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2815 Eastlake East,
Seattle, WA 98102,
USA,
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ack-njNorbert Juffa, 2445 Mission College Blvd. Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA email: path =norbert@iit.com=@String{ack-nj = "Norbert Juffa,
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Santa Clara, CA 95054
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email: \path=norbert@iit.com="}†v…ˆcack-nhfbNelson H. F. Beebe, University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB, 155 S 1400 E RM 233, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA, Tel: +1 801 581 5254, FAX: +1 801 581 4148, e-mail: path |beebe@math.utah.edu|, path |beebe@acm.org|, path |beebe@computer.org| (Internet), URL: path |http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
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155 S 1400 E RM 233,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
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FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
\path|beebe@acm.org|,
\path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
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IBM UK (MP5),
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National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Building 820, Room 365,
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Tera Computer Company,
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2445 Mission College Blvd.
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University of Utah,
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‚}{yxwusþrûoúmøjöhõfôdóbñ`ð^ï[íZéWèUæTäSÔQÓMÑLÏKÌIËGÇEÅDÄBÂ@À>¾<»;º9¸8·7µ6´5²3¯10¬.ª+©)§&¥%£$¢"Ÿ ›™–“’‘‹ˆ
‡…ƒ‚€~|~{|xzuwttosnplokmikhiggeebba_`]^Z\WZUYRWPUOPMNJLHIGEFDCC@B=@;>8;7:593614.2,1*-'+#*!( '" ¿«\¦]Ì |
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title = "Optimal floating-point structures for low roundoff
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publisher = pub-IEEE,
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year = "1992",
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summary = "A theoretical analysis of roundoff noise power in
floating-point realizations of digital filters is
presented. Formulas are given for single-length and
double-length accumulators. The minimal-noise
floating-point structure is found to be identical
\ldots{}",
}
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remark = "Selected revised and extended papers from ARITH'11
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}|‡Ž)
@Article{Owens:1987:AC,
author = "Robert Michael Owens and Mary Jane Irwin",
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volume = "C-36",
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https://lccn.loc.gov/04025433",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "Johan Vilhelm Nystr{\"o}m (1824--1885)",
remark = "Thanks for Paul Hardy of Unifoundry in San Diego, CA,
USA, for information about Nystrom's promotion of
hexadecimal arithmetic, and for creating a Web site
about Nystrom's tonal system, as well as developing
Unicode-compatible fonts to represent the additional
digits needed by the system.",
subject = "Weights and measures; Numeration; base-16 arithmetic;
hexadecimal arithmetic",
}
> ‡>ˆFW ##-+u=m;a+iu‡q
unpublishedfparith.bibBabbage:1837:MPCCharles BabbageOn the mathematical powers of the calculating engine161--173dec121837Wed Oct 13 11:09:59 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:09:59 ???Manuscript held by Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, UK. Reprinted in cite [ 2.1]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbCharles BabbageManuscript held by Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, UK. Reprinted in \cite[\S 2.1]{Randell:1982:ODC}.On the mathematical powers of the calculating engine
@Unpublished{Babbage:1837:MPC,
author = "Charles Babbage",
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<<“A[ #-I‚=7E%;e„O%QI‚•bookfparith.bibNystrom:1862:PNSJohn W. (John William) NystromProject of a new system of arithmetic, weight, measure and coins, proposed to be called the tonal system, with sixteen to the baseJ. B. Lippincott and Co.Philadelphia, PA, USA1061862QC96 .N95Sat Oct 29 10:28:27 MDT 2016http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2016.10.29 10:28:27 MDThttp://unifoundry.com/tonal/; https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011602816; https://lccn.loc.gov/04025433Thanks for Paul Hardy of Unifoundry in San Diego, CA, USA, for information about Nystrom's promotion of hexadecimal arithmetic, and for creating a Web site about Nystrom's tonal system, as well as developing Unicode-compatible fonts to represent the additional digits needed by the system.Weights and measures; Numeration; base-16 arithmetic; hexadecimal arithmeticack-nhfbJohan Vilhelm Nystrom (1824--1885)John W. (John William) NystromProject of a new system of arithmetic, weight, measure and coins, proposed to be called the tonal system, with sixteen to the base
@Book{Nystrom:1862:PNS,
author = "John W. (John William) Nystrom",
title = "Project of a new system of arithmetic, weight, measure
and coins, proposed to be called the tonal system, with
sixteen to the base",
publisher = "J. B. Lippincott and Co.",
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bibdate = "Sat Oct 29 10:28:27 MDT 2016",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
URL = "http://unifoundry.com/tonal/;
https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011602816;
https://lccn.loc.gov/04025433",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "Johan Vilhelm Nystr{\"o}m (1824--1885)",
remark = "Thanks for Paul Hardy of Unifoundry in San Diego, CA,
USA, for information about Nystrom's promotion of
hexadecimal arithmetic, and for creating a Web site
about Nystrom's tonal system, as well as developing
Unicode-compatible fonts to represent the additional
digits needed by the system.",
subject = "Weights and measures; Numeration; base-16 arithmetic;
hexadecimal arithmetic",
}
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journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/scientificamerican",
}6Z #1!w57EU;G3]Žarticlefparith.bibAnonymous:1875:AOMAnonymousThe Arithmetical Operations of Multiplication and Divisionj-SCI-AMER32341--4216jan11875SCAMAChttps://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican01161875-410036-8733 (print), 1946-7087 (electronic) OR 00368733 (print), 19467087 (electronic)0036-8733 OR 00368733Fri May 17 10:29:24 MDT 2013http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sciam1870.bib2013.05.17 10:29:24 MDThttp://www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v32/n3/pdf/scientificamerican01161875-41.pdfScientific Americanack-nhfbhttp://www.nature.com/scientificamericanAnonymousThe Arithmetical Operations of Multiplication and Division
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÷÷–\ #-'#57=m;A„[Ks‚„['•iarticlefparith.bibNewcomb:1881:NFUSimon NewcombNote on the frequency of use of the different digits in natural numbersj-AM-J-MATH41/439--401881AJMAAN0002-9327 (print), 1080-6377 (electronic) OR 00029327 (print), 10806377 (electronic)0002-9327 OR 00029327Thu Feb 15 16:35:24 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.15 16:35:24 ???http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9327%281881%294%3A1%2F4%3C39%3ANOTFOU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-KThat the ten digits do not occur with equal frequency must be evident to any one making much use of logarithmic tables, and noticing how much faster the first pages wear out than the last ones. The first significant figure is oftener 1 than any other digit, and the frequency diminishes up to 9.American Journal of MathematicsBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's LawFrom p. 40: ``The law of probability of the occurrence of numbers is such that all mantissas of their logarithms are equally probable.''ack-nhfbThat the ten digits do not occur with equal frequency must be evident to any one making much use of logarithmic tables, and noticing how much faster the first pages wear out than the last ones. The first significant figure is oftener 1 than any other digit, and the frequency diminishes up to 9.Simon NewcombNote on the frequency of use of the different digits in natural numbers
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title = "Note on the frequency of use of the different digits
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abstract = "That the ten digits do not occur with equal frequency
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author = "Anonymous",
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volume = "79",
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day = "22",
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@Article{Anonymous:1893:IDb,
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pages = "325--325",
day = "27",
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@Article{Anonymous:1879:TRA,
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;G%%Œarticlefparith.bibEscott:1937:QDNE. B. EscottQuestions, Discussions, and Notes: Rapid Method for Extracting a Square Rootj-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY4410644--646dec121937AMMYAE0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic) OR 00029890 (print), 19300972 (electronic)0002-9890 OR 00029890Mon Jun 28 12:38:44 MDT 1999http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1999.06.28 12:38:44 MDTAmerican Mathematical Monthlyack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.htmlE. B. EscottQuestions, Discussions, and Notes: Rapid Method for Extracting a Square Root
@Article{Escott:1937:QDN,
author = "E. B. Escott",
title = "Questions, Discussions, and Notes: Rapid Method for
Extracting a Square Root",
journal = j-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY,
volume = "44",
number = "10",
pages = "644--646",
month = dec,
year = "1937",
CODEN = "AMMYAE",
ISSN = "0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0002-9890",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 28 12:38:44 MDT 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
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fjournal = "American Mathematical Monthly",
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}rith.bib",
note = "Not submitted until 1940",
URL = "http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/11173/34541425.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "April 30, 1916--February 24, 2001",
remark = "Smiley \cite[p. 91]{Smiley:2010:MWI} claims: ``He
[Shannon] also had the insight, like Atanasoff, that
the binary arithmetic that relay switches represented
would simplify information systems. His master's
thesis, written when he as twenty-one and published
when he was twenty-two, is considered to be one of the
most important, if not the most important, master's
thesis of the twentieth century.''\par
Pages 59--61 of the thesis are a section called
``Electric Adder to the Base Two'', and pages 62--68,
``A Factor Table Machine'', describe a machine that
will print a table of factors and primes of all the
integers from 1 to 100,000,000. Shannon notes on page
68: ``As to the practicality of such a device, it might
be said that J. P. Kulik spent 20 years in constructing
a table of primes up to 100,000,000 and when finished
it was found to contain so many errors that it was not
worth publishing. The machine described here could
probably be made to handle 5 numbers per second so that
the table would require only about 2 months to
construct.''",
}
::CW '#-7s/_1=m;=
=O7=s¡%mastersthesisfparith.bibShannon:1937:SARClaude Elwood ShannonA Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching CircuitsMaster of ScienceDepartment of Electrical Engineering, MITCambridge, MA, USA7210aug81937Thu Nov 18 10:35:20 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.11.18 10:35:20 ???Not submitted until 1940http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/11173/34541425.pdfSmiley cite [p. 91]Smiley:2010:MWI claims: ``He [Shannon] also had the insight, like Atanasoff, that the binary arithmetic that relay switches represented would simplify information systems. His master's thesis, written when he as twenty-one and published when he was twenty-two, is considered to be one of the most important, if not the most important, master's thesis of the twentieth century.''par Pages 59--61 of the thesis are a section called ``Electric Adder to the Base Two'', and pages 62--68, ``A Factor Table Machine'', describe a machine that will print a table of factors and primes of all the integers from 1 to 100,000,000. Shannon notes on page 68: ``As to the practicality of such a device, it might be said that J. P. Kulik spent 20 years in constructing a table of primes up to 100,000,000 and when finished it was found to contain so many errors that it was not worth publishing. The machine described here could probably be made to handle 5 numbers per second so that the table would require only about 2 months to construct.''ack-nhfbApril 30, 1916--February 24, 2001Claude Elwood ShannonNot submitted until 1940A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits
@MastersThesis{Shannon:1937:SAR,
author = "Claude Elwood Shannon",
title = "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits",
type = "{Master of Science}",
school = "Department of Electrical Engineering, MIT",
address = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
pages = "72",
day = "10",
month = aug,
year = "1937",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 10:35:20 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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URL = "http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/11173/34541425.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "April 30, 1916--February 24, 2001",
remark = "Smiley \cite[p. 91]{Smiley:2010:MWI} claims: ``He
[Shannon] also had the insight, like Atanasoff, that
the binary arithmetic that relay switches represented
would simplify information systems. His master's
thesis, written when he as twenty-one and published
when he was twenty-two, is considered to be one of the
most important, if not the most important, master's
thesis of the twentieth century.''\par
Pages 59--61 of the thesis are a section called
``Electric Adder to the Base Two'', and pages 62--68,
``A Factor Table Machine'', describe a machine that
will print a table of factors and primes of all the
integers from 1 to 100,000,000. Shannon notes on page
68: ``As to the practicality of such a device, it might
be said that J. P. Kulik spent 20 years in constructing
a table of primes up to 100,000,000 and when finished
it was found to contain so many errors that it was not
worth publishing. The machine described here could
probably be made to handle 5 numbers per second so that
the table would require only about 2 months to
construct.''",
}umbers begin with the
digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some
20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources
shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first
digits when the numbers are composed of four or more
digits. An analysis of the numbers from different
sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated
subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a
much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution
than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other
formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that
numbers that individually are without relationship are,
when considered in large groups, in good agreement with
a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous
Numbers.''\par
A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency
for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric
series. If the series is made up of numbers containing
three or more digits the first digits form a
logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single
digits the geometric relation still holds but the
simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.\par
An equation is given showing the frequencies of first
digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10
to 100, etc.\par
The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the
second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it
is shown that the same law applies to
reciprocals.\par
There are many instances showing that the geometric
series, or the logarithmic law, has long been
recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature
and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and
drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the
astronomer and the sensory response curves of the
psychologist are all particular examples of a
relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs.
The Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general
probability law of widespread application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Proceedings of the {American Philosophical Society}
held at {Philadelphia} for promoting useful knowledge",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/journal/procamerphilsoci",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From \cite{Logan:1978:FDP}: ``Benford's paper was
published in 1938 in a journal of rather limited
circulation and not usually read by mathematicians. It
so happened that it was immediately followed in the
same issue by a physics paper which became of some
importance for secret nuclear work during World War II
[H. A. Bethe, M. E. Rose, and L. P. Smith, `The
Multiple Scattering of Electrons', Proc. Amer. Phil.
