD,
  author =       "Carl A. {Forbrich, Jr.}",
  title =        "Use computers to demonstrate the differential
                 equations of aerodynamics",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "119--120",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808092",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A majority of engineering students are apprehensive
                 about the first courses they take in which they are
                 expected to solve differential equations. Fluid
                 mechanics in aeronautical engineering is perhaps the
                 most difficult engineering specialty from the point of
                 view of differential equations. For this reason,
                 aeronautics instructors should become familiar with and
                 use techniques which make the solutions to differential
                 equations less frightening to the students. Versatile
                 computer techniques to demonstrate the characteristics
                 of solutions to differential equations and the effect
                 of boundary conditions on their solutions are currently
                 available for student use. Several of the computational
                 techniques not requiring an extensive computer
                 background are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Oliver:1973:SPS,
  author =       "Richard C. Oliver and H. E. Wright and W. C. Elrod",
  title =        "Statistical parameters in a shear flow field",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "121--124",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808093",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Statistical Analysis has been used to provide
                 solutions to complex problems in such diverse areas as
                 communications, stability and control, and turbulent
                 flow. Although these problems previously lacked
                 adequate mathematical treatment, the results of
                 statistical analyses have been significant both for
                 explanation and prediction. Statistical analysis is a
                 general scientific tool; it has application in many
                 areas of scientific research. For the moment the
                 investigation has been restricted to subsonic turbulent
                 flow.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Webster:1973:CSO,
  author =       "Dennis B. Webster and Victor A. Zaloom",
  title =        "A computer science option in industrial engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "125--127",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808094",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper is concerned with the justification and
                 development of a computer science option which has been
                 approved for inclusion within Auburn University's
                 Industrial Engineering curriculum. From a specification
                 of many of the areas covered by the field of industrial
                 engineering, it became clear that the use of the
                 computer is an integral part of the industrial
                 engineer's work. An analysis of the courses thought to
                 be most useful to an industrial engineer further
                 indicated that such courses fell into a logical
                 sequence from which a minor area of competence in
                 computer science could be developed. The courses
                 comprising the option are presented by means of a
                 precedence diagram which indicates suggested course
                 sequencing. Also presented is the Auburn Industrial
                 Engineering program with the embedded computer science
                 minor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bateman:1973:CSF,
  author =       "Barry L. Bateman and Gerald N. Pitts",
  title =        "Computer science as a foreign language substitute",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "132--133",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808095",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The world of today has a diversified opinion
                 concerning the worth and value of the computer. For
                 some it is a monster to be feared, while for others it
                 is a friend to be respected. Two statements will
                 probably best demonstrate these different points of
                 view. Lewis Mumford has said, ``Nothing that man
                 created is outside his capacity to change, to mold, to
                 supplant, or to destroy. His machines are not more
                 sacred or substantial than the dreams from which they
                 originated.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Horowitz:1973:CSI,
  author =       "E. Horowitz and M. C. Horowitz",
  title =        "Computers and society: an interdisciplinary approach",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "134--137",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808096",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Since their inception some 25 years ago, computers
                 have become an all pervasive influence in society.
                 Their impact has been felt not only in the sciences and
                 social sciences, but in almost all fields of endeavor
                 where there is a significant amount of information to
                 be taken, stored and manipulated. Their use in the many
                 spheres of business activity has contributed to the
                 creation of a huge computer industry. In recognition of
                 the immense social influences of computers and the
                 concurrent influence of the technocrats who ``control''
                 the machines, computer science departments have
                 recently tried to respond to the challenge by giving
                 their students an awareness of these forces. Their
                 response has taken basically 2 forms. The first
                 approach has been to incorporate within existing
                 courses a measure of social awareness and
                 responsibility. This has been accomplished by
                 examining, where appropriate case situations of
                 computer related developments and trying to assess
                 their implications in the social context. Experiments
                 of this type have been reported by [NEI72]. The second
                 approach has been to create a new course, often called
                 Computers and Society, whose main goal is to expose the
                 student to at least a subset of the relevant issues
                 connected with computers. Though called by the same
                 name, these courses often vary widely, and several
                 proposals which describe various formats have appeared
                 in the literature e.g., see [HOR72] and [LEE71]. This
                 paper deals with a variation on this second approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Martin:1973:SHA,
  author =       "Johannes J. Martin and Therese Martin",
  title =        "Student help and automatic grading: The organization
                 of a large service course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "138--141",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808097",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The organization of a programming service course is
                 described. The objective is combining high
                 instructional quality with economic use of departmental
                 resources. With undergraduate tutors who help in the
                 classroom as well as in consulting sessions and with
                 the help of an automatic grading system, it was
                 possible to lower the cost to about \$7 per student
                 credit hour (quarter system) without sacrificing
                 instructional quality. Some results obtained by
                 automatic monitoring of the student's work on
                 programming assignments and by interviews and
                 questionnaires are given to back the above claim.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Willoughby:1973:SAT,
  author =       "Theodore C. Willoughby",
  title =        "Student attitudes toward computers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "145--148",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808098",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "At Penn State certain major areas within Business
                 Administration require a computer programming course in
                 the curriculum. The course usually taken is Computer
                 Science 403, a FORTRAN programming course especially
                 designed for business students. In recent years student
                 complaints about CS 403 have been heard. Similarly,
                 computer science faculty have had complaints about the
                 students. There has been a problem. Research was begun
                 to determine some of the dimensions of the problem.
                 This investigation explored the attitudes of the
                 students toward computers. By measuring attitudes it
                 was expected that some explanation of the student
                 unrest would materialize. Other possible contributing
                 courses such as the FORTRAN language (rather than
                 COBOL) and the level of student ability have been or
                 will be separately studied. Some of the possible causes
                 for the problem which were considered at the beginning
                 of the investigation were: This was just one evidence
                 of a general public distaste with computer technology.
                 The course had a bad reputation which was communicated
                 to students before they enrolled in CS 403. The course
                 itself created negative attitudes. The instructor
                 created negative attitudes. An information systems
                 course created more positive attitudes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Beidler:1973:MIC,
  author =       "John A. Beidler",
  title =        "A machine independent course in processor organization
                 and assembler language programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "149--152",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808099",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Over the past three years the University of Scranton
                 has been developing a computer science program. Since
                 we could not hope to obtain the type of equipment, fast
                 processors and compilers which many of the larger
                 schools have, we developed several ``canned programs''
                 which could accept and act upon student input and give
                 the student some degree of experience with computers
                 which are not within our financial means. The heart of
                 this development was a simulator we refer to as the
                 SLIC (Scranton's Little Instructional Computer)
                 processor. We feel this simulator has a different
                 purpose for its existence than some of the others which
                 have been developed. The original purpose and the one
                 on which we are concentrating in this paper was to give
                 students some practical programming experience on
                 ``computers'' which have different addressing schemes.
                 We feel SLIC met this original purpose with great
                 success. Its most important contribution to date is in
                 the development of our course in Processor Organization
                 and Assembler Programming. In making this course SLIC
                 dependent, we believe we made it machine independent
                 and as a result we feel we give our students a ``feel''
                 for computing which transcends the machine we have on
                 campus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Marsland:1973:CMS,
  author =       "T. A. Marsland and J. Tartar",
  title =        "A course in minicomputer systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "153--156",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808100",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The study of minicomputer systems in a laboratory
                 environment has been considered by both Electrical
                 Engineering [1], and Computer Science [2] departments.
                 In a summary of the COSINE Committee report on Digital
                 Laboratories, Booth [1] points out that since
                 minicomputers are becoming an integral part of many
                 industrial systems, it is mandatory that students be
                 made aware of the principles of such systems. Further,
                 Booth suggests that the best way to accomplish this is
                 in a projects-oriented laboratory environment. We
                 certainly agree with his statement that ``A
                 successfully completed project thus gives the student a
                 sense of accomplishment that is hard to duplicate in
                 any other educational situation.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mashey:1973:ATY,
  author =       "John R. Mashey",
  title =        "{ASSIST}: Three year's experience with a
                 student-oriented assembler",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "157--165",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808101",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "ASSIST is a high-speed assembler/interpreter system
                 for IBM System/360 and related computers. It is
                 designed primarily for efficient processing of student
                 jobs, and offers a number of educational features.
                 ASSIST is now being used at a number of installations
                 under widely varying circumstances. This paper analyzes
                 the design process and decisions leading to ASSIST,
                 concentrating on the factors felt to be most important
                 to its usage. Implementation problems and experiences
                 are noted, and conclusions drawn from them regarding
                 the design of student job processors and desired
                 operating system facilities to support them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Walker:1973:PPO,
  author =       "Justin C. Walker and Charles E. Hughes",
  title =        "{POPSS} --- a parametric operating system simulator",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "166--169",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808102",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In this paper we describe POPSS, an event driven
                 simulator which is intended to simulate the activity of
                 a computer system- hardware together with an operating
                 system --- as it processes a work-load. Input to the
                 simulator is in the form of keyword parameters which
                 are used for describing all three components ---
                 hardware, operating system, and workload. POPSS is a
                 simulator as opposed to a simulation language. It is
                 designed to model the inner workings of a computer
                 system in addition to yielding the results usually
                 associated with simulation. The program is highly
                 modular, consisting of some 45 subprograms. Of these,
                 there are 22 modules, each of which represents an
                 operating system component (or possibly a part of one
                 such component). Included in POPSS are built-in
                 replacement features to allow a user the capability of
                 designing alternative resource allocation strategies.
                 These features are in addition to the standard
                 subprogram replacement automatically available through
                 the use of FORTRAN IV.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bailey:1973:SAT,
  author =       "T. E. Bailey",
  title =        "Student attitudes toward a new application of
                 instructional television in a computer programming
                 course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "173--176",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808103",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A new instructional television series for a beginning
                 computer programming course was prepared, using a new
                 format that was designed to be both informative
                 (presented in a well organized, meaningful, clear, and
                 concise manner) and interesting (gaining and
                 maintaining close attention) and making use of special
                 capabilities of the television medium. A television
                 series so designed can overcome to a large extent the
                 negative attitudes of students toward the use of
                 instructional television.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Honkanen:1973:SCP,
  author =       "Pentti A. Honkanen",
  title =        "A student-computer programming system for teaching
                 graph and network theory",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "177--179",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808104",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a programming system used in the
                 teaching of two Computer Science courses at The
                 Pennsylvania State University (7). The courses are; an
                 upper level undergraduate-beginning graduate level
                 course in graph theory, and a graduate level course in
                 the theory of graphs and networks. As can be
                 ascertained from the description of these courses they
                 are not primarily what would normally be called
                 programming courses. However, since they are computer
                 science courses they do stress the computational
                 aspects of graph and network theory and analysis. Past
                 experiences have indicated that if a computational
                 problem of any reasonable complexity is assigned in
                 class the majority of the students focus an inordinate
                 amount of their energies to the programming problems,
                 and consequently fail to grasp the significant features
                 of the theoretical problems involved. In addition,
                 since graph and network theory encompasses not only
                 computer science, but engineering and physical, and to
                 a lesser extent, the social sciences, many of these
                 students would be unduly burdened by writing many
                 rather complex programs. On the other hand, teaching
                 the computational aspects of graph theory without doing
                 some programming is equally ludicrous. Thus, a default
                 type solution of assigning two or three problems from a
                 narrow set of problems was rapidly becoming an
                 undesirable solution to this dilema. It was at this
                 point that the concept of a dynamically growing
                 programming system, as described in this paper, began
                 to formulate itself.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Weiner:1973:MGA,
  author =       "Leonard H. Weiner",
  title =        "Machine generation of assignments for a mass education
                 introductory programming course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "181--185",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953053.808105",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:45 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 3rd SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In any classroom, students vary in their background
                 and aptitudes. It has long been recognized [6] that,
                 ideally, each student should receive instruction and
                 assignments geared to his own particular ability to
                 perform: Weaker students should receive additional
                 instruction and less demanding assignments; stronger
                 students should be challenged by more complex or
                 thought-provoking problems. In practice, however, many
                 classes, especially in the introductory courses, have
                 too many students for the instructor to provide such
                 individualized attention. The slower students must
                 struggle, often without much success, to keep up with
                 the others, while some of the brighter ones become
                 bored by it all.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Noe:1973:UEC,
  author =       "Jerre D. Noe",
  title =        "University education in computer measurement and
                 evaluation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8--12",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382226.382227",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Reisman:1973:SPP,
  author =       "Sorel Reisman",
  title =        "A survey of pedagogical programming languages",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13--20",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382226.382446",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Modesitt:1973:CSU,
  author =       "Kenneth L. Modesitt",
  title =        "Computer science at a university regional campus",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21--22",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382226.382447",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bateman:1973:UPE,
  author =       "Barry L. Bateman",
  title =        "Upsilon pi epsilon: the national computer science
                 honor society",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23--25",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382226.382448",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Shaw:1973:ICC,
  author =       "Mary Shaw",
  title =        "Immigration course in computer science: teaching
                 materials and 1972 schedule",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "26--32",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382226.382450",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dept:1973:CSP,
  author =       "CORPORATE Carnegie-Mellon Univ. C. S. Dept",
  title =        "The computer science {PH.D}. program at {CMU}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33--40",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382226.382451",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This document provides a model of the Ph.D. program in
                 Computer Science at Carnegie-Mellon University. The
                 Ph.D. is viewed as a certification by the faculty that
                 the student has a broad foundation in Computer Science
                 and has performed original research in the area. Every
                 incoming student is assigned advisors who are charged
                 with guiding him and certifying his education. To
                 qualify for a degree, a student is required to pass a
                 set of qualifying examinations and to write and defend
                 a thesis.To help students fulfill these requirements,
                 the Department provides educational opportunities
                 consisting of:- The Immigration Course, an intensive
                 six week program intended to provide a common
                 foundation for students with diverse backgrounds.- A
                 set of Core courses, covering a core body of knowledge
                 in computer science which all computer scientists
                 should know.- An area specialization, requiring a
                 deeper study in a particular subarea of computer
                 science.- Participation in directed research, providing
                 experience in a research environment before starting
                 the major piece of research which will be his thesis.-
                 The environment to do a major piece of original work
                 leading to a thesis.There are no required courses;
                 competence may be acquired through either courses or
                 independent study. There is a teaching requirement
                 intended to develop communication skills.There are no
                 formal grades. However, on a semi-annual basis the
                 entire faculty evaluates each student's progress along
                 several dimensions --- courses, core qualifier, area
                 qualifier, directed research, teaching, thesis, etc.
                 Support and/or permission to continue in the department
                 depends on adequate performance along these dimensions.
                 Thus, while a student is free to shape his educational
                 program to suit his needs, he must continue to
                 demonstrate satisfactory progress in at least some of
                 the above dimensions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Webb:1973:STP,
  author =       "G. L. Webb",
  title =        "Some thoughts on program structure",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "8--12",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382228.382229",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hosch:1973:SCR,
  author =       "Frederick A. Hosch",
  title =        "Some comments on the role of computer science
                 education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13--17",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382228.382444",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stubbs:1973:IGE,
  author =       "D. F. Stubbs and D. W. Roberts",
  title =        "Implementing {Gauss} elimination",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18--24",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382228.382445",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Johnston:1973:PPF,
  author =       "August L. {Johnston, Jr.} and Theodore C. Willoughby",
  title =        "Programming from prose, flowcharts or decision
                 tables",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "4--7",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382230.382231",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pitts:1973:CSP,
  author =       "Gerald N. Pitts and Roy S. Ellzey",
  title =        "Computer science --- a professional degree",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "8--11",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382230.382437",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ellzey:1973:CRO,
  author =       "Roy S. Ellzey",
  title =        "The college's role in offering short concentrated
                 courses for industry",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "11--13",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382230.382438",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Oliver:1973:NUC,
  author =       "James R. Oliver",
  title =        "The need to upgrade computer science curricula",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14--18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382230.382439",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Walker:1973:CSC,
  author =       "Terry M. Walker",
  title =        "Computer science curricula survey",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--28",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382230.382441",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Newman:1973:ATT,
  author =       "J. Richard Newman",
  title =        "Alternative teaching techniques in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "29--32",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382230.382442",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Harris:1974:RCS,
  author =       "Fred H. Harris",
  title =        "The role of computer science education in
                 certification of computer professionals",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810429",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Certification of computer professionals has been in
                 the limelight over the past year or so, particularly
                 with respect to activities leading to the creation of
                 the Institute for Certification of Computer
                 Professionals (ICCP) [1]. Most of the effort of those
                 involved to date has been on organizational matters,
                 but our attention is now turned to planning for
                 improvements in existing testing programs and to the
                 establishment of new programs. If these are to be
                 effective, computer science education must have a major
                 role. In keeping with the interests of SIGCSE, I wish
                 to comment on that role from the perspective of one
                 involved with the Institute. First I will set the
                 context for my remarks by discussing the professional
                 status of computing personnel and then certification
                 and critically related activities will be described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Conway:1974:IIP,
  author =       "Richard W. Conway",
  title =        "Introductory instruction in programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6--10",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810430",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Cornell, like most other large schools, has been
                 struggling with the problem of introductory programming
                 instruction for years. The problem is not yet solved
                 but in the last few years we have done some
                 experimenting and seem to have made some progress. The
                 situation seems worth reporting so that others can
                 perhaps benefit from what has been successful and avoid
                 what has not. The major problems seem to be volume and
                 variety. Pedagogical techniques that are obviously
                 effective with small classes are sometimes impractical
                 when faced with more than a thousand students per year.
                 This may be largely a question of economics, since one
                 could presumably allocate enough resources to the task
                 to have small classes, but this is just not realistic
                 at Cornell and the real question becomes one of finding
                 practical large-scale techniques. For example, the
                 central computing facility at Cornell (a 360/65 under
                 OS/HASP) cannot support a sufficient number of
                 interactive terminals to make that mode of instruction
                 practical. Hence our solution must operate within the
                 constraint of a conventional non-inter-active computer
                 service.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Shapiro:1974:IVS,
  author =       "Stuart C. Shapiro and Douglas P. Witmer",
  title =        "Interactive visual simulators for beginning
                 programming students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11--14",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810431",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses two programs that have been
                 written to be aids to introductory programming
                 students. They both embody the belief that Computer
                 Assisted Instruction can be a worthwhile aid to
                 students when properly used and that one of the best
                 uses is to present visually to the student a process
                 that he has some control over and which he would not
                 otherwise be able to observe. Section 2 of this paper
                 discusses HYCOMP1, an interactive visual computer
                 simulator. Section 3 discusses IVF, the Interactive
                 Visual FORTRAN interpreter. They were both written in
                 SNOBOL4$^1$ and run under the KRONOS Time Sharing
                 System on a CDC 6600 using an Applied Digital Data
                 Systems, Inc. ADDS Consul 880 terminal, which is an
                 ASCII terminal with a CRT display and an addressable
                 cursor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Weiner:1974:AMI,
  author =       "Leonard H. Weiner and William P. Allaire",
  title =        "The author-mode interface for the {ASAG} assignment
                 generating system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15--20",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810432",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "ASAG, the Assignment Scheduler, Analyzer and Generator
                 [2], was first developed in 1968. Its purpose was to
                 help fill the gap between computer grading systems and
                 large scale, frame-oriented CAI systems. In particular,
                 it was designed to generate assignments at a level and
                 pace appropriate for each student and, at the same
                 time, to automate assignment checking and record
                 keeping in a mass education environment. The original
                 system design met these goals, but the manner of
                 implementation imposed some unexpected and undesirable
                 restrictions on both the students and instructors. In
                 order to ease these restrictions, and lay the
                 groundwork for implementing ASAG in other courses, two
                 major revisions have recently been made to the system.
                 The purpose of this paper is to introduce and describe
                 these new ASAG features.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Konstam:1974:ALF,
  author =       "Aaron H. Konstam and John E. Howland",
  title =        "{APL} as a lingua franca in the computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21--27",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810433",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In the last decade computer science has been
                 struggling to establish it's independent identity,
                 pressured on one side by those who refuse to admit the
                 existence of any new sciences and on the other by those
                 who see computer science as no more than the art of
                 constructing computer programs. We who are teaching
                 computer science are caught in the middle. We must
                 teach our students some of the art of computer
                 technology through programming courses, but we also
                 must instill in them those principles of the science of
                 computing which set it apart as a discipline in its own
                 right. We must keep ourselves from spending all our
                 time teaching our students to program in a variety of
                 different languages so they can get jobs as
                 technologists. But we must also beware of spending an
                 inordinate amount of time on the theory without
                 teaching programming basics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sterlling:1974:SFO,
  author =       "T. D. Sterlling and J. J. Weinkam",
  title =        "The {Simon Fraser} one track universal curriculum for
                 computing science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "28--32",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810434",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Almost every academic discipline has some potential
                 applicability to any other field of endeavor we might
                 consider. However, there are three disciplines that
                 share the distinction that they are widely applied in
                 virtually every field of human endeavor. In order of
                 seniority, there are: Mathematics, Statistics and
                 Computing Science. We wish to consider the problems
                 that this situation creates with respect to how these
                 subjects should be taught to a wide selection of
                 students and how a curriculum can be constructed to
                 appeal to a diversity of backgrounds and needs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pitts:1974:SOC,
  author =       "Gerald N. Pitts and Barry Bateman",
  title =        "A Software oriented Computer Science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--36",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810435",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Many Computer Science programs are mainly concerned
                 with hardware and software theory. Computer Software
                 especially is studied with very little application.
                 American Technological University has attempted to
                 breach the gap in the area of qualified software
                 computer science graduates by tailoring the courses to
                 allow students to study or write, and/or modify
                 operating systems. This is accomplished by selected
                 course work and ``hands on'' use of the 370/145.
                 Junior, senior and graduate level students are allowed
                 to sign up for blocks of time between 10:00 p.m. and
                 6:00 a.m. Monday through Friday when available and on
                 most week-ends. A description of courses, the
                 philosophy of teaching, the computer facilities, and a
                 critique of our former students is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Fairley:1974:GCB,
  author =       "Richard E. Fairley",
  title =        "A graduate curriculum in {Business-Oriented
                 Computing}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "37--39",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810436",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The Department of Computer Science at the University
                 of Colorado has recently developed a graduate
                 curriculum in Business-Oriented Computing. The program
                 was developed in recognition of the increasing demand
                 for individuals who are trained in both business
                 methodology and computer science. The 30 semester hour
                 program is designed to produce masters level computer
                 scientists capable of integrating the needs of the
                 business community with the technology of computer
                 science. Prerequisites for the program include a
                 Bachelor's degree in Business (or the equivalent), ten
                 semester hours of computing, and nine semester hours of
                 upper division mathematics. The prerequisite computing
                 courses are: Introduction to Computer Science for
                 Business Majors (CS 202), a four hour course in COBOL
                 programming; Business Data Processing Methods (CS 312),
                 a three hour course in FORTRAN emphasizing business
                 applications; and Assembly Language and System Software
                 (CS 400). The mathematics courses are typically in the
                 areas of statistics, probability theory, mathematical
                 programming, computability, and linear algebra. At the
                 University of Colorado, the programming and mathematics
                 courses can be taken in the undergraduate Computer
                 Based Information Systems option of the Business School
                 curriculum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kalmey:1974:PCI,
  author =       "Donald L. Kalmey",
  title =        "Profile of a Computer and Information Science {B.S}.
                 graduate",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "40--45",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810437",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The Department of Computer and Information Science at
                 The Ohio State University was conceptualized in 1967
                 and actualized one year later in October, 1968. Since
                 that time, the Department has had both graduate and
                 undergraduate degree programs. Originally there were
                 two undergraduate degree programs, one in the College
                 of Engineering and the other in the Colleges of Arts
                 and Sciences. In 1971 a third undergraduate degree
                 program was started in the College of Administrative
                 Science$^2$. As of July, 1973, these programs have
                 graduated 426 computer and information science majors.
                 This paper deals with a survey that was recently
                 conducted of the above mentioned graduates. The purpose
                 of the survey was threefold: (1) To determine what
                 positions our majors are filling in industry; (2) To
                 determine how effective the different undergraduate
                 curriculums are in preparing our B.S. degree graduates
                 for the Job market; and (3) To obtain an evaluation of
                 these programs by the graduates. Since questionnaires
                 are still being returned, the following represents a
                 partial summary of this survey.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kay:1974:CSR,
  author =       "Alan C. Kay",
  title =        "Computer scientists' responsibility to educational
                 research: a dynamic medium for creative thought",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--46",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810439",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A computing engine of sufficient power can both
                 simulate existing media and provide new framewords for
                 creative ideas. It must be personal, portable, and
                 inexpensive. Movies of such a (hard) system/(soft)
                 language designed and built for ``children of all
                 ages'' will be shown.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nievergelt:1974:TMA,
  author =       "Jurg Nievergelt and Thomas R. Wilcox",
  title =        "From teaching-machine to automatic tutor: The changing
                 man-machine interface",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--46",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810438",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A steadily increasing fraction of human activities
                 involves interacting with machines, and this
                 interaction will become more sophisticated as more and
                 more machines in our environment are controlled by
                 computers. As the degree of sophistication of this
                 interaction increases, its quality becomes more
                 important. This is particularly true in computer-based
                 education where a student is expected to learn
                 something by interacting with a machine for an extended
                 period of time. Quality of interaction has various
                 aspects. The most obvious is the physical properties of
                 the man-machine interface: to what extent does the
                 machine allow the human senses of sight, sound, touch
                 to come into play? Early teaching machines were at best
                 suitable for rote training tasks in restricted
                 applications. Only recently have computer terminals
                 been developed whose physical properties make this
                 interface suitable for computer-based education in a
                 wide variety of subject areas. All indications are that
                 rapid progress will continue, particularly in the
                 important aspect of reduced costs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Fletcher:1974:CSS,
  author =       "Dexter Fletcher",
  title =        "Computer science seminars on pedagogical techniques
                 and methods for evaluation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--47",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810440",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Interdisciplinary subject matter appropriate for
                 computer professionals who will participate in the
                 design of computer-based learning systems is discussed.
                 Broad issues of computer-managed instruction are
                 mentioned, but the potential contribution of computer
                 techniques is assumed to be much greater in the direct
                 use of computers in instruction and this type of use is
                 emphasized. Primarily, computer Professionals should be
                 prepared to suggest techniques that will permit more
                 imaginative uses of computers than those appropriate
                 for workbooks or memory drums. Promising pedagogical
                 techniques derived from a variety of disciplines and
                 used successfully in computer-based learning systems
                 are discussed. These techniques are roughly classified
                 as drill and practice, tutoring, and dialogue on one
                 dimension and as simulation, gaming, optimization, and
                 student control on another dimension. The
                 interdependence of these pedagogical techniques with
                 evaluations of instructional effectiveness and with
                 computer techniques associated with timesharing, formal
                 language processing, natural language processing,
                 information structuring, and varieties of terminal
                 devices is emphasized and explicated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Chi:1974:CSS,
  author =       "Emile C. Chi and Marsha Moroh and Miriam R. Tausner",
  title =        "Computer Science at Staten Island Community College:
                 Teaching Computer Science in an open admissions
                 environment",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "48--52",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810441",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Teaching Computer Science on an open admissions campus
                 with no tuition raises two major problems: many
                 students are poorly prepared for college-level work;
                 the students have extremely diverse aspirations and
                 needs. In response to this challenge, the Computer
                 Science faculty at Staten Island Community College has
                 evolved the teaching methods described below, which
                 include use of a non-mathematical approach especially
                 in lower-level courses, and a practical programming
                 laboratory to be taken as a part of each course. In
                 addition, a variety of new course and curriculum
                 options have been developed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Maniotes:1974:SUC,
  author =       "John Maniotes",
  title =        "The state of undergraduate computer and data
                 processing programs at public universities in Indiana",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--58",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810442",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The Commission for Higher Education of the State of
                 Indiana has created a study committee on occupational
                 education. This committee, called the ``Presidents'
                 Committee on Occupational Education Programs,''
                 consists of the Presidents from Purdue University,
                 Indiana University, Ball State University, Indiana
                 State University, Vincennes University, and the Indiana
                 Vocational Technical College. This committee has
                 identified six broad occupational categories, and
                 subcommittees have been appointed to study each of
                 these categories. This papers summarizes the work
                 (reference 1) of one of the subcommittees, the ``Task
                 Force on Computer and Data Processing,'' regarding
                 undergraduate computer-related programs at public
                 universities/colleges in the State of Indiana.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mathis:1974:TD,
  author =       "Robert F. Mathis",
  title =        "Teaching debugging",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--63",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810443",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A course in debugging techniques is motivated and
                 described. A course outline, reading list, and projects
                 list are included. Certain debugging aids are
                 described. Debugging techniques for elementary
                 algorithms are illustrated. Particular attention is
                 paid to ways to teach debugging and algorithm
                 structure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Weinberg:1974:SPC,
  author =       "Bernhard Weinberg and Leonard H. Weiner",
  title =        "A systems programming course using the {HMS} 5050, a
                 counterfeit, hands-on, large-scale computer system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "64--73",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810444",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Computer Science students at MSU design and implement
                 multiprogramming monitors for a simulated computer
                 system which is an amalgamation of Control Data 3000-
                 and 6000-series machines. In this paper we describe
                 this computer, the systems programming course in which
                 it is used, and the students' project. We also report
                 briefly on student performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Tracz:1974:UAP,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "The use of {ATOPSS} for presenting elementary
                 operating system concepts",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "74--78",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810445",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "ATOPSS (Adage Tutorial Operating System Simulator) was
                 designed to provide both a learning tool and a teaching
                 aid for the presentation of elementary operating system
                 concepts to graduate or advanced undergraduate computer
                 science students. As a real learning tool, the
                 simulator itself offers real time interaction and
                 observation of a parametric, discrete time event
                 oriented operating system. For a teaching aid, a series
                 of short movies has been produced using ATOPSS solely
                 as its basis, demonstrating both the use of the
                 simulator and the different concepts it portrays. These
                 movies thus offer the portability necessary for
                 in-classroom presentation and provide a basis for
                 further discussion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dodd:1974:IRC,
  author =       "George Dodd and Fred A. Gluckson",
  title =        "Industry reaction to computer science education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--80",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810446",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Today, undergraduate Computer Science Education
                 teaches mechanics without teaching problem solving.
                 Typical curricula include courses in assembler
                 languages, compiler theory, list processing, and
                 automata theory. Every MS degree holder, and most BS
                 degree holders, know Polish notation and have written
                 parts of compilers. However, few of them have ever
                 learned to write a program that can be easily enhanced
                 or respond to changes as new management (instructor)
                 requirements are set forth. Even fewer can read a
                 program and describe what it does or debug a system
                 consisting of ten or more modules.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gries:1974:WSW,
  author =       "David Gries",
  title =        "What should we teach in an introductory programming
                 course?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "81--89",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810447",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "An introductory course (and its successor) in
                 programming should be concerned with three aspects of
                 programming: 1. How to solve problems, 2. How to
                 describe an algorithmic solution to a problem, 3. How
                 to verify that an algorithm is correct. I should like
                 to discuss mainly the first two aspects. The third is
                 just as important, but if the first two are carried out
                 in a systematic fashion, the third is much easier than
                 commonly supposed. (Note that the third step is not
                 ``debugging,'' because the word ``debugging'' conveys
                 the impression that errors are alright-that they are a
                 natural phenomenon which, like flies in a house, must
                 be found and swatted. If ``debugging'' was called
                 ``getting rid of one's mistakes,'' I'm sure most
                 programmers would change their attitude and work harder
                 at producing a correct program initially.)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kernighan:1974:PS,
  author =       "B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger",
  title =        "Programming Style",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--96",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810448",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Misc/att.bib",
  abstract =     "Programs written with good style are easier to read
                 and understand, and typically smaller and more
                 efficient than those written badly, regardless of the
                 language used. Yet most programmers have never been
                 taught programming style-as proof we need only look at
                 their programs. In this paper we will discuss several
                 principles of programming style, illustrating our
                 points by criticizing and rewriting some real programs.
                 The examples are all taken verbatim from programming
                 textbooks, and the revisions have all been tested.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wu:1974:CTM,
  author =       "Chih Wu",
  title =        "{CAI} tutorial method of teaching Thermodynamics at
                 {U.S. Naval Academy}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "97--100",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810449",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A computer-assisted instruction in Thermodynamics
                 developed during the past two years at the U. S. Naval
                 Academy has been used for teaching a number of
                 midshipmen individually . An IBM 1500 instructional
                 system is used in which each midshipman is provided
                 with a terminal, with a cathode ray tube (complete with
                 a typewriter keyboard, and a light pen), and an image
                 projector. The instructional material, optional
                 supplementary instruction, questions and tests are
                 presented to each midshipman individually, enabling him
                 to proceed at his own demand and pace. Detailed records
                 of each section of material are stored in the computer
                 and will enable the instructors to review each
                 midshipman's progress through the course. The content
                 of the course, the background of the midshipmen, as
                 well as the equipment which the system comprises in use
                 is described. The overall logic and approach to the
                 course is discussed. The method of development of
                 programmed material and a study of its effectiveness
                 toward the stated goals along with recommendations, are
                 also included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kuo:1974:AHC,
  author =       "M. H. Kuo and G. A. Perdikaris and T. E. Mueller",
  title =        "An analog\slash hybrid computer simulation of
                 phase-locked-loops in motor speed control",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "101--105",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810450",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the simulation of the precise
                 control of speed in servo systems using the digital
                 phase-locked-loop (PLL) method and analog/hybrid
                 computer techniques. The PLL for motor speed control is
                 essentially a hybrid feedback control system in which a
                 reference square-wave signal is used to command servo
                 velocity and position. The system consists of a phase
                 comparator, a low-pass filter, the motor under control,
                 and a voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) in the
                 feedback path. The mathematical model of the motor and
                 the low-pass filter are simulated on the analog
                 computer. The input reference is a frequency-modulated
                 (FM) digital signal. An integrated circuit is used as
                 the phase comparator which compares the perturbed VCO
                 feedback frequency and the input signal. The method
                 introduced here is simple to learn and practical to
                 implement in undergraduate control courses. It
                 introduces the student to the basic concepts of PLL
                 control, without overwhelming him with its complex
                 problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Clark:1974:HSC,
  author =       "Douglas Clark",
  title =        "Hardware systems in the core curriculum of a computer
                 science {Ph.D.} program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "106--110",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810451",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This syllabus is organized around the view of digital
                 computer systems presented in chapter 1 of Bell and
                 Newell the major divisions of the syllabus correspond
                 to the major conceptual levels of design and
                 description of digital systems, and the divisions
                 (levels) appear in order of increasing complexity. Two
                 things need to be said about this organization. First,
                 while this conceptual structure of computer systems
                 according to levels of complexity has an intrinsic
                 formal appeal, many if not most of the references cited
                 at any given level or sublevel of the structure do not
                 confine themselves exclusively to material at that
                 level. References occasionally reach up to borrow
                 concepts from a higher level of complexity, and of
                 course they frequently reach down to provide
                 lower-level underpinnings for the systems they
                 describe.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sloan:1974:CAU,
  author =       "M. E. Sloan",
  title =        "Computer architecture in {U.S.} and {Canadian}
                 electrical engineering departments",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--115",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810452",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper traces the history of computer architecture
                 courses in U. S. electrical engineering departments.
                 Data from the Fall 1972 survey of U. S. and Canadian
                 electrical engineering departments by the COSINE
                 Committee of the Commission on Education of the
                 National Academy of Engineering are given to show
                 current computer architecture course offerings and
                 texts. Computer architecture courses offered in 1972-73
                 are analyzed, compared with ACM and COSINE
                 recommendations, and classified into five categories:
                 introductory computer engineering courses with a
                 computer architecture flavor, software -oriented
                 computer organization courses, hardware-oriented
                 computer organization courses, case study courses, and
                 topical seminars Future trends in computer architecture
                 education are predicted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Thomas:1974:CAC,
  author =       "Richard T. Thomas",
  title =        "Computer architecture in the computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "116--120",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810453",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Due to several complementary technological advances
                 related to computer systems, there has lately been an
                 increased interest in the architecture of computers.
                 This increased interest has forced changes in and
                 additions to the computer science curriculum. In this
                 paper, an academic program is described which has been
                 found to be highly successful in terms of student
                 interest and learning. The role of computer
                 architecture in this program is explored, and
                 conclusions are drawn regarding this role.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Chand:1974:SDL,
  author =       "Donald R. Chand",
  title =        "A structured design language for teaching
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "121--124",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810454",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A design language which facilitates the construction
                 of structured program models is presented. Since these
                 models demonstrate the process of composing programs,
                 they are used for teaching a first course on
                 programming more as a science than an art.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Woolley:1974:LSL,
  author =       "John D. Woolley and Leland R. Miller",
  title =        "{LINUS}: a structured language for instructional use",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "125--128",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810455",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "One of the crucial decisions in organizing a first
                 course in computer science is the choice of a
                 programming language. Although there is considerable
                 variance of opinion as to what the ideal language
                 should be, two main approaches can be delineated. The
                 first approach stresses the necessity of learning the
                 dominant scientific language, which in the Americas
                 amounts to a vote for Fortran (2). The practicality of
                 this choice is as indisputable as the awkwardness of
                 the syntax of that language. The alternative view
                 stresses the importance of the program structure in
                 developing a sound sense of ``algorithmic thinking''.
                 Proponents of this view would suggest Algol W (4) or
                 perhaps Pascal (5). We contend that both approaches
                 have important advantages. This paper explores an
                 approach which attempts to maximize the benefits of
                 both.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Holt:1974:SSS,
  author =       "Richard C. Holt and David B. Wortman",
  title =        "A sequence of structured subsets of {PL\slash I}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "129--132",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810456",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper gives a brief introduction to a sequence of
                 subsets of the PL/I language that has been designed for
                 the purpose of teaching introductory computer,
                 programming. The six subsets, called SP/1, SP/2, ...,
                 SP/6, restrict PL/I to language features which the
                 authors feel encourage good programming habits. Each
                 subset introduces new language features while retaining
                 features introduced in earlier subsets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Plum:1974:TSP,
  author =       "T. W. S. Plum and G. M. Weinberg",
  title =        "Teaching structured programming attitudes, even in
                 {APL}, by example",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "133--143",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810457",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "As a programming assignment in a graduate programming
                 course, students were to program an interactive word
                 game, JOTTO. The language used was APL, under
                 constraints of well-structured programming and complete
                 control of the user-machine interaction. In response to
                 complaints that teamwork was an impediment to
                 programming and that it was not possible to write
                 efficient well-structured programs in APL, the
                 instructors undertook to complete the assignment
                 working as a team. The results of the effort were
                 carefully documented, including experiences with
                 program modification, and are presented here, as they
                 were to the class, to illustrate the principles that
                 should be communicated to professional programmers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Basili:1974:ESS,
  author =       "Victor R. Basili and Albert J. Turner",
  title =        "Experiences with a simple structured programming
                 language",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "144--147",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810458",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A great deal of interest has developed in structured
                 programming [Dahl, Dijkstra, and Hoare, 1972] during
                 the past few years. This paper is concerned with some
                 experiences obtained in the use of a structured
                 programming language in the computer science curriculum
                 at the University of Maryland. The language used was
                 SIMPL-X [Basili, 1973], a language designed and
                 implemented at the University of Maryland. SIMPL-X was
                 designed to be a transportable, extendable,
                 compiler-writing language that was to be the base
                 language for a family of programming languages. It is,
                 in fact, being used for that purpose as the SIMPL-X
                 compiler [Basili and Turner, 1973] is written in
                 SIMPL-X, and a compiler for the graph algorithmic
                 language GRAAL [Rheinboldt, Basili, and Mesztenyi,
                 1972] is presently being designed as an extension of
                 the SIMPL-X compiler.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sampson:1974:IAS,
  author =       "Jeffrey R. Sampson",
  title =        "An introductory adaptive systems course for
                 undergraduate computer science majors",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "148--151",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810459",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the development and
                 implementation of an introductory survey course
                 spanning topics in automata theory, biological
                 information processing, and artificial intelligence.
                 The course, Computing Science 464, is designed (and
                 required) for Undergraduate honors students in the
                 university of Alberta Computing Science Department.
                 Normally taken in the third year of undergraduate
                 study, the course has the following catalog
                 description: CMPUT 464. Introduction to Adaptive
                 Systems.3 Finite and infinite automata and their
                 relation to formal languages; brain models and genetic
                 systems: introduction to artificial intelligence.
                 Prerequisite: Computing Science 314.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Menninga:1974:IPE,
  author =       "Larry D. Menninga",
  title =        "Introducing practical experience into {Curriculum 68}
                 through integration of courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "152--154",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810460",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A course which will give students some practical
                 experience with large programming problems is
                 described, The course combines the material from five
                 separate courses from Curriculum 68. The material is
                 presented in conjunction with a major programming
                 project which is the unifying ingredient of the course.
                 The project provides the student with immediate and
                 realistic applications of the ideas and topics
                 presented in the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Tremblay:1974:FCD,
  author =       "J. P. Tremblay and R. Manohar",
  title =        "A first course in discrete structures with
                 applications to computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "155--160",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810461",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an introductory course in
                 discrete structures for the undergraduate computer
                 science student that has evolved at the University of
                 Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. The philosophy of such a
                 course and certain problems encountered in preparing
                 and teaching it are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Korfhage:1974:IIC,
  author =       "Robert R. Korfhage and Robert J. Smith",
  title =        "Individualized instruction in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "161--164",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810462",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The concept of individualized instruction centered
                 around a rather extensive research project has been
                 present in education for centuries. As recently as
                 fifty years ago many colleges and universities required
                 some form of thesis for bachelors and masters degrees,
                 as well as for the doctorate. However, with the
                 pressure of increasing numbers of students the emphasis
                 on individual study has abated to such an extent that
                 in many schools only the PhD students have a real
                 opportunity to engage in extensive individual work.
                 Over the past two years we have been attempting a small
                 reversal in this trend. During this period we have
                 supervised nearly two dozen projects done by individual
                 students or small student groups at both the
                 undergraduate and the graduate level. After the first
                 semester of this effort we established a set of
                 guidelines which we have been following in subsequent
                 project work. Our present guidelines form the Appendix
                 to this paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Goddard:1974:RCS,
  author =       "Alton R. Goddard",
  title =        "Relating Computer Science programs to the needs of
                 industry through internships and cooperative programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "165--168",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810463",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to discuss some
                 approaches for achieving more meaningful relationships
                 between degree programs at the college level in
                 Computer Science and the needs of industry. Nothing is
                 more encouraging to most students than to know that
                 their academic preparation will enhance their future
                 life styles and future employment opportunities. Also,
                 probably nothing is more depressing to a person than
                 perhaps being a hungry, competent, and unemployed
                 expert in an academic area where employment
                 opportunities are nonexistent. The balance between
                 knowledge attributed to real world experiences and
                 academic theory is a crucial issue. Either type of
                 knowledge is hollow without the other component. Mr.
                 Jack Jackson, who is an Instructor for the American
                 Airlines Academy amply describes an ``experience'' as
                 being --- when something is happening to you and you
                 wish it were happening to someone else. Many schemes
                 have been used to simulate real world electronic data
                 processing experiences in the classroom situation. Some
                 of these schemes have proven very successful. However,
                 most employers will not consider this as what they mean
                 when they ask a prospective employee ``Do you have any
                 experience?''. The remarks in this paper are directed
                 toward the employer's definition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Moursund:1974:CPC,
  author =       "David Moursund",
  title =        "Computers in pre-college education: Oregon moves
                 forward",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "169--173",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810464",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The computers in education field is making rapid
                 progress. We can see this progress in the quality and
                 number of data processing programs at the associates
                 degree and data processing school levels, and in the
                 bachelor's, master's, and doctorate programs at
                 colleges and universities. We can also see large
                 numbers of secondary schools beginning to acquire
                 computing facilities. But we have a long way to go! To
                 put our current progress in perspective we need merely
                 ask: ``What percentage of students in the United States
                 made direct instructional use of computers during the
                 past week, how extensive was this usage, and how
                 effectively did it contribute to the student's
                 education?''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{vanDam:1974:SIA,
  author =       "Andries van Dam and Charles M. Strauss and Clement
                 McGowan and Jean Morse",
  title =        "A survey of introductory and advanced programming
                 courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "174--183",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810465",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In the process of establishing equitable and practical
                 computer time allocations for our computer science
                 courses this fall, we compared our seemingly high
                 request with standards in other universities.
                 Twenty-three private and state universities were chosen
                 for the comparison and a questionnaire (appendix 1) was
                 designed to elicit information about large introductory
                 programming courses and more specialized systems
                 programming/software engineering courses. The scope of
                 the 25 item questionnaire covers course organization
                 (size of class, number of meetings a week), course
                 content (proficiency expected, languages used, size of
                 programs written), and course budget (computer dollar
                 allocation/ student, equipment and operating system
                 used).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sistare:1974:IDC,
  author =       "John H. Sistare and Norman E. Sondak",
  title =        "Introduction to digital Computer programming an {IPI}
                 approach",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "184--194",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953057.810466",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:47 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 4th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The first course in Computer Science is often one of
                 the most difficult to teach. A large number of students
                 enroll, many with widely different aptitudes and
                 backgrounds, so that the traditional
                 lecture/presentation techniques aimed at the average
                 miss the majority. A number of alternates have been
                 proposed to overcome this problem. One of these is
                 Individually Prescribed Instruction (I P I). Using I P
                 I, the course material is initially partitioned into a
                 number of discrete units and given to a student one
                 unit at a time. The student reviews the material
                 contained in the unit and then takes a written
                 ``assessment'' to gage his mastery of the concepts. The
                 assessment is evaluated immediately and if the student
                 was successful the next unit is given, otherwise he
                 simply ``recycles'' the material. By this means the
                 student can progress at his own pace. The material in
                 this course has been broken down into seven units. In
                 addition to the written material, the student has
                 access to student tutors, faculty instructors and video
                 taped teaching aids. This paper reviews the
                 organization, construction and experience with using
                 the I P I approach over the past two years. Results to
                 date indicate that this method can be highly
                 successful, if administered to a proper subset of the
                 student population.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bonnette:1974:ENa,
  author =       "Della Bonnette and John F. Dalphin",
  title =        "Editorial notes",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.382197",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dowling:1974:CGC,
  author =       "Wayne C. Dowling",
  title =        "A computer-graphics course for undergraduate
                 engineers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5--8",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.382996",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lecarme:1974:SPP,
  author =       "Olivier Lecarme",
  title =        "Structured programming, programming teaching and the
                 language {Pascal}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9--15",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.382997",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lancaster:1974:ECQ,
  author =       "Ronald L. Lancaster and Richard T. Thomas",
  title =        "Experience with {Curriculum '68} and the quarter
                 system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16--19",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.382998",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Steinhorst:1974:CDU,
  author =       "G. Cort Steinhorst and Barry L. Bateman",
  title =        "Curriculum development for an undergraduate course in
                 data and information structures",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20--23",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.382999",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Moshos:1974:FRP,
  author =       "George J. Moshos and Kevin B. Kern",
  title =        "Final report of {Phase III Master Plan Committee for
                 Computer Science and Technology} to {New Jersey
                 Department of Higher Education}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24--28",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.383000",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{MacEwen:1974:PPC,
  author =       "Glenn H. MacEwen",
  title =        "A programming project for a course in operating
                 systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "29--36",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.383001",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Modesitt:1974:PVA,
  author =       "Kenneth L. Modesitt",
  title =        "{PSI}: a valuable addition to the alphabet soup for
                 computer science education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "37--44",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.383002",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sterling:1974:TSI,
  author =       "T. D. Sterling and S. V. Pollack",
  title =        "Teaching simulators or ideal teaching machines",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "45--56",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382196.383003",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:48 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The process of presenting and reinforcing fundamental
                 concepts and ideas for computer science at the
                 introductory level is impeded by the ever increasing
                 distance between the machine and the student. One very
                 effective way to circumvent the intervening software is
                 to start students on an Ideal Teaching Machine or
                 simulated computers that possess a limited but
                 effective instruction set. A number of ITMs have been
                 designed aimed at various levels of instruction. This
                 paper surveys the major ITMs in use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Norris:1974:ADP,
  author =       "Fletcher R. Norris",
  title =        "An algorithm for determining perfect squares",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "8--12",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988882",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hoffman:1974:COC,
  author =       "Lance J. Hoffman",
  title =        "Course outline for computer security and privacy",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13--17",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988883",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stokes:1974:SCP,
  author =       "Gordon E. Stokes",
  title =        "Service course position paper",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18--20",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988884",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hays:1974:UEC,
  author =       "Bill R. Hays",
  title =        "Undergraduate education in computer science at Brigham
                 {Young} University",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21--27",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988885",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stokes:1974:CSD,
  author =       "Gordon E. Stokes",
  title =        "Computer science department service courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28--29",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988886",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dinerstein:1974:ECP,
  author =       "N. T. Dinerstein",
  title =        "An experimental course in programming languages, data
                 structures and machine organization",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30--32",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988887",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Olivieri:1974:PLU,
  author =       "C. Peter Olivieri",
  title =        "Programming language usage and areas of concentration
                 in computer sciences education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33--35",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988888",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{McCharen:1974:DFC,
  author =       "John D. McCharen",
  title =        "A description of a first course in assembler
                 language",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36--43",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988889",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bell:1974:LRS,
  author =       "Stoughton Bell and Edgar J. Gilbert",
  title =        "Learning recursion with syntax diagrams",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "44--45",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988890",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lewis:1974:MAI,
  author =       "T. G. Lewis",
  title =        "Minicomputer assisted instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "46--50",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988891",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Even though minicomputers are widely used in industry
                 they are slow to gain acceptance in computer science
                 education. However, because of its increasingly great
                 impact on industry and its potential as a teaching
                 device, the minicomputer should be considered a part of
                 the computer science curriculum. This paper proposes a
                 minicomputer laboratory course at the lower division
                 level emphasizing hands-on use, fundamental computer
                 concepts in conjunction with ``computer lore'', and
                 problems peculiar to machines. Also, an upper division
                 course is suggested which emphasizes demonstration of
                 advanced programming techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Beil:1974:UTM,
  author =       "Donald H. Beil",
  title =        "The use of transparencies and microfiche to teach
                 computer programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "51--59",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988892",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gries:1974:PDS,
  author =       "David Gries and Priar W. Kerrighan and Donald R. Chand
                 and John Woolley and Richard C. Holt and Thomas W. S.
                 Plum and Victor Pasill and Olivier Lecarme and Clirtor
                 R. Foulk",
  title =        "Panel discussion on structured programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "60--68",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988893",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lawes:1974:DIC,
  author =       "C. Peter Lawes",
  title =        "Description of an introductory course in programming
                 languages",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "69--78",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988894",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1974:IRR,
  author =       "Gerald L. Engel",
  title =        "Initial report: the revision of {``Curriculum 68''}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "79--80",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988895",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Walker:1974:ECS,
  author =       "Terry M. Walker",
  title =        "An evaluation of computer science curricula",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "81--85",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988896",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ortega:1974:NAP,
  author =       "James M. Ortega",
  title =        "Numerical analysis position",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "86--87",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988897",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bateman:1974:SC,
  author =       "Barry L. Bateman",
  title =        "Software and {Curriculum 68}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "88--89",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988898",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dunning:1974:ROS,
  author =       "Peter Dunning",
  title =        "Recommendations for an operating systems course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "90--90",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988899",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Chand:1974:CSE,
  author =       "Donald R. Chand",
  title =        "Computer science education in business schools",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "91--97",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988900",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "In 1969, the Business School of Georgia State
                 University (GSU) initiated a new program of study
                 leading to the degree Master of Business Information
                 Systems (MBIS). The program has gone through a series
                 of refinements in order to better fulfill its primary
                 objective of developing business systems designers and
                 information analysts who would be responsible for
                 designing, implementing and evaluating computer based
                 information systems in organizations. The lack of a
                 model that may be used for constructing a suitable
                 curriculum led the author to the development of a goal
                 oriented approach for designing curricula. It provides
                 a systematic way of designing a curriculum for an
                 evolving multidimensional field like computer science.
                 This paper describes the factors that led to the
                 development of this approach and its practical
                 advantages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Little:1974:CCC,
  author =       "Joyce Currie Little",
  title =        "The community colleges and {Curriculum '68}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "98--102",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988901",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Faiman:1974:STR,
  author =       "Michael Faiman",
  title =        "Some thoughts on the role of hardware in computer
                 science education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "103--105",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988902",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Loveland:1974:PSM,
  author =       "D. Loveland",
  title =        "Position statement: mathematical computer science
                 courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "106--108",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988903",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hamblen:1974:SCS,
  author =       "John W. Hamblen",
  title =        "Statistics for computer scientists",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "109--111",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988881.988904",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bonnette:1974:ENb,
  author =       "Della T. Bonnette and John F. Dalphin",
  title =        "Editorial notes",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382203",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sammet:1974:RFD,
  author =       "Jean E. Sammet and Robert Lechner and Richard G.
                 Canning and Joseph Cunningham and George G. Dodd and
                 Alex A. J. Hoffman and Anthony Ralston and Frederic G.
                 Withington",
  title =        "Recommended future directions for {ACM}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "5--12",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382988",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Givbbs:1974:HCS,
  author =       "Norman E. Givbbs and Donald W. Loveland and James M.
                 Ortega",
  title =        "The heart of computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13--14",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382989",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Austing:1974:RPS,
  author =       "Richard H. Austing",
  title =        "The role of professional societies in computer science
                 education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15--20",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382990",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jehn:1974:JSC,
  author =       "L. A. Jehn",
  title =        "Joint session computer science and engineering
                 education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21--25",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382991",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The discussion centered on the needs of engineering
                 students in the field of computer science. It was
                 generally agreed that their curriculum should include
                 an introduction to a higher level language such as
                 Fortran taught with an algorithmetic approach, and an
                 introduction to numerical methods with emphasis on
                 proper use of subroutines. It was strongly recommended
                 by the group that simulation and mathematical modeling,
                 statistics, and analog computation be included. Many
                 felt that some basic concepts of an assembler language
                 as related to mini-computers was important. The group
                 was unanimous in the opinion that computer science
                 subject matter should be taught by those trained in the
                 field, but in all cases the courses should be
                 structured so as to be user oriented. It was strongly
                 recommended that CoED form a committee to study this
                 need and make recommendations to the engineering and
                 computer science educators.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Senn:1974:POP,
  author =       "James A. Senn",
  title =        "A problem oriented pedagogy for computer language
                 instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26--29",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382992",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Training in computer languages has become an integral
                 part of most programs in the Decision Sciences.
                 However, in many instances, the educational efforts
                 have focuses primarily on language syntax and
                 structure, where short programming problems are
                 assigned to students in order to emphasize a particular
                 technique or subset of of instructions in the language.
                 Such an approach implicitly avoids the overall purpose
                 of computer language instruction: providing the student
                 with a means of integrating the computer into problem
                 solving activities.The purpose of this discussion is to
                 introduce several techniques which have proven
                 effective in teaching not just language syntax and
                 structure, but also modular programming and
                 documentation for business oriented problems. Each of
                 these topical areas needs to be addressed in
                 programming language courses in such a way that the
                 student not only gains a meaningful understanding of
                 the concepts, but also grasps an awareness of the
                 particular value of the concept in business
                 applications. A methodology is presented which has
                 successfully been adopted in computer programming
                 courses at both the graduate and undergraduate
                 levels.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bonnette:1974:SPD,
  author =       "Della Bonnette",
  title =        "{SIGCSE} panel discussion, the industry's reaction to
                 computer science education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30--35",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382993",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Poore:1974:TCH,
  author =       "Jesse H. {Poore, Jr.} and Carl J. Kropff",
  title =        "Teaching computer hardware organization with a
                 simulator",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36--48",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382201.382994",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hamblen:1975:CAG,
  author =       "John W. Hamblen",
  title =        "The case for an advanced Graduate Record Examination
                 in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--6",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811121",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), first
                 administered in 1937, were initiated as a joint venture
                 of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
                 Teaching and the graduate school deans of four eastern
                 United States universities. When Educational Testing
                 Service (ETS) began operations in January 1, 1948, it
                 assumed responsibility for the examinations and the
                 program in which they were used. Until 1966, ETS
                 constructed the tests and operated the testing program
                 with the advice of a committee appointed by the
                 Association of Graduate Schools (AGS) within the
                 Association of American Universities. After several
                 graduate schools suggested that it would be both
                 desirable and appropriate to have a broader
                 representation of the graduate education community
                 participate in the program's policy decisions, the
                 Graduate Record Examinations Board was established in
                 1966.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lewis:1975:ICS,
  author =       "Jesse C. Lewis",
  title =        "Innovative computer services for minority colleges",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--10",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811122",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The word ``innovative'' in the title of this paper
                 does not imply that the colleges involved have found or
                 invented some new computer technology to apply to
                 instruction and research. If the word innovative in
                 appropriate at all, it applies to the way we are using
                 the computer or to the fact that for the first time
                 students in a few minority institutions have access to
                 what maybe one of the most valuable tools in education.
                 I have long advocated that the motivational effect and
                 other advantages of the instructional uses of computers
                 should be applied where it is needed most. It is my
                 opinion that the culturally and economically advantaged
                 students (for example, those students who can afford to
                 go to college in Hanover, N. H.) would be successful in
                 college and life with or without access to computer
                 based instruction. However, this may not be true for
                 some students who go to college in Itta Bena, Ms. There
                 is a great need to motivate and provide individualized
                 instruction for students who have net been exposed to
                 many of the advantages of our society.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Marshall:1975:VU,
  author =       "Sister Patricia Marshall",
  title =        "The view from down under",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11--14",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811123",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Xavier shares at least six characteristics with other
                 developing institutions. some of which are not shared
                 by all: private small, predominantly black, liberal
                 arts-oriented, church-related, and serving a large
                 percentage of disadvantaged students. Difficulties in
                 launching and maintaining a computer science program at
                 such an institution are not rooted in any one of these
                 alone but rather in the complex, often apparently
                 conflicting, cross currents of philosophies represented
                 by these characteristics. Serving the needs of
                 disadvantaged students in a liberal arts milieu is
                 difficult enough, and once you establish computer
                 science in this picture, you still have to meet the
                 challenge of staffing with permanent, full-time faculty
                 to effect continuity. It has been evident at Xavier
                 from the beginning (1968) that without a strong
                 computer science curriculum the ability to serve other
                 departments would be severely limited; its experience
                 bears this out. We have no great success story to tell,
                 but we have experience to relate and some ideas for the
                 future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Randolph:1975:CFS,
  author =       "Robert H. Randolph",
  title =        "Computer facility: Starter kit",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15--19",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811124",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of the discussion that follows is to shed
                 some light on the mystical process of buying a
                 computer. The problem of computer acquisition is often
                 approached from a very rational, very scientific
                 perspective with lots of charts, graphs, comparisons
                 and rating scales. Sometimes the original intent of the
                 effort can get lost in the piles of data. What I hope
                 to do here is to augment or clarify this super rational
                 approach (which certainly has its place) with some
                 practical, down to earth common sense. At the very
                 least, what I am advocating could certainly become the
                 basis for a more elaborate scientific approach. In
                 order to keep things simple, I have looked at the
                 problem of computer acquisition in terms of (1) some
                 thinking, (2) some planning, (3) and a lot of doing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bauer:1975:DTO,
  author =       "Henry R. {Bauer III}",
  title =        "The design of a {TI980A} operating system for
                 classroom use",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "20--22",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811125",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "To enable students and researchers to concentrate on
                 individual primitives, an operating system is designed
                 with replaceable program parts. In particular,
                 classroom and individual study projects may be assigned
                 which give the students actual practice with a real
                 multiprogramming system. Such projects would replace
                 the simulation exercises usually found in operating
                 systems courses. The minicomputer hardware and software
                 features described here are within reach of most small
                 computer science departments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lane:1975:HAT,
  author =       "Malcolm G. Lane",
  title =        "A hands-on approach to teaching systems programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "23--30",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811126",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Historically, the teaching of systems programming has
                 been undertaken using a variety of techniques. In order
                 to provide students with the best possible learning
                 experience, an approach which allows the students
                 ``hands-on'' experience on some computer system is
                 desirable. Such a ``hands-on'' approach has proved to
                 be successful in a course in systems programming for
                 over three years at West Virginia University. The
                 approach is discussed in detail and the results of the
                 three years' experience using this approach on an IBM
                 1130 computer system are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Perry:1975:MCP,
  author =       "James T. Perry and Terry E. Weymouth",
  title =        "A modified Chief Programmer Team approach to an
                 operating systems class project",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--39",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811127",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the use of the Chief Programmer
                 Team method in an operating systems class to implement
                 a subset of a multiprogramming operating system. The
                 operating system consisted of elements of Job
                 Management, Task Management, and Data Management
                 functions. The students were divided into four groups.