Soc. 78(4), 573--585 (1938)]. That is why Benford's
paper caught the attention of physicists in the early
1940's and was much discussed. This led to the notes in
Nature by Goudsmit and Furry [3] and Furry and Hurwitz
[4] containing an effort to explain Benford's law. We
considered it at that time merely a welcome diversion
and did not expect that over thirty papers would be
devoted to this subject in subsequent years.'' The 2006
bibliography \cite{Hurlimann:2006:BLB} cites 325
publications about Benford's Law.",
}
à9õ9ø¨ƒ:†u
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}>
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—ƒ~‡}
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author = "Anonymous",
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} Æ&e Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general probability law of widespread application.Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledgeBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's LawFrom cite Logan:1978:FDP: ``Benford's paper was published in 1938 in a journal of rather limited circulation and not usually read by mathematicians. It so happened that it was immediately followed in the same issue by a physics paper which became of some importance for secret nuclear work during World War II [H. A. Bethe, M. E. Rose, and L. P. Smith, `The Multiple Scattering of Electrons', Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 78(4), 573--585 (1938)]. That is why Benford's paper caught the attention of physicists in the early 1940's and was much discussed. This led to the notes in Nature by Goudsmit and Furry [3] and Furry and Hurwitz [4] containing an effort to explain Benford's law. We considered it at that time merely a welcome diversion and did not expect that over thirty papers would be devoted to this subject in subsequent years.'' The 2006 bibliography cite Hurlimann:2006:BLB cites 325 publications about Benford's Law.ack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/journal/procamerphilsociIt has been observed that the first pages of a table of common logarithms show more wear than do the last pages, indicating that more used numbers begin with the digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some 20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first digits when the numbers are composed of four or more digits. An analysis of the numbers from different sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that numbers that individually are without relationship are, when considered in large groups, in good agreement with a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous Numbers.''\par A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric series. If the series is made up of numbers containing three or more digits the first digits form a logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single digits the geometric relation still holds but the simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.\par An equation is given showing the frequencies of first digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10 to 100, etc.\par The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it is shown that the same law applies to reciprocals.\par There are many instances showing that the geometric series, or the logarithmic law, has long been recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the astronomer and the sensory response curves of the psychologist are all particular examples of a relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs. The Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general probability law of widespread application.Frank BenfordThe Law of Anomalous Numbers
@Article{Benford:1938:LAN,
author = "Frank Benford",
title = "The Law of Anomalous Numbers",
journal = j-PROC-AMER-PHIL-SOC,
volume = "78",
number = "4",
pages = "551--572",
month = mar,
year = "1938",
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ISSN-L = "0003-049X",
bibdate = "Thu Feb 15 16:28:28 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X%2819380331%2978%3A4%3C551%3ATLOAN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G",
abstract = "It has been observed that the first pages of a table
of common logarithms show more wear than do the last
pages, indicating that more used numbers begin with the
digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some
20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources
shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first
digits when the numbers are composed of four or more
digits. An analysis of the numbers from different
sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated
subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a
much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution
than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other
formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that
numbers that individually are without relationship are,
when considered in large groups, in good agreement with
a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous
Numbers.''\par
A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency
for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric
series. If the series is made up of numbers containing
three or more digits the first digits form a
logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single
digits the geometric relation still holds but the
simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.\par
An equation is given showing the frequencies of first
digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10
to 100, etc.\par
The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the
second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it
is shown that the same law applies to
reciprocals.\par
There are many instances showing that the geometric
series, or the logarithmic law, has long been
recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature
and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and
drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the
astronomer and the sensory response curves of the
psychologist are all particular examples of a
relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs.
The Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general
probability law of widespread application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Proceedings of the {American Philosophical Society}
held at {Philadelphia} for promoting useful knowledge",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/journal/procamerphilsoci",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From \cite{Logan:1978:FDP}: ``Benford's paper was
published in 1938 in a journal of rather limited
circulation and not usually read by mathematicians. It
so happened that it was immediately followed in the
same issue by a physics paper which became of some
importance for secret nuclear work during World War II
[H. A. Bethe, M. E. Rose, and L. P. Smith, `The
Multiple Scattering of Electrons', Proc. Amer. Phil.
Soc. 78(4), 573--585 (1938)]. That is why Benford's
paper caught the attention of physicists in the early
1940's and was much discussed. This led to the notes in
Nature by Goudsmit and Furry [3] and Furry and Hurwitz
[4] containing an effort to explain Benford's law. We
considered it at that time merely a welcome diversion
and did not expect that over thirty papers would be
devoted to this subject in subsequent years.'' The 2006
bibliography \cite{Hurlimann:2006:BLB} cites 325
publications about Benford's Law.",
}
qqÓ[ #-'E557=m;CŸ]WsŽEgŸe'EÌSarticlefparith.bibBenford:1938:LANFrank BenfordThe Law of Anomalous Numbersj-PROC-AMER-PHIL-SOC784551--572mar31938PAPCAA0003-049X (print), 2326-9243 (electronic) OR 0003049X (print), 23269243 (electronic)0003-049X OR 0003049XThu Feb 15 16:28:28 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.15 16:28:28 ???http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X%2819380331%2978%3A4%3C551%3ATLOAN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-GIt has been observed that the first pages of a table of common logarithms show more wear than do the last pages, indicating that more used numbers begin with the digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some 20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first digits when the numbers are composed of four or more digits. An analysis of the numbers from different sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that numbers that individually are without relationship are, when considered in large groups, in good agreement with a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous Numbers.''par A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric series. If the series is made up of numbers containing three or more digits the first digits form a logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single digits the geometric relation still holds but the simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.par An equation is given showing the frequencies of first digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10 to 100, etc.par The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it is shown that the same law applies to reciprocals.par There are many instances showing that the geometric series, or the logarithmic law, has long been recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the astronomer and the sensory response curves of the psychologist are all particular examples of a relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs. Th%
Y Y‡9 W#)]!)!=m;]‡I£bookfparith.bibHardy:1938:ITNG. H. (Godfrey Harold) Hardy and E. M. (Edward Maitland) WrightAn Introduction to the Theory of Numberspub-OXFORDpub-OXFORD:adrxvi + 4031938QA241 .H28Fri Nov 30 06:49:15 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.11.30 06:49:15 ???ack-nhfbG. H. (Godfrey Harold) Hardy and E. M. (Edward Maitland) WrightAn Introduction to the Theory of Numbers
@Book{Hardy:1938:ITN,
author = "G. H. (Godfrey Harold) Hardy and E. M. (Edward
Maitland) Wright",
title = "An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers",
publisher = pub-OXFORD,
address = pub-OXFORD:adr,
pages = "xvi + 403",
year = "1938",
LCCN = "QA241 .H28",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 30 06:49:15 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}hY #3'ƒ7-G'=m;''/ƒ_ phdthesisfparith.bibCouffignal:1938:AMAL. CouffignalSur l'analyse mecanique. Application aux machines a calculer et aux calculs de la mecanique celeste. (French) [On mechanical analysis. Application to calculating machines and to calculation in celestial mechanics]Gauthier-VillarsFaculte des Sciences de ParisParis, France551--5721938Wed Oct 13 11:17:22 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:17:22 ???Extracts reprinted in cite [ 2.7]Randell:1982:ODC. Translated by Mr. R. Basu.Frenchack-nhfbL. CouffignalExtracts reprinted in \cite[\S 2.7]{Randell:1982:ODC}. Translated by Mr. R. Basu.Sur l'analyse m{\'e}canique. Application aux machines {\`a} calculer et aux calculs de la m{\'e}canique c{\'e}leste. ({French}) [{On} mechanical analysis. Application to calculating machines and to calculation in celestial mechanics]
@PhdThesis{Couffignal:1938:AMA,
author = "L. Couffignal",
title = "Sur l'analyse m{\'e}canique. Application aux machines
{\`a} calculer et aux calculs de la m{\'e}canique
c{\'e}leste. ({French}) [{On} mechanical analysis.
Application to calculating machines and to calculation
in celestial mechanics]",
publisher = "Gauthier-Villars",
school = "Facult{\'e} des Sciences de Paris",
address = "Paris, France",
year = "1938",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:17:22 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Extracts reprinted in \cite[\S 2.7]{Randell:1982:ODC}.
Translated by Mr. R. Basu.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
language = "French",
} http://www2.research.att.com/~njas/doc/shannonbio.html",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6413714",
remark = "This is Shannon's first published paper (his Master's
thesis). In 1940, it received the Alfred Noble Prize of
the combined engineering societies of the United
States, an award given each year to a person not over
thirty for a paper published in one of the journals of
the participating societies. H. H. Goldstine
\cite{Goldstine:1972:CPN} called this work ``one of the
most important master's theses ever written ... a
landmark in that it helped to change digital circuit
design from an art to a science.''",
}!
ùù”!Y #-/sA7=]; ‡}/s–Uarticlefparith.bibShannon:1938:SARClaude E. ShannonA Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuitsj-TRANS-AMER-INST-ELEC-ENG57713--723dec121938TAEEA50096-3860 OR 00963860Sat Nov 20 08:54:12 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www2.research.att.com/~njas/doc/shannonbio.html2010.11.20 08:54:12 ???Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical EngineersThis is Shannon's first published paper (his Master's thesis). In 1940, it received the Alfred Noble Prize of the combined engineering societies of the United States, an award given each year to a person not over thirty for a paper published in one of the journals of the participating societies. H. H. Goldstine cite Goldstine:1972:CPN called this work ``one of the most important master's theses ever written ... a landmark in that it helped to change digital circuit design from an art to a science.''ack-nhfbhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6413714Claude E. ShannonA Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits
@Article{Shannon:1938:SAR,
author = "Claude E. Shannon",
title = "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits",
journal = j-TRANS-AMER-INST-ELEC-ENG,
volume = "57",
number = "??",
pages = "713--723",
month = dec,
year = "1938",
CODEN = "TAEEA5",
ISSN = "0096-3860",
bibdate = "Sat Nov 20 08:54:12 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www2.research.att.com/~njas/doc/shannonbio.html",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6413714",
remark = "This is Shannon's first published paper (his Master's
thesis). In 1940, it received the Alfred Noble Prize of
the combined engineering societies of the United
States, an award given each year to a person not over
thirty for a paper published in one of the journals of
the participating societies. H. H. Goldstine
\cite{Goldstine:1972:CPN} called this work ``one of the
most important master's theses ever written ... a
landmark in that it helped to change digital circuit
design from an art to a science.''",
}
À ÀŠS#X ##
)KE‚#;S]‹articlefparith.bibK:1939:BRBdM. G. K.Book Review: booktitle Duodecimal Arithmetic, by George S. Terryj-J-R-STAT-SOC1022299--3001939https://doi.org/10.2307/2980013Sat Jan 24 11:18:08 MST 2015http://www.jstor.org/stable/i349540; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jrss-a-1930.bib2015.01.24 11:18:08 MSThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2980013Journal of the Royal Statistical Societyack-nhfbM. G. K.Book Review: {{\booktitle{Duodecimal Arithmetic}}, by George S. Terry}
@Article{K:1939:BRBd,
author = "M. G. K.",
title = "Book Review: {{\booktitle{Duodecimal Arithmetic}}, by
George S. Terry}",
journal = j-J-R-STAT-SOC,
volume = "102",
number = "2",
pages = "299--300",
month = "????",
year = "1939",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.2307/2980013",
bibdate = "Sat Jan 24 11:18:08 MST 2015",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/i349540;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jrss-a-1930.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/2980013",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Royal Statistical Society",
}g"Y#)Q57Eƒ;QoQarticlefparith.bibJager:1939:AADRobert Jager and Boyd C. PattersonThe Artificial Arithmetick in Decimals of Robert Jager (London, 1651)j-ISIS31125--31nov111939ISISA40021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic) OR 00211753 (print), 15456994 (electronic)0021-1753 OR 00211753Tue Jul 30 21:26:49 MDT 2013http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis; http://www.jstor.org/stable/i302217; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1930.bib2013.07.30 21:26:49 MDThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/226014Isisack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.htmlRobert Jager and Boyd C. PattersonThe Artificial Arithmetick in Decimals of {Robert Jager} ({London}, 1651)
@Article{Jager:1939:AAD,
author = "Robert Jager and Boyd C. Patterson",
title = "The Artificial Arithmetick in Decimals of {Robert
Jager} ({London}, 1651)",
journal = j-ISIS,
volume = "31",
number = "1",
pages = "25--31",
month = nov,
year = "1939",
CODEN = "ISISA4",
ISSN = "0021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0021-1753",
bibdate = "Tue Jul 30 21:26:49 MDT 2013",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis;
http://www.jstor.org/stable/i302217;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1930.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/226014",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Isis",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.html",
}
øf´ÅÖçøŒ˜=
@Article{Ercegovac:2000:IGD,
author = "Milo{\v{s}} D. Ercegovac and Laurent Imbert and David
W. Matula and Jean-Michel Muller and Guoheng Wei",
title = "Improving {Goldschmidt} Division, Square Root, and
Square Root Reciprocal",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
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number = "7",
pages = "759--763",
month = jul,
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author = "M. D. Ercegovac and T. Lang and P. Montuschi",
title = "Very-High Radix Division with Prescaling and Selection
by Rounding",
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number = "8",
pages = "909--918",
month = aug,
year = "1994",
CODEN = "ITCOB4",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/12.295853",
ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956ÂOŸ
@Article{Ercegovac:1992:FRC,
author = "M. D. Ercegovac and T. Lang",
title = "On-the-fly rounding [computing arithmetic]",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "41",
number = "12",
pages = "1497--1503",
month = dec,
year = "1992",
CODEN = "ITCOB4",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/12.214659",
ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
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bibdateôŽœ;
@Article{Ercegovac:1991:MPM,
author = "Milo{\v{s}} D. Ercegovac and Tomas Lang",
title = "Module to perform multiplication, division, and square
root in systolic arrays for matrix computations",
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volume = "11",
number = "3",
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month = mar,
year = "1991",
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ISSN-L ‡0Ža
@Article{Ercegovac:1990:SRD,
author = "M. D. Ercegovac and T. Lang",
title = "Simple radix-$4$ division with operands scaling",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "39",
number = "9",
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month = sep,
year = "1990",
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ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0018-9340",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 7 14:20:04 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput1990.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=57060",
acknowledgement = ack-sfo # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
} X‡Ž1
@Article{Ercegovac:1990:RSR,
author = "M. D. Ercegovac and T. Lang",
title = "Radix-$4$ square root without initial {PLA}",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "39",
number = "8",
pages = "1016--1024",
month = aug,
year = "1990",
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DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/12.57040",
ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0018-9340",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 7 14:20:03 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput1990.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=57040",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
} W
fŠÐVf x'V '#)7#1'=m;‡-!7³kmastersthesisfparith.bibBerry:1941:DEDClifford Edward BerryDesign of electrical data recording and reading mechanismM.S. thesisIowa State CollegeAmes, IA, USA321941Thu Nov 18 11:18:18 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.11.18 11:18:18 ???This thesis may be one of the earliest surviving records of the ABC computer built by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in the late 1930s. The o/†w&U !#)'9C/=m;_'g‡techreportfparith.bibStibitz:1940:CG. R. StibitzComputerUnpublished memorandumBell Telephone LaboratoriesNew York, NY, USA299--3001940Wed Oct 13 11:30:38 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:30:38 ???Reprinted in cite [ 6.1]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbG. R. StibitzReprinted in \cite[\S 6.1]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Computer
@TechReport{Stibitz:1940:C,
author = "G. R. Stibitz",
title = "Computer",
type = "Unpublished memorandum",
institution = "Bell Telephone Laboratories",
address = "New York, NY, USA",
year = "1940",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:30:38 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 6.1]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‰7%X #%5=m;‚#‚+5ˆ}miscfparith.bibBush:1940:AMV. BushArithmetical Machine299--3001940Wed Oct 13 11:37:32 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:37:32 ???Reprinted in cite [ 7.3]Randell:1982:ODC. Copyright interest in the unpublished writings of Vannevar Bush has been dedicated to the public.ack-nhfbVannevar Bush Papers, Container 18, Folder: Caldwell, Samuel, 1939--1940V. BushReprinted in \cite[\S 7.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}. Copyright interest in the unpublished writings of Vannevar Bush has been dedicated to the public.Arithmetical Machine
@Misc{Bush:1940:AM,
author = "V. Bush",
title = "Arithmetical Machine",
howpublished = "Vannevar Bush Papers, Container 18, Folder: Caldwell,
Samuel, 1939--1940",
year = "1940",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:37:32 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 7.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}.
Copyright interest in the unpublished writings of
Vannevar Bush has been dedicated to the public.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}ˆs$W !#1+/91'=m;_+g/ˆqtechreportfparith.bibAtanasoff:1940:CMSJ. V. AtanasoffComputing machine for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equationsUnpublished memorandumIowa State CollegeAmes, IA, USA299--300aug81940Wed Oct 13 11:36:11 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:36:11 ???Reprinted in cite [ 7.2]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbJ. V. AtanasoffReprinted in \cite[\S 7.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Computing machine for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equations
@TechReport{Atanasoff:1940:CMS,
author = "J. V. Atanasoff",
title = "Computing machine for the solution of large systems of
linear algebraic equations",
type = "Unpublished memorandum",
institution = "Iowa State College",
address = "Ames, IA, USA",
month = aug,
year = "1940",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:36:11 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 7.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}"1918--1963",
historical-note = "From
http://www.lib.iastate.edu/arch/rgrp/5-2-1-1.html:
``John Vincent Atanasoff received his M.S. (1926) in
Mathematics from Iowa State College (University) and
received his Ph.D. (1930) in Theoretical Physics from
the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He returned to
Iowa State in 1930 as Assistant Professor in
mathematics and physics and was promoted to Associate
Professor (1936). Atanasoff began developing concepts
for an electronic computing machine in 1937. It was
shortly thereafter that he, along with graduate student
Clifford Berry, started work on the world's first
electronic digital computer. The computer would later
be named the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC).
Work on the machine stopped at the start of World War
II in 1941 and the ABC was never patented. Atanasoff
and Berry were both called to support the war effort
and left Iowa State. By the end of the decade, the ABC
was removed from the basement of Physics Hall and
dismantled.
Atanasoff and the ABC were part of a major court case
between Honeywell, Inc. and Sperry Rand Corporation
which occurred 1967-1973. The case involved the ENIAC
patent which covered basic ownership rights to the
design of electronic digital computers. During the
trial, the judge concluded that the invention of the
ENIAC was derived from the work of John Vincent
Atanasoff at Iowa State University.
A replica of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer was completed
and unveiled to the public in 1996. The ABC replica was
constructed by a team of Iowa State scientists at the
Ames Laboratory and was exhibited at museums throughout
the country over the next several years.''",
remark = "This thesis may be one of the earliest surviving
records of the ABC computer built by John Atanasoff and
Clifford Berry in the late 1930s. The one-of-a-kind ABC
was destroyed in 1948, and most of its parts were lost.
Also cited in ``Charles W. Bradley Collection on the
ENIAC Trial, 1930--1966'', (found in
http://discover.lib.umn.edu/): CWB as an attorney for
the group retained by Honeywell in the Honeywell v.
Sperry Rand ENIAC trial. The ABC had a 50-bit word.",
}'ne-of-a-kind ABC was destroyed in 1948, and most of its parts were lost. Also cited in ``Charles W. Bradley Collection on the ENIAC Trial, 1930--1966'', (found in http://discover.lib.umn.edu/): CWB as an attorney for the group retained by Honeywell in the Honeywell v. Sperry Rand ENIAC trial. The ABC had a 50-bit word.ack-nhfb1918--1963Clifford Edward BerryDesign of electrical data recording and reading mechanism
@MastersThesis{Berry:1941:DED,
author = "Clifford Edward Berry",
title = "Design of electrical data recording and reading
mechanism",
type = "{M.S.} thesis",
school = "Iowa State College",
address = "Ames, IA, USA",
pages = "32",
year = "1941",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 11:18:18 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "1918--1963",
historical-note = "From
http://www.lib.iastate.edu/arch/rgrp/5-2-1-1.html:
``John Vincent Atanasoff received his M.S. (1926) in
Mathematics from Iowa State College (University) and
received his Ph.D. (1930) in Theoretical Physics from
the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He returned to
Iowa State in 1930 as Assistant Professor in
mathematics and physics and was promoted to Associate
Professor (1936). Atanasoff began developing concepts
for an electronic computing machine in 1937. It was
shortly thereafter that he, along with graduate student
Clifford Berry, started work on the world's first
electronic digital computer. The computer would later
be named the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC).
Work on the machine stopped at the start of World War
II in 1941 and the ABC was never patented. Atanasoff
and Berry were both called to support the war effort
and left Iowa State. By the end of the decade, the ABC
was removed from the basement of Physics Hall and
dismantled.
Atanasoff and the ABC were part of a major court case
between Honeywell, Inc. and Sperry Rand Corporation
which occurred 1967-1973. The case involved the ENIAC
patent which covered basic ownership rights to the
design of electronic digital computers. During the
trial, the judge concluded that the invention of the
ENIAC was derived from the work of John Vincent
Atanasoff at Iowa State University.
A replica of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer was completed
and unveiled to the public in 1996. The ABC replica was
constructed by a team of Iowa State scientists at the
Ames Laboratory and was exhibited at museums throughout
the country over the next several years.''",
remark = "This thesis may be one of the earliest surviving
records of the ABC computer built by John Atanasoff and
Clifford Berry in the late 1930s. The one-of-a-kind ABC
was destroyed in 1948, and most of its parts were lost.
Also cited in ``Charles W. Bradley Collection on the
ENIAC Trial, 1930--1966'', (found in
http://discover.lib.umn.edu/): CWB as an attorney for
the group retained by Honeywell in the Honeywell v.
Sperry Rand ENIAC trial. The ABC had a 50-bit word.",
}
&ú20ú
!3‡fM
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author = "J. W. Mauchly",
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fjournal = "Journal of the American Statistical Association",
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4
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„ysW„yIu”;articlefparith.bibGoudsmit:1944:SFNS. A. Goudsmit and W. H. FurrySignificant Figures of Numbers in Statistical Tablesj-NATURE1543921800--80123dec121944NATUAShttps://doi.org/10.1038/154800a00028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic) OR 00280836 (print), 14764687 (electronic)0028-0836 OR 00280836Sun Sep 18 11:57:19 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2011.09.18 11:57:19 ???http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v154/n3921/pdf/154800a0.pdfA rough qualitative explanation of this fact can easily be given. If we consider tables in which the entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say, between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more entries on the small side than on the large side.NatureBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Lawack-nhfbhttp://www.nature.com/nature/archive/A rough qualitative explanation of this fact can easily be given. If we consider tables in which the entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say, between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more entries on the small side than on the large side.S. A. Goudsmit and W. H. FurrySignificant Figures of Numbers in Statistical Tables
@Article{Goudsmit:1944:SFN,
author = "S. A. Goudsmit and W. H. Furry",
title = "Significant Figures of Numbers in Statistical Tables",
journal = j-NATURE,
volume = "154",
number = "3921",
pages = "800--801",
day = "23",
month = dec,
year = "1944",
CODEN = "NATUAS",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1038/154800a0",
ISSN = "0028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0028-0836",
bibdate = "Sun Sep 18 11:57:19 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v154/n3921/pdf/154800a0.pdf",
abstract = "A rough qualitative explanation of this fact can
easily be given. If we consider tables in which the
entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw
the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say,
between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more
entries on the small side than on the large side.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Nature",
journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/archive/",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
}Šk+Y #//357E
;G/‹marticlefparith.bibCrawford:1943:DNSW. S. H. CrawfordDiscussions and Notes: Square Roots from a Table of Cosinesj-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY503190--191mar31943AMMYAE0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic) OR 00029890 (print), 19300972 (electronic)0002-9890 OR 00029890Mon Jun 28 12:36:57 MDT 1999http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1999.06.28 12:36:57 MDTAmerican Mathematical Monthlyack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.htmlW. S. H. CrawfordDiscussions and Notes: Square Roots from a Table of Cosines
@Article{Crawford:1943:DNS,
author = "W. S. H. Crawford",
title = "Discussions and Notes: Square Roots from a Table of
Cosines",
journal = j-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY,
volume = "50",
number = "3",
pages = "190--191",
month = mar,
year = "1943",
CODEN = "AMMYAE",
ISSN = "0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0002-9890",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 28 12:36:57 MDT 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "American Mathematical Monthly",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.html",
} "0028-0836",
bibdate = "Sun Sep 18 11:57:19 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v154/n3921/pdf/154800a0.pdf",
abstract = "A rough qualitative explanation of this fact can
easily be given. If we consider tables in which the
entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw
the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say,
between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more
entries on the small side than on the large side.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Nature",
journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/archive/",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
},
F FŽG.W !#3-UA=‚ ;_‚u-gY‘utechreportfparith.bibvonNeumann:1945:FDRJohn von NeumannFirst Draft of a Report on the EDVACUniversity of Pennsylvania52--5330jun61945Mon Jun 06 19:17:03 2005ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Ai/alife.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.06.06 19:17:03 ???Reprinted in cite [ 8.2]Randell:1982:ODC.This is the report that got von Neumann's name associated with the serial, stored-program, general purpose, digital architecture upon which 99.99% of all computers today are based.ack-nhfbJohn von NeumannReprinted in \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.First Draft of a Report on the {EDVAC}
@TechReport{vonNeumann:1945:FDR,
author = "John von Neumann",
title = "First Draft of a Report on the {EDVAC}",
institution = "University of Pennsylvania",
day = "30",
month = jun,
year = "1945",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 06 19:17:03 2005",
bibsource = "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Ai/alife.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This is the report that got von Neumann's name
associated with the serial, stored-program, general
purpose, digital architecture upon which 99.99\% of all
computers today are based.",
xxnote = "Report prepared for U.S. Army Ordinance Department
under Contract W-670-ORD-4926. Reprinted in
\cite[pp.~177--246]{Stern:1981:EUA},
\cite[pp.~399--413]{Randell:1982:ODC},
\cite{vonNeumann:1993:FDR}, and
\cite{Laplante:1996:GPC}.",
}Œm-Y#)GM57=m;
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@Article{Furry:1945:DND,
author = "W. H. Furry and Henry Hurwitz",
title = "Distribution of Numbers and Distribution of
Significant Figures",
journal = j-NATURE,
volume = "155",
number = "??",
pages = "52--53",
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month = jan,
year = "1945",
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DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1038/155052a0",
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bibdate = "Sun Sep 18 11:51:37 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v155/n3924/pdf/155052a0.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Nature",
journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/archive/",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
}n \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This is the report that got von Neumann's name
associated with the serial, stored-program, general
purpose, digital architecture upon which 99.99\% of all
computers today are based.",
xxnote = "Report prepared for U.S. Army Ordinance Department
under Contract W-670-ORD-4926. Reprinted in
\cite[pp.~177--246]{Stern:1981:EUA},
\cite[pp.~399--413]{Randell:1982:ODC},
\cite{vonNeumann:1993:FDR}, and
\cite{Laplante:1996:GPC}.",
}.