                 One of these, called the Steering Committee, was
                 responsible for assigning coding and design duties to
                 each of the three coding groups. When each major part
                 of the operating system was completed, the Steering
                 Committee would examine the code and approve it, or
                 return it to the coding group for revision. Thus, the
                 Steering Committee acted as Chief Programmer to the
                 other three groups. When all parts of the system were
                 completed, they were linked together and tested. A
                 comprehensive survey containing questions regarding the
                 effectiveness of the Chief Programmer approach was
                 given to all students. The results of this survey
                 indicated that the group programming effort was
                 superior to the conventional method of assigning the
                 project, in its entirety, to each student. Key Words:
                 Chief Programmer Team, Monitor, Operating Systems,
                 Systems Programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cashman:1975:NTP,
  author =       "W. F. Cashman and W. J. Mein",
  title =        "On the need for teaching problem-solving in a
                 {Computer Science Curriculum}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "40--46",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811128",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "One issue which is not often stressed, or even
                 addressed, in Computer Science Curriculums is that of
                 problem solving. Since problem solving is an essential
                 activity in the construction of programs as well as
                 other computer science pursuits, the omission of any
                 formal instruction in this area is a serious matter. An
                 instructional methodology is proposed for enhancing the
                 problem solving abilities of students enrolled in
                 introductory computer science courses. In particular, a
                 paradigm is proposed to guide the student in his
                 problem solving endeavors. Several examples of problems
                 that were used for the purpose of increasing the
                 students' problem-solving abilities are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Danielson:1975:ATI,
  author =       "Ronald L. Danielson and Jurg Nievergelt",
  title =        "An automatic tutor for introductory programming
                 students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--50",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811129",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses an automatic tutor of
                 programming, implemented on the PLATO IV CAI system [1]
                 as a part of an automated instructional system for
                 computer science being developed at the University of
                 Illinois [8]. This tutor exposes the introductory
                 student to structured programming concepts and top-down
                 problem solution techniques by means of example. The
                 student develops (on-line, using an approach based on
                 stepwise refinement [11]) a solution to a single,
                 relatively complex programming problem (symbolic
                 differentiation of a polynomial). Student and tutor
                 engage in an interactive dialogue during this
                 problem-solving process, the tutor providing hints
                 regarding solution steps, and comments about program
                 structure and efficiency. A small sample of the types
                 of responses the tutor might make is presented",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Goddard:1975:CAP,
  author =       "Alton R. Goddard",
  title =        "Computer applications for prospective public school
                 administrators",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--55",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811130",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze
                 the instructional programs needed to prepare
                 prospective public school administrators for today's
                 technological decisions. Most states require public
                 school administrators to obtain an administrator's
                 certificate earned by the satisfactory completion of a
                 certain collection of course work considered necessary
                 for their professional preparation. For example, an
                 administrator's certificate in the state of Texas
                 requires from forty-five to sixty hours of prescribed
                 graduate level course work. The course work at East
                 Texas State University was modified about two years ago
                 to include a three-semester-hour course in computer
                 science. It was believed that all prospective
                 administrators could benefit by at least this amount of
                 exposure to the procedures of automatic data
                 processing. The course was designed to accommodate
                 graduate students in education with very little or no
                 background in computer science. This type of student
                 tends to be initially petrified at the thought of
                 having to take a course in computer science. However,
                 after some exposure to computer science terminology,
                 they are ready to pursue the primary educational
                 objective of the course. This objective is to prepare a
                 prospective superintendent or principal to assume his
                 position in a public school system with some knowledge
                 of how to intelligently use whatever automatic data
                 processing capability is or might possibly become
                 available for his district's use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Robertson:1975:PFC,
  author =       "Edward L. Robertson",
  title =        "The problems facing computer science education in
                 developing nations",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "56--60",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811131",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Computer applications and computer science education
                 for developing nations have received little attention
                 in developed countries, largely because we are
                 naturally interested in first putting our own house in
                 order. This paper is first intended to call attention
                 to the problems of developing nations. It surveys the
                 ways in which developing nations need computing and
                 computer science, and how computer science education
                 can help satisfy these needs. The goals and problems of
                 computer science education are then discussed. One of
                 the gravest problems of a computer science department
                 in a developing nation is isolation-from technology and
                 research, from professional contacts, from advice.
                 Contacts with departments in developed nations will
                 alleviate, if not solve, this problem at little expense
                 to us. This is not a formal ``twinning'', requiring
                 funds which are presently hard to fund, but an informal
                 assistance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dexter:1975:DSC,
  author =       "Margaret E. Dexter and Margaret L. Rhoden and Jerry
                 Sue Townsend",
  title =        "A discrete structures course for a small college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "61--64",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811132",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "It is generally accepted that a course in discrete
                 structures such as Course B3 in Curriculum 68
                 recommendations [1] is an important part of a Computer
                 Science program. In many institutions a Discrete
                 Structures course is offered in the Computer Science
                 Department although it overlaps courses in the
                 Mathematics Department [2,3,4]. In smaller schools the
                 size of the student body and staff limitations make
                 such a solution impractical. At Augusta College we have
                 met the objective of early exposure to discrete
                 mathematics with applications in computer science by
                 offering a two-hour computer science course as a
                 co-requisite to a three-hour mathematics course. While
                 this approach is a compromise it does appear to have
                 some merit.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sapega:1975:DIC,
  author =       "A. E. Sapega",
  title =        "Development and implementation of a computing major
                 program based on suggested {ACM} curricula at an
                 undergraduate liberal arts college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "65--67",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811133",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Two recent ACM reports have been published suggesting
                 curricula for undergraduate education in Computer and
                 Information Sciences. These reports have provided the
                 basis of a new major program, the Computer Coordinate
                 Major, recently established at Trinity College. The
                 synthesis of these reports with the curriculum of the
                 College in developing the new major is discussed. The
                 resulting program is suggested as a case study in the
                 implementation of the ACM reports. It is recommended
                 that the ACM reports be regularly reviewed and up-dated
                 so as to continue to provide the basis for development
                 of curricula for undergraduate education in
                 computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wardle:1975:CSP,
  author =       "Caroline Wardle",
  title =        "A Computer Science program at a college with limited
                 resources",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--70",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811134",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "At Hunter College, the B.A. degree in Computer Science
                 was the work of two people, whose goals were to provide
                 a high quality degree, with as much choice of program
                 specialization as possible under the constraints
                 imposed by Hunter. It was felt that the program should
                 be structured so as to provide a useful background for
                 obtaining a job in industry or business, for those
                 students not intending to go on to graduate school. The
                 City University of New York is committed to Open
                 Enrollment which means that our students have extremely
                 diverse academic backgrounds. Because of limited
                 commitment and resources, we have been forced to rely
                 heavily on part-time instructors. Consequently we have
                 not been able to offer all of the advanced courses on a
                 regular basis. As a result of these factors, we settled
                 on a small program, offering two specializations, that
                 could be covered with a minimum of full-time faculty
                 backed up by adjuncts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Abbey:1975:DPC,
  author =       "Duane C. Abbey",
  title =        "Data processing and Computer Science graduates",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--75",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811135",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The following paper presents the views, observations
                 and concerns of an educator working in the field of
                 information and data processing. The primary comments
                 and suggestions are directed toward the academic
                 community although suggestions and goals are also made
                 which are applicable to the information and data
                 processing field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lancaster:1975:CSP,
  author =       "Ronald L. Lancaster and Richard T. Thomas",
  title =        "A Computer Science Practicum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "76--78",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811136",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "An approach is described for introducing practical
                 work experience into an undergraduate computer science
                 curriculum. This approach differs from others which
                 have been reported in that it is not necessary for the
                 student to make any arrangements for academic credit in
                 advance. The requirements for obtaining practicum
                 credit are described, and examples of projects which
                 have received such credit are given. This approach has
                 made a significant contribution to the educational
                 program by offering academic credit for learning
                 experiences which are difficult to duplicate in a
                 typical computer science curriculum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Webre:1975:MPB,
  author =       "Neil Webre",
  title =        "The {Master}'s Practicum: a bridge over the
                 {Industry\slash University Gap}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--82",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811137",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "There has been a continuing discussion in the SIGCSE
                 Bulletin over the ``gap'' between the subject matter
                 and methodology of Computer Science curricula and the
                 needs of industry (1, 2, 3, 7, 8). There have been both
                 denials that a gap exists, and reaffirmations of its
                 existence. Two of the proposals for a solution to the
                 problem have called for direct contact between students
                 and industry during the education process. Goddard (9)
                 discussed the internship and cooperative program at
                 both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The ACM
                 curriculum recommendations for a Master of Information
                 Systems degree(4) contain a course proposal for Systems
                 Development Projects (course D3) which involves
                 significant contact between students and industry. This
                 paper discusses the need for professional training
                 during the education process and our attempt to provide
                 such training within a Computer Science Masters degree
                 program by means of a course, the Master's Practicum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Adams:1975:TDP,
  author =       "J. M. Adams",
  title =        "Teaching declarative programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "83--85",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811138",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "At the Conference on Programming Methodology in
                 January 1974 at Albuquerque, New Mexico Prof. Edsger
                 Dijkstra described a method of program development in
                 which the imperative form of a program is developed
                 from the assertions which form the correctness proof.
                 In other words the declarative (or non-procedural)
                 aspect of an algorithm guides its implementation into
                 an imperative (or procedural) form. While extremely
                 exciting, this methodology is rather alien to those
                 with traditional training in the imperative method of
                 program development. Since this encompasses almost
                 everyone including most instructors and students, a
                 problem arises in introducing the methodology into the
                 standard computer science curriculum. This paper
                 describes our approach to the problem at New Mexico
                 State and the results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ellis:1975:PSS,
  author =       "Clarence A. Ellis",
  title =        "A practicum --- seminar in structured programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "86--94",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811139",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a practicum-seminar course which
                 the author taught at the University of Colorado during
                 the spring and summer of 1974. This course contained a
                 number of salient features which made it an interesting
                 experiment and a unique learning experience for all
                 involved. The broad goals of the seminar were: (a) to
                 introduce participants to system design and software
                 engineering techniques and to provide practical
                 experience in the use of these techniques; (b) to
                 design and implement a flexible, human oriented student
                 registration and scheduling system. This paper presents
                 background and discussion of the project and the
                 seminar. A class syllabus is given showing topics which
                 were covered, and advantages and disadvantages of this
                 type of educational experience are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hanson:1975:FCC,
  author =       "Allan Hanson and Kurt Maly",
  title =        "A first course in computer science: What it should be
                 and why.",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--101",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811140",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "We feel that for a long time introductory computer
                 science courses have degenerated into courses more
                 appropriately titled ``Introduction to the Programming
                 Language X'' where X has historically been FORTRAN or
                 BASIC and more recently PL/I or APL. In this paper we
                 propose an introductory course which first, and
                 foremost, teaches problem-solving methodology with the
                 final stage of it being translation of an algorithm
                 into a well-structured program. And, second, it
                 achieves this in conjunction with an introduction to
                 the major areas of computer science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ripley:1975:CEP,
  author =       "G. David Ripley",
  title =        "A course in effective programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "102--108",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811141",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a graduate Computer Science
                 course in which all aspects of the programming process
                 are examined. The course has been taught for the past
                 three years, and represents an attempt to pull together
                 various results of researchers working on this rather
                 undeveloped but important area. Unfortunately space
                 does not permit the inclusion here of many details or
                 examples. Rather, the emphasis is on the form of the
                 course and how the reference material is used in
                 pursuing the course objectives. (The topic of program
                 measurement is expanded on somewhat, being a topic of
                 interest to the author and one about which little has
                 been said elsewhere.)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Curtis:1975:CSF,
  author =       "Kent K. Curtis",
  title =        "Computer science, federal programs, and {Nirvana}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "109--113",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811142",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "My text this morning comes from a highly regarded
                 German algebraist of the nineteenth century, Leopold
                 Kronecker. He was engaged in a vigorous debate with
                 other mathematicians on exactly this question, what are
                 the foundations of mathematics? What set of axioms can
                 be used as a basis for deriving everything else? Most
                 mathematicians were following directions of thought
                 which invoked the concept of infinity, infinite
                 sequences, infinite sets, infinite classes, and
                 reciprocally, the notion of infinitesimal. By
                 consistent application of logic, their premise
                 inexorably led to further elaborations such as
                 trans-finite numbers which are esoteric in the
                 experience of most of us. Kronecker vigorously asserted
                 that following this path was an error. He claimed that
                 one must begin, and not only begin but remain content
                 with the integers and those things which can be
                 described algorithmically in terms of them. ``God made
                 the integers, and all the rest is the work of man.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mayes:1975:DCF,
  author =       "Jesse J. Mayes",
  title =        "Development of computing at {Federal City College}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "114--119",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811143",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "After joint discussions between the House and the
                 Senate, a bill authorizing the creation of Federal City
                 College (and the Washington Technical Institute) was
                 signed into law in 1966 by President Lyndon B. Johnson
                 as Public Law 89-791. The Federal City College Computer
                 Center is organized as a consolidated center designed
                 to support both academic and administrative data
                 processing requirements of the College. The Center has
                 chosen this organizational structure because it
                 provides the College with the best cost effective means
                 of providing a wide range of data processing services
                 to all areas of the College. The management of one
                 centralized Computer Center and its supporting staff
                 obviates the necessity for the College to staff and
                 support an array of decentralized computing staffs and
                 facilities in each school.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stone:1975:ICS,
  author =       "Fred W. Stone",
  title =        "Innovative computer services at a developing
                 institution",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "120--122",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811144",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Tuskegee Institute installed an IBM 1620 in October
                 1961. Over the next several years as demand required,
                 the system was expanded from the original 20K to 60K
                 then to disk. The original acquisition was made
                 possible with a NSF grant. in June 1972, with the
                 assistance of a NSF grant, among others, Tuskegee
                 Institute was able to install a Hewlett--Packard 2000F
                 Time Sharing system. With the ability to use the system
                 from any part of of the campus, service to the various
                 schools and departments is staggering. Engineering has
                 increased it's use but it accounts for only 30\% of the
                 current use of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dyba:1975:CHR,
  author =       "Jerome Dyba and Marvin Kornbluh and William McCartin
                 and Richard G. Schneider",
  title =        "The challenge of human resources staffing and
                 utilization in industrial computing --- part 1",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "123--123",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811145",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Marvin Kornbluh Industry today is looking for creative
                 systems analysts and programmers who can develop
                 physical systems on the basis of sound business
                 judgement rather than merely increasing the level of
                 sophistication. They need ``entrepeneurs'' --- those
                 who know how to work effectively with hardware and
                 software suppliers, know how to harness and direct the
                 creative systems people, know how to be communications
                 catalysts in giving advice and counsel to systems
                 users, and know how to establish and maintain sensible
                 budgets and project control systems. How these types of
                 EDP personnel can be developed by the application of
                 sound management principles to the establishment of
                 ``custom-built'' educational and training programs that
                 emphasize both the operations of the organization as
                 well as the technical aspects of data processing will
                 be discussed. William McCartin The nature of computer
                 technology in a manufacturing environment and the
                 resulting demand for extensive computer education and
                 professional knowledge will be outlined. A company's
                 response to this demand as it was influenced by
                 technical and budgetary considerations is described.
                 The current and future educational requirements
                 necessary to successful implementation of computerized
                 industrial applications, manufacturing process control,
                 and factory automation is considered. Richard G.
                 Schneider Computer-related careers in banking will be
                 discussed. Personnel are needed who can specialize in
                 such areas as computer operations efficiency, hardware
                 performance measurement, systems software support and
                 development, the use of management science techniques,
                 data base development and systems support, and
                 application systems development in programming. They
                 must understand the technical aspects of their fields
                 and communicate effectively to their technical and
                 corporate management, with coordination of all the
                 efforts involved in a large scale, 24 hour, 7 day week
                 operation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{DeLorm:1975:MFE,
  author =       "R. T. DeLorm and T. C. Smith",
  title =        "Motivating freshmen engineering students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "124--128",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811146",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In an effort to lower the rate of attrition of
                 Engineering students, during the early years of their
                 education, the University of Nebraska --- Lincoln has
                 instituted a series of two freshman engineering courses
                 which are designed to motivate and retain these
                 students. A description of each of these courses and
                 the motivating factors of each are discussed. Creative
                 plots and conceptual engineering design projects are
                 used as a means of holding interest and teaching the
                 basic engineering skills. Surveys taken over a number
                 of years have shown an increase in the retention of
                 engineering students since these courses were
                 instituted. These surveys are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lovas:1975:ICP,
  author =       "Charles M. Lovas",
  title =        "An instructional Computer Program Library",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "129--132",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811147",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The Computer Program Library, a compilation of
                 computer programs coded in FORTRAN and executed in the
                 batch mode, facilitates both direct and adjunct use of
                 the computer by students. A six year project, the
                 library now contains over 290 fully-documented
                 subprograms and programs which engineering students
                 utilize for problem-solving, independent study
                 projects, and research. In addition, the library
                 provides the instructor with a ready source of material
                 which may be used to augment course content in several
                 ways. The computer program library concept has proven
                 to be an effective method of implementing computer
                 augmented engineering education, especially in
                 curricular areas not adequately serviced by
                 task-oriented software and/or in small emerging
                 educational institutions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sammet:1975:DCG,
  author =       "Jean E. Sammet",
  title =        "Description of course given on ``Computers in the
                 Humanities and Social Science''",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "133--142",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811148",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a course entitled ``Computers in
                 the Humanities and Social Science'' given at a small
                 liberal arts college. The basic purpose of the course
                 was to provide the student with knowledge about how a
                 computer could be used in various fields (e.g., art,
                 literature, economics). There was no intent to make the
                 student expert in using the computer, although several
                 programs were written and debugged as homework
                 assignments. This paper includes appendices which show
                 copies of the homework assignments given, a
                 questionnaire on attitudes toward the computer, as well
                 as further details on the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kearney:1975:CTY,
  author =       "James F. Kearney",
  title =        "Curricula for two-year data-processing programs: a
                 review and recommendation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "143--147",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811149",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A review is given of the current situation in two-year
                 institutions with data-processing course offerings.
                 There are three types of students, ``transfer,''
                 ``occupational,'' and ``optional,'' whose needs must be
                 satisfied by any curriculum. The author suggests a
                 curriculum for all schools, large and small, containing
                 six courses, of which the student enrolls in four
                 according to his educational goals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Peck:1975:PCS,
  author =       "Josephine Peck",
  title =        "A proposed {Computer Science} curriculum for two-year
                 colleges",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "148--156",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811150",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "In the past decade many two-year colleges have
                 developed and implemented various curricula in Data
                 Processing and/or Computer Science. These programs grew
                 out of existing vocational needs for computer
                 operators, data prepares, EAM equipment operators and
                 application programmers. Since very few four-year
                 institutions offered a bachelor's program in Computer
                 Science, the two-year schools generally did not develop
                 a sequence of courses geared to the needs of the
                 transfer student. These students were usually advised
                 to concentrate in either mathematics or business
                 administration --- a situation which persists in many
                 colleges today. This paper will offer a discussion of
                 several factors which have affected the needs of both
                 the terminal and the transfer student of two-year
                 colleges and which consequently warrant a revision of
                 the existing two-year Computer Science curricula. A
                 curriculum and description of revised course content
                 will be suggested as one possible alternative.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hasenei:1975:CHR,
  author =       "Ken Hasenei and Claude Walston and Ed Coady",
  title =        "The challenge of human resources staffing and
                 utilization in industrial computing --- part 2",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "157--157",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811151",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Claude Walston An analysis of staffing needs to the
                 computer industry itself is considered. The general
                 organizational and functional structure is described,
                 then needs within this area for computer science
                 graduates is considered. Needs now exist in a number of
                 major areas, especially research, system architecture,
                 system software design, program product design, and
                 internal operational data processing support. The type
                 of qualifications this industry hopes to find in
                 computer science graduates is presented. Ed Coady The
                 Social Security Administration ``allegedly'' has the
                 largest computer installation under one roof in the
                 world. Thirty-seven distinct computer systems are
                 available, comprising an integrated marriage of
                 multi-vendor equipment. Eleven hundred programmers
                 (called computer specialists) and eight hundred
                 operations specialists make up the teams that program
                 and operate these systems. The recruiting, selecting,
                 and training of personnel directly associated with the
                 computer systems is discussed. The importance of this
                 function is of high and continuing interest and
                 includes involvement by the top management executives
                 at Social Security Administration. This presentation
                 will cover the experiences and future needs for the
                 education of computer personnel.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Baecker:1975:TSW,
  author =       "Ron M. Baecker",
  title =        "Two Systems which Produce Animated Representations of
                 the Execution of Computer Programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "158--167",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811152",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Graphics/imager/1975.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Graphics/siggraph/1975.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes two prototype systems which
                 facilitate the production of teaching films containing
                 animated representations of the execution of computer
                 programs. With such systems, it is possible for an
                 instructor to produce short quick-and-dirty
                 single-concept film clips with only hours of effort,
                 and more polished material with only slightly more
                 effort. Demonstration clips produced in this way will
                 be shown at the Symposium.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Davis:1975:IED,
  author =       "Alan Davis and Michael H. Tindall and Thomas R.
                 Wilcox",
  title =        "Interactive error diagnostics for an instructional
                 programming system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "168--171",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811153",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper is concerned with the development of an
                 interactive error analysis system for a highly
                 interactive programming language compiler. Although the
                 proposed system should have reasonably wide
                 applicability to various time-sharing systems and
                 interactive compilers, the following is a description
                 of the goals and constraints of a particular compiler
                 in which the error system is to be implemented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gerhart:1975:MTP,
  author =       "Susan L. Gerhart",
  title =        "Methods for teaching program verification",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "172--178",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811154",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "``Program verification'' is generally defined as the
                 process of ascertaining and demonstrating that a
                 program is correct, i.e., that a program satisfies a
                 given set of specifications. The most common method of
                 verifying a program is by testing, the process of
                 executing a program for a set of selected inputs and
                 inferring from the results of those executions that the
                 program is correct for all possible inputs. In practice
                 today, a few programs are being proved correct but the
                 most common method of program verification is still
                 testing. Both methods are unreliable in different ways,
                 but when combined, their complementary relationship can
                 provide a high degree of assurance that programs are
                 correct. The purpose of this paper is (1) to review the
                 state of the art of these two approaches to program
                 verification and the relationship between them, and (2)
                 to suggest a number of ways in which program
                 verification can be introduced into the computer
                 science curriculum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Glasser:1975:TOH,
  author =       "A. L. Glasser",
  title =        "A terminal oriented Hardware Simulator for educational
                 use",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "179--186",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811155",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The uses of computer description languages and
                 simulation systems for educational purposes are
                 discussed. A new language is presented; the language
                 and simulation system are described. A sample
                 description (in the new language) is given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Honkanen:1975:SFC,
  author =       "Pentti A. Honkanen",
  title =        "Setting the foundations of computer science in a
                 business oriented program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "187--190",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811156",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "From the computer science educators point of view,
                 each of these transitions should be made as rapidly and
                 completely as possible. Here again rises the eternal
                 trade-off: time vs storage. A complete transition
                 requires time, which the student might be reluctant to
                 invest; and a quick transition requires cramming so
                 much information into a short time span that the
                 student cannot absorb it. This paper focuses on this
                 problem as it currently faces us who are
                 ``transforming'' undergraduate business majors into the
                 ways of computer science. The business major is no
                 slouch that has to be re-tooled, but rather a
                 practically oriented person whose approach to problem
                 analysis has to be reoriented to include a more
                 rigorous approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kugel:1975:HMA,
  author =       "Peter Kugel",
  title =        "How to make abstract ideas more concrete",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "191--195",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811157",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Games that students play, either against each other or
                 against the computer, can help to make some of the
                 abstract ideas from the theory of computing seem more
                 concrete and more interesting than they now appear to
                 many students. In this paper, I describe the general
                 structure of some games based on such theoretical
                 constructs as the Turing machine, the context-free
                 grammar and the like. I indicate some of the ways that
                 such games can be ``built'' either using pencil, paper
                 and scrap materials or using computer programs. Some
                 experiences with the use of such games, and some of
                 their mathematical and pedagogical implications, are
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bezanson:1975:TSP,
  author =       "William R. Bezanson",
  title =        "Teaching structured programming in {FORTRAN} with
                 {IFTRAN}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "196--199",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811158",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "The outline of an introductory FORTRAN programming
                 course based on structured programming is presented.
                 The language IFTRAN was used as a FORTRAN preprocessor,
                 allowing regular FORTRAN statements plus more powerful
                 conditional and looping statements. Program development
                 was taught in the course by means of top-down stepwise
                 refinement. Students were well motivated and developed
                 a professional attitude towards programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Meissner:1975:BSM,
  author =       "Loren P. Meissner and Ruth L. Hinkins",
  title =        "{B4Tran}: a structured mini-language approach to the
                 teaching of {Fortran}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "200--205",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811159",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "Although senior computer scientists at major
                 universities deplore the continued widespread use of
                 Fortran in beginning computing courses, the fact
                 remains that half a million college students each year
                 are enrolled in courses that include Fortran
                 proficiency as a major objective. If these students are
                 to learn about program structure, ways must be found to
                 teach this concept in Fortran courses. We propose the
                 use of a structured mini-language, rather than a
                 preprocessor, at the beginning of such a course. The
                 B4Tran language has been designed as a subset of an
                 extended Fortran dialect. It introduces alternative
                 structures and iterative structures by using labelled
                 statements to delimit the ends of blocks, in a manner
                 analogous to the indexed DO block of Fortran.
                 Controlled alternatives to GO TO are also provided.
                 Some features of Fortran that cause difficulty for
                 beginning students are omitted. All variables are of a
                 single (``real'') type. Input and output are
                 format-free. B4Tran runs as an interpreter; thus it can
                 furnish improved feedback to the programmer during
                 execution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wagener:1975:SFP,
  author =       "J. L. Wagener",
  title =        "Structured {FORTRAN} programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "206--211",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811160",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "A technique for structuring FORTRAN programs is
                 reviewed, and a preprocessor is described which
                 converts pure structured code into standard FORTRAN. It
                 is claimed that structured FORTRAN is generally easier
                 to read and write than unstructured FORTRAN. Actual
                 examples are given of structured FORTRAN and results of
                 preprocessing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Chu:1975:PSD,
  author =       "Yaohan Chu",
  title =        "A panel session on ``digital system education''",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "212--212",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/953064.811161",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:50 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 5th SIGCSE symposium on Computer
                 science education.",
  abstract =     "This panel is composed of the chairmen of the task
                 forces of the DISE (Digital Systems Education
                 Committee). DISE is a project sponsored by the NSF and
                 managed by University of Pittsburgh for the purpose of
                 generation and dissemination of educational material on
                 all aspects of digital system education. The panel
                 members will discuss the current activities of these
                 task forces and then seek the audience's participation
                 in learning more about the status and need of current
                 digital system education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bonnette:1975:EN,
  author =       "Della T. Bonnette",
  title =        "Editorial notes",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382207",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Connolly:1975:CTY,
  author =       "Frank W. Connolly",
  title =        "Computers at two-year colleges: current course
                 offerings and facilities",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6--11",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382882",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jones:1975:NCS,
  author =       "Clinton E. Jones",
  title =        "Need for computer-supported instruction in minority
                 institutions",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12--20",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382883",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Purdy:1975:GCD,
  author =       "J. Gerry Purdy",
  title =        "A graduate course in database management",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21--26",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382884",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Database management is a new and fast growing
                 discipline within computer science. Curriculum 68 did
                 not include database management in its recommended
                 courses. With the advent of large direct access
                 secondary storage devices to hold large volumes of
                 information referred to as a database and with the need
                 to manage that storage efficiently and conveniently,
                 there has developed the computer science discipline of
                 database management. This paper describes a course in
                 database management, including a course catalog
                 overview, course outline, and bibliography. This paper
                 could serve as a guideline for future ACM Curriculum
                 Committee on Computer Science recommendations in
                 database management.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Barnard:1975:PEO,
  author =       "A. C. L. Barnard",
  title =        "Planning and experience with a one-quarter course on
                 compiler writing using {Gries}' book and structured
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "27--29",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382885",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Chanon:1975:CCU,
  author =       "R. N. Chanon",
  title =        "Compiler construction in an undergraduate course: some
                 difficulties",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "30--32",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382886",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Beus:1975:MAB,
  author =       "H. Lynn Beus",
  title =        "A motivational approach to basic computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33--38",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382887",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper is a report and discussion of a basic
                 course in computer science offered at Brigham Young
                 University for the last several years. A motivational
                 approach is taken in the course --- beginning at a very
                 low level and developing the basic problems that arose
                 historically. Students are requested to solve several
                 of these problems as programming assignments including
                 an assembler and a simple operating system nucleus.
                 Simulated machines are used, and the students are
                 introduced to several machines, as a means of
                 broadening their knowledge of machine organization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Khallany:1975:ICC,
  author =       "Asad Khallany and Robert H. Holland",
  title =        "An introductory computer course in a school of
                 business",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "39--42",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382888",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Konstam:1975:SPP,
  author =       "Aaron H. Konstam",
  title =        "Structured programming and the parallel algorithm",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "43--47",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382889",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rickman:1975:FSP,
  author =       "Jon Rickman",
  title =        "File structures position paper",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "48--50",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382890",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Waxman:1975:RBD,
  author =       "Jerry Waxman",
  title =        "Reflections on {B3}, discrete structures",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "51--54",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382891",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "See reply \cite{Korfhage:1975:CBR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dinerstein:1975:DCS,
  author =       "Nelson T. Dinerstein",
  title =        "Does computer science belong in a liberal arts
                 college?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "55--64",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382892",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jones:1975:POC,
  author =       "Warren T. Jones",
  title =        "A pragmatically oriented computer science degree
                 program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "65--66",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382893",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Roth:1975:SFT,
  author =       "R. Waldo Roth",
  title =        "Students and faculty training in systems analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "67--73",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382894",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The paper describes a variety of techniques being
                 utilized or under development to improve the education
                 of liberal arts students and faculty in systems design
                 and analysis including computer systems. An extensive
                 program of faculty development plus practicum and work
                 experiences for students are given special attention.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Tcheng:1975:UCS,
  author =       "Mike T. Tcheng",
  title =        "The undevelopment of a computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "74--77",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382895",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ward:1975:CDE,
  author =       "Darrell L. Ward",
  title =        "A cooperative development effort of a computer science
                 program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "78--83",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382896",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The development of a Computer Science program in an
                 era of economic uncertainty and general enrollment
                 declines is presented. The cooperative efforts
                 necessary in such a situation are described in detail
                 and the interesting curricula which culminated from
                 these efforts are presented in the Appendices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Abbott:1975:ISC,
  author =       "Russell J. Abbott",
  title =        "An informal survey of computer science coursesr",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "84--86",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382880",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Recently, I surveyed the undergraduate and graduate
                 offerings in Computer Science of a number of
                 universities. The catalogs surveyed were all recent ---
                 no more than three years old. The universities were
                 selected solely on the basis of the local availability
                 of their catalogs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Newsted:1975:GAP,
  author =       "Peter R. Newsted",
  title =        "Grade and ability predictions in an introductory
                 programming course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "87--91",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382897",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Two regression equations are derived to predict grade
                 and ability in an introductory FORTRAN course. College
                 GPA, programming experience, and career orientation are
                 shown to be significant positive predictors; working in
                 groups and time spent on the course are unexpectedly
                 shown to be negative correlates. The implications of
                 these findings for methods of teaching programming are
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Caviness:1975:SCO,
  author =       "B. F. Caviness",
  title =        "{SAM} course outlines",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "92--103",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382205.382898",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ingram:1975:RSI,
  author =       "G. Ingram",
  title =        "Report of special interest session on computing in
                 minority institution held at fifth annual {SIGCSE}
                 symposium",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12--12",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382217",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cain:1975:RDS,
  author =       "James T. Cain",
  title =        "Report of the digital systems education committee",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13--16",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382480",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Thorhallsson:1975:HCA,
  author =       "Jon Thorhallsson",
  title =        "High-school curriculum adopts first semester college
                 computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17--18",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382481",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bauer:1975:CSH,
  author =       "Charles R. Bauer and John C. Meinke",
  title =        "Computer science for the high school teacher",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19--20",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382482",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Capstick:1975:PPU,
  author =       "C. K. Capstick and J. D. Gordon and A. Salvadori",
  title =        "Predicting performance by university students in
                 introductory computing courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21--29",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382483",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cheney:1975:ICS,
  author =       "Robert S. Cheney",
  title =        "An introductory computer survey course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30--34",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382484",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This course is designed for students who do not intend
                 to become programmers, but who recognize the important
                 role of the computer and wish to learn how computers
                 are affecting society and how they might use these
                 machines in their careers. The course covers how
                 computers operate, what must be done to develop a
                 computer application, characteristics of successful
                 applications, and the social implications of computer
                 technology.The objectives are (1) to provide
                 understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of
                 computers, (2) enable students to recognize potential
                 computer applications, (3) enable students to
                 communicate effectively with computer programmers and
                 systems analysts, and (4) make students aware of the
                 social implications of computer systems.Most students
                 who enroll in this course are majoring in a social
                 science, fine arts, business, education, or a
                 non-technical liberal arts department. Because this may
                 well be the only technically oriented course taken
                 during their college careers, we point out how what we
                 are learning about computers is pertinent to all areas
                 of rapidly evolving technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pumplin:1975:SET,
  author =       "Bruce A. Pumplin",
  title =        "A simple example of the top-down approach to algorithm
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35--37",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382485",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Friedman:1975:ETD,
  author =       "Frank L. Friedman",
  title =        "An experience in teaching disciplined programming at
                 an elementary level",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "38--43",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382486",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Several difficulties in teaching disciplined
                 programming at an elementary level are mentioned. In
                 particular, a minimum set of flow chart control
                 structures for disciplined programming are described,
                 and the problem posed by attempting to use these
                 structures in conjunction with FORTRAN in an elementary
                 computer programming course is discussed. A solution to
                 this problem is presented in terms of a structure
                 oriented extension to FORTRAN called NSFTRAN. The
                 structured statement forms of NSFTRAN are described,
                 and the motivations for the structure orientation are
                 given. The main feature of NSFTRAN is its use of the
                 numeric FORTRAN statement label as a structure range
                 identifier as in the FORTRAN indexed DO statement.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Biermann:1975:TIA,
  author =       "A. W. Biermann and R. I. Baum and M. Silverman",
  title =        "Trace information as an aid to debugging",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "44--49",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382487",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Tremblay:1975:ICD,
  author =       "J. P. Tremblay and P. G. Sorenson",
  title =        "An introductory course in data structures with
                 applications",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "50--57",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382488",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a two semester introductory
                 course in data (information) structures for the
                 undergraduate computer science student that has evolved
                 at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. The
                 philosophy and organization of such a course are
                 discussed. A comparison is made between the course
                 described and data structure courses proposed by two
                 commitees 'on curricula.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Epstein:1975:PTC,
  author =       "G. Epstein",
  title =        "The pyramid teaching computer structures by computer
                 structures",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "58--61",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382489",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The content of the laboratory portion of a course on
                 computer structures is given in syllabus form. Each
                 succeeding level of the syllabus builds upon the
                 preceding level to achieve increased understanding and
                 depth of thought. The syllabus provides annotated
                 examples of structures and projects for each level.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Barnard:1975:SEA,
  author =       "A. C. L. Barnard",
  title =        "Software engineering in an academic computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "62--70",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382490",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dinerstein:1975:CWC,
  author =       "N. T. Dinerstein",
  title =        "A compiler writing course in a small college",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "71--72",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382491",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Giaccai:1975:ES,
  author =       "Gerald J. Giaccai and Kenneth R. Slonneger",
  title =        "Enhancing {SAMOS}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "73--76",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382492",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Porter:1975:PTA,
  author =       "Charles H. Porter and Nesa Labbe Wu",
  title =        "Programming for terminal applications",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "77--82",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382216.382493",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:51 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "When a computer language is taught in the classroom,
                 the focus is usually on the language itself and its
                 application to the students' fields of interest. Syntax
                 and logic are the chief barriers to be overcome, and,
                 as a result, an important topic is not covered. This
                 area is becoming more a problem with the trend toward
                 writing computer programs to be run from a terminal.
                 Students are not being taught how to write a program to
                 be run by someone else.This article develops a set of
                 rules to improve programs for terminal applications.
                 These rules center around:1. Data Validation: The
                 Programmer must explicitly test the data entered to be
                 sure it is of a valid type and within valid range;2.
                 Input and Output Validation: It is important to
                 identify the problem being solved, the input to the
                 program and the results of the program; and 3. Data
                 Flow: The flow of data into the computer should be
                 ordered in the same way as it would be if a person were
                 solving a problem in his head.If these rules are
                 followed, programs will perform better, the user will
                 be happier, and the data processing will be more
                 accurate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Archibald:1975:PMR,
  author =       "J. A. {Archibald, Jr.}",
  title =        "Proposed mathematics requirements for the {Bachelor}'s
                 degree in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "12--15",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382219",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hamming:1975:PCS,
  author =       "R. W. Hamming",
  title =        "A philosophy for computer science or my prejudices and
                 confusions",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16--18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382471",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sondak:1975:CSM,
  author =       "Norman E. Sondak",
  title =        "A computer science minor for engineering and science
                 students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--24",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382472",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "There has been a great demand for scientists and
                 engineers to become thoroughly acquainted with the
                 application of digital computers to their discipline
                 areas. As a result, engineering and science majors have
                 been interested in complimenting their programs with a
                 minor in Computer Science. Traditionally, minor
                 programs required a specific number of thematically
                 related courses in the minor discipline. However, this
                 traditional approach does not necessarily fulfill the
                 real demands of the students involved in Computer
                 Science. A suggested minor program is presented with a
                 review of experiences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hamblen:1975:CMU,
  author =       "John W. Hamblen",
  title =        "Computer manpower in the {United States} --- supply
                 and demand",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25--43",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382473",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "At a time when new departments of computer science,
                 data processing, information science, information
                 systems, etc. are being created and existing
                 departments are trying to grow and compete with more
                 established disciplines for scarce resources, it seems
                 imperative that we attempt to keep abreast of the needs
                 of industry and government for the graduates of these
                 programs. This need must be monitored and matched
                 against the production of graduates at all appropriate
                 levels. The author has assembled extensive data on the
                 latter over the past eight years while at the Southern
                 Regional Education Board in Atlanta, GA (USA) during
                 the period 1965--72 and currently at the University of
                 Missouri-Rolla. The data was collected and published
                 with support from the National Science Foundation. In
                 this paper the author also develops estimates of
                 computer manpower need and compares these estimates of
                 need with estimates on production. These comparisons
                 are presented on a State-by-State basis as well as
                 National.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{McFarland:1975:NPD,
  author =       "Robert H. McFarland",
  title =        "Notes from panel discussion on {GRE} advanced exams
                 presented at fifth annual {SIGCSE} technical
                 symposium",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44--46",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382474",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gross:1975:VAC,
  author =       "James F. Gross",
  title =        "Video augmented computer science {(VACS)}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "47--49",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382475",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The design and production of videotapes showing simple
                 algorithms in action is described. Fortran programs and
                 a CRT timesharing terminal allow the computer to
                 generate animated representations of arrays as they are
                 searched or sorted. Problems encountered during the
                 project are outlined, along with the solutions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Miller:1975:IOC,
  author =       "Jim Miller",
  title =        "An industry oriented computer curriculum designed for
                 the transfer student",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "50--52",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382476",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ginsberg:1975:GLU,
  author =       "Myron Ginsberg",
  title =        "A guide to the literature for undergraduate and
                 graduate courses in numerical mathematics",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53--68",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382477",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This report contains a compilation of selected
                 references which have been useful in the preparation of
                 lectures and in assigning outside reading for the
                 numerical mathematics courses taught in the Department
                 of Computer Science at Southern Methodist University.
                 Introductory remarks describe the environment in which
                 the courses are taught as well as criteria for
                 reference selection. The references are divided up into
                 eleven sections:1. General Texts; 2. Numerical
                 Approximation, Interpolation, and Extrapolation; 3.
                 Numerical Integration and Differentiation; 4. Numerical
                 Linear Algebra; 5. Numerical Solution of Differential
                 Equations; 6. Software Influences; 7. Symbolic and
                 Algebraic Manipulation; 8. Computational Complexity; 9.
                 Hardware Influences; 10. Computer arithmetic; 11.
                 Recommended Periodicals. In addition, many of the
                 references are placed in one or more of three
                 categories: generally-recognized classics in a subject
                 area; relatively applied presentations; works
                 containing extensive bibliographical material. Brief
                 descriptions of the courses which utilize the
                 references are included along with a list of sources
                 for research and technical reports.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Korfhage:1975:CBR,
  author =       "Robert R. Korfhage",
  title =        "The case for {B3} --- a reply to {Waxman}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "69--71",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382478",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Waxman:1975:RBD}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Coulter:1975:IPI,
  author =       "Neal S. Coulter",
  title =        "Introducing {PMS} and {ISP} notations",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "72--75",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382218.382479",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Friedman:1976:SPC,
  author =       "Frank L. Friedman and Elliot B. Koffman",
  title =        "Some pedagogic considerations in teaching elementary
                 programming using structured {FORTRAN}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--10",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803440",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper contains a description of several aspects
                 of a course in introductory computer programming that
                 is taught using a few basic control structure
                 extensions to FORTRAN. The FORTRAN syntactic forms and
                 flow diagram patterns of these structures are defined,
                 and some of the advantages of these forms are listed.
                 The problem solving methods developed in the course are
                 outlined, and the structures are shown to be consistent
                 with these methods. Some pedagogic considerations which
                 provide an effective environment for the presentation
                 of these control structures are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Khailany:1976:ICC,
  author =       "Asad Khailany",
  title =        "An introductory {COBOL} course with structured
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11--16",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803441",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "ORIS 316 was designed as a core course to teach COBOL
                 programming language and Business Information Systems
                 to students majoring in Business Computer Information
                 Systems. Students from other areas such as Mathematics,
                 Computer Science, Sociology, Economics, Political
                 Science, Marketing, Accounting, Management, etc., take
                 this course to enhance their employment opportunities.
                 Most of the students who take this course have some
                 knowledge of some computer programming language,
                 especially in FORTRAN. In the last four years, I have
                 taught this course eight times. In the beginning,
                 perhaps like many other instructors have done, I took
                 the normal path to teach this course. This path was
                 more or less influenced or determined by some textbooks
                 or manual references. These text and manual references
                 have different approaches; however, to teach the COBOL
                 language, all of them agree on one point, namely, to
                 present the PERFORM statement, the tool of structured
                 programming in COBOL, in the late sections of their
                 texts. And of those sources which I'm familiar with,
                 none had the structured programming approach. Because
                 of the popularity of structured programming especially
                 in the business data processing environment, and since
                 many of our students start their professional work as a
                 programmer or as a systems analyst, it was determined
                 that the structured programming technique and modular
                 programming concept should be introduced as early as
                 possible in the semester. This has been done in the
                 last three offerings of the course and the results have
                 been impressive. Students' evaluations of the same
                 instructor and the same course were considerably higher
                 than before and their response to the new approach has
                 been encouraging.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Augenstein:1976:LRS,
  author =       "Moshe Augenstein and Aaron Tenenbaum",
  title =        "A lesson in recursion and structured programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17--23",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803442",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Students in middle level courses in data structures
                 and programming languages often do not have a full
                 appreciation of recursion. The study of the simulation
                 of recursion can be an excellent tool in improving this
                 situation. It is shown how to construct a nonrecursive
                 routine to solve a problem whose solution is naturally
                 recursive. This nonrecursive routine is then used as a
                 foundation from which one can construct a simpler and
                 better structured program than the original version.
                 The advantages of this activity are also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Moursund:1976:CSE,
  author =       "David Moursund and Mike Neill",
  title =        "Computer science for elementary school teachers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24--28",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803443",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The time line for significant changes in public
                 education is long, and introduction of computers into
                 education is not proving an exception to this. The
                 circumstances that have contributed to relatively rapid
                 progress in introducing computers in higher education
                 do not exist at the pre-college level. This paper
                 concentrates on the problems of computers in elementary
                 education, and suggests several partial solutions to
                 these problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jackson:1976:SET,
  author =       "Alyce Jackson",
  title =        "In-service education for teachers of computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "29--34",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803444",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The kind of training needed for teachers of computer
                 science in secondary education must reflect the trends
                 in technological changes and curriculum innovations.
                 Presented in this paper is a discussion of in-service
                 education for teachers of computer,s cience based on
                 the concept of computer literacy as a measurable
                 criterion for accessing computer science objectives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Meinke:1976:IMC,
  author =       "John G. Meinke and Charles R. Bauer",
  title =        "The {IIT MST} in computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--38",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803445",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The MST program at Illinois Institute of Technology
                 evolved as a result of Computer Science emerging as a
                 separate discipline at the secondary school level. The
                 State of Illinois and the Chicago Board of Education
                 have both been investigating certification for Computer
                 Science teachers, but at present only two states,
                 Wisconsin and Minnesota, have certification programs
                 for teachers of Computer Science. In the not too far
                 distant future there will be certification programs in
                 many states and the IIT MST program in Computer Science
                 is designed to meet those requirements. It is important
                 to realize before discussing the program itself that
                 the MST program is not designed to teach people how to
                 teach. Before entering the program, a teacher must have
                 at least three years of superior teaching experience as
                 well as recommendations from his principal attesting to
                 his quality as a teacher. Of the 32 semester hours
                 required for the MST degree, a maximum of 12 semester
                 hours are in Computer Pedagogy, with the norm being
                 nine. In addition, students in the program study on a
                 part-time basis to encourage use of the principles
                 studied at IIT in their own classrooms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Poirot:1976:CDT,
  author =       "J. L. Poirot",
  title =        "A course description for teacher education in computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--48",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803446",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the content of a course entitled
                 ``Computers in Education'' offered within the teacher
                 certification program at Southwest Texas State
                 University. This course, designed specifically for
                 teacher education has several objectives including the
                 following: (1) to cover material which would be most
                 likely included in a secondary school curriculum, (2)
                 to give adequate motivation for covering this material
                 in the secondary school, (3) to list objectives to be
                 reached in the secondary school classroom for each
                 topic, (4) to present teaching techniques for topics in
                 the secondary school, (5) to present computer related
                 topics designed to aid the teacher in instruction, (6)
                 to present computer related topics designed to aid the
                 teacher in school administrative work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rosenberg:1976:ICS,
  author =       "Ivan M. Rosenberg",
  title =        "Introductory computer science courses a modular
                 design",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--61",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803447",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a set of assumptions about
                 learning in general, followed by a set of assumptions
                 concerning ICS courses in particular. Using these as a
                 foundation, an ICS course content and structure is
                 developed which clearly shows the relationships between
                 the various branches of computer science, encourages a
                 logical presentation, and is modular and hierarchical,
                 permitting use for a wide variety of audiences and
                 course objectives. Since content organization is only
                 one aspect of a course, the method of presentation is
                 also discussed, with emphasis on methodologies other
                 than lecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ecklund:1976:LNP,
  author =       "E. F. {Ecklund, Jr.}",
  title =        "A ``non-programming'' introduction to programming
                 concepts",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "62--64",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803448",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses introducing students to
                 programming concepts before they study a high-level
                 language. Algorithm specification using flowcharts, and
                 implementation of certain algorithms on a demonstration
                 computer programmed in decimal machine code provide a
                 functional basis which extends by way of analogy to
                 sound programming concepts for both high-level
                 languages and assembler languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cherniak:1976:IPR,
  author =       "Bob Cherniak",
  title =        "Introductory programming reconsidered --- a
                 user-oriented approach",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "65--68",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803449",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "A comprehensive plan for an introductory Computer
                 Science Course is presented, a plan where experience
                 with a computer from the user point of view is a major
                 component, not only for its own sake but as a stimulant
                 for the development of clean programming habits.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Brewer:1976:DSB,
  author =       "Richard K. Brewer",
  title =        "Documentation standards for beginning students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--73",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803450",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The importance of writing programs that are readable
                 has finally gained preeminence in the struggle with
                 such competing and contradictory goals as ``cuteness''
                 and ``optimization'' of code. As a result, a much
                 greater stress on documentation standards is found in
                 computer science education these days. Industry and
                 government standards for documentation are being more
                 widely adhered to and certain points of agreement have
                 emerged. Some excellent books have been written that
                 cover the subject (Van Tassel, 1974; Ledgard, 1975;
                 Kernighan {\&} Plauger, 1974); however it is safe to
                 say that both the exhaustive treatment of the subject
                 in such publications and the extremely high standards
                 proposed probably preclude wholesale adoption by
                 instructors of beginning level programming courses.
                 What is proposed here is a set of common sense, scaled
                 down documentation standards for the student in a first
                 programming course in, say, FORTRAN, PL/I, ALGOL, or
                 Basic. The following represents an amalgam of
                 documentation requirements achieved as a result of
                 teaching introductory programming to college students
                 for nine years. The actual sources have been the
                 literature, colleagues, and last but not least,
                 experience. They are not intended to represent an
                 ``only'' or ``best'' approach; the author has recently
                 encountered other efforts in this direction that must
                 surely be as reasonable and effective. It does
                 represent one educator's approach; it is sufficiently
                 scaled down so that one might reasonably expect to use
                 it as a standard for beginning students; and it may be
                 most useful as a contributor of components to be
                 integrated into a more effective set of standards. The
                 basics of documentation and readable programming
                 include comments, meaningful variable names, labelled
                 output, flowcharts, and clear program flow. The major
                 components of and basic rules for each of these
                 categories will be presented in the context of the
                 needs and limitations of the beginning student.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mazlack:1976:DCS,
  author =       "Lawrence J. Mazlack",
  title =        "Does a computer have sexual preferences?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "74--78",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803451",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "At the University of Guelph there has been a single
                 significant introductory computer science course.
                 Approximately 50\% of the University's full time
                 undergraduate students have taken this course during
                 their academic career. Sectioning and enrollment has
                 generally been done without regard to academic program
                 or semester in school. An examination of the past two
                 years' results was performed utilizing the records of
                 1,350 students. Negligible correlations were found
                 between a student's sex, academic program or semester
                 in school when posed against the students' grades (both
                 final and by grade component). All three results are
                 contrary to the normal implicit assumptions regarding
                 competitiveness between sexes, academic programs and
                 student experience in a computer science course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Solomon:1976:LCC,
  author =       "Cynthia J. Solomon",
  title =        "Leading a Child to a Computer Culture",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--83",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803452",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "``LOGO'' is sometimes used as the name of a
                 programming language. It is also used as the name of
                 ... what shall I call it ? ... an environment, a
                 culture, way of thinking about computers and about
                 learning and about putting the two together. I shall
                 try to convey to you how I bring a child into this
                 environment. The environment is made of ideas, of
                 things and of people. The things include various types
                 of turtles: computer controlled mechanical beasts which
                 use touch sensors or eye-sight to crawl around the
                 floor and display turtles, which live on TV-like
                 screens where they draw in phosphor white or
                 inmulti-color.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Platt:1976:EPC,
  author =       "Joan Platt and Jeanne Curran",
  title =        "An experimental program in computer usage for
                 secondary students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "84--85",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803453",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper presents an experimental program designed
                 to introduce high school students to the use and
                 interpretation of computer data. The program has
                 evolved from a model research center in the Department
                 of Sociology at California State College, Dominguez
                 Hills. The Center is operated and administered by
                 undergraduates and graduates as a part of their
                 curricular experience in research methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Marsh:1976:TTA,
  author =       "Barbara Marsh",
  title =        "Teaching teachers about computers: a course
                 description",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "86--89",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803454",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "I believe computers will continue to expand their
                 areas of application, and so am forced to the
                 conclusion that school curricula will have to deal with
                 them. And if computer curricula are to be introduced
                 into the schools, teacher training institutions must
                 prepare teachers to teach about computers. The context
                 I choose is education itself. ``Education'' is of
                 course rather a broad term; computer uses in education
                 are many and varied. Some of these applications are
                 similar enough to those in other areas that some very
                 general principles of computer use will automatically
                 be raised. Others are quite unique, and raise specific
                 questions which teachers will have to deal with in
                 their own professional lives, so that the study of
                 computers can be seen to be very relevant to being a
                 teacher. By teaching about computers in this context
                 instead of more abstractly or generally, and by drawing
                 attention constantly to the educational implications of
                 computer uses, I hope that the teachers who are my
                 students will in turn pass on to their own students the
                 habit of attending to the social implications of what
                 is done by computers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lucas:1976:PAC,
  author =       "William R. Lucas",
  title =        "Planned attitude change while teaching computer
                 literacy",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--94",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803455",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "All instruction, no matter how technical, has goals
                 beyond its basic cognitive context. Attitudes and other
                 traits are often as important as technical knowledge.
                 The student needs a positive attitude to deal
                 effectively with complex computer applications and
                 should have a balanced view of the opportunities and
                 dangers presented by the use of computers. The basic
                 conjecture of this report is that within the
                 environment of a computer literacy classroom student
                 attitudes can be analyzed and systematically changed.
                 The procedure described involves an attitude measuring
                 instrument which was used to design specific
                 instructional activities with well defined goals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hammer:1976:RCS,
  author =       "Preston Hammer and Richard Austing and Bruce Barnes
                 and Gerald Engel and Gordon Stokes",
  title =        "Recommendations on computer science curriculum for
                 undergraduate degree programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--95",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803456",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This panel will discuss two recently completed reports
                 of ACM's Curriculum Committee on Computer Science
                 (C$^3$S) and two reports currently in progress. One of
                 the completed reports presents recommendations for
                 topics appropriate for the freshman and sophomore years
                 of an undergraduate degree program in computer science;
                 the other one contains a post ``Curriculum '68''
                 bibliography of literature on computer science
                 education. The reports still in progress address
                 service courses and identify topics appropriate at the
                 intermediate level of a computer science undergraduate
                 degree program. These reports are part of a projected
                 series of reports intended to update ``Curriculum
                 '68''.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Boyle:1976:CSP,
  author =       "Thomas A. Boyle",
  title =        "Computer-scored, programmed test monitors student
                 progress",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--99",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803457",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper introduces an achievement test format
                 which, in combination with computer scoring, provides
                 some unusual capabilities. The format is an adaptation
                 of one used in programmed instruction. It enables a
                 considerable degree of response contingency, yet is
                 readily scored by computer in batch mode. Short
                 achievement tests of this type, referred to here as
                 branched-program tests, have demonstrated unusual
                 diagnostic capability and inherent security. They
                 thwart common forms of cheating, both by students and
                 by teachers, and single tests of this type can be used
                 several times during a term of related instruction. The
                 unusual characteristics of this type of test have
                 prompted administration in several modes; in one the
                 test appears as an appendix to each student's textbook.
                 Here the test effectively becomes the basis or
                 specifying a principal goal of the learning to be done.
                 Repeated administrations of the test serve to monitor
                 each student's progress.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Palay:1976:SUT,
  author =       "Roger M. Palay",
  title =        "The structure and use of a test generating system
                 designed to facilitate individually paced instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "100--103",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803458",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The structure and use of a test-generating system
                 having the following parameters is described. 1. Each
                 test is a ten item multiple choice instrument where
                 each item has five (5) alternatives. 2. Each test is
                 generated from a relatively small file (most often less
                 than 150 card images). 3. Although the file contains
                 only five (5) disjoint tests, over nine million
                 different tests (each with its own set of correct
                 answers) can be generated from it. 4. The correct
                 answers to each test are stored directly on the test
                 (in coded form). 5. Test responses are machine
                 correctable and such correcting need not be done on the
                 system that generated the test. 6. The reliability of
                 different forms of tests generated from one file is
                 theoretically high (no statistical evidence is
                 available to support a claim of high reliability). 7.
                 The grading program produces a total score as well as
                 giving the correct answers for all items on that
                 test.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wolfe:1976:AQG,
  author =       "John H. Wolfe",
  title =        "Automatic question generation from text --- an aid to
                 independent study",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "104--112",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803459",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This report describes an experimental computer-based
                 educational system called automatic question generation
                 (AUTOQUEST) for assisting independent study of written
                 text. Studies of reading comprehension have shown that
                 retention of material is enhanced if the student is
                 periodically required to answer questions about what he
                 has read (Anderson {\&} Biddle, 1975; Anderson et al.,
                 1974; Alessi et al., 1974; Anderson et al., 1975a,
                 1975b). This principle has been employed in
                 computer-managed instruction, but it requires
                 considerable human effort to prepare the questions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Muscat:1976:SSM,
  author =       "Eugene J. Muscat",
  title =        "Secondary school model automatic test generation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "113--115",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803460",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "A review of the literature dealing with automatic test
                 generation yields a wide variety of subject matter
                 applications. Most decriptives, however, deal with
                 college level projects. This paper out lines secondary
                 school requirements that may encourage the development
                 of appropriate test generation models. Our discussion
                 will center on a common need for remediation at the
                 secondary level, namely, mathematics skill building
                 (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division).
                 The subject matter selection is only to assure that the
                 suggestions made are as concrete as possible. The paper
                 will concentrate on the structural and procedural
                 aspects of school site test generation and will not
                 deal with the computer programming requirements. The
                 basic model assumes remedial curriculum that will be
                 directed as a student population of 500 students. This
                 supposes that the entire student population is not
                 utilizing a single test generation package. The
                 recommendations allow for adding additional curriculum
                 services and increasing student use. A test generating
                 laboratory should emerge that would operate as a
                 service bureau. This center will be detailed below. The
                 discussion will be organized under the following
                 headings: The discussion will be organized under the
                 following headings: Hardware Requirements Turnaround
                 Personnel Cost",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Peelle:1976:LMR,
  author =       "Howard A. Peelle",
  title =        "Learning mathematics with recursive computer
                 programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "116--130",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803461",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Recursion is a powerful idea*-with correspondingly
                 powerful implications for learning and teaching
                 mathematics. Computer scientists have previously
                 pointed out that the use of recursion often permits
                 more lucid and concise descriptions of algorithms [1];
                 mathematicians know that recursion is a fundamental
                 concept upon which entire systems of mathematics can be
                 built [11]; and, the theory of recursive functions is
                 now developing into an area of mathematics whose
                 importance has been compared with that of geometry and
                 algebra [3]. The purposes of this paper are to
                 illuminate the fundamentals of recursion; to illustrate
                 several recursive computer programs which provide
                 perspicuous representations of certain mathematical
                 procedures; and to invite students and teachers of
                 mathematics to reach greater understandings by trying
                 them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Wolkov:1976:TCB,
  author =       "David Wolkov",
  title =        "Teaching a computer-based college level statistics
                 course in a secondary school",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "131--136",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803462",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses experiences in utilizing an
                 HP-2000 system as the framework for teaching computer
                 programming and statistics. The statistical approach
                 relies upon the binary model; this model is developed
                 by each student using the random function generator.
                 Although empirically heuristic, such an approach
                 provides a useful intellectual base for developing all
                 other statistical notions more formally. Student
                 experiences in researching the role of computer science
                 and/or statistics in their career choices led three
                 students to select Computer Science as a major at
                 California State University, Northridge.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{McAdams:1976:CGA,
  author =       "Joseph K. McAdams and Arlan R. DeKock",
  title =        "Computer graphics as an aid to teaching geometric
                 transformations",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "137--143",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803463",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "During the past several years, there has been much
                 discussion and controversy over what should be taught
                 in high school mathematics, in general, and in high
                 school geometry, in particular. Numerous mathematicians
                 have encouraged the teaching of transformations as part
                 of the standard high school mathematics
                 curriculum[l-4,6-9]. The results of a recent survey of
                 high school teachers of mathematics indicate that 19\%
                 have taught geometric transformations, 26\% feel
                 adequately prepared to teach such a topic, and 50\%
                 would like to teach the topic if materials were
                 available for the average college prep student[5]. The
                 topic of transformations is important because
                 transformations are a unifying factor in algebra and
                 geometry. Algebra and geometry are essentially the same
                 material taught from different approaches. In
                 particular, the abstract algebraic concept of a group
                 can be conveyed in purely geometric terms by groups of
                 transformations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Morton:1976:VTS,
  author =       "Richard P. Morton",
  title =        "The variety of {TICCIT} systems --- an overview",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "144--148",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803464",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "MITRE's TICCIT program began in 1968 with the
                 hypothesis that coupling television displays to a
                 time-sharing computer system would result in a
                 computer-based instruction system low enough in cost to
                 permit schools to provide a significant quantity of
                 individualized instruction to a large number of
                 students. The subsequent TICCIT effort has demonstrated
                 this hypothesis to be correct, and has led to the
                 development of a model for this technology (See Figure
                 I) that has been shown by the ten TICCIT systems in
                 operation and under construction to have a wide range
                 of options which match a wide range of instructional
                 and general purpose environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jehn:1976:ACS,
  author =       "Lawrence A. Jehn and James E. Brandeberry and B.