xix‡n1U #+!917=m;_=!g9ˆ[articlefparith.bibCesareo:1946:RIO. CesareoThe Relay Interpolatorj-BELL-LABS-RECORD23457--4601946BLRCAB0005-8564 OR 00058564Wed Oct 13 11:31:47 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:31:47 ???Reprinted in cite [ 6.2]Randell:1982:ODC.Bell Laboratories Recordack-nhfbO. CesareoReprinted in \cite[\S 6.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The Relay Interpolator
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author = "O. Cesareo",
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ISSN = "0005-8564",
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note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 6.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
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fjournal = "Bell Laboratories Record",
}«0]!#)13;=„q;‚Y•U‚i1®]techreportfparith.bibBurks:1946:PDLArthur W. Burks and Herman H. Goldstine and John von NeumannPreliminary discussion of the logical design of an electronic computing instrumentinst-INST-ADV-STUDYinst-INST-ADV-STUDY:adr4228jun61946Wed Oct 13 08:17:48 2004ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/computer.arithmetic.bib; ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/fparith.bib; ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/arith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.10.13 08:17:48 ???Report to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted in cite [pp.~221--259]Swartzlander:1976:CDD, cite [ 8.3]Randell:1982:ODC, and cite [pp.~97--146]Aspray:1987:PJNDiscusses floating-point versus fixed-point computation, and concludes that floating-point is probably not justifiable. They wrote:par ``There appear to be two major purposes in a `floating' decimal point system both of which arise from the fact that the number of digits in a word is a constant fixed by design considerations for each particular machine. The first of these purposes is to retain in a sum or product as many significant digits as possible and the second of these is to free the human operator from the burden of estimating and inserting into a problem `scale factors' --- multipl8‰m/V#)Ee%E7=m;_EgiŠAarticlefparith.bibAiken:1946:ASCH. H. Aiken and G. M. HopperThe Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculatorj-ELECTR-ENG65384--391, 449--454, 522--5281946ELENAC0095-9197 OR 00959197Wed Oct 13 11:26:29 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:26:29 ???Reprinted in cite [ 5.2]Randell:1982:ODC.Electrical Engineering (American Institute of Electrical Engineers)ack-nhfbH. H. Aiken and G. M. HopperReprinted in \cite[\S 5.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The {Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator}
@Article{Aiken:1946:ASC,
author = "H. H. Aiken and G. M. Hopper",
title = "The {Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator}",
journal = j-ELECTR-ENG,
volume = "65",
number = "??",
pages = "384--391, 449--454, 522--528",
year = "1946",
CODEN = "ELENAC",
ISSN = "0095-9197",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:26:29 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 5.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Electrical Engineering (American Institute of
Electrical Engineers)",
}p://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/computer.arithmetic.bib;
ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/fparith.bib;
ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/arith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Report to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted
in \cite[pp.~221--259]{Swartzlander:1976:CDD}, \cite[\S
8.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}, and
\cite[pp.~97--146]{Aspray:1987:PJN}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Discusses floating-point versus fixed-point
computation, and concludes that floating-point is
probably not justifiable. They wrote:\par
``There appear to be two major purposes in a `floating'
decimal point system both of which arise from the fact
that the number of digits in a word is a constant fixed
by design considerations for each particular machine.
The first of these purposes is to retain in a sum or
product as many significant digits as possible and the
second of these is to free the human operator from the
burden of estimating and inserting into a problem
`scale factors' --- multiplicative constants which
serve to keep numbers within the limits of the
machine.\par
There is, of course, no denying the fact that human
time is consumed in arranging for the introduction of
suitable scale factors. We only argue that the time so
consumed is a very small percentage of the total time
we will spend in preparing an interesting problem for
our machine. The first advantage of the floating point
is, we feel, somewhat illusory. In order to have such a
floating point, one must waste memory capacity which
could otherwise be used for carrying more digits per
word. It would therefore seem to us not at all clear
whether the modest advantages of a floating binary
point offset the loss of memory capacity and the
increased complexity of the arithmetic and control
circuits.''",
}0icative constants which serve to keep numbers within the limits of the machine.par There is, of course, no denying the fact that human time is consumed in arranging for the introduction of suitable scale factors. We only argue that the time so consumed is a very small percentage of the total time we will spend in preparing an interesting problem for our machine. The first advantage of the floating point is, we feel, somewhat illusory. In order to have such a floating point, one must waste memory capacity which could otherwise be used for carrying more digits per word. It would therefore seem to us not at all clear whether the modest advantages of a floating binary point offset the loss of memory capacity and the increased complexity of the arithmetic and control circuits.''ack-nhfbArthur W. Burks and Herman H. Goldstine and John von NeumannReport to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted in \cite[pp.~221--259]{Swartzlander:1976:CDD}, \cite[\S 8.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}, and \cite[pp.~97--146]{Aspray:1987:PJN}Preliminary discussion of the logical design of an electronic computing instrument
@TechReport{Burks:1946:PDL,
author = "Arthur W. Burks and Herman H. Goldstine and John von
Neumann",
title = "Preliminary discussion of the logical design of an
electronic computing instrument",
institution = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY,
address = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY:adr,
pages = "42",
day = "28",
month = jun,
year = "1946",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 08:17:48 2004",
bibsource = "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/computer.arithmetic.bib;
ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/fparith.bib;
ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/arith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Report to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted
in \cite[pp.~221--259]{Swartzlander:1976:CDD}, \cite[\S
8.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}, and
\cite[pp.~97--146]{Aspray:1987:PJN}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Discusses floating-point versus fixed-point
computation, and concludes that floating-point is
probably not justifiable. They wrote:\par
``There appear to be two major purposes in a `floating'
decimal point system both of which arise from the fact
that the number of digits in a word is a constant fixed
by design considerations for each particular machine.
The first of these purposes is to retain in a sum or
product as many significant digits as possible and the
second of these is to free the human operator from the
burden of estimating and inserting into a problem
`scale factors' --- multiplicative constants which
serve to keep numbers within the limits of the
machine.\par
There is, of course, no denying the fact that human
time is consumed in arranging for the introduction of
suitable scale factors. We only argue that the time so
consumed is a very small percentage of the total time
we will spend in preparing an interesting problem for
our machine. The first advantage of the floating point
is, we feel, somewhat illusory. In order to have such a
floating point, one must waste memory capacity which
could otherwise be used for carrying more digits per
word. It would therefore seem to us not at all clear
whether the modest advantages of a floating binary
point offset the loss of memory capacity and the
increased complexity of the arithmetic and control
circuits.''",
}
!Ã!‹3W#1S}K7E
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author = "H.-J. Dreyer and A. Walther",
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[{The} {Ipm} Calculator. {The} development of
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type = "{Bericht}",
number = "A3",
institution = "Institut f{\"u}r Praktische Mathematik, Technische
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address = "Darmstadt, West Germany",
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language = "German",
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author = "Herman H. Goldstine and John von Neumann",
title = "Planning and coding of problems for an electronic
computing instrument",
type = "Technical report",
number = "1",
institution = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY,
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articlefparith.bibAlt:1948:BTLaFranz L. AltA Bell Telephone Laboratories' Computing Machine---Ij-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT3211--13jan11948MTTCAS0891-6837 OR 08916837Tue Oct 13 08:44:19 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:44:19 MDTReprinted in cite [ 6.4]Randell:1982:ODC.Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computationack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/Franz L. AltReprinted in \cite[\S 6.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.A {Bell Telephone Laboratories}' Computing Machine---{I}
@Article{Alt:1948:BTLa,
author = "Franz L. Alt",
title = "A {Bell Telephone Laboratories}' Computing
Machine---{I}",
journal = j-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT,
volume = "3",
number = "21",
pages = "1--13",
month = jan,
year = "1948",
CODEN = "MTTCAS",
ISSN = "0891-6837",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:44:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 6.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
} 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/a/turing-alan-mathison.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg-2ed.bib;
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note = "Reprinted in \cite{Turing:1992:PM} with summary and
notes (including corrections)",
URL = "http://turing.ecs.soton.ac.uk/browse.php/B/18",
ZMnumber = "0033.28501",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied
Mathematics",
mynote = "The notes are not very good. They mainly correct
errors and fill in the gaps of derivations. Much better
would have been higher level comments from a numerical
analyst, e.g. on where Turing's ideas/predictions were
wrong.",
}<
™‰y=V#/GE57=m;_WGgEŠIarticlefparith.bibWilliams:1948:EDCF. C. Williams and T. KilburnElectronic digital computersj-NATURE162487??--??1948NATUAS0028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic) OR 00280836 (print), 14764687 (electronic)0028-0836 OR 00280836Wed Oct 13 12:00:02 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 12:00:02 ???Reprinted in cite [ 8.4]Randell:1982:ODC.Natureack-nhfbhttp://www.nature.com/nature/archive/F. C. Williams and T. KilburnReprinted in \cite[\S 8.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Electronic digital computers
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journal = "Journal of Research of the National Bureau of
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title = "The {EDSAC}",
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publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
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pages = "xiii + 451",
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remark = "Supervised by Charles Brown Tompkins and C. H.
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report to the Office of Naval Research, prepared under
a provision of contract N6-ONR-240, Task 1. Cited in
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}
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volume = "3",
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abstract = "The difficulties which arise when programming
calculations for large automatic calculating machines
which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This
leads to a consideration of the possibility of using
floating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of
calculations. A method by which floating decimal
arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed
decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme
adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in
detail.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
keywords = "floating-point decimal arithmetic",
remark-01 = "From page 38: ``The problem [of programmer-controlled
numeric scaling] does not arise with machines designed
to operate directly with numbers expressed in the
floating radix form. Numbers in this form are
represented by $a \cdot r^p$. The first machine of this
kind was the Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computer
Model V(1). This is a decimal machine (that is, $r =
10$) in which $1 > |a| > 0.1$, $19 > p > -19$ and $a$
is expressed to an accuracy of seven significant
figures. Since this was completed all important relay
machines have been equipped with similar facilities. No
electronic machine of this kind has yet been built but
we would remark that in our opinion an electronic
machine provided with a floating point arithmetical
unit would be a powerful computing instrument even if
it had a relatively slow store, a magnetic drum, for
example.''",
remark-02 = "From page 39: ``Two long and two short storage
locations are set aside to form a kind of `arithmetical
unit.' One long location holds the numerical part of a
number and one short location holds the exponent.
Together they form the {\em floating decimal
accumulator}. In a similar fashion the other long
location and the other short location form the {\em
floating decimal register}.''",
remark-03 = "From page 40: ``the floating decimal accumulator is
then `cleared' by replacing the number held in it by
zero, that is, by the special number $010^{-63}$.''",
remark-04 = "From page 40: `The use of two separate storage
locations for the floating decimal accumulator allows
the range and accuracy of numbers held therein to be
greater than those held in a single storage location
elsewhere. This enables products to be accumulated
without loss of accuracy due to intermediate
rounding-off errors.''",
remark-05 = "From the conclusion on page 46: ``From a direct
comparison it would seem that the floating 'orders,'
other than those used for reading and writing, are
about 60 times as slow as the machine orders and hence
that a programme using the interpretive subroutine
would be slower by the same factor. This is not
altogether true because in such a programme fewer
orders' are needed than would otherwise be necessary as
there are no scale factors to deal with and the
techniques for counting and for the modification of
orders' have been streamlined. Moreover, the time taken
by the C auxiliaries is about the same as that taken by
the corresponding subroutine in fixed decimal-point
working. These factors vary from problem to problem but
our experience has shown that the reduction in speed
varies from about 20 to 1 to about 4 to 1. The
reduction of the time taken to code a problem has to be
experienced to be believed!''",
}N
°¢
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month = nov,
year = "1994",
CODEN = Ðoating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of
calculations. A method by which floating decimal
arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed
decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme
adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in
detail.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
keywords = "floating-point decimal arithmetic",
remark-01 = "From page 38: ``The problem [of programmer-controlled
numeric scaling] does not arise with machines designed
to operate directly with numbers expressed in the
floating radix form. Numbers in this form are
represented by $a \cdot r^p$. The first machine of this
kind was the Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computer
Model V(1). This is a decimal machine (that is, $r =
10$) in which $1 > |a| > 0.1$, $19 > p > -19$ and $a$
is expressed to an accuracy of seven significant
figures. Since this was completed all important relay
machines have been equipped with similar facilities. No
electronic machine of this kind has yet been built but
we would remark that in our opinion an electronic
machine provided with a floating point arithmetical
unit would be a powerful computing instrument even if
it had a relatively slow store, a magnetic drum, for
example.''",
remark-02 = "From page 39: ``Two long and two short storage
locations are set aside to form a kind of `arithmetical
unit.' One long location holds the numerical part of a
number and one short location holds the exponent.