                 Albert Friedman",
  title =        "Articulation of computer science curricula at the
                 community colleges and the universities",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "149--149",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803465",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "An example of a solution to the problem of a student
                 majoring in Computer Science/Data Processing at a
                 Community College transferring to a university and
                 continuing his degree program will be presented.
                 Audience participation will be encouraged.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Freeman:1976:RSD,
  author =       "Peter Freeman",
  title =        "Realism, style, and design: Packing it into a
                 constrained course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "150--157",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803466",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Although the importance of providing realistic
                 educational experiences involving the design of
                 software systems has been recognized in many
                 undergraduate curricula, it is difficult to
                 consistently do so. With the constraints of an existing
                 curricula and a small amount of class time a course has
                 been developed that provides a rich experience in
                 software design, including the critical aspects of
                 group work and programming and documentation style. The
                 course, its goals, and main features are described and
                 analyzed. Experience with the course is reported and
                 the problem of evaluating such a course is discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Shapiro:1976:NAT,
  author =       "Henry D. Shapiro and M. Dennis Mickunas",
  title =        "A new approach to teaching a first course in compiler
                 construction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "158--166",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803467",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "A new approach to teaching a first course in compiler
                 construction is presented, in which the traditional
                 term project is replaced by several smaller,
                 independent, programming assignments. Each assignment
                 is a compiler for a simple language using a different
                 parsing technique. A means is described to augment the
                 programming assignments, so that a greater variety of
                 experiences is provided students. A short review of the
                 literature is included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hughes:1976:AVT,
  author =       "Charles E. Hughes and Charles P. Pfleeger",
  title =        "{ASSIST-V}: a tool for studying the implementation of
                 operating systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "167--173",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803468",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a program called ASSIST-V which
                 is designed to provide students and other researchers
                 with an environment in which they may write and analyze
                 operating systems for the IBM 360/370 series of
                 machines. ASSIST-V is an extended version of a
                 student-oriented assembler/interpreter called ASSIST. A
                 user of ASSIST-V is presented with a machine which
                 simulates the full set of S/360 machine instructions
                 (including privileged instructions): the standard
                 360/370 interrupt structure, I/0 channels, and I/0
                 devices. Since the machine environment is simulated,
                 ASSIST-V can provide debugging and statistics-gathering
                 features not available on an actual ``bare'' machine.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lamie:1976:UGT,
  author =       "Edward L. Lamie",
  title =        "Using {GPSS} to teach operating systems concepts",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "174--178",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803469",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Operating systems concepts are taught in many
                 undergraduate curricula. Assignment of a student
                 project involving the development of an operating
                 system creates a difficult situation due to time and
                 financial considerations. Using GPSS to simulate the
                 behavior of the student-created operating system can
                 diminish these problems and serve as an effective
                 learning device. Many features and concepts can be
                 simulated that might otherwise be ignored in a student
                 project.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cheng:1976:LLS,
  author =       "Richard Cheng",
  title =        "On-line large screen display system for computer
                 instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "179--181",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803470",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper is concerned with a new instructional
                 method to teach computer programming techniques to
                 students in Computer Science as well as other
                 scientific and non-scientific disciplines. Several
                 courses in the Computer Science curriculum could be
                 substantially enhanced if the instructional gap between
                 the classroom lecture and the computer programming
                 exercises could be eliminated. Rochester Institute of
                 Technology has experimented to achieve this objective
                 by means of an on-line large screen display system
                 which will permit the instructors to perform classroom
                 demonstrations to emphasize the key point of concepts
                 or example of applications to a class of students
                 through a keyboard with a computer. This new
                 instructional method will eliminate deficiencies in
                 conventional chalkboard approaches which result in
                 material being covered too fast to be digested by the
                 students or the course content to be diluted to match
                 the pace of the class.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Beerman:1976:BEC,
  author =       "Thomas H. Beerman and Gregory S. Jonesku",
  title =        "{BECUN}: the educational computer user's network at
                 {Battelle}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "182--188",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803471",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The Educational Computer User's Network at Battelle
                 represents a unique application of the
                 joint-computer-center concept. The program is unique in
                 two respects. First, it is a cooperative effort between
                 a group of Ohio colleges, secondary schools, and a
                 large research-oriented organization. Second, the
                 entire program has proceeded without any federal or
                 other outside financial support. Both Battelle and the
                 schools have participated by utilizing funds available
                 within their own operating budgets. The purpose of this
                 paper is to describe the program and some of its
                 results from the viewpoint of Battelle's Computer
                 Center.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kumar:1976:IUO,
  author =       "V. K. Kumar and James L. Rogers",
  title =        "Instructional uses of the olin experimental
                 classroom",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "189--191",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803472",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The Olin Experimental Classroom at Case Western
                 Reserve University provides a laboratory-like
                 environment in which instructors can assess the results
                 of trying out different teaching methods, techniques,
                 etc. From a hasty look at three of the essential
                 hardware components of this facility as shown in Figure
                 1 --- keyset response units for each student, a
                 process-control computer which scans the response
                 units, and a display for the instructor --- one could
                 easily conclude that the Olin Experimental Classroom is
                 simply another ``student response system'' or ``wired
                 classroom''. In fact, the differences between the
                 traditional student response systems and the Olin
                 Experimental Classroom begin with the very purposes for
                 which these facilities are intended, and the
                 differences extend to every aspect of their respective
                 operation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Levine:1976:CCD,
  author =       "David R. Levine",
  title =        "Computer-controlled display demonstrations of dynamic
                 concepts in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "192--199",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803473",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Computer Science contains a large number of new
                 concepts well outside most students' prior experience.
                 An important characteristic of many of these concepts
                 is their dynamic nature: the execution of a program,
                 assignment of a value to a variable, change of machine
                 state following an interrupt, convergence on a root. By
                 using the computer itself as my demonstration
                 apparatus, I propose to give the students personal
                 exposure to the concepts in action. With a low-cost
                 interactive CRT terminal and video projector, I can
                 show various aspects of a program executing, for
                 instance, at comparatively low investment in machine
                 and people time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sanders:1976:SSC,
  author =       "William R. Sanders and Gerard V. Benbassat and Robert
                 L. Smith",
  title =        "Speech synthesis for computer assisted instruction:
                 The {MISS} system and its applications",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "200--211",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803474",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social
                 Sciences at Stanford (IMSSS) has developed a synthesis
                 system, MISS (Microprogrammed Intoned Speech
                 Synthesizer), designed to test the effectiveness of
                 computer-generated speech in the context of complex CAI
                 programs. No one method of computer controlled speech
                 production is completely satisfactory for all the uses
                 of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The choice of
                 synthesis method is strongly related to the kinds of
                 curriculums and instructional designs that will use
                 speech. We chose to use acoustic modelling by linear
                 predictive coding as the method of synthesis for
                 MISS.(1) In Section 2 we describe criteria appropriate
                 for organizing the comparison of voice response systems
                 for use with instructional computers. Then we describe
                 the particular requirements imposed by curriculums at
                 IMSSS, review general voice synthesis techniques, and
                 finally discuss our actual choice. In Sections 3 and 4
                 we outline the hardware and software that have been
                 created to support MISS in operational CAI at Stanford.
                 In Section 5 we discuss the applications of audio to
                 CAI.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kirbach:1976:UME,
  author =       "J{\"u}rgen Kirbach and Joachim W. Schmidt",
  title =        "On the uses of models in education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "212--222",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803475",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Some preliminary observations may demonstrate some of
                 man's motivation for using models: Generally science is
                 concerned with causal systems, which are systems the
                 states of which do not depend on future inputs to the
                 system. It is this class of systems which is pretty
                 well understood (differential equations, automata,
                 deterministic or not). The purpose for engaging in
                 science about causal systems is --- besides pure
                 curiosity --- mainly to aid man's desire to behave in a
                 goal-directed manner. Since a modern society has a need
                 for goal-directed behavior of its members, e.g., in
                 problem solving, there is also the need to teach people
                 the associated structures. They need --- to get to know
                 existing models (knowledge), --- to learn the way
                 models are used (methods), --- to get to know the tools
                 for modelling (theories), and --- to be able to use
                 strategies for developing them (science). The
                 introduction may give the impression that we favor a
                 very loose use of the term ``model''. This is not so,
                 however. On the contrary since this term is so loosely
                 used presently, it should find a refinement by
                 explication which can be done by examining the
                 associated structures further. That this may not be a
                 waste of effort may have been demonstrated by the
                 central role models play for man's goal-directed
                 behavior.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lorton:1976:MSD,
  author =       "Paul {Lorton, Jr.} and Rosemary N. Killam",
  title =        "Modeling the student and the discipline in {CAI} drill
                 and practice",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "223--235",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803476",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Models built into computer assisted instructional
                 courses have several advantages. They make the
                 underlying theoretical assumptions more explicit and,
                 at the same time, give a clearer direction to the
                 actual development of the CAI program. The purpose of
                 this discussion is to present some of the areas in
                 which models have had an implicit or explicit impact
                 and to indicate how our current work is focused by
                 these efforts. The main purpose of the modeling
                 discussed here is to provide better, more effective
                 instruction (models of the learner) with substantially
                 generated curriculum (models of the discipline). The
                 drill and practice context is emphasized because that
                 is one with a history of models in both areas and one
                 which has demonstrated potential.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Burton:1976:TSM,
  author =       "Richard R. Burton and John Seely Brown",
  title =        "A tutoring and student modelling paradigm for gaming
                 environments",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "236--246",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803477",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a paradigm for tutorial systems
                 capable of automatically providing feedback and hints
                 in a game environment. The paradigm is illustrated by a
                 tutoring system for the PLATO game ``How the West Was
                 Won''. The system uses a computer-based ``Expert''
                 player to evaluate a student's moves and construct a
                 ``differential model'' of the student's behavior with
                 respect to the Expert's. The essential aspects of the
                 student's behavior are analyzed with respect to a set
                 of ``issues'', which are addressed to the basic
                 conceptual constraints that might prevent the student's
                 full utilization of the environment. Issues are viewed
                 as procedural specialists that ``wake-up'' or become
                 active when an instance of an issue manifests itself in
                 a move. These issue specialists help the Tutor isolate
                 what to comment on. The intent of the system is to
                 transform a ``fun'' game into a productive learning
                 environment without altering the student's enjoyment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Prather:1976:ALD,
  author =       "Ronald E. Prather",
  title =        "Another look at the discrete structures course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "247--252",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803478",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Over the last several years since the introduction of
                 B3 (Discrete Structures) into the undergraduate
                 computer science curriculum, the course has been the
                 subject of continuing controversy. The major
                 difficulties later found in implementing the course
                 were easy to foresee from the most casual reading of
                 its original description in Curriculum '68 [1]. The
                 necessary placement of the course in the sophomore
                 year, the relative sophistication of the intended
                 subject matter, and the lack of sufficient preparation
                 of most beginning students in these areas and in
                 appropriate computer science areas of application, all
                 have contributed to problems in the implementation of
                 the ACM Curriculum Committee recommendations. We will
                 discuss each of these problems in turn, and hope to
                 provide new insights toward achieving a satisfactory
                 solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sobel:1976:HMC,
  author =       "Helen L. Sobel",
  title =        "How much {CAI} is hidden in commercial software?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "253--259",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803479",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "It is somewhat astonishing to find that a
                 well-developed software package designed for business
                 uses provides an extremely interesting teaching
                 instrument with an as yet unrealized potential For many
                 years report generating systems such as REPORTER have
                 been extensively used as work horses in business and
                 industry. Administrators in these areas require
                 up-to-date information presented in an understandable,
                 well-organized form. The business executive may need a
                 daily, weekly, or monthly report of the sales records
                 of the company's employees, listing for each sales
                 representative the number of items sold in each
                 category, the amount of income produced, the number of
                 items returned in each category, etc. The Burroughs
                 REPORT writER is based upon an entirely different
                 premise which not only permits but encourages user
                 involvement and understanding. The programs which
                 create each REPORT are accessible, small, modular in
                 structure, and limited to the specific options
                 requested by the user. While it can be easily used in a
                 non-technical manner, and need not be explored in any
                 depth, there are no formidable barriers to a more
                 intelligent mastery of this tool. The unique
                 characteristic of the Burroughs REPORTER is its
                 production of an independent COBOL program for each set
                 of specifications entered. It",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Phister:1976:PCD,
  author =       "M. {Phister, Jr.}",
  title =        "A proposed course on data processing economics",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "260--265",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803480",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Universities are often criticized for being too
                 academic --- too far removed from society's real
                 problems. One reason for this remoteness is the
                 academic preoccupation with analysis, despite the fact
                 that the solution to many practical problems requires
                 synthesis or invention. Another reason --- and this is
                 the one I want to discuss --- is that faculties in
                 science and engineering by and large are interested in
                 the science of technology, and devote little or no time
                 to teaching the economics of technology. The problem is
                 a general one and I believe it deserves attention by
                 all scientific and engineering faculties of the
                 university (?). It is particularly important in the
                 computer field, where growth and change are the norm,
                 and where we all must be careful, in making decisions,
                 to take into account trends and directions in the
                 economics of data processing. I propose a course
                 entitled ``Data Processing Technology and Economics''
                 as a solution to the problems described above, and in
                 this paper I will describe the course, which is based
                 on a textbook I have been preparing for the past
                 several years. The course has been taught twice: at
                 Harvard University in the Fall Semester 1974---1975;
                 and at the University of Sydney, in Australia, in the
                 Michaelmas Term, 1975. However, before describing the
                 course in detail, I would like to explain, with the
                 help of some examples, why I believe this subject is
                 important to the student of Computer Science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Freeman:1976:SEE,
  author =       "Peter Freeman",
  title =        "Software engineering education: Needs and objectives",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "266--266",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803481",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "A report will be made on the results of a one day
                 invitational workshop held at the University of
                 California at Irvine on 9 February 1976. The workshop
                 will have brought together 50 leading educators and
                 practitioners to discuss software engineering education
                 and training: goals, constraints, and methods as seen
                 from different perspectives. Workshop Goals Increased
                 awareness by all of the specific needs for software
                 engineering education and training; a better
                 understanding of the present and future role of
                 software engineers; feedback on current trends in
                 software engineering education; a published record of
                 the workshop including contributed position papers and
                 an abbreviated report of the discussions in order to
                 make the proceedings available to a wider audience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Little:1976:RAA,
  author =       "Joyce Currie Little and Harice Seeds and Ronald
                 Lenhardt and John Dineen and John Maniotes",
  title =        "Report on {ACM's Activity on Community and Junior
                 College Curriculum Career Program in Computer
                 Programming}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "267--267",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803482",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "A Workshop in Two Year College Programs in Computer
                 Science was held August 11-13, 1975 in Gloucester
                 Point, Virginia. Sponsored by the ACM's Special
                 Interest Group in Computer Science Education (SIGCSE),
                 it brought thirteen community and junior college
                 participants together at the Virginia Institute for
                 Marine Science (VIMS) to work toward recommendations
                 for a two year program. Representing ACM were Dr.
                 Richard Austing, Chairman, SIGCSE, Associate Professor
                 in the Computer Science Department of the University of
                 Maryland, and Dr. Gerald L. Engel, Executive Secretary
                 of the ACM Curriculum Committee on Computer Science (C
                 S), Director of Computing and Statistical Services at
                 VIMS, Dr. Bruce Barnes of the National Science
                 Foundation also attended. Joyce C. Little, Chairman of
                 the ACM's Two Year College Subcommittee of C S and
                 Professor and Chairman of the Data Processing and
                 Computing Sciences Department at the Community College
                 of Baltimore, served as Chairman of the Workshop. This
                 panel presentation, given by participants in the
                 workshop, is the first public discussion of the
                 material under development by this group, being chaired
                 by Joyce Currie Little, Chairman of the Ad Hoc
                 Subcommittee for 3 Community and Junior College
                 Curriculum, serving under the Curriculum Committee in
                 Computer Science (C S). Reaction to, and discussion of,
                 the preliminary findings of this group, will been
                 couraged from the audience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Isaacs:1976:BCA,
  author =       "Gerald L. Isaacs and Melvin R. Novick",
  title =        "The {Bayesian} computer-assisted data analysis
                 {(CADA)} monitor",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "268--274",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803483",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Many steps are involved in completing a Bayesian
                 statistical analysis. Some are skilled tasks requiring
                 the expertise of a professional, others are purely
                 mechanical. The former include such tasks as choice of
                 model, specification of the prior distribution and
                 interpretation of the posterior distribution; the
                 latter include such things as the arithmetic necessary
                 to combine the prior distribution with the data to
                 produce the posterior distribution and to produce
                 probability statements from that distribution.
                 Unfortunately, it is all too often the case that the
                 arithmetic gets in the way of the professional's
                 decision-making responsibilities by breaking
                 concentration and line of thought; and at times the
                 sheer bulk of computation precludes the use of advanced
                 techniques by the unaided researcher. What is required
                 is a monitoring system that does all of the arithmetic
                 and, even further, sees to it that all of the steps in
                 the analysis are performed correctly and in their
                 proper sequence. Also, within an instructional process,
                 it can be very useful to have a system that helps a
                 student learn by guiding his steps through a valid
                 statistical analysis even if he doesn't yet fully
                 understand what he is doing. For these and other
                 reasons, a system of Computer-Assisted Data Analysis
                 (CADA) was developed at the University of Iowa (Novick,
                 1971, 1973). Further investigation into available
                 computer technology coupled with expansion of the
                 theoretical base on which the original system rested
                 resulted in the refinement and expansion of the
                 available programs and the construction of a monitor to
                 facilitate their use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Fletcher:1976:QQI,
  author =       "Sharon Fletcher and Thomas Luce",
  title =        "{QUICK}: a quasi-interactive computer-based
                 instructional system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "275--279",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803484",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Traditionally, CAI has been characterized by (1)
                 individualized instruction based on performance, and
                 (2) real-time interaction. Efforts to provide CAI on
                 general purpose equipment have not been successful, and
                 as a result many have turned to dedicated equipment
                 (TICCIT, PLATO). An alternate approach to CAI, on
                 general purpose equipment, is proposed in this paper. A
                 typical interaction between a student and a CAI system
                 can be viewed as a stimulus from the system, followed
                 by a response from the student, followed by feedback
                 plus another stimulus from the system. In many
                 applications, the student response interval can be
                 relatively long. The approach used by QUICK is to
                 purposely extend this student response time by means of
                 the type of stimulus issued; then it is no longer
                 necessary to have an interactive program waiting for
                 the student to respond. Instead, the interaction can be
                 accomplished via a batch job triggered by student
                 input. In the QUICK system, the unit of courseware is a
                 task, consisting of information, instructions, and a
                 number of questions to be answered, which may take the
                 student from a few minutes to several hours or days to
                 complete. In a science course, for example, a task
                 might contain instructions for performing an
                 experiment. Such a system has a wide range of
                 applications, from CMI type uses which primarily direct
                 the student to existing materials for study, to CAI
                 type uses which provide tutorials and drill exercises
                 for the student. The QUICK system has been implemented
                 and used in a first year Biology course and an
                 introductory FORTRAN programming course at PURDUE.
                 Student input can be accomplished via several devices
                 --- teletype terminal, punched card reader, or marked
                 sense card reader. This paper presents some details of
                 the currently implemented QUICK system, as well as some
                 goals and future directions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Smith:1976:GSU,
  author =       "Robert L. Smith and Lee H. Blaine",
  title =        "A generalized system for university mathematics
                 instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "280--288",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803485",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "EXCHECK is a system for developing
                 mathematically-based CAI courses. It is currently being
                 used at Stanford University to teach a college-credit
                 course in axiomatic set theory The design of this
                 system had several goals. First, we wanted an
                 instructional system that would provide a semantic base
                 for our work on processing natural language and
                 computer-generated audio. Axiomatic mathematics fits
                 this description in that the underlying semantics is
                 relatively well understood, but many of the interesting
                 problems of natural language are also involved in the
                 informal language of mathematics and the informal
                 expression of mathematical proofs. Second, we
                 recognized that traditional proof checkers were
                 inadequate for teaching mathematics, or for that
                 matter, introductory logic. People understand
                 mathematical concepts and arguments at a level much
                 higher than the traditional formal systems of
                 mathematical logic. Finally, we designed the EXCHECK
                 system to be an extensible system in which other
                 curricula could be implemented with incrementally less
                 work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Vawter:1976:UIT,
  author =       "Richard Vawter",
  title =        "The use of information theory and personal
                 probabilities in computer based learning",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "284--288",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803486",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "If a student to machine response falls outside a
                 predetermined range during computer based instruction,
                 then some off line procedures (or an ignore command)
                 must be invoked. This observation points out that
                 student to machine response is generally that of a
                 multiple choice format with a perhaps large, but still
                 finite, list of possible responses. In this paper we
                 will discuss the uses of information theory and the
                 Bayesian philosophy of probability to evaluate student
                 to machine responses when there is a well defined set
                 of possible answers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Swigger:1976:LTP,
  author =       "Kathleen M. Swigger",
  title =        "Learning theory and political socialization: a module
                 for computer assisted instruction",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "289--294",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803487",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this C.A.I. module is to introduce
                 students enrolled in undergraduate courses in political
                 science, sociology, and education to aspects of
                 learning theory that have direct application to a study
                 of political socialization. The interactive module
                 demonstrates how various models representing learning
                 theories can be used to describe the process by which
                 individuals acquire their political behavior. The
                 purpose of this C.A.I. module is to describe learning
                 theory in such a way as to guide students in critically
                 constructing and evaluating their own assumptions
                 concerning the nature of the process of political
                 socialization. Thus, it is felt that these lessons can
                 contribute to a better understanding of the prominent
                 literature that deals with questions considered
                 relevant to a discussion of political socialization.
                 The lessons in the module were written in the
                 Instructional Dialogue Facility (IDF) on a
                 Hewlett--Packard 2000 at the University of Iowa. These
                 lessons call over a dozen BASIC programs specifically
                 written for the module. The lessons allow for
                 self-pacing and freedom of choice concerning the number
                 and type of learning subtasks that the student
                 undertakes at any particular time. The module not only
                 enhances the courses for which they were designed but
                 also adds to the inventory of interactive lessons
                 available to all users of computer assisted
                 instruction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ragsdale:1976:MDP,
  author =       "Ronald G. Ragsdale",
  title =        "Multi-disciplinary programming exercises",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "295--297",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803488",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Courses in computer science, data processing or other
                 areas that involve the learning of computer programming
                 often require the student to complete programming
                 exercises. These exercises give the students practice
                 in translating some process into a set of computer
                 commands that accomplish the same process. Very often
                 the exercises are relatively ``content free'' (write a
                 program to add a set of numbers...) and the objectives
                 attained by the exercises are entirely in the data
                 processing, computer science domain. This paper is
                 based on the assumption that the content of typical
                 programming exercises is an unutilized resource that
                 can be used to facilitate learning in other subject
                 matter areas without jeopardizing the attainment of the
                 programming goals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Willis:1976:CSC,
  author =       "Neil Willis",
  title =        "Computing science courses --- training or education?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "298--303",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803489",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The debate about the usefulness or otherwise of
                 Computing Science degrees has raged for some time.
                 Critics of these degree courses have stated that the
                 courses do not satisfy the needs of commercial and
                 industrial users; that they do not train the graduate
                 to be of immediate use or that the subject is
                 developing too rapidly for degrees to impart any
                 lasting knowledge and so on. It may be (and is) argued
                 by some, that an Institute of Higher Education (be it
                 College, Polytechnic* or University) should not aim to
                 train students to be of immediate use to industry.
                 However there is obviously a demand for trained
                 personnel in the computing field, as demonstrated by
                 the proliferation of courses run by manufacturers,
                 various professional bodies and commercial
                 organizations, and it is to satisfy this demand that a
                 number of Polytechnics in England, and Sheffield
                 Polytechnic in particular, have designed courses aimed
                 at educating students in the field of computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Smoliar:1976:WFY,
  author =       "Stephen W. Smoliar",
  title =        "What is a first-year computer science graduate
                 student?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "304--306",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803490",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This is an informal discussion of several problems we
                 have begun to notice in our graduate degree program. As
                 the birthplace of the ENIAC, the University of
                 Pennsylvania has long been a source of computer related
                 courses in its graduate curriculum. With the growth of
                 the undergraduate computer science curriculum, however,
                 several significant problems have developed. In the
                 first place, many of the courses in our graduate
                 program are being overtaken by courses which are now
                 recognized as part of the undergraduate curriculum. As
                 a consequence, we are now faced with a ``mixed bag'' of
                 backgrounds in our graduate student body, ranging from
                 those with no background in computers at all, much like
                 our earliest graduate students, to those who have had a
                 full undergraduate computer science program and seek
                 further education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hager:1976:EDP,
  author =       "Oberita Hager",
  title =        "An evaluation of the data processing program at
                 {Eastern Kentucky University}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "307--312",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803491",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this study was to explore job potential
                 for data processing majors and to ascertain what
                 industries in the metropolitan areas of Kentucky want,
                 need, or expect in the way of skills and knowledges by
                 these majors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ruby:1976:SCS,
  author =       "Douglas A. Ruby",
  title =        "A survey on computer science curricula",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "313--323",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803492",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "As in many businesses, the data processing industry
                 largely depends on colleges and universities for the
                 basic education of its technical and scientific
                 personnel. Increasingly, the key to entry into this
                 industry for the college graduate is becoming a degree
                 in a discipline loosely defined as ``computer
                 science''. Since the computing industry is as broadly
                 defined and as diverse as the various computer science
                 majors, there has been a tendency for the industry on
                 the whole to be only vaguely aware of what students are
                 learning on campus. In addition, there has been a lack
                 of communication by the industry concerning the
                 qualities and skills it seeks in the ``computer
                 science'' graduate. This paper, then, discusses some of
                 the attitudes of the McDonnell Douglas Automation
                 Company (MCAUTO$^{tm}$ ) concerning those qualities and
                 skills it seeks in college graduates in the computing
                 field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Austing:1976:CSC,
  author =       "Richard Austing and William Cotterman and Gerald Engel
                 and Ellis Horowitz",
  title =        "Computers and society courses and computer literacy
                 (panel session)",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "324--324",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803493",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This panel will report on the progress and results of
                 an NSF funded project of ACM to prepare a bibliography
                 of materials in the area of computer impact on society
                 and to identify objectives for computers and society
                 and computer literacy courses. The project committee
                 has computerized about 3000 annotated entries in the
                 bibliography and has provided the capability of
                 obtaining sublists according to a hierarchy of
                 categories. In addition, course objectives for several
                 kinds of computers and society courses have been
                 specified.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Barr:1976:IIB,
  author =       "Avron Barr and Marian Beard",
  title =        "An instructional interpreter for basic",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "325--334",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803494",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The BASIC Instructional Program (BIP) was developed to
                 investigate tutorial modes of interaction in
                 computer-assisted instruction (CAI). BIP is a
                 problem-solving laboratory that helps students while
                 they are solving introductory programming problems in
                 the BASIC language. The problems are presented in an
                 individualized sequence based on a representation of
                 the structure of the curriculum and a model of the
                 student's state of knowledge. This paper describes the
                 BIP system, with emphasis on recently developed
                 features. The goal of the tutorial laboratory is
                 informative interaction with the student, which is
                 provided by an instructional BASIC interpreter,
                 information on BASIC syntax cross-referenced with the
                 BIP student manual, and debugging aids. The system also
                 has access through the curriculum representation to
                 features that the student may use to help her solve her
                 current problem. These features include hints, easier
                 ``subtasks,'' a stored solution that can itself be
                 executed, and an interactive flow chart representation
                 of the solution. The nature of the student-BIP
                 interaction is captured in an annotated student
                 dialogue of a typical session.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gillett:1976:IPA,
  author =       "Will Gillett",
  title =        "An interactive program advising system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "335--341",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803495",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes components of an Interactive
                 Program Advising System (IPAS) for beginning
                 programming students. The system, being unaware of the
                 algorithm being implemented by the student, is unable
                 to direct the student toward writing a correct program.
                 It instead comments on the programming constructs the
                 student has used in the specific implementing
                 language-in this case FORTRAN. Beginning programming
                 students often write poorly structured programs
                 (especially in a non-block-structured language like
                 FORTRAN) with constructs which, while legal, indicate
                 that the student doesn't really understand the
                 operation being performed. Data is currently being
                 collected on ``conceptual errors'' commonly made by
                 beginning students. This paper describes some of these
                 ``errors'' and what comments can be presented to the
                 student to help him understand and correct his own
                 ``errors.'' A subsequent paper will present statistics
                 on frequency of errors and plausible student logic
                 which would produce the errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sjoerdsma:1976:IPA,
  author =       "Ted Sjoerdsma",
  title =        "An interactive pseudo-assembler for introductory
                 computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "342--349",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803496",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Since 1968 the University of Iowa Computer Science
                 Department has used a locally developed Easy Assembler
                 SYstem (EASY) to accomplish a better comprehension of
                 the concepts taught in the segment of the introductory
                 computing course which dealt with internal structure
                 and organization. In the fall of 1973 my attention
                 focused on EASY (with all of its problems) as a likely
                 candidate for a computerized-interactive-tutorial
                 segment of this course. Since the consistency of use
                 and precision in presentation were important aspects of
                 teaching the concepts related to EASY, such an approach
                 seemed natural.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Koffman:1976:CAF,
  author =       "Elliot B. Koffman and Frank L. Friedman",
  title =        "A computer-aided flow diagram teaching system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "350--354",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803497",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a system intended to aid
                 beginning computer science students develop a
                 systematic approach towards problem solution using
                 structured flow diagrams. The student is carefully
                 monitored during the specification of an initial flow
                 diagram and through successive stages of refinement. As
                 each new flow diagram symbol is entered, the system
                 checks to see that the student is being consistent with
                 earlier work and has not introduced potential errors.
                 The flow diagram is an intermediate level
                 representation of an algorithm which is independent of
                 the particular programming language chosen for
                 implementation. When the structured flow diagram has
                 been completely refined, the final translation to a
                 programming language is relatively automatic. To test
                 the program logic, the resultant source code should be
                 executed. The student can modify the flow diagram,
                 generate new code, and re-execute until the program
                 runs correctly.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lewis:1976:UGP,
  author =       "Jesse C. Lewis and S. Sitharama Iynengar",
  title =        "A unique graduate program in computer science at
                 {Jackson} State University",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "355--358",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803498",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "The two key elements of decision-making in today's
                 environment are (i)efficient information processing and
                 management and (ii) a degree of maturity in effective
                 use of a broad range of analytical tools and techniques
                 which pass under the general label of Mathematical
                 Sciences. The Department of Computer Science at Jackson
                 State University started a Graduate Program during the
                 1974 academic year which offers a unique
                 interdisciplinary program leading to a Master's Degree
                 in Computer Science. This program emphasizes in
                 programming languages, systems programming, operating
                 systems, information systems analysis and design, the
                 role of the computer as an integral part of the
                 decision-making process, and the computer applications
                 in the areas of statistics and management science.
                 Advanced placement may be given via examination or
                 acceptable certificate presentation from traditional or
                 non-traditional institutions such as IBM Corporation.
                 The students are presently using both the interactive
                 and the batch capability of our IBM 360/40 for their
                 course and project works. The university is upgrading
                 to an IBM 370/145 during the spring semester (1976).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Neidleman:1976:MSP,
  author =       "L. D. Neidleman",
  title =        "The {Master of Science Program in Computer and
                 Information Science} at {San Jose State University}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "359--365",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803499",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Recently, in the fall of 1974, San Jose State
                 University (SJSU) launched a new master's program in
                 Computer and Information Science (CIS). The main
                 function of this paper is to describe the
                 program-detailing its origins, content, administration,
                 present status and potential future. A secondary
                 purpose is to present material about one of the
                 program's options-Management Information Systems.(MIS).
                 In order to accomplish the above goals, the paper is
                 divided into five sections as follows: Background,
                 Program Description, Current Results, MIS Option, and
                 Summary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cheng:1976:DUC,
  author =       "Richard Cheng",
  title =        "A diversified undergraduate computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "366--370",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803500",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper introduces a set of unique undergraduate
                 computer science programs, some of which have been
                 operating for more than two years at Rochester
                 Institute of Technology. These programs are intended to
                 meet current computer science manpower demands where as
                 a generalized computer science curriculum is not
                 sufficient to cover the range of students required by
                 such demands. As is shown in Figure 1, the set of
                 programs extend from a general computer science
                 curriculum to cover several quasi-specialized areas.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Fletcher:1976:PDI,
  author =       "J. D. Fletcher and Avron Bar and John Seely Brown and
                 Donald Gentner and Ira Goldstein and Mark Miller",
  title =        "Panel discussion: Intelligent instructional systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "371--371",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803501",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "An important area of computer-assisted instruction is
                 the development of intelligent instructional systems.
                 These systems can be distinguished from more
                 conventional approaches by the automation of
                 instructional interaction and choice of strategy. They
                 promise both to reduce the costs of instructional
                 materials preparation and to increase the adaptability
                 and individualization of the instruction delivered. An
                 appropriately intelligent instructional system should
                 create a reactive environment in which a student can
                 test his own hypotheses concerning the subject matter,
                 probe for information at different levels of difficulty
                 and abstraction, acquire wide experience in minimum
                 time, obtain instructional material generated for his
                 unique abilities and needs, receive instructional aids
                 for partially completed solutions, and receive
                 critiques for completed problem solutions. The panel is
                 composed of investigators who are actively engaged in
                 the design, development, and evaluation of intelligent
                 instructional systems. Each member of the panel will
                 briefly outline an aspect of his current work that
                 illustrates a problem or issue appropriate for general
                 discussion. An attempt will be made to assess the
                 state-of-the-art of intelligent instructional systems
                 and to indicate reasonable next steps for their
                 development. Attendees are encouraged to arrive bearing
                 questions, comments, and information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sebaugh:1976:SAI,
  author =       "Jeanne L. Sebaugh",
  title =        "The stepwise approach to introductory programming
                 projects with examples",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "372--381",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803502",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "This paper primarily discusses the problem of the
                 initial projects to be used in introducing students to
                 a programming language. Examples are given of projects
                 used for time-shared BASIC. Because of the expense, CAI
                 was not considered practical for use in the
                 introductory courses, even though the TUTOR series of
                 courses (to learn BASIC) was available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lewis:1976:CSM,
  author =       "Jesse Lewis",
  title =        "Computer science and minority colleges {\&}
                 universities: The {Jackson} State University {NSF}
                 educational computing network",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "382--383",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803503",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "Jackson State University is the lead institution in a
                 Cooperative Regional Educational Computing Network. The
                 network is funded by the National Science Foundation.
                 When it began operating in January, 1974, it involved
                 eleven (11) other participating institutions. Now there
                 are seventeen (17). The purpose of the network is to
                 provide appropriate equipment, with an accompanying
                 massive educational effort, so as to allow each of the
                 participating institutions to become more aware of the
                 academic implications of computers. The ultimate goal
                 is to profoundly affect basic curricula. The results
                 have been positive. Some faculty at participating
                 institutions have reconstructed course content so as to
                 include the use of the computer at appropriate points
                 in their courses. More positive is the fact that a
                 large number of students from disadvantaged educational
                 and cultural backgrounds now have access to interactive
                 computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Michalopoulos:1976:VDO,
  author =       "Demetrios A. Michalopoulos",
  title =        "A video disc oriented educational system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "389--392",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803504",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "One of the challenging fields of computer science is
                 the computer graphics field which, because of its
                 relatively high cost, has not been used extensively for
                 educational purposes. Recent hardware developments in
                 the graphics technology and price breakthroughs in
                 digital equipment are beginning to influence the
                 educational uses of computer graphics. If ``a picture
                 is worth a thousand words'' and if the cost is not at
                 this ratio, one can provide the student, not
                 necessarily of computer sciences, with the possibility
                 of a continuous interaction in which the student can
                 see the results of his decision and thus allows him to
                 experiment and practice with ideas not completely
                 understood yet. This paper presents a design for an
                 interactive educational system incorporating the recent
                 development of the video-disc.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Salako:1976:FMI,
  author =       "Abimbola Salako",
  title =        "A functional model of instructional programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "393--399",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952989.803505",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:52 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the SIGCSE--SIGCUE joint symposium on
                 Computer science education.",
  abstract =     "A functional model of instructional programs (for
                 Computer Assisted Instruction --- CAI) that describes
                 all program types as being essentially composed of a
                 set of primitive building blocks is proposed. The
                 variables that account for the apparent distinguishing
                 characteristics of these programs are then interpreted
                 in the light of this model and a procedure is provided
                 for reducing the different program types to their
                 elementary building blocks. Starting with the primitive
                 building blocks, it is shown how programs of varying
                 descriptions can be generated by an appropriate choice
                 of parameter values. This model provides better insight
                 on the requirements and structure of
                 application-oriented CAI languages, software, and
                 systems. Furthermore, the model provides an easy means
                 of generating CAI synthetic programs for the purpose of
                 simulation modeling directed towards instructional
                 systems design, analysis, and performance evaluation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Golde:1976:WSC,
  author =       "Hellmut Golde and Alan Shaw",
  title =        "Why a separate computer facility for computer science
                 education? Experiences at the {UW} computer sciences
                 teaching laboratory",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11--20",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382221",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "The University of Washington has supported a dedicated
                 computer facility for its graduate program in Computer
                 Science since 1969; this facility is separated from the
                 central University Computer Center. We have accumulated
                 a reasonable amount of experience in using this
                 laboratory for research and teaching. It is the purpose
                 of this paper to describe our activities and
                 experiences, and how they have affected our graduate
                 program. Our main conclusion is that the separate
                 facility is a tremendous resource from the points of
                 view of our students, the faculty, and the potential
                 employers of our graduates, and well worth the
                 additional cost.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Moursund:1976:CCS,
  author =       "David Moursund",
  title =        "Calculators and the computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21--23",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.383047",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mize:1976:MAC,
  author =       "J. L. Mize",
  title =        "Making an academic curriculum relevant to business
                 requirements",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24--27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382465",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Unger:1976:IAC,
  author =       "E. A. Unger and N. Ahmed",
  title =        "An instructionally acceptable cost effective approach
                 to a general introductory course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "28--31",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382466",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes one approach to answering the
                 need for an introductory computer science course which
                 will appeal to a university-wide audience. Kansas State
                 University as many other institutions was faces with
                 such a chllenge when financial constraints became more
                 rigid. A large influx of students entered the Computer
                 Science program, and many other units within the
                 University recognized the need for some preparation for
                 their students in Computer Science. Over a period of
                 three years the course discussed was developed with
                 large lectures and small laboratories. It is a
                 cost-effective solution that caters to the needs of
                 various disciplines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Radue:1976:TEF,
  author =       "J. E. Radue",
  title =        "On the teaching and evaluation of a {Fortran} service
                 course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "32--35",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382467",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{McDaneld:1976:ITP,
  author =       "T. G. McDaneld and E. J. Schweppe",
  title =        "An interactive turning\slash post\slash mixed machine
                 simulator",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "36--40",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382468",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "An interactive system has been developed which makes
                 it convenient to prepare, execute, and modify programs
                 for Turing, Post, or mixed machines. The system runs on
                 a Datapoint 2200 intelligent terminal with CRT display,
                 keyboard, and dual tape cassette drives. Machine type,
                 legal symbols, program or rules, 'tape' contents, and
                 other initial parameters are input from the keyboard
                 and shown on the display. During 'execution' the
                 sixty-four characters about the 'read head' are also
                 shown on the display and the speed of the execution can
                 be dynamically modified (including single-stepping) or
                 interrupted. Tape cassettes are used to make the 'tape'
                 of the machine effectively infinite relative to its
                 speed. Such pedagogical simulators should increase
                 understanding and/or reduce frustration for students
                 being introduced to these theoretical machines. They
                 can also be used to verify moderately complex
                 computations with such machines. This paper deals with
                 the organization, utilization, and possible extensions
                 of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bardos:1976:PME,
  author =       "A. F. Bardos",
  title =        "Programmers' mass education at {Sz{\'a}mok}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "41--44",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382469",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mavaddat:1976:ETP,
  author =       "F. Mavaddat",
  title =        "An experiment in teaching programming languages",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "45--59",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382220.382470",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "To alleviate some difficulties involved in teaching
                 programming in an introductory course, a simple
                 programmable machine of mechanical nature with a small
                 set of very tangible instructions is proposed. All the
                 necessary concepts such as sequencing, looping,
                 sub-routines and declarative statements are introduced
                 in the framework of this machine. A number of examples
                 are discussed which illustrate the use of this
                 programmable machine. It is argued that a simplified
                 version ofmost programming language is easily teachable
                 by relating the simplified language to the concepts
                 developed for this machine. A simplified version of
                 Fortran is treated as an illustration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Barnes:1976:NSF,
  author =       "Bruce H. Barnes and Andrew R. Molnar and Lawrence H.
                 Oliver and Robert F. Watson",
  title =        "National Science Foundation programs in computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804743",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This panel will discuss the various programs of the
                 National Science Foundation dealing with Computer
                 Science Education and Research. These include programs
                 on basic research in computer science, research in
                 computer science education and various programs
                 designed to increase the quality of science education,
                 especially where computers can plan a significant role
                 in the educational process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Engel:1976:RCA,
  author =       "Gerald L. Engel",
  title =        "The revision of {``Curriculum '68''} (An Abstract)",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "2--3",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804744",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Over the past several years the Curriculum Committee
                 on Computer Science (C$^3$S) of the Association for
                 Computing Machinery has been preparing updates and
                 revisions for ``Curriculum '68'''. This has resulted in
                 a number of surveys, and the preparation of three major
                 interim reports. A series of topics is presented which
                 represents the curriculum in the first two years. These
                 topics fall in the general areas of (1) Programming
                 Topics, (2) Software Organization, (3) Hardware
                 Organization, and (4) Data Structures and File
                 Processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Frederick:1976:SAC,
  author =       "Terry J. Frederick",
  title =        "Self-assessment for the computing professional:
                 Consideration of a natural delivery system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "4--4",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804745",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Self-assessment is a procedure based on questions and
                 answers covering knowledge in technical areas which
                 allows an individual to determine his own activities
                 for the purpose of keeping up with progress in his
                 field. It is assumed that the individual wishes to
                 continue active learning and that he wants to identify
                 his deficiencies (usually in a manner where no one else
                 knows of them). A major premise regarding
                 self-assessment is that it should primarily be an
                 educational experience for the participant. An
                 alternative to using the professional testing agency
                 approach for developing and administering
                 self-assessment procedures for the computing field is
                 proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dumas:1976:AC,
  author =       "Robert J. Dumas and Anne E. Nieberding",
  title =        "An alternative to {Curriculum 68}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "5--11",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804746",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The authors of this paper have had the opportunity to
                 view computer science (CPS) curricula from three
                 different perspectives --- as students themselves, as
                 professional applications programmers, and as employers
                 of current computer science majors. We are concerned
                 that the typical course of study is no longer adequate
                 to prepare students for the real world of computer
                 applications. The purpose of this paper is to point out
                 some problem areas and to suggest an alternative.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Agresti:1976:CSI,
  author =       "William W. Agresti",
  title =        "Computer science as an interdisciplinary study",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12--14",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804747",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The organization of computer science education as an
                 interdisciplinary program is described. First, various
                 possible relationships among disciplines are traced,
                 and the features of interdisciplinarity are explained.
                 Next, a specific interdisciplinary program in computer
                 science is introduced, including experiences with the
                 administration and operation of the program. An
                 appraisal of the interdisciplinary approach to computer
                 science education follows. The advantages are
                 significant: a lower cost program, a more adaptive
                 program, and one that is better able to treat the
                 interfaces of computer science with other areas. Such a
                 favorable report suggests that the interdisciplinary
                 approach merits consideration, especially by colleges
                 which want to offer a computer science degree but have
                 limited funds.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Berk:1976:CSC,
  author =       "Toby S. Berk and Malcolm H. Gotterer",
  title =        "A computer science curriculum for a two year upper
                 division university",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15--21",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804748",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Florida International University is a two year upper
                 division University in the State University System of
                 Florida. The Mathematical Sciences Department is
                 located within the College of Arts and Sciences, and
                 offers three undergraduate major programs: mathematics,
                 computer science, and statistics. The computing
                 facilities available are quite good. The computer
                 center operates a UNIVAC 1106 with an adequate array of
                 peripherals, terminals, and memory. In addition, the
                 department owns a NOVA 2/10 mini-computer and an IMLAC
                 PDS-4 intelligent graphics system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Berztiss:1976:WHD,
  author =       "A. T. Berztiss",
  title =        "The why and how of discrete structures",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22--25",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804749",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Eight years after Curriculum 68 there is still much
                 uncertainty regarding the place of discrete mathematics
                 in a computer science curriculum. This paper explores
                 the purposes of discrete mathematics courses in a very
                 broad context. It is suggested that discrete
                 mathematics be distributed over two courses, and that
                 the attitudes established in the courses are more
                 important than the contents of the courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Carvalho:1976:UPT,
  author =       "Sergio E. R. Carvalho and Miguel Angelo A. N{\'o}voa",
  title =        "On the use of pointers and the teaching of disciplined
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26--29",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804750",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "In the past few years there has been considerable
                 debate over the question of pointers in programming
                 languages. Some maintain that pointers should not be
                 allowed, while others try to restrict their use in a
                 number of ways. In this paper we try to justify our
                 view that pointers are a natural and useful way to
                 teach beginners in Computer Science to manipulate list
                 structures, provided a group of strong limitations is
                 placed upon them. We define pointers in SPL, a language
                 to teach beginners disciplined programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jackson:1976:GTD,
  author =       "Glenn A. Jackson",
  title =        "A graphical technique for describing recursion",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30--32",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804751",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "One concept in computer science that is very difficult
                 for the beginner to grasp, and equally difficult for
                 the instructor to present in a straight-forward
                 understandable manner, is the concept of recursion.
                 Since this is a fundamental concept through which the
                 amount of computer code required for some algorithms
                 can be drastically reduced, an instructor must discuss
                 this area early in a student's career, even though he
                 runs the risk of confusing a few students for a lecture
                 or two. This paper presents a method of describing
                 recursive procedure calls that utilizes a form of
                 self-generating state diagram. This approach enables
                 the student to visually keep track of where program
                 control is located at each moment during execution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kennedy:1976:EEL,
  author =       "William E. Kennedy and James R. Pinkert",
  title =        "{EDUSAC} --- an educational list processing system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33--38",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804752",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an educational version of the
                 SAC-1 list processing system. Educational systems such
                 as WATFIV, WATB{\O}L, and PL/C are available for
                 teaching programming languages. However, the authors
                 could find no comparable systems for list processing.
                 Since such facilities would be useful in many courses
                 (e.g., data structures, operating systems, symbol
                 manipulation), EDUSAC was developed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Smith:1976:SLP,
  author =       "Carol Smith and Jon Rickman",
  title =        "Selecting languages for pedagogical tools in the
                 computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39--47",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804753",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The selection of languages for use as pedagogical aids
                 in the teaching of computer science is still a big
                 issue at most universities. The rebellion against
                 FORTRAN has given rise to numerous heirs to the throne,
                 eg, PL/1, ALGOL, PASCAL, etc. In deciding how to
                 resolve this issue small departments have to consider
                 the effect the decision might have on the productivity
                 of their faculty. The analysis of this problem as
                 viewed at SIU-Carbondale is described within. The
                 analysis is performed by applying a set of criteria to
                 a list of potential languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Welch:1976:TPD,
  author =       "John T. {Welch, Jr.}",
  title =        "Tab, a Program Design Language for the classroom",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "48--53",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804754",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A Program Design Language, or PDL, is a structured and
                 program-like format for prose descriptions of computer
                 algorithms. Syntax rules of the PDL, while few in
                 number and informal in comparison with those of a
                 compiled language, do impose a needed structure on the
                 description, making the flow of control within the
                 algorithm and its division into logically separate
                 parts apparent to the reader. This paper introduces a
                 Program Design Language to be called Tab. The name is
                 suggested by the primary principle of its design: that
                 the grouping of statements into structures be governed
                 by indentations to equally spaced tab positions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Eccles:1976:CST,
  author =       "William J. Eccles and Brian G. Gordon",
  title =        "Computer science by {TV}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "54--56",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804755",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Our use of television to teach the first computer
                 science course for computer science majors is an
                 attempt to make sure that the students get the right
                 education. In our case it is not an attempt to enable
                 one instructor to handle a large number of students but
                 rather to handle small groups of students spread
                 throughout the state. As a result of some shortage of
                 computer science faculty, teaching beginners is often
                 considered of lesser importance than other duties. For
                 example, at one college in our state, an instructor
                 with a little programming experience was hired to teach
                 the beginners in computer science. This instructor felt
                 he was well-enough equipped to handle the course. He
                 covered the entire text and taught two languages,
                 Fortran and PL/I. Our experience shows we can't cover
                 two-thirds of that text, and then only in one language.
                 Ours is the first computer science course which our
                 majors take. It presumes no programming experience. It
                 has two goals, to introduce the student to the
                 fundamentals of computer science through a study of
                 algorithms and programming, and to start the student
                 well into PL/I. The course is taught as a one-semester
                 four-credit course which meets five times per week. We
                 made half-hour video tapes under excellent production
                 conditions to cover the material of the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Linder:1976:CTS,
  author =       "William H. Linder",
  title =        "{COMPUTER-TUTOR}: From a student project to a
                 self-paced {CAI\slash CMI} course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "57--60",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804756",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "COMPUTER-TUTOR is a software package that presents
                 interactively a self-paced, competency-based course in
                 elementary FORTRAN programming. It developed from a
                 project in a course where students design and implement
                 a large-scale programming application. A COMPUTER-TUTOR
                 course, presented on a PDP11/45, consists of nine
                 modules-each module having a lesson, quiz, and
                 programming assignment. A student must pass the quiz in
                 a course-module before going on to the next module. The
                 course grade depends on the number of modules
                 completed. The student-commands LESSON, QUIZ, PROGRAM,
                 OUTLINE, REVIEW, and INFORMATION bring the
                 instructional material (CAI). The instructor uses eight
                 support commands to monitor student progress and course
                 material. COMPUTER-TUTOR will next be expanded to
                 include courses in BASIC and COBOL.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Meinke:1976:TST,
  author =       "John G. Meinke and Charles R. Bauer",
  title =        "Topological sorting as a tool in curriculum planning",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "61--66",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804757",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Topological sorting provides a partial ordering for a
                 group of data items for which a partial linear ordering
                 exists. Our use of the topological sorting algorithm
                 has been in the logical organization of curriculum
                 content. Curriculum content can vary from organizing a
                 forty minute lecture to planning a four year sequence
                 of courses. Application of topological sorting to the
                 curriculum content results in a logical organization of
                 the concepts, which may or may not be unique. Users of
                 TOPSORT claim a major time savings in the long run.
                 Backtracking to cover prerequisite concepts in teaching
                 is reduced.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Haskell:1976:USF,
  author =       "R. E. Haskell and D. E. Boddy and G. A. Jackson",
  title =        "Use of structured flowcharts in the undergraduate
                 Computer Science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "67--74",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804758",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Over the last four years a new Computer Science major
                 program has been introduced into the curriculum of the
                 School of Engineering at Oakland University. During
                 this period computer science educators throughout the
                 country have debated the best way to introduce
                 structured programming into the curriculum. There is
                 now a widespread belief that beginning FORTRAN courses
                 cannot be taught using structured programming in a form
                 that is palatable to freshmen students without the aid
                 of a structured FORTRAN preprocessor. Our experience in
                 teaching structured programming using FORTRAN to large
                 numbers of freshmen students has indicated that this
                 widespread belief is false. We will illustrate the use
                 of structured flowcharts with FORTRAN in Section 2 by
                 showing one of the actual programming assignments that
                 was given to our freshman introductory computer course
                 this term. The same structured flowcharting techniques
                 are used throughout the curriculum. An example that
                 uses ALGOL and is taken from our junior level data
                 structures class is given in Section 3. The use of the
                 structured flowcharts forces all programs to be
                 well-structured and encourages a top-down approach to
                 programming. It is a very useful vehicle for describing
                 any language-independent structured algorithm. An
                 example of using structured flowcharts to describe a
                 simple precedence parser in a senior course on
                 compilers is given in Section 4.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Smoliar:1976:MS,
  author =       "Stephen W. Smoliar",
  title =        "Meditations on style",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "75--77",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804759",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "At the 1968 NATO Conference on Software
                 Engineering,$^1$ Edsger W. Dijkstra remarked that he
                 found his position, as a teacher, analogous to that of
                 a teacher of composition at a school of music. This
                 paper wishes to pursue this analogy in greater detail.
                 In particular, the role of style in computer science
                 education is assessed in terms of the corresponding
                 role it plays in music education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cook:1976:SPI,
  author =       "Curtis R. Cook",
  title =        "A self-paced introductory {Fortran} programming
                 course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "78--79",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804760",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a self-paced audio-tutorial
                 introductory Fortran programming course. The course is
                 designed for students with no previous programming
                 experience and consists of nine lessons. Each lesson
                 has two parts: (1) a handout that directs the student's
                 reading in the course text and contains comments,
                 suggestions, examples and self-test quizzes; (2) a
                 handout and accompanying cassette tape that solves
                 example problems in detail --- problem analysis,
                 development of algorithm (flowchart) and program. There
                 are six programming assignments and a test on each
                 lesson. A unique feature of the lessons is the use of
                 peek-a-boo strips to aid and encourage students to
                 carefully read the example programs and to show the
                 structural relation between the flowchart and the
                 program.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Buck:1976:IIS,
  author =       "John Buck and Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "An internship in information systems: Combining
                 computer science education with realistic problems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "80--83",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804761",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Computer science graduates who become professional
                 programmers will have a direct and substantial
                 influence on the impact of applications, but little in
                 traditional computer science training curriculum
                 prepares them for this serious responsibility.
                 Recognizing this situation, we designed a two term
                 sequence for advanced undergraduates and masters
                 students which would not only provide them with the
                 required academic knowledge. The educational atmosphere
                 that we tried to create resembles the internship phase
                 followed in teacher training, medical schools, law
                 schools, clinical psychology and other disciplines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lake:1976:TPC,
  author =       "Robin B. Lake",
  title =        "A training program in computer applications in the
                 health sciences",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "89--91",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804762",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Case Western Reserve University has developed an
                 intensive 12-month post-graduate Training Program to
                 educate health professionals in the application of
                 computer technology. A Master of Science degree is
                 awarded upon completion of a set of formal courses and
                 implementation of a computer-based project. The program
                 emphasizes computer applications for the structuring,
                 manipulation, and display of medical information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Conti:1976:RCS,
  author =       "Dennis Conti and Russell Armstrong and Paul Oliver and
                 Robert Orchard and John Shoosmith",
  title =        "Relevance of computer science education to industry
                 and government needs --- {A} critique of the proposed
                 update to curriculum '68",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "92--92",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804763",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "It is frequently suggested that computer science
                 curricula are generated in a vacuum with little or no
                 regard for the ``real-world needs'' of the student's
                 ultimate employer. Furthermore, the question has
                 recently been raised whether computer science programs
                 should prepare their graduates to be ``tool users'' or
                 ``tool builders.'' The panel, composed of distinguished
                 representatives from industry and Government, will
                 relate their past experience with computer science
                 graduates and will address their immediate personnel
                 needs (i.e., areas of required expertise for new
                 employees). Each panel member will then present his
                 candid view of the proposed updates to ``Curriculum
                 '68'' currently being prepared by ACM's Curriculum
                 Committee on Computer Science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Little:1976:RCR,
  author =       "Joyce Currie Little and Bobby Smith and Richard
                 Austing and Eric Whiteside and Charles Leidlich",
  title =        "A report on the curriculum recommendations of the {ACM
                 Sub-Committee for Community and Junior College
                 Curriculum}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "93--93",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804764",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Final recommendations for the two-year college
                 curriculum to educate computer programmers for
                 applications programming in a general setting of
                 commerce, industry, and government service will be
                 presented. The attached draft of the report was that
                 used by the group prior to the May 27-28 Workshop,
                 during which reactions from industry and professional
                 society representatives were obtained. After a summary
                 of the content of the report is given by the chairman
                 of the ad hoc sub-committee, comments will be heard
                 from panel participants. Afterwards, a brief critique
                 will be given by a discussion leader, followed by
                 discussion with the audience. Copies of the completed
                 report should be available during the panel session.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:FPS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Facilities and programs in support of education in
                 computer science at minority institutions (Panel
                 Discussion)",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "94--94",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804765",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The panel will address the area of education in
                 computer science from the standpoint of minority
                 institutions. Panelists will present views from the
                 standpoint of individuals who have developed programs
                 at the two and four year levels, individuals who have
                 utilized portions of such programs as service
                 offerings, and from the standpoint of funding agencies.
                 Also considered by the panel will be questions of
                 problems unique to the minority institutions, and
                 projected future developments in computer science
                 education at the institutions. Finally, the area of
                 appropriate resources in support of computer science
                 education will be considered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Morrison:1976:ACA,
  author =       "Louise S. Morrison and Grover C. Simmons",
  title =        "Academic computing at {Atlanta University Center} ---
                 a consortium of six predominantly black institutions",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "95--97",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804766",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Atlanta University Center is the largest private
                 institution of Black higher education in the world and
                 the second oldest consortium of schools in the nation.
                 When the Center began offering an undergraduate degree
                 in computer science in 1969, it was the first
                 institution in Georgia to do so. Now there are 50
                 majors, and each semester the Center-Coordinated
                 Computer Science Department teaches approximately 250
                 students for the six institutions comprising the
                 Atlanta University Center. In this paper the computer
                 science curriculum is described and programs and
                 services provided by this department are detailed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dalphin:1976:CSC,
  author =       "John F. Dalphin",
  title =        "A computers and society course: Adapted for
                 television",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "98--100",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804767",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The experience of developing and presenting a
                 television series in the area of computers and society
                 is related. An existing seminar course with upper
                 division students is used to provide recordable topic
                 discussions and additional materials are developed
                 around that nucleus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Nanney:1976:CSE,
  author =       "T. Ray Nanney",
  title =        "Computer science: an essential course for the liberal
                 arts",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "102--105",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804768",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "There is a wide divergence of opinion as to the
                 appropriate content for an introductory computer
                 science course. Approaches to teaching the subject
                 range from ``computer appreciation'' presentations to
                 rigorous courses for computer science majors. This
                 paper presents the thesis that computer science has
                 reached a level of maturity which allows it to be
                 presented in a stimulating and intellectually honest
                 manner to liberal arts students regardless of their
                 majors, and that such a course is an important, almost
                 essential, part of the curriculum for such students. A
                 rationale for this view will be presented, and a course
                 conforming to the rationale will be described. In many
                 liberal arts institutions, including mine, any subject
                 which may be related to technology is regarded with
                 suspicion; and zealous efforts are made to avoid
                 contamination of the curriculum with unsuitable courses
                 having a technological base. Because the rationale for
                 the course seems to satisfy my colleagues in the more
                 humanistic subjects, it is presented in some detail
                 here for its possible value in other institutions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Newton:1976:TBP,
  author =       "Glen E. Newton and J. Denbigh Starkey",
  title =        "Teaching both {PL\slash I} and {Fortran} to
                 beginners",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "106--107",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804769",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The overall approach to programming languages taken in
                 the course is to use PL/I (with the PL/C compiler)
                 during the first part of the semester to introduce
                 programming concepts and techniques, then teach Fortran
                 (with the WATFIV compiler) during the last part of the
                 semester [2,3]. Except for a brief discussion of
                 conventional flowcharts to help students read the
                 examples in the texts, Nassi--Shneiderman structured
                 flowcharts are used throughout the lectures and labs
                 [4]. Algorithms are written in PL/I using DO-WHILE as
                 the primary control structure, and GOTOs are not
                 introduced except in Fortran.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bauer:1976:CUR,
  author =       "Henry R. {Bauer III}",
  title =        "Classroom use of replaceable parts in a
                 multiprogramming system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "108--110",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804770",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A multiprogramming operating system for the TI980A
                 permits replacement of system primitives by a
                 programmer familiar with the system's design and data
                 structures. This paper describes the hardware features
                 available; the method of use of the replaceable parts
                 facility; typical student assignments for an operating
                 systems course (e.g., ACM Curriculum '68 I4); and
                 student reaction to the projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Claybrook:1976:CPD,
  author =       "Billy G. Claybrook",
  title =        "A course and project description for an undergraduate
                 course in evaluation and measurement techniques for
                 computer systems",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "111--114",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804771",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The course and project description for a one quarter
                 (or semester) senior level course in evaluation and
                 measurement techniques for computer systems is
                 described. The primary purpose of the course is to
                 introduce the students to evaluation and measurement
                 techniques and to use some of these techniques in
                 evaluating and measuring the performance of a
                 multiprogramming operating system designed for a simple
                 machine. The project is based on the availability of a
                 simple multiprogramming operating system that can be
                 modified by students to perform evaluation and
                 measurement experiments. Five experiments are described
                 in the paper. If a simple multiprogramming operating
                 system is not available then the project may be
                 omitted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cooper:1976:IHA,
  author =       "Roger T. Cooper and Malcolm G. Lane",
  title =        "An improved hands-on approach to teaching systems
                 programming and the impact of structured programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "115--124",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804772",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The use of the hands-on approach for teaching systems
                 programming presented at the 1974 SIGCSE Conference has
                 proved to be even more successful in the past two
                 years. The reasons for the increased success are given.