Together they form the {\em floating decimal
accumulator}. In a similar fashion the other long
location and the other short location form the {\em
floating decimal register}.''",
remark-03 = "From page 40: ``the floating decimal accumulator is
then `cleared' by replacing the number held in it by
zero, that is, by the special number $010^{-63}$.''",
remark-04 = "From page 40: `The use of two separate storage
locations for the floating decimal accumulator allows
the range and accuracy of numbers held therein to be
greater than those held in a single storage location
elsewhere. This enables products to be accumulated
without loss of accuracy due to intermediate
rounding-off errors.''",
remark-05 = "From the conclusion on page 46: ``From a direct
comparison it would seem that the floating 'orders,'
other than those used for reading and writing, are
about 60 times as slow as the machine orders and hence
that a programme using the interpretive subroutine
would be slower by the same factor. This is not
altogether true because in such a programme fewer
orders' are needed than would otherwise be necessary as
there are no scale factors to deal with and the
techniques for counting and for the modification of
orders' have been streamlined. Moreover, the time taken
by the C auxiliaries is about the same as that taken by
the corresponding subroutine in fixed decimal-point
working. These factors vary from problem to problem but
our experience has shown that the reduction in speed
varies from about 20 to 1 to about 4 to 1. The
reduction of the time taken to code a problem has to be
experienced to be believed!''",
}
ÕóÕ†OW #%+#=m;/†7bookfparith.bibIBM:1953:POTIBM CorporationPrinciples of Operation: Type 701 and Associated Equipmentpub-IBMpub-IBM:adr1031953Wed Sep 14 23:17:49 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.14 23:17:49 ???ack-nhfb{IBM Corporation}Principles of Operation: Type 701 and Associated Equipment
@Book{IBM:1953:POT,
author = "{IBM Corporation}",
title = "Principles of Operation: Type 701 and Associated
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publisher = pub-IBM,
address = pub-IBM:adr,
pages = "103",
year = "1953",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 14 23:17:49 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}¶N[#-K-Ko57E{;‡oO=‡K1Ðkarticlefparith.bibBrooker:1953:FOER. A. Brooker and D. J. WheelerFloating Operations on the EDSAC (in Automatic Computing Machinery; Discussions)j-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT74137--47jan11953MTTCAShttps://doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-1953-0052901-30891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic) OR 08916837 (print), 23264853 (electronic)0891-6837 OR 08916837Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:06:19 MDTThe difficulties which arise when programming calculations for large automatic calculating machines which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This leads to a consideration of the possibility of using floating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of calculations. A method by which floating decimal arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in detail.Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computationfloating-point decimal arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/The difficulties which arise when programming calculations for large automatic calculating machines which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This leads to a consideration of the possibility of using floating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of calculations. A method by which floating decimal arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in detail.R. A. Brooker and D. J. WheelerFloating Operations on the {EDSAC} (in Automatic Computing Machinery; Discussions)
@Article{Brooker:1953:FOE,
author = "R. A. Brooker and D. J. Wheeler",
title = "Floating Operations on the {EDSAC} (in Automatic
Computing Machinery; Discussions)",
journal = j-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT,
volume = "7",
number = "41",
pages = "37--47",
month = jan,
year = "1953",
CODEN = "MTTCAS",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-1953-0052901-3",
ISSN = "0891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0891-6837",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib;
JSTOR database",
abstract = "The difficulties which arise when programming
calculations for large automatic calculating machines
which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This
leads to a consideration of the possibility of using
flT",
URL = "http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/FORTRAN/paper/p4-backus.pdf",
abstract = "The IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of
instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a
three-address floating point calculator. Let us call
this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to
operating in floating point, this Speedcoding
calculator has extremely convenient means for getting
information into the machine and for printing results;
it has an extensive set of operations to make the job
of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also
provides automatic address modification, flexible
tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and
built-in checking.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}P
XX™%PY #+%I57=m;'‰1e‰%M—Marticlefparith.bibBackus:1954:ISSJ. W. BackusThe IBM 701 Speedcoding Systemj-J-ACM114--6jan11954JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Fri Nov 04 00:18:27 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.11.04 00:18:27 ???http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/FORTRAN/paper/p4-backus.pdfThe IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a three-address floating point calculator. Let us call this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to operating in floating point, this Speedcoding calculator has extremely convenient means for getting information into the machine and for printing results; it has an extensive set of operations to make the job of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also provides automatic address modification, flexible tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and built-in checking.Journal of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401The IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a three-address floating point calculator. Let us call this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to operating in floating point, this Speedcoding calculator has extremely convenient means for getting information into the machine and for printing results; it has an extensive set of operations to make the job of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also provides automatic address modification, flexible tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and built-in checking.J. W. BackusThe {IBM 701 Speedcoding} System
@Article{Backus:1954:ISS,
author = "J. W. Backus",
title = "The {IBM 701 Speedcoding} System",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "1",
number = "1",
pages = "4--6",
month = jan,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 04 00:18:27 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/FORTRAN/paper/p4-backus.pdf",
abstract = "The IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of
instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a
three-address floating point calculator. Let us call
this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to
operating in floating point, this Speedcoding
calculator has extremely convenient means for getting
information into the machine and for printing results;
it has an extensive set of operations to make the job
of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also
provides automatic address modification, flexible
tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and
built-in checking.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}d coding manual --- Datatron
operation manual --- Central computer handbook ---
Paper tape system handbook --- Card converter Model 500
handbook --- Magnetic tape system handbook ---
Cardatron system handbook --- Model 560 DATAFILE
handbook --- Control console and consolette handbook
--- Floating point control unit handbook --- External
switching unit handbook --- Tape preparation unit
handbook.",
}Q
ZµZŒXRX#-?WQ=a;‚[?[ŽEarticlefparith.bibFreeman:1954:TSAH. Freeman and E. ParsonsTime-Sharing Analog Multiplier (TSAM)j-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUTEC-3111--17mar31954Fri Jul 15 15:20:53 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.15 15:20:53 ???Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on Electronic ComputersCited in US Patent 3,043,516 (10 July 1962): Time Summing Device for Division, Multiplication, Root Taking and Interpolation, by Harold W. Abbott and Vernon P. Mathis.ack-nhfbH. Freeman and E. ParsonsTime-Sharing Analog Multiplier ({TSAM})
@Article{Freeman:1954:TSA,
author = "H. Freeman and E. Parsons",
title = "Time-Sharing Analog Multiplier ({TSAM})",
journal = j-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-3",
number = "1",
pages = "11--17",
month = mar,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "????",
ISSN = "????",
bibdate = "Fri Jul 15 15:20:53 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on
Electronic Computers",
remark = "Cited in US Patent 3,043,516 (10 July 1962): Time
Summing Device for Division, Multiplication, Root
Taking and Interpolation, by Harold W. Abbott and
Vernon P. Mathis.",
}ŽHQV #/O1%/Em;-3†WS-1manualfparith.bibBurroughs:1954:DHBurroughs Corporation.ElectroDataDatatron handbooksThe DivisionPasadena, CA, USA4--61954Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MST12 volumes in 1.Datatron (Computer)Datatron programming and coding manual --- Datatron operation manual --- Central computer handbook --- Paper tape system handbook --- Card converter Model 500 handbook --- Magnetic tape system handbook --- Cardatron system handbook --- Model 560 DATAFILE handbook --- Control console and consolette handbook --- Floating point control unit handbook --- External switching unit handbook --- Tape preparation unit handbook.ack-nhfb{Burroughs Corporation.ElectroData}12 volumes in 1.Datatron handbooks
@Manual{Burroughs:1954:DH,
author = "{Burroughs Corporation.ElectroData}",
title = "Datatron handbooks",
organization = "The Division",
address = "Pasadena, CA, USA",
year = "1954",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "12 volumes in 1.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Datatron (Computer)",
remark = "Datatron programming and coding manual --- Datatron
operation manual --- Central computer handbook ---
Paper tape system handbook --- Card converter Model 500
handbook --- Magnetic tape system handbook ---
Cardatron system handbook --- Model 560 DATAFILE
handbook --- Control console and consolette handbook
--- Floating point control unit handbook --- External
switching unit handbook --- Tape preparation unit
handbook.",
}
ÑGÑ‰;UV#)g[;7=a;]g[Š'articlefparith.bibMayer:1954:ODFM. A. Mayer and B. M. Gordon and R. N. NicolaAn operational digital feedback dividerj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-3117--20mar31954IRELAO0367-9950 OR 03679950Sun Jul 17 09:52:58 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.17 09:52:58 ???IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbM. A. Mayer and B. M. Gordon and R. N. NicolaAn operational digital feedback divider
@Article{Mayer:1954:ODF,
author = "M. A. Mayer and B. M. Gordon and R. N. Nicola",
title = "An operational digital feedback divider",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-3",
number = "1",
pages = "17--20",
month = mar,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Sun Jul 17 09:52:58 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
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fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}‰5TW#+AQQ=a;AQŠ]articlefparith.bibKovach:1954:AMUL. D. Kovach and W. ComleyAn Analog Multiplier Using Thyritej-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUTEC-3242--45jun61954Sun Jul 17 09:57:13 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.17 09:57:13 ???Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on Electronic Computersack-nhfbL. D. Kovach and W. ComleyAn Analog Multiplier Using Thyrite
@Article{Kovach:1954:AMU,
author = "L. D. Kovach and W. Comley",
title = "An Analog Multiplier Using Thyrite",
journal = j-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-3",
number = "2",
pages = "42--45",
month = jun,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "????",
ISSN = "????",
bibdate = "Sun Jul 17 09:57:13 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on
Electronic Computers",
}‰6SX #'y5E
;yŠ9
articlefparith.bibGorn:1954:AACSaul GornThe Automatic Analysis and Control of Computing Errorsj-J-SIAM2269--81jun61954JSIMAV0368-4245 (print), 1095-712X (electronic) OR 03684245 (print), 1095712X (electronic)Thu Oct 15 18:16:06 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.15 18:16:06 MDTJournal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematicsack-nhfbSaul GornThe Automatic Analysis and Control of Computing Errors
@Article{Gorn:1954:AAC,
author = "Saul Gorn",
title = "The Automatic Analysis and Control of Computing
Errors",
journal = j-J-SIAM,
volume = "2",
number = "2",
pages = "69--81",
month = jun,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "JSIMAV",
ISSN = "0368-4245 (print), 1095-712X (electronic)",
bibdate = "Thu Oct 15 18:16:06 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics",
}
iÙ ±iXŽvm
@Article{Schulte:2005:GEI,
author = "Michael J. Schulte and Jean-Claude Bajard",
title = "{Guest Editors}' Introduction: Special Issue on
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@Article{Schurmann:1972:MEA,
author = "A. Schurmann",
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floating-point numbers",
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volume = "13",
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MRclass = "65G05",
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fjournal = "Zastosowania Matematyki",
reviewer = "A. D. Booth",
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@Article{Schulte:2000:IMO,
author = "M. J. Schulte and P. I. Balzola and A. Akkas and R. W.
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author = "M. Schulte and J. Stine",
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È=WX #/)cKo57=[;o‚y=)g‘9articlefparith.bibClenshaw:1955:NSCC. W. ClenshawA note on the summation of Chebyshev seriesj-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT951118--1201955MTTCAShttps://doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-1955-0071856-00891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic) OR 08916837 (print), 23264853 (electronic)0891-6837 OR 0891683765.0X0071856Thu Feb 08 16:17:25 2018http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib2018.02.08 16:17:25 ???Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to ComputationHidden inside cite Brenner:1955:TNS, but important in its own right for commentary on the recursive algorithm for summation of Chebyshev series, and a brief analysis of its accuracy.ack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/C. W. ClenshawA note on the summation of {Chebyshev} series
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author = "C. W. Clenshaw",
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ISSN = "0891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic)",
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MRclass = "65.0X",
MRnumber = "0071856",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
remark = "Hidden inside \cite{Brenner:1955:TNS}, but important
in its own right for commentary on the recursive
algorithm for summation of Chebyshev series, and a
brief analysis of its accuracy.",
}Š5VX #-%57=m;1Oe%‹=articlefparith.bibMoshman:1954:GPRJack MoshmanThe Generation of Pseudo-Random Numbers on a Decimal Calculatorj-J-ACM1288--91apr41954JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Fri Nov 04 00:18:27 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.11.04 00:18:27 ???Journal of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401Jack MoshmanThe Generation of Pseudo-Random Numbers on a Decimal Calculator
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fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
}"65.0X",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib",
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fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
remark = "Hidden inside \cite{Brenner:1955:TNS}, but important
in its own right for commentary on the recursive
algorithm for summation of Chebyshev series, and a
brief analysis of its accuracy.",
}W
¤dæ¤ˆ?ZX#/U'/!=K;Uˆ_Ñbookfparith.bibHastings:1955:ADCCecil B. Hastings, Jr. and Jeanne T. Hayward and James P. Wong, Jr.Approximations for Digital Computerspub-PRINCETONpub-PRINCETON:adrviii + 2011955QA76 .H33Mon Sep 30 14:51:50 1996ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.09.30 14:51:50 ???ack-njCecil B. {Hastings, Jr.} and Jeanne T. Hayward and James P. {Wong, Jr.}Approximations for Digital Computers
@Book{Hastings:1955:ADC,
author = "Cecil B. {Hastings, Jr.} and Jeanne T. Hayward and
James P. {Wong, Jr.}",
title = "Approximations for Digital Computers",
publisher = pub-PRINCETON,
address = pub-PRINCETON:adr,
pages = "viii + 201",
year = "1955",
LCCN = "QA76 .H33",
bibdate = "Mon Sep 30 14:51:50 1996",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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@Book{Eckert:1955:FFS,
author = "W. J. (Wallace John) Eckert and Rebecca Bradley
Jones",
title = "Faster, faster; a simple description of a giant
electronic calculator and the problems it solves",
publisher = pub-IBM,
address = pub-IBM:adr,
pages = "160",
year = "1955",
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z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
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author-dates = "1902--1971",
remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "Computers",
xxaddress = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
xxpublisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
}‰XV#/IM%57=m;IMIM‰{articlefparith.bibCrockett:1955:GMMJ. B. Crockett and H. ChernoffGradient Methods of Maximizationj-PAC-J-MATH533--501955PJMAAI0030-8730 (print), 1945-5844 (electronic) OR 00308730 (print), 19455844 (electronic)0030-8730 OR 00308730Fri Aug 20 08:54:24 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.08.20 08:54:24 ???Pacific Journal of MathematicsCited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbJ. B. Crockett and H. ChernoffGradient Methods of Maximization
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title = "Gradient Methods of Maximization",
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volume = "5",
number = "??",
pages = "33--50",
year = "1955",
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remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}
74&7’D¥
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journal-URL = "http://dl.acm.org/pub.cfm?id=J782",
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@Article{Johnson:1987:CES,
author = "Kenneth C. Johnson",
title = "Corrigendum: {``Algorithm 650: efficient square root
implementation on the 68000'' [ACM Trans. Math.