                 An approach of using structured assembler language
                 concepts as an integral part of the systems programming
                 course is introduced and discussed. Specific examples
                 of the use of several structured programming macros are
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Aird:1976:CMD,
  author =       "Charles L. Aird",
  title =        "Computer manpower development in {Saudi Arabia}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "125--128",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804773",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "While looking in ecstasy at the new horizons of
                 computer technology, developing countries often
                 underestimate the computer's dependency upon man.
                 Computers are unlike any other machine. Not unlike many
                 developing countries, the vast petroleum and mineral
                 resources of Saudi Arabia pose complex and challenging
                 problems at all levels of education. The physical
                 resources of the Kingdom far outstrip the human
                 resources. For a country with some 3,000 college
                 graduates as of 1975, the rapid technical and economic
                 developments could easily become too burdensome. Saudi
                 Arabia has few trained personnel for the development
                 and management of modern computer systems, even though
                 the first unit record equipment was installed by the
                 Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) in 1952. The
                 requirements for data processing services has rapidly
                 increased.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Eckberg:1976:SPD,
  author =       "Carl F. Eckberg",
  title =        "Some proposals for distributing central computing
                 power at a University",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "129--134",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804774",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The object of this paper is to present a number of
                 ideas for distributing computer time and power at a
                 University with overtaxed centralized computing. Topics
                 discussed include how to determine who gets computer
                 resources and how much; how to share a centralized
                 facility among administrators, researchers, and
                 students; how to secure a flexible system for the user;
                 and how to devise a system which encourages good user
                 habits. The computing history of San Diego State
                 University (SDSU) is very briefly presented as
                 background for the computer allocation proposals to be
                 presented. The proposals themselves arose from an
                 appointed sub-committee$^1$ and are presented in a
                 rather top-down manner much as they were introduced on
                 the SDSU campus. It is hoped that a number of other
                 institutions will find some of the ideas or specific
                 strategies proposed to be worthy of careful
                 consideration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mize:1976:SPC,
  author =       "Jan L. Mize",
  title =        "Structured programming concepts in an introductory
                 {COBOL} course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "135--142",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804775",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper concerns an effort to implement structured
                 programming concepts in an introductory COBOL
                 programming course in order to improve student program
                 design and techniques. Since COBOL's native habitat is
                 a business environment with recurring processing cycles
                 and evolving systems requirements, COBOL, perhaps more
                 than other languages, exhibits a glaring need for
                 orderly structure and rigid standards to provide for
                 readability, maintainability and modifiability. It is
                 difficult for a student in a one-quarter course to
                 fully appreciate the significance of having these
                 characteristics in his own program when they are
                 reviewed months (or years) later or in programs
                 acquired from someone else.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Keith:1976:SBC,
  author =       "Ed Keith",
  title =        "A structured beginning {COBOL} class using structured
                 programming with objectives",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "143--147",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804776",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper presents the structure of a beginning class
                 in COBOL which stresses structured programming
                 techniques and is organized as a series of stair-step
                 type objectives. Three topics are stressed in this
                 presentation: the application of student-centered
                 objectives to a COBOL class, structured COBOL examples
                 for commonly encountered logic constructs, and an
                 approach to documenting structured COBOL through an
                 indentation scheme.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bordage:1976:ICA,
  author =       "G. Bordage and Robin B. Lake",
  title =        "An introductory course in the applications of computer
                 technology in the health sciences",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "184--188",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/952991.804777",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:54 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 6th SIGCSE Symposium on Computer
                 Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the contents of an introductory
                 course in the applications of computer technology in
                 the health sciences. A set of instructional goals is
                 described, designed to meet the basic needs of the
                 health professional involved in understanding and
                 developing computer-based applications in his
                 environment. From these goals, a list of specific
                 objectives is constructed and presented as the
                 student's minimum level of achievement for the course.
                 The implementation, evaluation and impact of the course
                 are reviewed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mullins:1976:CEC,
  author =       "E. R. {Mullins, Jr.}",
  title =        "Computer education for computing",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "4--5",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382223",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lancaster:1976:RF,
  author =       "Ronald L. Lancaster and Richard T. Thomas",
  title =        "Reading {Fortran}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "6--7",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.383767",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "A new type of computer science service course is
                 described which was developed in response to a request
                 from several natural science departments. The goal of
                 the course is to give advanced students the ability to
                 read and understand existing Fortran programs. An
                 evaluation of the course is also given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Traub:1976:SGO,
  author =       "J. F. Traub",
  title =        "Some general observations on {Ph.D}. production in
                 computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "8--9",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382456",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Based on remarks made as a participant of Panel on the
                 Ph.D. Production Rate, Meeting of Heads of Ph.D.
                 Computer Science Departments, Snowbird, Utah, July 1-2,
                 1974.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lowther:1976:TGP,
  author =       "J. L. Lowther and Z. C. Motteler",
  title =        "Teaching good programming techniques",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "10--11",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382457",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Iyengar:1976:EDS,
  author =       "S. Sitharama Iyengar",
  title =        "An experience with a {``Data Structures and File
                 Management''} course at the graduate level in computer
                 science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "12--14",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382458",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Williams:1976:ECA,
  author =       "Kenneth Williams",
  title =        "An experimental course in advanced programming
                 methods",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15--18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382459",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "An experimental graduate course where students learn
                 good programming and system design techniques through
                 writing systems of programs in chief-programmer teams
                 (CP-teams) is described. The course seems very
                 worthwhile. Some of the things learned by students and
                 the instructor are described, appropriate changes for
                 the next offering of a similar course are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Egan:1976:CGB,
  author =       "L. G. Egan",
  title =        "Closing the ``Gap'' between the university and
                 industry in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--25",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382460",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Slonneger:1976:CA,
  author =       "K. Slonneger",
  title =        "Computer attitudes",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26--29",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382461",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Students in a beginning computer science course were
                 surveyed concerning their attitudes toward computers.
                 Two statistical tests showed results: there were
                 significant differences in attitudes from before until
                 after the course, and between students who passed the
                 course and those who failed or dropped. No correlation
                 was evident between the opinions surveyed and the
                 grades received by individual students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ottenstein:1976:AAD,
  author =       "Karl J. Ottenstein",
  title =        "An Algorithmic Approach to the Detection and
                 Prevention of Plagiarism",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30--41",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382462",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Misc/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Smith:1976:UDF,
  author =       "James A. Smith",
  title =        "The use of data flow diagrams in an introductory
                 course in assembly language programming and machine
                 architecture",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42--52",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382463",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{vanDam:1976:SPA,
  author =       "Andries van Dam and Jens M. Dill and Douglas F. Dixon
                 and David S. Notkin",
  title =        "Structured programming in assembly language",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53--67",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382222.382464",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Structured design and programming techniques can be
                 extended from high-level languages to assembly
                 language. Over the past three years at Brown
                 University, beginning assembly language programmers
                 have been successfully taught these techniques using
                 clearly defined standards. These standards and the
                 solutions to several of the typical problems that arise
                 in structured assembly language programming are
                 discussed in this paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Maguire:1977:ELF,
  author =       "R. Brien Maguire and L. R. Symes",
  title =        "Effect of laboratory facilities on computer science
                 curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803351",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the effect that the introduction
                 of computing laboratory facilities has had on the
                 curriculum of an undergraduate Computer Science
                 program. From its initial use by only one course, the
                 laboratory has grown gradually both in terms of
                 equipment and involvement with the Department's
                 teaching program. Demands placed on the laboratory by
                 various courses have influenced the acquisition of new
                 equipment. Conversely, with the addition of new and
                 varied equipment, it was possible to incorporate the
                 laboratory into more courses. The Paper describes this
                 interplay between the development of the laboratory and
                 the growth of the Department. Problems such as
                 maintenance and support staff for the laboratory are
                 discussed whenever they have affected decisions on the
                 use of the laboratory by a course or the selection of
                 equipment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Stoddard:1977:MSI,
  author =       "Spotswood D. Stoddard",
  title =        "Minicomputer selection and implementation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6--12",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803352",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Technological advances in large-scale integrated
                 circuits have caused mini and micro computer usage to
                 multiply in the last few years. This behooves academic
                 to treat the mini/micro phenomenon adequately. The same
                 multiplication process, however, makes choosing a
                 minicomputer all the more difficult. The problem is
                 compounded by the hardware and electronics knowledge
                 required to attain the best price advantage. This paper
                 describes how one academic computer department selected
                 and implemented a minicomputer on a restricted budget.
                 It is written primarily for the reader without
                 extensive knowledge of hardware electronics. This
                 article is a description of the experiences of one
                 academic computer department$^1$ in buying, installing,
                 and using an academic minicomputer. It is directed
                 primarily to those having little or no expertise in
                 electronics or computer hardware design. This
                 description is in response to a number of inquiries of
                 ``What did you do?'' It is a step-by-step description
                 and, as such, is quite specific to our particular
                 system, with which we have been well pleased. It is
                 offered as a guide of experience both to those who
                 might obtain a similar system and as a case to others
                 as well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Vishnubhotla:1977:LAT,
  author =       "Sarma R. Vishnubhotla",
  title =        "A logical approach to teach digital computer design at
                 logic and systems level",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13--21",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803353",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Design courses in Computer Systems Design are being
                 taught in many undergraduate programs both for Computer
                 Science and Electrical Engineering students. A design
                 project is explained in this paper to give all the
                 information to the students regarding the important
                 concepts in both logic and systems level. The computer
                 has sixteen instructions, two K memory and a single
                 index register. This project can also be enlarged by
                 introducing many extra hardware features.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Levine:1977:SIP,
  author =       "David R. Levine",
  title =        "The simple internal procedure as an effective tool in
                 the teaching and practice of structured {PL\slash I}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "22--25",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803354",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper reports on two successful curricular
                 innovations made in the first-year PL/I programming
                 course at Rutgers. Simple internal procedures are
                 introduced at an early point, and used extensively
                 thereafter; and fairly long, large programming projects
                 are undertaken. The combined effect significantly
                 reinforces the presentation of structured programming
                 methodology, as well as enhancing the general
                 educational effectiveness of the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hughes:1977:TDF,
  author =       "Herman D. Hughes",
  title =        "A tool designed to facilitate structured programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "26--30",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803355",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "An algorithmic language interpreter is presented which
                 provides users of various technical backgrounds a
                 convenient way to describe algorithms and
                 simultaneously focus on problem-solving concepts:
                 problem analysis, algorithm development, and the
                 computer implementation of the algorithm. The
                 interpreter permits the use of decision tables as a
                 means of expressing complex logic. In view of the
                 significance of structured programming in today's
                 environment (and that of the future), the language
                 processor allows three logical constructs: sequential,
                 IF... THEN...ELSE..., and the DO WHILE construct. The
                 use of GO TOs is only allowed to transfer control from
                 one table to another. Hence, several tables/subtables
                 (each may contain 1 decision table) may be required for
                 the description of an algorithm. Examples are presented
                 to illustrate how the language interpreter enhances
                 programming organization and thereby facilitates
                 structured programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Tam:1977:PET,
  author =       "W. C. Tam and S. N. Busenberg",
  title =        "Practical experience in top-down structured software
                 production in an academic setting",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--36",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803356",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Much has been said about the importance of teaching
                 top-down program design and structured programming in
                 computer programming courses. However, instruction in
                 these concepts has usually been limited to short
                 homework assignments and at most to term projects. This
                 type of experience is very different from the
                 production programming environment encountered in
                 industry, where the problems tackled are generally more
                 complex and on a larger scale. Also, in many cases
                 industrial programs are produced by a programming team
                 under constraints in both time and resources. For
                 students who aspire to a career in the software area,
                 experience in a realistic production programming
                 environment is desirable. Such experience is not
                 provided in the traditional courses and novel ways have
                 to be devised in order to bring it on campus. At Harvey
                 Mudd College, an academic program, called the
                 Mathematics Clinic, has been institured with the aim of
                 providing this type of realistic experience to the
                 student. The Mathematics Clinic brings problems from
                 industry to be studied and solved by small teams of
                 students under faculty supervision. The problems are
                 selected for their educational value, but attention is
                 paid to the feasibility of producing results that are
                 of value to the sponsoring industrial concern. The
                 general organization of the Clinic program has been
                 described by Spanier (1). In the present paper, a
                 production programming project undertaken by the
                 Mathematics Clinic is described with emphasis placed on
                 the mode of instruction and the experience gained by
                 the students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Haynes:1977:OTL,
  author =       "William R. {Haynes, Jr.} and Charles E. Hughes and
                 Charles P. Pfleeger",
  title =        "{ORACLE} a tool for learning compiler writing",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "37--52",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803357",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a compiler called ORACLE which
                 allows a student to examine the actions performed by a
                 simple compiler. Two features are provided to assist
                 the student. The first called replacement mode,
                 provides the necessary conditions to simulate the
                 replacement of three compiler components: symbol table
                 management, lexical analysis, and syntax analysis. Each
                 replacement module is monitored by ORACLE in order to
                 detect errors and to verify correct operation. The
                 second, a trace option, permits source statements to
                 initiate or terminate a selective monitoring of the
                 actions of the compiler.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Abbott:1977:DIY,
  author =       "R. J. Abbott",
  title =        "A do-it-yourself instant compiler.kit",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--58",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803358",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The theory of compiler-compilers is well known. Here
                 we present a small collection of SNOBOL subroutines
                 which make the SNOBOL pattern matcher a
                 self-documenting instant compiler. All one need add are
                 the syntax productions (as simple SNOBOL patterns
                 mimicking BNF) and the associated (synthesizing)
                 semartic transformation in the form of arbitrarily
                 simple SNOBOL programs. The resulting compiler produces
                 a complete (or partial at the us{\'e}r's discretion)
                 trace of the parse showing how the syntax matches or
                 fails to match the input. After a match is achieved,
                 the semantic rules are executed on the resulting parse
                 tree. The execution of these rules too are optionally
                 traced so that one has a full picture of just which
                 transformations were performed at each node of the
                 tree. Finally the parse tree is printed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Khailany:1977:ASC,
  author =       "Asad Khailany",
  title =        "Advanced structured {COBOL} programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--62",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803359",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "There is a large market demand for COBOL programmers.
                 Can a single introductory course in COBOL programming
                 provide the students with sufficient professional
                 expertise to qualify them for these job openings? If
                 not, is it feasible to offer a second course in COBOL
                 programming? In this paper the technical capabilities
                 of those who have completed an introductory COBOL
                 programming course and the skills and technical
                 qualifications which are desired by employers of entry
                 level COBOL programmers are analyzed. It is concluded
                 that a single introductory COBOL programming course is
                 not sufficient to produce COBOL programmes with the
                 qualifications and skills expected by employers.
                 Therefore, an advanced structured COBOL programming
                 course is proposed. The goals and the course outline
                 including texts and references of such an advanced
                 course are presented. Several samples of integrated
                 information systems which have been completed by
                 student teams in Advanced Structured COBOL programming
                 will be available for the audience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Friedman:1977:TPS,
  author =       "Frank L. Friedman and Elliot B. Koffman",
  title =        "Teaching problem solving and structured programming in
                 {FORTRAN}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--68",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803360",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an approach towards teaching
                 problem solving in an introductory service course using
                 the FORTRAN programming language. The course is
                 centered around a set of problems which are used to
                 illustrate a problem solving methodology. Three
                 pedogogical tools (data table, flow diagram, and
                 program system chart) are used to provide a framework
                 for algorithm development. Two control structures (the
                 Block IF decision structured and WHILE loop) have been
                 added to the FORTRAN language to facilitate the
                 implementation of algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Weymouth:1977:MOS,
  author =       "Terry E. Weymouth and James T. Perry",
  title =        "A multiprogramming operating system for a
                 minicomputer",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--72",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803361",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Described in this paper is a small, modular operating
                 system which was written for an Interdata-70 machine.
                 The total operating system is memory resident and
                 occupies 5K bytes. The primary motivation in
                 redesigning the operating system was to structure it so
                 that students and general system users could easily
                 expand or modify the basic services of the supervising
                 system. Towards this end, the following system
                 principles are embodied in the design: (1) clearly
                 defined separation of system functions, (2) separate
                 object modules for each system routine, and (3) simple
                 system design. Although specifics of implementation are
                 discussed, general design concepts are covered which
                 should aid the reader in any similar attempt (either by
                 example or counter example).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Grit:1977:TLB,
  author =       "Dale H. Grit and Dennis D. Georg",
  title =        "A top-down, laboratory based operating system course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--76",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803362",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "An operating system course is described which is
                 organized in a top-down fashion and strongly emphasizes
                 the concept of ``learning by doing.'' The course
                 content and the corresponding laboratory assignments
                 are discussed. The suggested modularization of the
                 laboratory provides substantial flexibility for course
                 emphasis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Ruschitzka:1977:OSI,
  author =       "Manfred Ruschitzka",
  title =        "An operating systems implementation project for an
                 undergraduate course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "77--84",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803363",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "While the adoption of an implementation project for an
                 operating systems course is certainly beneficial,
                 non-trivial projects are inherently demanding in terms
                 of student efforts and computer costs. This paper
                 reports on a project which has been designed to keep
                 the effort for an extensive simulation of a
                 contemporary system within acceptable limits. The
                 project involves both a hardware simulator and an
                 operating system, and a considerable reduction of the
                 overall effort could be achieved by enhancing the
                 hardware with operating systems support features. The
                 design criteria as well as the characteristics of the
                 resulting hardware configuration and operating system
                 are presented, and the value of the project as a
                 teaching tool is discussed",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Coulter:1977:OSP,
  author =       "Neal S. Coulter",
  title =        "Operating systems with {POPSS}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "85--87",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803364",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "It is often difficult to select relevant and
                 reasonable laboratory assignments in an introductory
                 operating systems course. The students are seldom
                 prepared to code intricate portions of an operating
                 system, even if suitable hardware were available for
                 such extensive use. Nevertheless, it is essential that
                 the students gain a quantitative insight into the
                 components and interactions of simple and complex
                 operating systems. An operating system simulator that
                 allows an evaluation of the performances of various
                 operating system configutations without requiring the
                 student to write complicated code would help to solve
                 the dilemma. An operating systems simulator named POPSS
                 is a fine tool for such such use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Taylor:1977:TPB,
  author =       "Robert P. Taylor",
  title =        "Teaching programming to beginners",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "88--92",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803365",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Because of the rapid growth of computing and its
                 influence in schools and community colleges, we find we
                 must teach a growing number of graduate teachers and
                 administrators how to program. Because we firmly
                 believe that the only programming worth doing is
                 well-structured programming, this is the sort of
                 programming we want to teach these graduates to do.
                 Because BASIC, FORTRAN, and COBOL are so widely
                 implemented around the world, we know that one or more
                 of these languages will be the ones most of our
                 students will end up programming in, after they leave
                 Columbia. Because such languages are not particularly
                 well-suited for teaching structured programming to
                 beginners, we decided to develop an indirect approach
                 to this goal, one which would make the learning of
                 these languages the learning of second languages in a
                 second phase of learning to program. The approach which
                 we have been developing, including the major components
                 of a first programming language --- FPL, is suggested
                 in the remainder of this paper. For us, it has proven
                 to be an indirect but effective way to teach raw
                 beginners how to write well-structured programs in
                 archaic, ill-designed, high-level real languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Khailany:1977:ATS,
  author =       "Asad Khailany",
  title =        "Alternative teaching strategy for an introductory
                 computer language course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--95",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803366",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Many consider that the best strategy to teach an
                 introductory computer language course is to start
                 programming very early in the semester. This paper
                 discusses the drawbacks of such a strategy and presents
                 an alternative way to teach such a course. Based on
                 experiments the alternative strategy appears to be more
                 effective. The advantages and outline of the
                 alternative strategy are discussed. Furthermore, the
                 course outline to teach a FORTRAN language based on the
                 alternative strategy is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bremmer:1977:ETC,
  author =       "Dale Bremmer and Bart Childs",
  title =        "An experience in teaching ``{Cobol}?'' to graduate
                 engineers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--99",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803367",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Texas A{\&}M University was involved for ten years in
                 a program to train civilian engineers for the US Army.
                 The engineer, the program's product, was to be capable
                 of moving into positions of management and middle
                 management within the civilian employment force of the
                 Army. Most of the participants held various
                 undergraduate degrees in engineering, science, or
                 mathematics, and a few held degrees in technology or
                 business. The structure and tenure of the program made
                 it feasible for the participants to earn a Master's
                 degree in Industrial Engineering. Once on the job, many
                 of the engineers found they were faced with large data
                 file manipulation and information retrieval tasks. To
                 many, this meant time consuming efforts and often
                 additional training or help from other departments. The
                 authors believe that some of the engineer's job
                 frustrations were inherent in the manner in which the
                 computer's growth and application has influenced the
                 pedagogy of computer courses related to engineering
                 curricula. The authors also believe they have found one
                 solution to the problem within the confines of the
                 above mentioned Army civilian engineer training
                 program.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Moursund:1977:CMG,
  author =       "David Moursund",
  title =        "Calculator metaphors, and goals for calculator
                 education in elementary schools",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "100--103",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803368",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Computers are not easy to understand. Even a computer
                 scientist who devotes full time to the field cannot
                 hope to fully comprehend the capabilities, limitations,
                 applications, and implications of these machines.
                 Joseph Weizenbaum, in his recent book Computer Power
                 and Human Reason (1), suggests that most people
                 ``understand'' computers via what he calls a computer
                 metaphor. Weizenbaum quotes I. A. Richards, who says a
                 metaphor is ``fundamentally a borrowing between and
                 intercourse of thoughts, a transaction between
                 contexts.'' That is, a metaphor is an analogy, a
                 simile, a model; it is designed to relate the unknown
                 to the known. There are many possible computer
                 metaphors. Weizenbaum makes the point that many people
                 have accepted one particular computer metaphor, and
                 that it is a particularly misleading one. Computer
                 scientists think of a computer as a machine that can
                 carry out an effective procedure. The words procedure
                 and effective procedure have meaning to non-computer
                 scientists. They can see that humans carry out
                 procedures, or that many activities of humans can be
                 thought of as execution of effective procedures. The
                 effective procedure computer metaphor thus leads to the
                 belief that humans and computers are quite similar in
                 their capabilities and in the way they solve
                 problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Sommerville:1977:MLP,
  author =       "Ian Sommerville",
  title =        "Machine language programming in an undergraduate
                 computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "104--107",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803369",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages
                 of teaching machine language programming to computer
                 science undergraduate students. A teaching language
                 based on reverse Polish notation, but with high-level
                 control constructs, is presented as an alternative to
                 conventional assembly language. Experiences with using
                 this language are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Beidler:1977:PAS,
  author =       "John Beidler",
  title =        "A place for assembler in structured programming",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "108--112",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803370",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Today, with the thrust being made with structured
                 programming, questions arise concerning the relevance
                 of assembler language code. The purpose of this paper
                 is to defend assembler language programming by showing
                 its relevance and to show how we present the course
                 with a structured programming emphasis. In the sections
                 that follows, we show the relevance of assembler
                 through two examples of the use of assembler language
                 coding. These examples show two extremes, one involves
                 the development of a theoretical result in mathematics,
                 the other shows the use of assembler in a commercial
                 environment. Section 3 provides an overview to our
                 approach in the course and how we view the role of
                 assemblers in structured programming. Section 4
                 illustrates our approach to programming assignments and
                 section 5 describes our approach to evaluating
                 assignments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Irby:1977:TSD,
  author =       "Thomas C. Irby",
  title =        "Teaching software development using a microprocessor
                 laboratory",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "113--118",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803371",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an attempt to provide realistic
                 software development experience to a group of 15
                 students at North Texas State University. Each of the
                 students had some previous programming experiences.
                 Most of this experience was with higher level
                 languages, but all students had been exposed to at
                 least a simple assembler language, CARDIAC(1), in
                 previous course work. The course was designed to be
                 more like a laboratory rather than a lecture course.
                 Scheduled lectures were held to present basic concepts,
                 discuss the programming assignments and to provide for
                 class discussion periods. The course grade was based on
                 the quality of the software projects and on the ability
                 of students to interact with others in the class. The
                 software projects were implemented using several
                 Motorola M6800 Microprocessors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Furugori:1977:FCC,
  author =       "T. Furugori and P. Jalics",
  title =        "First course in computer science, a small survey",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "119--122",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803372",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "In many disciplines, the introductory courses are well
                 standardized as to what should be covered, how the
                 subject is to be taught, and how student's performance
                 is to be measured. Such is certainly not the case in
                 Computer Science, where we constantly debate what
                 should be taught, what programming language is to be
                 used, the nature of assignments to be given, etc. We
                 wanted to see how other schools were teaching this
                 first course, so we sent questionnaires to all the
                 Universities listed in the ACM Graduate Assistantship
                 Directory. From the 44 schools responding to the
                 survey, we want to share some interesting facts
                 concerning the manner in which Computer Science is
                 taught.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Oldehoeft:1977:MTI,
  author =       "R. R. Oldehoeft and R. V. Roman",
  title =        "Methodology for teaching introductory computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "123--128",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803373",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "In the last few years it has been generally recognized
                 that teaching programming involves more than describing
                 a new FORTRAN statement each day and providing
                 programming problems to be coded. The concepts of
                 disciplined programming and the accompanying interest
                 in the problem solving process, coupled with the
                 increasing economic desirability of constructing
                 correct and maintainable software has resulted in
                 significant attention being focused on what should be
                 taught, and, to a lesser extent, on how this is best
                 accomplished. In order to discuss how an introductory
                 programming course is taught, it is essential to first
                 establish a set of objectives for such a course. Some
                 of these objectives are obvious and generally agreed
                 upon, others are engendered by the academic environment
                 in which this particular course exists. We first state
                 the objectives and then comment on their
                 appropriateness and interrelation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Kimura:1977:RPE,
  author =       "Takayuki Kimura",
  title =        "Recursive programming in {English} for freshmen",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "129--132",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803374",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The importance of recursive programming in an
                 introductory computer science course is discussed from
                 the viewpoint that the notions of 'process', 'program'
                 and 'processor' are fundamental in computer
                 programming. Several examples demonstrate how the
                 concept of recursive programming and proving program
                 correctness can be taught to freshman business majors
                 before they are exposed to any programming language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Martin:1977:PFP,
  author =       "Edith W. Martin and Albert N. Badre",
  title =        "Problem formulation for programmers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "133--138",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803375",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The various attempts to augment man's information
                 processing capabilities with the use of machines became
                 significantly more realistic with the advent of the
                 modern electronic and adaptive-logic computers4. With
                 the introduction of advanced computing capabilities, a
                 host of new and serious challenges emerged. One of the
                 main challenges is that of transforming an ill-stated
                 problem to one acceptable by the computer. Once a
                 problem is well-stated, communication becomes
                 relatively simple3. The burden is on the programmer to
                 be the interface between the world of ill-stated
                 problems and the computers. The programmer has to
                 select a methodology by which he can take an ill-stated
                 problem and restate it in such a way that it can be
                 developed into a set of procedures and expressed in a
                 language that is acceptable and understood by the
                 machine. In order to more fully utilize computers for
                 problem solving it is necessary that we understand more
                 completely how we formulate a problem solution. Probes
                 into the problem formulation question have been of two
                 types, symptomatic and methodilogical. The symptomatic
                 approach focuses on the program structuring
                 capabilities provided by programming languages. It is
                 believed that programming languages having certain
                 program structuring features permit a more
                 comprehensible organization of the problem solution and
                 relate positively to successful programming. The second
                 approach, which is being proposed here, is to examine
                 problem solving methodologies used in computer
                 programming. Our specific objectives are (1) to examine
                 the possibility that a recognizable set of problem
                 solving strategies maybe observed in a programming
                 task, (2) given such strategies, the relationship these
                 have to success levels in programming performance. In
                 other words, how does programming performance vary as a
                 function of the structuring of the problem by the
                 programmer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mein:1977:TSP,
  author =       "William J. Mein",
  title =        "Toward the specification of programs",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "139--141",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803376",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Much has been written lately on program design using a
                 top down approach, decomposition and stepwise
                 refinement. Most of these methodologies have been
                 grouped under the general rubric of structured
                 programming, see for example Computing Surveys, Vol. 6,
                 Number 4, December 1974. Structured programming does
                 not, however, give many insights into the general area
                 of program specifications. As a result of lack of
                 specifications and having a definite need to write the
                 specifications for a system containing some forty to
                 fifty programs, we developed a set of specifications.
                 This set will be elaborated on more fully in section
                 three, but first I want to elucidate some minor
                 points.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Maurer:1977:TPC,
  author =       "W. D. Maurer",
  title =        "The teaching of program correctness",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "142--144",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803377",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "For the past seven years, including three years at the
                 University of California (Berkeley) and four years at
                 The George Washington University, this author has
                 taught material relating to the correctness of programs
                 in both undergraduate and graduate courses. The
                 simplest material on correctness that we teach is the
                 proof of correctness of Euclid's algorithm, implemented
                 as a program in FORTRAN, AL-GOL 60, PL/I, or BASIC,
                 depending on the language to which elementary students
                 are first introduced. (It would work just as easily in
                 PASCAL.) This proof is found in (1), pp. 14-20. We
                 usually give a simplified version of it, because the
                 program in (1), for purposes of efficiency, works by
                 dividing and taking the remainder, and we feel it is
                 easier to illustrate the relevant concepts by using an
                 algorithm that works by simple subtractions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Augenstein:1977:ABS,
  author =       "Moshe Augenstein and Aaron Tenenbaum",
  title =        "Approaches to based storage in {PL\slash I}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "145--150",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803378",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "In this paper it is shown how the topic of BASED
                 storage in PL/I can be used to illustrate a wide
                 variety of concepts in intermediate level courses in
                 data structures and programming languages. Because most
                 instructors introduce the topic only from the point of
                 view of a linked list, the true meaning of BASED
                 storage and POINTERs is lost in the maze of practical
                 problems which these features can be used to solve.
                 Because BASED storage allows the programmer close
                 access to physical storage, an understanding of these
                 features goes a long way toward clarifying the behind
                 the scenes actions involved in implementing and using
                 data structures in high level languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:DFD,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Depth-first digraph algorithms without recursion",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "151--153",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803379",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "After having taught the design of algorithms for more
                 than ten years I still find that recursive algorithms
                 are much too difficult for most computer science
                 students. There seem to be two problems: the students
                 are unable to grasp the essence of an algorithm in a
                 recursive setting, and they rarely have any knowledge
                 of the mechanisms underlying recursive calls. In view
                 of the above it was thought useful to translate a
                 number of recursive algorithms into nonrecursive form
                 for classroom use. Tarjan's depth-first search
                 algorithms for digraphs (4,5) were selected because
                 they are sufficiently important to require their study
                 in some computer science course or other. The
                 translation consists of making the depth-first search
                 tree of the digraph explicit, and letting tree
                 traversals take over the role of recursion. The
                 nonrecursive algorithm for topological ordering of an
                 acyclic digraph will be our example here. This
                 algorithm is used to preprocess a scheduling network
                 before it is subjected to critical path analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Brewer:1977:MRK,
  author =       "Richard K. Brewer",
  title =        "{Macrognosographics}: a reason to keep flowcharting",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "154--156",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803380",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Several rationales for flowcharting computer programs
                 are discussed along with weaknesses, strengths, and
                 current trends. One often over-looked motivation is the
                 use of ``macro-flowcharts'' to compare, for pedagogical
                 reasons, the gross features of various classes of
                 processes involved in applied programs. The techniques
                 and virtues of this approach are the focus of the
                 paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Alford:1977:SEA,
  author =       "M. Alford and P. Hsia and F. Petry",
  title =        "A software engineering approach to introductory
                 programming courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "157--161",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803381",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an approach that can introduce
                 some of the concepts of software engineering to general
                 business, engineering, and science students in an
                 introductory FORTRAN programming course. The approach
                 integrates the notions of top-down design, stepwise
                 refinement, structured flowcharting, test case
                 description, and analysis in the context of a
                 methodology for systematically developing and
                 documenting programs. Qualitative results from teaching
                 these concepts are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Conner:1977:COA,
  author =       "William M. Conner",
  title =        "A concept-oriented approach to introductory computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "162--164",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803382",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A framework on which a concept-oriented introductory
                 computer science course can be based is presented and
                 our experience in offering such a course to a special
                 group of high school students is described. It is
                 suggested that introductory college-level courses
                 should be based on this or a similar framework and our
                 reasons for this suggestion are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Winslow:1977:SIC,
  author =       "L. Winslow",
  title =        "A structured introductory computer science course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "165--167",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803383",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A step-by-step presentation for the introductory
                 computer science course which introduces the student to
                 structured problem solving has been developed. By
                 emphasizing the importance of ``finding the pattern''
                 and developing sequential algorithms from a top-down
                 point of view, the students seem to have a better grasp
                 on how to solve a problem, how to use a language, and
                 how to apply what they have learned to later courses
                 which use the computer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pitts:1977:SAP,
  author =       "Gerald N. Pitts and Barry L. Bateman",
  title =        "A structured approach to problem solving at the
                 introduction level in computer science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "168--172",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803384",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Problem solving is a task which is basic to many every
                 day situations. Generally, people are not fully aware
                 of the thought processes which enter into the solution
                 of their particular situation. A problem presents
                 itself and the solution, if determined, is implemented.
                 Humans are able to solve problems in a relatively
                 informal manner. Computers, due to their limited
                 abilities, usually cannot be used to solve problems in
                 this fashion. Greater success in computerized problem
                 solution is often attained through strict, rigid
                 expression of the problem and of its solution (i.e., a
                 structured approach). There are a variety of techniques
                 which one can use in formally defining a problem
                 situation. One that has found some favor is to
                 precisely define the problem by subdividing it into
                 lesser problems and then to define the subproblems into
                 lesser problems until the entire problem has been
                 broken into relatively elementary operations. The
                 problem and all of its subdivisions are then analyzed
                 in order to determine the required input values (i.e.,
                 what information or action does each segment need in
                 order to perform its function properly?), and the
                 required output values (i.e., what information or
                 action does the step produce in order for succeeding
                 steps to perform their function properly or for the
                 solution to the problem to be furthered?). Completion
                 of the subdivision and analysis steps is followed by
                 translation of the problem into a computer language and
                 by the subsequent testing of the solution to insure
                 that it is truly correct. Four commonly used methods
                 for expression of the analyses of the problem are a
                 word description of the problem, a list of the major
                 points of the problem, a ``flowchart'' of the problem,
                 or an artificial language (commonly a computer
                 language) description of the problem solution. Quite
                 often a combination of the four basic methods is
                 employed. The main purpose of the methods is to
                 completely define the problem and its solution so that
                 every facet of these two items is completely
                 understood. Consequently, it is best to employ whatever
                 method or combination of methods one finds easiest to
                 use in order to further his comprehension of the
                 problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Morrison:1977:TCF,
  author =       "Louise S. Morrison",
  title =        "Training college faculty members in the educational
                 uses of computers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "173--174",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803385",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The problems encountered in training faculty members
                 in the instructional uses of computers are explained.
                 How to establish a successful training program is
                 detailed, including organization of the course and its
                 content.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Neill:1977:STR,
  author =       "Michael J. Neill",
  title =        "Some thoughts on reasons, definitions and tasks to
                 achieve ``functional'' computer literacy",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "175--177",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803386",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Computer literacy, according to Richard Austing (1),
                 is a major category of computer science education.
                 Although computer literacy potentially involves the
                 greatest number of people, achieving an ongoing program
                 presents computer educators with formidable problems.
                 My concern is with the concept of ``functional''
                 computer literacy, that is, a level of computer
                 literacy expected of everyone living in a computer
                 society. Functional computer literacy can be developed
                 by implementing a curriculum for junior and senior high
                 school students. Two requirements for achieving a
                 computer literacy curriculum are (1) to develop a
                 philosophy which is both ``computer'' and ``literacy''
                 and (2) to identify minimum requirements for being
                 computer literate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Schulman:1977:TUC,
  author =       "Edward L. Schulman",
  title =        "Turning on the undergraduate computer science student:
                 a {RE}-{IPL} suggestion",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "178--179",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803387",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The School of Advanced Technology currently has a
                 number of courses that are used to better acclimate
                 students on the graduate level to an industrial
                 environment. This paper describes a two-course sequence
                 designed for the undergraduate level that serves the
                 same purpose.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Costello:1977:GBS,
  author =       "Donald F. Costello and Richard J. Schonberger",
  title =        "On guiding the business school toward computer
                 literacy",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "180--183",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803388",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "In colleges and universities around the country it is
                 common to find that needs for new courses in computing
                 are recognized long before suitable courses are made
                 available. This is especially true for colleges of
                 business administration. The needs have long been
                 obvious, but staffing such courses internally is a slow
                 process. Some colleges of business are well served by
                 computer science departments, but in other schools the
                 catalyst for getting started is lacking. This paper
                 addresses the problem by describing the development of
                 a service course in computing offered by the Department
                 of Computer Science for the College of Business
                 Administration at the University of Nebraska. The
                 approach taken to course development postulated that if
                 a course is to appeal to a college of business
                 administration, it must appeal to the special needs and
                 aptitudes of the typical business student. This
                 particular service course concentrated on special
                 behavioral objectives: need to develop man-machine
                 interface skills, attention to developing
                 self-confidence and a sense of accomplishment, and
                 understanding the information processing concepts
                 needed in business today. The pedagogical approach to
                 attainment of these objectives also was carefully
                 fashioned for the given audience. As originally
                 conceived, the cognitive objectives of the course aimed
                 at teaching the analytically oriented business college
                 under-graduate how to write programs in the FORTRAN
                 language. In addition, the student was expected to be
                 able to read application programs in the areas of
                 marketing, accounting, finance, operations and
                 personnel management. The course explained how these
                 latter applications packages aid in the management
                 decision process. Finally, the course required that the
                 student become more familiar with the general
                 expository material in the area of electronic data
                 processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Mazlack:1977:DCA,
  author =       "Lawrence J. Mazlack",
  title =        "Developing computer awareness",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "184--187",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382063.803389",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:56 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue for the Seventh Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "There are three different approaches to an
                 introductory computer science course: technical
                 competance, non-technical awareness, and a mixture of
                 technical competance and non-technical awareness. This
                 paper discusses the best strategy for a course aimed at
                 students who will not need a high level of technical
                 competance once they leave the course. A course which
                 develops a computer awareness through a mixture of
                 technical programming instruction and a discussion of
                 computer applications and power for good or evil. Films
                 are extensively used.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Austing:1977:CRU,
  author =       "Richard H. Austing and Bruce H. Barnes and Delle. T.
                 Bonnette and Gerald L. Engel and Gordon Stokes",
  title =        "Curriculum recommendations for the undergraduate
                 program in computer science: a working report of the
                 {ACM} committee on curriculum in computer sciences",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "1--16",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988948.988950",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on computer science curricula.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Little:1977:CRG,
  author =       "Joyce Currie Little and Richard H. Austing and Harice
                 Seeds and John Maniotes and Gerald L. Engel",
  title =        "Curriculum recommendations and guidelines for the
                 community and junior college career program in computer
                 programming: a working paper of the Association for
                 Computing Machinery committee on curriculum in computer
                 sciences by the sub committee on community and junior
                 college curriculum",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17--36",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/988948.988951",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Curriculum recommendations are given for a two year
                 Associate Degree program to prepare computer
                 programmers for jobs. The program is specifically
                 directed toward the education of the computer
                 programmer who works in conjunction with a systems
                 analyst in the programming environment usually found in
                 a medium to large job shop. Graduates should be
                 qualified to do entry-level applications programming to
                 support the general, administrative, and organizational
                 information processing functions of industry, commerce,
                 business, and government service.The history of and
                 need for education in the computer field at the two
                 year college level are discussed. Specific objectives
                 and subject matter for the curriculum are given.
                 Recommendations for facilities and staff resources
                 needed to support such a program are made. Suggestions
                 for implementation and for adaptation for continued
                 relevance are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Peck:1977:USD,
  author =       "John C. Peck",
  title =        "The university --- a systems development center for
                 state government or How to solve the education vs.
                 training problem",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803422",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "During the past few years, I have attended several
                 professional meetings which have included panel
                 discussions between representatives from industry and
                 academia concerning computer science education.
                 Industry usually claims that students graduate with few
                 practical skills --- many can't even write a program as
                 simple as a master file update. They further complain
                 that such major issues as documentation, programming
                 style, and team programming are neglected, while the
                 abilities for written expression and oral presentation
                 are often totally lacking. The programming languages
                 which are common in industry (COBOL, FORTRAN) are often
                 not introduced, and actual experience in the use of
                 data base and data communications software just doesn't
                 exist. In summary, universities are not interested in
                 preparing a student for an industrial career.
                 Universities usually respond by stating that their
                 mission is education and not training. They are not
                 attempting to produce a technician who will be obsolete
                 in two years, but rather are attempting to build a base
                 of knowledge which will allow the professional to
                 change with the times. Many claim that they are
                 describing topics on the frontiers of the field which
                 will be used ten years from now. Since universities are
                 expected to be ``pioneers'', they are required to lead
                 in the development and research of new technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Weiner:1977:FCS,
  author =       "Leonard H. Weiner",
  title =        "Foundations of computer science for entry-level
                 graduate students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "6--9",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803423",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "In recent years, as colleges and universities have
                 established new interdisciplinary programs, students
                 have tended increasingly to combine (or switch)
                 academic fields as they pass from one degree level to
                 the next. This has brought about a situation in which
                 many students try to enter new academic areas at the
                 graduate level without having the prerequisite
                 undergraduate course background. And so for some time
                 now, academicians have sought to develop programs and
                 courses that will help those students make up their
                 deficiencies and prepare them for more advanced work,
                 rather than lower the standards of the basic courses.
                 The course described in this paper was designed to
                 cover approximately two and a half years of
                 undergraduate computer science material in a
                 six-credit, two-semester sequence. It is directed at
                 graduate students from a variety of academic areas and
                 does not require more than the usual resources for a
                 programming course. Therefore, it should be of interest
                 to institutions faced with limited budgets at a time
                 when they are trying to build quality computer science
                 graduate programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dale:1977:WSP,
  author =       "N. Dale",
  title =        "Women in science: a pilot project in accelerated
                 computer training for returning women students",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10--15",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803424",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Women make up 51\% of our population, yet they
                 represent only 10\% of those currently employed as
                 scientists. Recognizing the underutilized scientific
                 resource that women represent the congress of the
                 United States directed the National Science Foundation
                 to make available not less than \$1,500,000 to develop
                 and test methods of increasing the flow of women into
                 scientific careers. (Public Law 94-80, 1976) To carry
                 out this mandate, NSF sent out a call for proposals in
                 early 1976. The proposals were to be of two kinds: (1)
                 Science Career Workshops where women students would be
                 introduced to and hopefully motivated into choosing
                 careers in the sciences and (2) Career Facilitation
                 Projects where women who have scientific training but
                 are not using it could be brought up to date and made
                 ready to enter the job market or enter graduate school.
                 This paper describes the Career Facilitation Project
                 being undertaken by the Computer Sciences Department of
                 the University of Texas at Austin, supported by the
                 National Science Foundation under Grant \#SMI6-20420.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hedrick:1977:AIO,
  author =       "G. E. Hedrick",
  title =        "{ALGOL68} instruction at {Oklahoma State University}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16--20",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803425",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "At Oklahoma State University ALGOL68 is taught to
                 students whose background in programming consists
                 primarily of programming in FORTRAN. Frequently, they
                 have had some experience with PL/1 although it is not
                 so extensive as their experience with FORTRAN. PL/1 is
                 usually the only block structured language to which the
                 students have been exposed. The students who study
                 ALGOL68 are typically seniors, although there are some
                 graduate students, and an occasional lowerclassman.
                 Almost none of these students has any experience with
                 ALGOL 60 or any ALGOL-like language at the time he
                 begins his study of ALGOL68. About half of them have
                 had limited experience with formal specification of
                 programming languages. The students learn ALGOL68 in
                 one of three formats depending upon the number of
                 students enrolled at a given time. The most elaborate
                 treatment is given when there are enough students to
                 justify a faculty member spending one-quarter of his
                 time teaching the class as a special topics lecture
                 course. This is the mode of instruction that is
                 preferred by the students. A smaller group of students
                 covers the same material in a seminar format rather
                 than a lecture format; the students in the seminar do
                 not have the same access to faculty as do students in a
                 special topics lecture course. The final mode of
                 instruction is individual study; it is this
                 instructional format which is used when only one or two
                 students enroll for ALGOL68. In this format the
                 students work almost entirely on their own except that
                 they do have access to a faculty member when they
                 cannot adequately resolve their questions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Augenstein:1977:PED,
  author =       "Moshe Augenstein and Aaron Tenenbaum",
  title =        "Program efficiency and data structures",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21--27",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803426",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Program efficiency is usually considered from the
                 point of view of optimizing code. Selecting a proper
                 data structure can have a remarkable effect on the
                 efficiency of the final program. In this paper it is
                 shown how one problem can be solved in several ways
                 using several different data structures. The efficiency
                 of the programs depend on the data structures
                 selected.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Lusk:1977:AUC,
  author =       "Ewing L. Lusk",
  title =        "An advanced undergraduate course in applied computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28--29",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803427",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to describe a senior
                 level course in the applied computer science curriculum
                 at Northern Illinois University. The course, Database
                 and Data Communications, has been taught for four
                 semesters, and enrollment has steadily grown. The
                 course has a number of purposes. The primary one is to
                 acquaint students with the principles of modern
                 database management and teleprocessing applications and
                 to instill proficiency in the writing of application
                 programs for at least two of the major software systems
                 supporting such applications, IBM's Information
                 Management System (IMS) and Customer Information
                 Control System (CICS). A secondary purpose is to
                 consolidate and extend knowledge and techniques learned
                 in previous courses. Course content which fulfills this
                 purpose includes structured programming in both
                 assembler language and COBOL, applied data structures,
                 and access methods not previously covered (BDAM and
                 VSAM).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cook:1977:AIC,
  author =       "Robert N. Cook",
  title =        "An approach to the introductory computer science
                 course for non-majors",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30--33",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803428",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The course described in this paper is intended for
                 students who are not majoring in computer science or
                 mathematics. In a typical semester students majoring in
                 such diverse fields as dietetics, sociology,
                 psychology, elementary education, accounting,
                 broadcasting, physical education, music, industrial
                 technology, English, business administration, chemistry
                 and secretarial science are enrolled in the course.
                 Virtually the only common element in the background of
                 the students enrolled in the course is their lack of a
                 previous university course in either mathematics or
                 computer science. The highest level of mathematical
                 education that may be expected is first year high
                 school algebra; occasionally even that expectation is
                 too high.$^4$ For students with this background many of
                 the available textbooks are not satisfactory. This
                 paper will attempt to further clarify the nature of the
                 course by stating its objectives, by discussing the
                 choice of a language for the course, by discussing what
                 topics normally included in available textbooks are not
                 desirable, and finally by suggesting topics which are
                 desirable in an introductory course for non majors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gibbs:1977:ICS,
  author =       "Norman E. Gibbs",
  title =        "An introductory computer science course for all
                 majors",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34--38",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803429",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to relate experience we
                 have had with our first course in computer science at
                 the College of William and Mary. Like many other
                 universities, we have had to deal with increased
                 student demand from outside departments, differing
                 levels of student mathematical maturity and problem
                 solving skills, a variety of student goals, and a state
                 legislature which will not allow the university to
                 expand its faculty.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Chanon:1977:EIC,
  author =       "R. N. Chanon",
  title =        "An experiment with an introductory course in computer
                 science",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39--42",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803430",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "During the spring semester of 1977 an experiment was
                 undertaken to determine whether the introductory course
                 in computer science could teach more that it has in the
                 past. The experiment, as a whole, indicated that it is
                 indeed possible to provide more content. Students
                 responded well and learned more. This paper discusses
                 an informal experiment; what motivated it; our methods;
                 and finally its results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Leinbaugh:1977:DPS,
  author =       "Dennis Leinbaugh",
  title =        "A demand paging simulator",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "43--48",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803431",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A simulator is presented that allows a student to
                 quickly write a demand paging memory management system.
                 The simulator provides a job stream, support routines
                 (such as read a page into memory), extensive error
                 checking and debugging, and performance evaluation.
                 This simulator is intended for a first course in
                 operating systems to acquaint a student with the
                 mechanics involved in demand paging or a second course
                 where more time would be spent developing and
                 evaluating page removal algorithms and job scheduling
                 algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Salomon:1977:THC,
  author =       "David Salomon",
  title =        "Teaching hardware and computer design in a software
                 oriented computer science program",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "49--50",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803432",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A computer hardware and design course is described
                 which is oriented toward softies. The special problems
                 of such a course are discussed, some solutions offered,
                 and the students' responses are analyzed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Davis:1977:RMT,
  author =       "Ronald L. Davis",
  title =        "``Recommended mathematical topics for computer science
                 majors''",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "51--55",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803433",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Although there is not universal agreement on a
                 definition of computer science, I believe that it is
                 the inclusion of a quantitative (mathematical) approach
                 to our discipline that distinguishes ``computer
                 science'' from ``computer programming''. Mathematics
                 provides both an established language with which to
                 precisely define terms and established methods for
                 problem solving. For example, the rather vague
                 statement that ``algorithm A is better than algorithm
                 B'' may be formulated unambiguously and verified or
                 refuted with respect to certain performance
                 measurements using the formalism of algorithm analysis
                 (l). Mathematical methods also point toward the
                 possibility of proving that an algorithm provides
                 acceptable performance for large classes of inputs, a
                 conclusion which often cannot be supported on the basis
                 of case-by-case testing (5). I will now discuss certain
                 mathematical ideas which naturally arise in computer
                 science courses and cite relevant examples which will
                 hopefully convince the reader that these ideas are
                 worthy of formal study. Suggestions are then offered
                 regarding the inclusion of these studies in the
                 four-year computer science curriculum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Shneiderman:1977:EIP,
  author =       "Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "Evaluating introductory programming textbooks: a guide
                 for students, instructors, authors and publishers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "56--58",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803434",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "My father counseled me not to give advice to others.
                 In spite of that admonition, I have an irrepressible
                 desire to make some highly subjective, potentially
                 pompous remarks about introductory programming language
                 textbooks. During the past nine years I have evaluated
                 dozens of manuscripts for eight publishers and hundreds
                 of books for teaching term-length introductory courses
                 in FORTRAN, BASIC, PL/I, PASCAL, COBOL and assembly
                 languages. I have co-authored two FORTRAN texts and
                 developed two independent study guides to programming.
                 Each time I see a text, I make judgments by reacting to
                 the material, rather than by comparing the material to
                 a pre-determined set of criteria. In order to provide a
                 ``structured'' review process (no computer-science
                 oriented paper is complete without a reference to
                 ``structure''), I offer the following criteria for
                 evaluating texts. This list is far from complete, but
                 it is a beginning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Whitlock:1977:DID,
  author =       "Lawrence R. Whitlock",
  title =        "The design and implementation of a dynamically
                 tailored examination",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "59--62",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803435",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Traditionally, examinations have served as evaluation
                 tools for the instructor to aid in assigning grades and
                 to detect concepts not yet mastered by students.
                 Questions requiring more information in the response
                 than just a single word or number can give a better
                 indication of the student's knowledge of the concepts
                 being tested. This type of question is more difficult
                 to grade because the correct answer is not a single
                 word or number, there may be more than one correct
                 answer, or some responses may deserve partial credit.
                 Hand grading of such questions is often inconsistent
                 and laborious. Automatic grading systems have been
                 developed which score responses to complicated problems
                 and analyze student deficiences (e.g., [2], [3]), but
                 these methods may be too time-consuming for use in an
                 interactive environment. An alternate approach to
                 complex grading is to adapt the problems to the
                 abilities of the student. An oral exam is an example of
                 this approach. This paper discusses some problems and
                 solutions of administering an ``oral exam'' via a
                 computer. Such an exam will be referred to as a
                 ``tailored exam''. The tailored exam extends to
                 examinations some of the ideas used in individualized
                 instruction in Computer Assisted Instruction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hardell:1977:NBL,
  author =       "Mary M. Hardell",
  title =        "The near blind leading the blind: One partial solution
                 to the hacker battered student syndrome",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "63--65",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803436",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper reports on an experimental course taught by
                 the author at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The
                 motivation for the unusual structure of the course was
                 to bolster student morale weakened by inadequate
                 background. Students, whose performance in a course had
                 been only average, were given academic credit for
                 tutoring students in a trailing lectureless section.
                 Student response was overwhelmingly favorable and
                 academic results appear to be at least as good as under
                 more traditional course structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hosch:1977:WF,
  author =       "Frederick A. Hosch",
  title =        "Whither flowcharting?",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "66--73",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803437",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "During the past few years, a growing number of authors
                 have begun to take exception to the previously
                 unquestioned use of flowcharts as a program development
                 tool. These criticisms of the traditional flowcharting
                 methodology center around the claim that flowcharts,
                 like goto's, belong to the class of objects that are
                 detrimental to good programming. Suggested alternatives
                 range from developing programs entirely in
                 well-structured high level languages to replacing
                 conventional flowcharts by some form of ``structured''
                 flowcharts. We are particularly concerned with
                 questions that have been raised regarding the value of
                 flowcharting in introductory programming classes. The
                 teaching of flowcharting as a developmental tool is
                 extremely widespread indeed. While the various methods
                 of indicating data flow, document flow, etc., are
                 certainly an important part of program development and
                 documentation, we consider here only conventional
                 ``flow of control'' flowcharts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Guha:1977:SCH,
  author =       "R. K. Guha and P. A. Carr and C. L. Smith",
  title =        "Standards considered helpful",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "74--78",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803438",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "Software development standards have been adopted in
                 several professional software shops to facilitate the
                 entire software development process. These standards
                 encompass all aspects of software development,
                 including design, documentation, coding and testing
                 techniques. It has been reported by these software
                 houses that implementation of standards for software
                 design and programming has increased productivity and
                 resulted in better quality software products After some
                 experimentation, it appears that a scientific approach
                 from the very beginning to the end of the development
                 process has to be taken. Instructors should work very
                 closely with the students as each phase of the process
                 is developed. Courses should be integrated so that the
                 life of a program does not end as soon as a course is
                 over. Maybe programs written in one course should be
                 used in developing programs in another course. Perhaps
                 there should be users (such as another class) for the
                 programs developed. For our scientific approach to
                 software development in the academic setting, we are
                 advocating a consistent set of standards and its
                 implementation by every faculty member. In the rest of
                 the paper we justify the need for standards, specify
                 the types of standards and suggest methods of
                 implementation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cook:1977:APC,
  author =       "Curtis R. Cook",
  title =        "Applications programming course using guided design",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "79--82",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382175.803439",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:57 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  note =         "Special issue on the Eighth Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a two term junior level
                 Applications Programming course. The goal of the course
                 is to provide the guidance and tools a student needs in
                 order to write medium to large sized programs and to
                 provide the experience of working on a ``real world''
                 project. Topics covered during the first term are
                 documentation, magnetic tapes, program design, testing,
                 debugging and programming style. The second term
                 consists entirely of student teams doing ``real world''
                 projects applying the concepts from the first team.
                 Much of the first term material was presented in the
                 form of Guided Design exercises. In Guided Design, the
                 learning process revolves around student groups being
                 directed towards a problem solution by a series of
                 instruction-feedback materials prepared ahead of time
                 by the instructor. Guided Design exercises were used to
                 synthesize lecture and reading assignments and to do in
                 class example programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Little:1977:RTT,
  author =       "Joyce C. Little",
  title =        "Report on three tutorials for {SIGCSE Bulletin}
                 proceedings",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "7--7",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382183",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hamblen:1977:CMU,
  author =       "John W. Hamblen",
  title =        "Computer manpower in the {United States} --- supply
                 and demand: an update",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--37",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382591",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "Results of a survey conducted by the author in late
                 1974 are presented and used to give estimates of
                 Computer Manpower production for 1974-75. These
                 production estimates are compared with needs estimates
                 presented in an earlier paper (SIGCSE Bulletin
                 December, 1975). All postsecondary institutions were
                 surveyed and a 61\% response was obtained. Lists of
                 degree programs reported in the Computer Sciences are
                 also presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Thompson:1977:ILS,
  author =       "William B. Thompson and Thomas G. Moher and William T.
                 Wood and David W. DeHerder",
  title =        "An instrumental laboratory for systems software
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "38--40",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382592",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Homeyer:1977:EMC,
  author =       "Fred C. Homeyer",
  title =        "An experimental microcomputer course (a case
                 history)",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41--44",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382593",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Rink:1977:FNU,
  author =       "R. A. Rink and G. Droucas",
  title =        "A further note on using {GPSS} to study a
                 student-operating system",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45--52",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382594",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gumb:1977:LEE,
  author =       "Raymond D. Gumb",
  title =        "Language extensibility in extended {Fortran}: data
                 types and pointer variables",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53--54",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382595",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jones:1977:UCS,
  author =       "Warren T. Jones and Donald L. Kalmey",
  title =        "The utility of computer simulation as instructional
                 devices for operating systems courses",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "55--56",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382596",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Jarvinen:1977:NEP,
  author =       "Pertti J{\"a}rvinen",
  title =        "Notes on educational planning: a systems approach",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "57--62",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382597",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Pavlak:1977:AFE,
  author =       "Raymond {Pavlak, Jr.} and Adir Pridor",
  title =        "Assembler in a {Fortran} environment with a new
                 debugging aid",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "63--69",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382598",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Carpenter:1977:MSC,
  author =       "B. E. Carpenter and P. C. Jenkins and L. W. Pearson
                 and L. K. Thomas",
  title =        "{MUSIC}: a simulated computer for teaching purposes",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "70--76",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382599",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  abstract =     "MUSIC (Massey University simple Instructional
                 Computer) was designed to fit into a university
                 computer science course and nevertheless to remain
                 realistic. It is a one-address machine with a
                 byte-addressed virtual memory and a fixed format
                 macro-assembly language, and is implemented as an
                 assembler and emulator running on a Burroughs B6700. It
                 has been used very successfully as a teaching tool for
                 two years, notably because of its straightforward
                 design and the provision of excellent error messages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Dinerstein:1977:RSD,
  author =       "Nelson T. Dinerstein",
  title =        "A remedial software design course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "77--78",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/382181.382600",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 08:53:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bell:1977:EOD,
  author =       "Donald H. Bell and Joseph W. Panko",
  title =        "Educational opportunities for the deaf in data
                 processing at {Rochester Institute of Technology}",
  journal =