Software {\bf 13} (1987), no. 2, 138--151]}",
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volume = "13",
number = "3",
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\°\†Q]U #/;a+/'=m;;a†}‘bookfparith.bibRichards:1955:AODRichard Kohler RichardsArithmetic Operations in Digital ComputersD. Van NostrandNew York, NY, USAiv + 3971955QA75 .R5 1955Fri Nov 28 18:46:37 2003http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2003.11.28 18:46:37 ???ack-nhfbRichard Kohler RichardsArithmetic Operations in Digital Computers
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address = "New York, NY, USA",
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author = "Frances L. Parsons",
title = "A Simple Desk-Calculator Method for Checking Binary
Results of Digital Computer Arithmetic Operations",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "2",
number = "3",
pages = "205--207",
month = jul,
year = "1955",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
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bibdate = "Wed Nov 09 01:00:34 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}‡d[V #/)=)7;K;9)=‰articlefparith.bibLenaerts:1955:ASRE. H. LenaertsAutomatic Square Rootingj-ELECTRON-ENG27287--289jul71955ELEGAP0013-4902 OR 00134902Thu Sep 1 10:15:41 1994ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.01 10:15:41 ???Electronic Engineeringack-njE. H. LenaertsAutomatic Square Rooting
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volume = "27",
number = "??",
pages = "287--289",
month = jul,
year = "1955",
CODEN = "ELEGAP",
ISSN = "0013-4902",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 1 10:15:41 1994",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Electronic Engineering",
}
N
N‹M_W #+gc;]7Ea;]gcŒ_articlefparith.bibEstrin:1956:NHSG. Estrin and B. Gilchrist and J. H. PomereneA Note on High-Speed Digital Multiplicationj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-53140--140sep91956IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.52199360367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jun 30 15:46:27 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.06.30 15:46:27 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219936IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbG. Estrin and B. Gilchrist and J. H. PomereneA Note on High-Speed Digital Multiplication
@Article{Estrin:1956:NHS,
author = "G. Estrin and B. Gilchrist and J. H. Pomerene",
title = "A Note on High-Speed Digital Multiplication",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-5",
number = "3",
pages = "140--140",
month = sep,
year = "1956",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.5219936",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jun 30 15:46:27 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219936",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}‹_^Y #1+;e7Ea;]+articlefparith.bibRobertson:1955:TCMJ. E. RobertsonTwo's Complement Multiplication in Binary Parallel Digital Computersj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-43118--119sep91955IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/IRETELC.1955.54079110367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jun 30 15:10:39 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.06.30 15:10:39 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5407911IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJ. E. RobertsonTwo's Complement Multiplication in Binary Parallel Digital Computers
@Article{Robertson:1955:TCM,
author = "J. E. Robertson",
title = "Two's Complement Multiplication in Binary Parallel
Digital Computers",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-4",
number = "3",
pages = "118--119",
month = sep,
year = "1955",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/IRETELC.1955.5407911",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5407911",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
×Ç×¢bX #-)?57=m;Ž1OqeŽ)Gžgarticlefparith.bibPerkins:1956:EPCRobert PerkinsEASIAC, A Pseudo-Computerj-J-ACM3265--72apr41956JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Fri Nov 04 23:46:26 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.11.04 23:46:26 ???One of the primary functions of the MIDAC installation at the University of Michigan is the instrudŠFaW #//A;]7Ea;]/AŒ articlefparith.bibLilamand:1956:TDMM. Lejet LilamandA Time-Division Multiplierj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-5126--34mar31956IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.52197890367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jun 30 15:46:18 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.06.30 15:46:18 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219789IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbM. Lejet LilamandA Time-Division Multiplier
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author = "M. Lejet Lilamand",
title = "A Time-Division Multiplier",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-5",
number = "1",
pages = "26--34",
month = mar,
year = "1956",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.5219789",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
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}‰m`W #3AQ+3E%;u1AQŠ}bookfparith.bibHildebrand:1956:INAFrancis Begnaud HildebrandIntroduction to numerical analysispub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr5111956QA300 .H5Fri Aug 20 09:19:58 MDT 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2010.08.20 09:19:58 MDTInternational series in pure and applied mathematicsSee also second edition cite Hildebrand:1974:INA,Hildebrand:1987:INA.Numerical analysisack-nhfbFrancis Begnaud HildebrandIntroduction to numerical analysis
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author = "Francis Begnaud Hildebrand",
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publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "511",
year = "1956",
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z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
series = "International series in pure and applied mathematics",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "See also second edition
\cite{Hildebrand:1974:INA,Hildebrand:1987:INA}.",
subject = "Numerical analysis",
}ib",
abstract = "One of the primary functions of the MIDAC installation
at the University of Michigan is the instruction of
beginners in the various aspects of digital machine use
including programming and coding. \ldots{} In
conducting these courses it was soon found to be
extremely difficult, in five or six instruction
periods, to bring a complete newcomer up to the point
where he can code and check out on MIDAC anything more
than a rather trivial routine. As might be expected the
difficulty centers around problems of scaling,
instruction modification and binary representation.
\ldots{} To alleviate these problems it was decided
that a new computer was needed: one designed to make
programming easier. At the cost of some of MIDAC's
speed and capacity plus two or three man-months of
programming time EASIAC, the EASy Instruction Automatic
Computer, was realized as a translation-interpretation
program in MIDAC.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
remark = "Early example of a decimal floating-point machine.",
}bction of beginners in the various aspects of digital machine use including programming and coding. ldots In conducting these courses it was soon found to be extremely difficult, in five or six instruction periods, to bring a complete newcomer up to the point where he can code and check out on MIDAC anything more than a rather trivial routine. As might be expected the difficulty centers around problems of scaling, instruction modification and binary representation. ldots To alleviate these problems it was decided that a new computer was needed: one designed to make programming easier. At the cost of some of MIDAC's speed and capacity plus two or three man-months of programming time EASIAC, the EASy Instruction Automatic Computer, was realized as a translation-interpretation program in MIDAC.Journal of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticEarly example of a decimal floating-point machine.ack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401One of the primary functions of the MIDAC installation at the University of Michigan is the instruction of beginners in the various aspects of digital machine use including programming and coding. \ldots{} In conducting these courses it was soon found to be extremely difficult, in five or six instruction periods, to bring a complete newcomer up to the point where he can code and check out on MIDAC anything more than a rather trivial routine. As might be expected the difficulty centers around problems of scaling, instruction modification and binary representation. \ldots{} To alleviate these problems it was decided that a new computer was needed: one designed to make programming easier. At the cost of some of MIDAC's speed and capacity plus two or three man-months of programming time EASIAC, the EASy Instruction Automatic Computer, was realized as a translation-interpretation program in MIDAC.Robert Perkins{EASIAC}, {A} Pseudo-Computer
@Article{Perkins:1956:EPC,
author = "Robert Perkins",
title = "{EASIAC}, {A} Pseudo-Computer",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "3",
number = "2",
pages = "65--72",
month = apr,
year = "1956",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 04 23:46:26 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "One of the primary functions of the MIDAC installation
at the University of Michigan is the instruction of
beginners in the various aspects of digital machine use
including programming and coding. \ldots{} In
conducting these courses it was soon found to be
extremely difficult, in five or six instruction
periods, to bring a complete newcomer up to the point
where he can code and check out on MIDAC anything more
than a rather trivial routine. As might be expected the
difficulty centers around problems of scaling,
instruction modification and binary representation.
\ldots{} To alleviate these problems it was decided
that a new computer was needed: one designed to make
programming easier. At the cost of some of MIDAC's
speed and capacity plus two or three man-months of
programming time EASIAC, the EASy Instruction Automatic
Computer, was realized as a translation-interpretation
program in MIDAC.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
remark = "Early example of a decimal floating-point machine.",
}
J`JŒeY#+k;]7Ea;]k!articlefparith.bibSydnor:1956:AMSR. L. Sydnor and T. R. O'Meara and J. StrathmanAnalog Multipliers and Squarers Using a Multigrid Modulatorj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-5282--85jun61956IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.52198040367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jun 30 15:46:21 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.06.30 15:46:21 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219804IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbR. L. Sydnor and T. R. O'Meara and J. StrathmanAnalog Multipliers and Squarers Using a Multigrid Modulator
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author = "R. L. Sydnor and T. R. O'Meara and J. Strathman",
title = "Analog Multipliers and Squarers Using a Multigrid
Modulator",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
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number = "2",
pages = "82--85",
month = jun,
year = "1956",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.5219804",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219804",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
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MRclass = "68.0X",
MRnumber = "18,939d",
bibdate = "Tue Sep 11 15:35:33 MDT 2012",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib;
http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5392735;
http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/012/ibmrd0102G.pdf",
abstract = "It is hypothesized that positive numbers suffice for
the expression of quantities in accounting. New
arithmetic operations are devised that yield
non-negative results in computation, and the
applicability of these operations to data processing is
studied. These operations permit a wide variety of
functions to be computed with fewer and less complex
steps and imply the feasibility of constructing less
complex data-processing machines.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
book-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
fjournal = "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
reviewer = "C. C. Gotlieb",
}
<<‡]sU #)#E;7=m;]'#Eˆarticlefparith.bibWadel:1957:NBNL. B. WadelNegative base number systemsj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-6123--??jun61957IRELAO0367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Nov 06 05:53:55 2014http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2014.11.06 05:53:55 ???IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersnegative baseack-nhfbL. B. WadelNegative base number systems
@Article{Wadel:1957:NBN,
author = "L. B. Wadel",
title = "Negative base number systems",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-6",
number = "??",
pages = "123--??",
month = jun,
year = "1957",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 06 05:53:55 2014",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
keywords = "negative base",
}prZ !#++‚u/Em;‚E7‚+‚mtechreportfparith.bibTaylor:1957:CCAW. Bruce TaylorCOIN (Compile-Interpreter): an automatic programming, fixed and floating-point library of subroutines for the ERA 1103 computerOperations Research Office, Johns Hopkins UniversityBethesda, MD, USA431957Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MSTStaff paper / Johns Hopkins University, Operations Research Office; ORO-SP-32 Staff paper (Johns Hopkins University. Operations Research Office); ORO-SP-32.Military art and science --- Data processing.; Military research --- Data processing.Cover title. ``Operating under contract with the Department of the Army.'' ``Project COMPLAB.'' ``October 1957.'' ORO-SP-32ack-nhfbW. Bruce Taylor{COIN} (Compile-Interpreter): an automatic programming, fixed and floating-point library of subroutines for the {ERA} 1103 computer
@TechReport{Taylor:1957:CCA,
author = "W. Bruce Taylor",
title = "{COIN} (Compile-Interpreter): an automatic
programming, fixed and floating-point library of
subroutines for the {ERA} 1103 computer",
institution = "Operations Research Office, Johns Hopkins University",
address = "Bethesda, MD, USA",
pages = "43",
year = "1957",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
series = "Staff paper / Johns Hopkins University, Operations
Research Office; ORO-SP-32 Staff paper (Johns Hopkins
University. Operations Research Office); ORO-SP-32.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Military art and science --- Data processing.;
Military research --- Data processing.",
remark = "Cover title. ``Operating under contract with the
Department of the Army.'' ``Project COMPLAB.''
``October 1957.'' ORO-SP-32",
}‡nqW #+/Y=m;'/ˆAarticlefparith.bibPawlak:1957:UENZ. PawlakUse of expansions with a negative basis in the arithmometer of a digital computerBull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Sci. Tech.5232--2361957Thu Nov 06 05:56:32 2014http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2014.11.06 05:56:32 ???negative baseack-nhfbZ. PawlakUse of expansions with a negative basis in the arithmometer of a digital computer
@Article{Pawlak:1957:UEN,
author = "Z. Pawlak",
title = "Use of expansions with a negative basis in the
arithmometer of a digital computer",
journal = "Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Sci. Tech.",
volume = "5",
number = "??",
pages = "232--236",
month = "????",
year = "1957",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 06 05:56:32 2014",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "negative base",
}www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
series = "Staff paper / Johns Hopkins University, Operations
Research Office; ORO-SP-32 Staff paper (Johns Hopkins
University. Operations Research Office); ORO-SP-32.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Military art and science --- Data processing.;
Military research --- Data processing.",
remark = "Cover title. ``Operating under contract with the
Department of the Army.'' ``Project COMPLAB.''
``October 1957.'' ORO-SP-32",
}r
Á7¶\Á‡Ž3
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year = "2001",
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bibdate = "Tue Sep 10 19:09:06 MDT 2002",
bibsource = "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2271.htm;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2271/22710030.htm;
http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2271/22710030.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}œ†X1
@Article{Walter:2001:DIH,
author = "Colin D. Walter",
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volume = "1965",
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ISSN-L = "0302-9743",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 13:02:57 MST 2002",
bibsource = "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t1965.htm;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1965/19650204.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}›†
@Article{Walter:1998:EUD,
author = "C. D. Walter",
title = "Exponentiation using division chains",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "47",
number = "7",
pages = "757--765",
month = jul,
year = "1998",
CODEN = "ITCOB4",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/12.709375",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput1990.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=709375",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
}²‡G
@Article{Walter:1997:STT,
author = "C. D. Walter",
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journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "46",
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month = feb,
year = "1997",
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fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
}C)",
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bibdate = "Tue Sep 11 15:35:35 MDT 2012",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5392687;
http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/013/ibmrd0103H.pdf",
abstract = "An experimental 50-megacycle arithmetic unit has been
built which performs a repetitive multiplication
program and checks the results for errors. The unit
uses pulse circuitry which has been developed to
perform digital operations at a 50-megacycle
pulse-repetition rate. This paper describes the
arithmetic system and the circuits which perform the
required functions. These circuits include a full
binary adder, a phase-locked frequency divider which
provides a 3.125-megacycle secondary timing source, a
reshaping and retiming circuit using germanium diodes
and capacitive storage, a high-speed shift register, a
high-speed indicator register, and a binary word
generator.\par
Various novel features of a digital system operating at
these high speeds are described. These include the use
of coaxial delay lines for the distribution of signals
and as storage elements, and the use of secondary
emission tubes in amplifier and multivibrator
circuits.\par
In a 50-megacycle system the interdependence of the
space and time dimensions is marked, and although this
introduces problems which are not ordinarily
encountered in computing systems, it may be used
advantageously to provide features such as the
variable-phase clock system used in the arithmetic
unit.\par
The performance and reliability of the arithmetic unit
are discussed as well as the reliability of the
components and circuits which make up the system.
Although the techniques and circuitry discussed here
have been applied only to a relatively simple
arithmetic unit, it is felt that they could be useful
in a variety of high-speed computing and measurements
applications.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
book-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
fjournal = "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
}tproblems which are not ordinarily encountered in computing systems, it may be used advantageously to provide features such as the variable-phase clock system used in the arithmetic unit.\par The performance and reliability of the arithmetic unit are discussed as well as the reliability of the components and circuits which make up the system. Although the techniques and circuitry discussed here have been applied only to a relatively simple arithmetic unit, it is felt that they could be useful in a variety of high-speed computing and measurements applications.R. M. Walker and D. E. Rosenheim and P. A. Lewis and A. G. AndersonAn Experimental 50-Megacycle Arithmetic Unit
@Article{Walker:1957:EMA,
author = "R. M. Walker and D. E. Rosenheim and P. A. Lewis and
A. G. Anderson",
title = "An Experimental 50-Megacycle Arithmetic Unit",
journal = j-IBM-JRD,
volume = "1",
number = "3",
pages = "257--278",
month = jul,
year = "1957",
CODEN = "IBMJAE",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1147/rd.13.0257",
ISSN = "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0018-8646",
bibdate = "Tue Sep 11 15:35:35 MDT 2012",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib;
http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5392687;
http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/013/ibmrd0103H.pdf",
abstract = "An experimental 50-megacycle arithmetic unit has been
built which performs a repetitive multiplication
program and checks the results for errors. The unit
uses pulse circuitry which has been developed to
perform digital operations at a 50-megacycle
pulse-repetition rate. This paper describes the
arithmetic system and the circuits which perform the
required functions. These circuits include a full
binary adder, a phase-locked frequency divider which
provides a 3.125-megacycle secondary timing source, a
reshaping and retiming circuit using germanium diodes
and capacitive storage, a high-speed shift register, a
high-speed indicator register, and a binary word
generator.\par
Various novel features of a digital system operating at
these high speeds are described. These include the use
of coaxial delay lines for the distribution of signals
and as storage elements, and the use of secondary
emission tubes in amplifier and multivibrator
circuits.\par
In a 50-megacycle system the interdependence of the
space and time dimensions is marked, and although this
introduces problems which are not ordinarily
encountered in computing systems, it may be used
advantageously to provide features such as the
variable-phase clock system used in the arithmetic
unit.\par
The performance and reliability of the arithmetic unit
are discussed as well as the reliability of the
components and circuits which make up the system.
Although the techniques and circuitry discussed here
have been applied only to a relatively simple
arithmetic unit, it is felt that they could be useful
in a variety of high-speed computing and measurements
applications.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
book-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
fjournal = "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
}
çç¼t^#+eQ57E‚;‚™S[™Yeµ?articlefparith.bibWalker:1957:EMAR. M. Walker and D. E. Rosenheim and P. A. Lewis and A. G. AndersonAn Experimental 50-Megacycle Arithmetic Unitj-IBM-JRD13257--278jul71957IBMJAEhttps://doi.org/10.1147/rd.13.02570018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic) OR 00188646 (print), 21518556 (electronic)0018-8646 OR 00188646Tue Sep 11 15:35:35 MDT 2012http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib; http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/2012.09.11 15:35:35 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5392687; http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/013/ibmrd0103H.pdfAn experimental 50-megacycle arithmetic unit has been built which performs a repetitive multiplication program and checks the results for errors. The unit uses pulse circuitry which has been developed to perform digital operations at a 50-megacycle pulse-repetition rate. This paper describes the arithmetic system and the circuits which perform the required functions. These circuits include a full binary adder, a phase-locked frequency divider which provides a 3.125-megacycle secondary timing source, a reshaping and retiming circuit using germanium diodes and capacitive storage, a high-speed shift register, a high-speed indicator register, and a binary word generator.par Various novel features of a digital system operating at these high speeds are described. These include the use of coaxial delay lines for the distribution of signals and as storage elements, and the use of secondary emission tubes in amplifier and multivibrator circuits.par In a 50-megacycle system the interdependence of the space and time dimensions is marked, and although this introduces problems which are not ordinarily encountered in computing systems, it may be used advantageously to provide features such as the variable-phase clock system used in the arithmetic unit.par The performance and reliability of the arithmetic unit are discussed as well as the reliability of the components and circuits which make up the system. Although the techniques and circuitry discussed here have been applied only to a relatively simple arithmetic unit, it is felt that they could be useful in a variety of high-speed computing and measurements applications.IBM Journal of Research and Developmentack-nhfbhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520An experimental 50-megacycle arithmetic unit has been built which performs a repetitive multiplication program and checks the results for errors. The unit uses pulse circuitry which has been developed to perform digital operations at a 50-megacycle pulse-repetition rate. This paper describes the arithmetic system and the circuits which perform the required functions. These circuits include a full binary adder, a phase-locked frequency divider which provides a 3.125-megacycle secondary timing source, a reshaping and retiming circuit using germanium diodes and capacitive storage, a high-speed shift register, a high-speed indicator register, and a binary word generator.\par Various novel features of a digital system operating at these high speeds are described. These include the use of coaxial delay lines for the distribution of signals and as storage elements, and the use of secondary emission tubes in amplifier and multivibrator circuits.\par In a 50-megacycle system the interdependence of the space and time dimensions is marked, and although this introduces s
…#Š wW #)+e57=K;?c+e‹
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@Article{Bemer:1958:MMS,
author = "Robert W. Bemer",
title = "A Machine Method for Square-Root Computation",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "1",
number = "1",
pages = "6--7",
month = jan,
year = "1958",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 15 18:35:46 1994",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}ˆ_vV !#1U+1Em;eUŠtechreportfparith.bibAnonymous:1958:ARMAnonymousAnalysis and research memorandum 294AR Memo294 (AD 207929)Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Naval Supersonic LaboratoryCambridge, MA, USA723oct101958Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MSTError functions.; Floating-point arithmetic.ack-nhfbAnonymousAnalysis and research memorandum 294
@TechReport{Anonymous:1958:ARM,
author = "Anonymous",
title = "Analysis and research memorandum 294",
type = "{AR} Memo",
number = "294 (AD 207929)",
institution = "Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Naval
Supersonic Laboratory",
address = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
pages = "7",
day = "23",
month = oct,
year = "1958",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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keywords = "Error functions.; Floating-point arithmetic.",
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@Article{Weibel:1957:EAM,
author = "Erich S. Weibel",
title = "An Electronic Analog Multiplier Using Carriers",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-6",
number = "1",
pages = "30--34",
month = mar,
year = "1957",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1957.5221558",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jun 30 16:07:23 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5221558",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
i(
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@InProceedings{Shpilka:2007:IDA,
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bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "arithmetic circuits; depth-3; exact learning;
interpolation",
}Ûo¡_
@InProceedings{Shriver:1975:UUN,
author = "Bruce D. Shriver and Peter Kornerup",
title = "The {UNRAU} --- a {Unified Numeric Representation
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@InProceedings{Shriver:1975:BCA,
author = "B. D. Shriver and E. K. Reuter",
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crossref = "IEEE:1975:SCA",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.acsel-lab.com/arithmetic/arith3/papers/ARITH3_Biography.pdf",
abstract = "This bibliography on computer arithmetic uses, by and
large, the format and abbreviations employed by
Computing Reviews. It is presented in alphabetical
order only and not by individual topics. The topics
included, however, span the abstract and implementation
problems associated with finite precision computer
arithmetic.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "ARITH-3",
}RƒV‡-
@InProceedings{Shokin:1996:IPI,
author = "Y. I. Shokin",
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}
´
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âó†'ŒO
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÷‹b~Z #9157;K;[1%ŒUarticlefparith.bibKogbetliantz:1958:CANbE. G. KogbetliantzComputation of Arcsin $N$ for $ 0 < N < 1 $ Using an Electronic Computerj-IBM-JRD23218--222jul71958IBMJAE0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic) OR 00188646 (print), 21518556 (electronic)0018-8646 OR 00188646Thu Sep 1 10:16:10 1994ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.01 10:16:10 ???IBM Journal of Research and Developmentack-njhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520E. G. KogbetliantzComputation of Arcsin {$N$} for $ 0 < {N} < 1 $ Using an Electronic Computer
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author = "E. G. Kogbetliantz",
title = "Computation of Arctan {$N$} for $ - \infty < {N} < +
\infty $ Using an Electronic Computer",
journal = j-IBM-JRD,
volume = "2",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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fjournal = "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
abstract = "The usual floating point arithmetic makes error
analysis difficult. This paper describes an alternative
system which offers a means of analyzing floating point
calculations more effectively and which also possesses
certain advantages from an equipment standpoint.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
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abstract = "The usual floating point arithmetic makes error
analysis difficult. This paper describes an alternative
system which offers a means of analyzing floating point
calculations more effectively and which also possesses
certain advantages from an equipment standpoint.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}
M:
)<M;šw
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author = "Hermann Schmid",
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@Article{Robertson:1958:NCDb,
author = "James E. Robertson",
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journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
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pages = "218--222",
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}/cacm/cacm1.html#Sisson58;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "As more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy
of data fed into automatic computing systems, more
emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of
predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at
least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been
proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field
to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy
must be of only one digit.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
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XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Sisson58",
}ƒ
ÂÂ–:Y #++U57Ek;†'?Oc†'+U–carticlefparith.bibSisson:1958:IDRRoger L. SissonAn Improved Decimal Redundancy Checkj-CACM1510--12may51958CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Mon Jan 22 07:22:12 MST 2001http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Sisson58; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2001.01.22 07:22:12 MSTAs more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy of data fed into automatic computing systems, more emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy must be of only one digit.Communications of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79As more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy of data fed into automatic computing systems, more emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy must be of only one digit.Roger L. SissonAn Improved Decimal Redundancy Check
@Article{Sisson:1958:IDR,
author = "Roger L. Sisson",
title = "An Improved Decimal Redundancy Check",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "1",
number = "5",
pages = "10--12",
month = may,
year = "1958",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 07:22:12 MST 2001",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Sisson58;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "As more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy
of data fed into automatic computing systems, more
emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of
predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at
least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been
proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field
to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy
must be of only one digit.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Sisson58",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Sisson58",
}
i;i‹NW #)#I57E‚;?c#I}articlefparith.bibWadey:1958:TSRW. G. WadeyTwo Square-Root Approximationsj-CACM11113--14nov111958CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Wed Jul 14 15:48:22 MDT 2004http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Wadey58; http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.07.14 15:48:22 MDTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79W. G. WadeyTwo Square-Root Approximations
@Article{Wadey:1958:TSR,
author = "W. G. Wadey",
title = "Two Square-Root Approximations",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "1",
number = "11",
pages = "13--14",
month = nov,
year = "1958",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:22 MDT 2004",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Wadey58;
http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
oldlabel = "Wadey58",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Wadey58",
}‰AW #+%C77;m;y%Šcarticlefparith.bibTocher:1958:TMDK. D. TocherTechniques of Multiplication and Division for Automatic Binary Computersj-QUART-J-MECH-APPLIED-MATH113364--3841958QJMMAV0033-5614 OR 003356140033-5614 OR 00335614Thu Apr 2 08:38:35 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1998.04.02 08:38:35 ???Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematicsack-sfoK. D. TocherTechniques of Multiplication and Division for Automatic Binary Computers
@Article{Tocher:1958:TMD,
author = "K. D. Tocher",
title = "Techniques of Multiplication and Division for
Automatic Binary Computers",
journal = j-QUART-J-MECH-APPLIED-MATH,
volume = "11",
number = "3",
pages = "364--384",
month = "????",
year = "1958",
CODEN = "QJMMAV",
ISSN = "0033-5614",
ISSN-L = "0033-5614",
bibdate = "Thu Apr 2 08:38:35 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-sfo # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied
Mathematics",
}",
MRreviewer = "H. H. Goldstine",
bibdate = "Fri Dec 08 13:06:24 1995",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/m/metropolis-nicholas.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
ZMnumber = "0121.12102",
abstract = "Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are
described, in which fractional parts are not subject to
the usual normalization convention. These algorithms
give results in a form which furnishes some indication
of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage
error propagation is developed for each operation; a
suggested statistical model for long-run error
propagation is also set forth.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}†
00—LY#3eY577+={;†3q!e†3eY—articlefparith.bibAshenhurst:1959:UFPRobert L. Ashenhurst and Nicholas MetropolisUnnormalized Floating Point Arithmeticj-J-ACM63415--428jul71959JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 0004541168.00MR0105833 (21 \#4568)H. H. GoldstineFri Dec 08 13:06:24 1995http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/m/metropolis-nicholas.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.08 13:06:24 ???Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are described, in which fractional parts are not subject to the usual normalization convention. These algorithms give results in a form which furnishes some indication of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage error propagation is developed for each operation; a suggested statistical model for long-run error propagation is also set forth.Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery0121.12102ack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are described, in which fractional parts are not subject to the usual normalization convention. These algorithms give results in a form which furnishes some indication of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage error propagation is developed for each operation; a suggested statistical model for long-run error propagation is also set forth.Robert L. Ashenhurst and Nicholas MetropolisUnnormalized Floating Point Arithmetic
@Article{Ashenhurst:1959:UFP,
author = "Robert L. Ashenhurst and Nicholas Metropolis",
title = "Unnormalized Floating Point Arithmetic",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "6",
number = "3",
pages = "415--428",
month = jul,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
MRclass = "68.00",
MRnumber = "MR0105833 (21 \#4568)",
MRreviewer = "H. H. Goldstine",
bibdate = "Fri Dec 08 13:06:24 1995",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/m/metropolis-nicholas.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
ZMnumber = "0121.12102",
abstract = "Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are
described, in which fractional parts are not subject to
the usual normalization convention. These algorithms
give results in a form which furnishes some indication
of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage
error propagation is developed for each operation; a
suggested statistical model for long-run error
propagation is also set forth.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
} bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Buchholz59;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Buchholz59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Buchholz59",
xxnote = "Check author first name: article has W. Buchholz; I
think it should be Werner, not Wilfried.",
}‡
ð÷ðŒW #'-c57E‚;?c1cŽ!articlefparith.bibCarr:1959:EAFJohn W. Carr IIIError Analysis in Floating Point Arithmeticj-CACM2510--15may51959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Wed Jul 14 15:48:23 MDT 2004http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Carr59a; http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.07.14 15:48:23 MDTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79John W. {Carr III}Error Analysis in Floating Point Arithmetic
@Article{Carr:1959:EAF,
author = "John W. {Carr III}",
title = "Error Analysis in Floating Point Arithmetic",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "2",
number = "5",
pages = "10--15",
month = may,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:23 MDT 2004",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Carr59a;
http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
oldlabel = "Carr59a",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Carr59a",
}ŽY #//57Eo;?Oc/‘- articlefparith.bibBuchholz:1959:FFCWilfried BuchholzFingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary Representation)j-CACM2123--111959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Mon Jan 22 06:28:45 MST 2001http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Buchholz59; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2001.01.22 06:28:45 MSTCommunications of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Wilfried BuchholzFingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary Representation)
@Article{Buchholz:1959:FFC,
author = "Wilfried Buchholz",
title = "Fingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary
Representation)",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "2",
number = "12",
pages = "3--11",
month = "????",
year = "1959",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 06:28:45 MST 2001",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Buchholz59;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Buchholz59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Buchholz59",
xxnote = "Check author first name: article has W. Buchholz; I
think it should be Werner, not Wilfried.",
}
0ˆ*
U #-'U;7=m;]O'Y‰?articlefparith.bibDaggett:1959:DBCD. H. DaggettDecimal-Binary Conversions in CORDICj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-85335--339sep91959IRELAO0367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Sep 08 08:14:00 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.08 08:14:00 ???IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-njD. H. DaggettDecimal-Binary Conversions in {CORDIC}
@Article{Daggett:1959:DBC,
author = "D. H. Daggett",
title = "Decimal-Binary Conversions in {CORDIC}",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-8",
number = "5",
pages = "335--339",
month = sep,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 08 08:14:00 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
}L W %#%-ym9'!=%;!‚;{1my!9Ž[incollectionfparith.bibCarr:1959:PCJohn W. Carr IIIEugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E. WooldridgeHandbook of Automation, Computation, and ControlProgramming and Codingpub-WILEYpub-WILEY:adr10--151959TJ213 .G72Fri Aug 20 08:41:16 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2010.08.20 08:41:16 ???Chapter 2.1958--1961: Volume 1. Control fundamentals. Volume 2. Computers and data processing. Volume 3. Systems and components. Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.automation; mathematics; computers; operations researchack-nhfbJohn W. {Carr III}Handbook of Automation, Computation, and ControlEugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E. WooldridgeChapter 2.Programming and Coding
@InCollection{Carr:1959:PC,
author = "John W. {Carr III}",
editor = "Eugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E.
Wooldridge",
booktitle = "Handbook of Automation, Computation, and Control",
title = "Programming and Coding",
publisher = pub-WILEY,
address = pub-WILEY:adr,
bookpages = "????",
year = "1959",
LCCN = "TJ213 .G72",
bibdate = "Fri Aug 20 08:41:16 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
note = "Chapter 2.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "1958--1961: Volume 1. Control fundamentals. Volume 2.
Computers and data processing. Volume 3. Systems and
components. Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "automation; mathematics; computers; operations
research",
}
"6
->Ã6 !‰9’s
@Article{Gamberger:1992:IIM,
author = "D. Gamberger",
title = "Inversion of integer matrices in residue number
system",
journal = j-IEE-PROC-COMPUT-DIGIT-TECH,
volume = "139",
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] Ð]ŠoW #1-[;]7Ea;]-[Œ#articlefparith.bibRothstein:1959:RBNJerome RothsteinResidues of Binary Numbers Modulo Threej-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-82229--229jun61959IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1959.52195290367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 15:56:45 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 15:56:45 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219529IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJerome RothsteinResidues of Binary Numbers Modulo Three
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URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219526",
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fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
¯À ž"€„x‰q
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@Article{Payne:1983:DRT,
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@Article{Payne:1990:PLCa,
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http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
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oldlabel = "Sarafyan59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Sarafyan59",
}—
ŽY #//'57E‚};?c/+!
articlefparith.bibSheridan:1959:ATCPeter B. SheridanThe Arithmetic Translator Compiler of the IBM FORTRAN Automatic Coding Systemj-CACM229--21feb21959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Wed Jul 14 15:48:22 MDT 2004http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Sheridan59; http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~cs4304/bibliography.html; http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.07.14 15:48:22 MDTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Peter B. SheridanThe Arithmetic Translator Compiler of the {IBM FORTRAN Automatic Coding System}
@Article{Sheridan:1959:ATC,
author = "Peter B. Sheridan",
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bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:22 MDT 2004",
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}dY #/)57E‚;O?c)Suarticlefparith.bibSarafyan:1959:NMCDiran SarafyanA New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without Using Divisionj-CACM21123--24nov111959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Wed Jul 14 15:48:24 MDT 2004http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Sarafyan59; http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.07.14 15:48:24 MDTSee comments cite Traub:1960:CNM.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Diran SarafyanSee comments \cite{Traub:1960:CNM}.A New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without Using Division
@Article{Sarafyan:1959:NMC,
author = "Diran Sarafyan",
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Using Division",
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bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:24 MDT 2004",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Sarafyan59;
http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See comments \cite{Traub:1960:CNM}.",
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fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
oldlabel = "Sarafyan59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Sarafyan59",
}T 2004",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Sheridan59;
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http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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oldlabel = "Sheridan59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Sheridan59",
}˜
šO>OGX
6”W©/
@Book{Antelo:2011:IIFa,
editor = "Elisardo Antelo",
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volume = "1",
publisher = pub-IEEE,
address = pub-IEEE:adr,
pages = "????",
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re„Z‰5
@Book{Anonymous:1996:SROf,
author = "Anonymous",
title = "The Square Root of 10 to one million digits",
volume = "635",
publisher = pub-PROJECT-GUTENBERG,
address = pub-PROJECT-GUTENBERG:adr,
year = "1996",
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series = ser-PROJECT-GUTENBERG,
URL = "ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext96/10srt10.zip",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb # " and " # ack-st,
subject = "Mathematical constants.",
}
0
·¾
@Book{Apple:1988:ANM,
author = "{Apple Computer, Inc.}",
title = "{Apple} Numerics Manual",
publisher = pub-AW,
address = pub-AW:adr,
edition = "Second",
pages = "xxvi + 294",
year = "1988",
ISBN = "0-201-17738-2",
ISBN-13 = "978-0-201-17738-1",
LCCN = "QA76.8.A662 A767 1988",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 07 21:06:52 1994",
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@Book{Antelo:2012:IIFb,
author = "Elisardo Antelo",
title = "Industrial Implementations of Floating-Point Units:
Vol. 2",
publisher = pub-IEEE,
address = pub-IEEE:adr,
pages = "79 (est.)",
year = "2012",
ISBN = "????",
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LCCN = "????",
bibdate = "Thu Dec 06 11:34:04 2012",
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@Book{Antelo:2012:IIFa,
author = "Elisardo Antelo",
title = "Industrial Implementations of Floating-Point Units:
Vol. 1",
publisher = pub-IEEE,
address = pub-IEEE:adr,
pages = "103 (est.)",
year = "2012",
ISBN = "????",
ISBN-13 = "????",
LCCN = "????",
bibdate = "Thu Dec 06 11:34:04 2012",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Product)†
@Book{Apple:1986:ANM,
author = "{Apple Computer, Inc.} and Don Reed",
title = "{Apple} Numerics Manual",
publisher = pub-AW,
address = pub-AW:adr,
pages = "vii + 295",
year = "1986",
ISBN = "0-201-17741-2",
ISBN-13 = "978-0-201-17741-1",
LCCN = "QA297 .A66; QA76.8.A662 A59 1986",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 29 23:38:40 MST 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
note = "See also \cite{Apple:1988:ANM,Apple:1994:IMP}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "SANE (Standard Apple Numeric Environment)",
remark = "Standard Apple Numeric Environment for all Macintosh
and Apple II computers.",
subject = "Numerical calculations; Computer programs; Apple
computer",
}'Z
@Book{Bareiss:1978:PEA,
author = "Erwin H. Bareiss and Jesse L. Barlow.",
=
@Book{Antelo:2011:IIFb,
editor = "Elisardo Antelo",
title = "Industrial Implementations of Floating-Point Units",
volume = "2",
publisher = pub-IEEE,
address = pub-IEEE:adr,
pages = "????",
year = "2011",
ISBN = "????",
ISBN-13 = "????",
LCCN = "????",
bibdate = "Thu Aug 18 08:02:12 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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re
2 !2kY #-)57E‚K;?Oc)articlefparith.bibTaranto:1959:BCFDonald TarantoBinary Conversion, with Fixed Decimal Precision, of a Decimal Fractionj-CACM2727--27jul71959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Mon Jan 22 07:25:37 MST 2001ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Taranto59; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2001.01.22 07:25:37 MSTCommunications of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Donald TarantoBinary Conversion, with Fixed Decimal Precision, of a Decimal Fraction
@Article{Taranto:1959:BCF,
author = "Donald Taranto",
title = "Binary Conversion, with Fixed Decimal Precision, of a
Decimal Fraction",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "2",
number = "7",
pages = "27--27",
month = jul,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 07:25:37 MST 2001",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Taranto59;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Taranto59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Taranto59",
}[X #/#gW57Em;‚E5O#garticlefparith.bibStrachey:1959:TSRC. StracheyOn taking the square root of a complex numberj-COMP-J2289--89jul71959CMPJA6https://doi.org/10.1093/comjnl/2.2.890010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic) OR 00104620 (print), 14602067 (electronic)0010-4620 OR 00104620Fri Sep 29 08:55:11 MDT 2000http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_02/Issue_02/2000.09.29 08:55:11 MDThttp://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_02/Issue_02/020089.sgm.abs.html; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_02/Issue_02/tiff/89.tifThe Computer Journalack-nhfbhttp://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/C. StracheyOn taking the square root of a complex number
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volume = "2",
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ISSN = "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
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8¨8’lX #-'g57E‚;‡'5O'g”karticlefparith.bibWensley:1959:CNAJ. H. WensleyA Class of Non-Analytical Iterative Processesj-COMP-J14163--167jan11959CMPJA60010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic) OR 00104620 (print), 14602067 (electronic)0010-4620 OR 00104620Fri Sep 29 08:55:07 MDT 2000Compiler/semantics.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/2000.09.29 08:55:07 MDThttp://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/010163.sgm.abs.html; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/tiff/163.tif; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/tiff/164.tif; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/tiff/165.tif; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/tiff/166.tif; http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_01/Issue_04/tiff/167.tifThe Computer Journalack-nhfbhttp://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/J. H. WensleyA Class of Non-Analytical Iterative Processes
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}ˆTV #+%e;7;K;]%i‰]articlefparith.bibVolder:1959:CTCJ. E. VolderThe CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Techniquej-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-85330--334sep91959IRELAO0367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Sep 1 10:15:31 1994ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.01 10:15:31 ???IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-njJ. E. VolderThe {CORDIC} Trigonometric Computing Technique
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}œ
' •'ŒjY #3+ !Q575)E;7U+
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@Article{Wilkinson:1959:EZIb,
author = "J. H. Wilkinson",
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journal = j-NUM-MATH,
volume = "1",
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}ŒgY #3+!Q575)E;7U+Ž'articlefparith.bibWilkinson:1959:EZIaJ. H. WilkinsonThe evaluation of the zeros of ill-conditioned polynomials. Ij-NUM-MATH1150--166dec121959NUMMA7https://doi.org/10.1007/BF013863810029-599X (print), 0945-3245 (electronic) OR 0029599X (print), 09453245 (electronic)0029-599X OR 0029599X65.00MR0109435 (22 \#321)H. RutishauserMon Oct 18 01:28:20 MDT 1999http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/w/wilkinson-james-hardy.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1999.10.18 01:28:20 MDTNumerische Mathematikack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/211J. H. WilkinsonThe evaluation of the zeros of ill-conditioned polynomials. {I}
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author = "J. H. Wilkinson",
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journal = j-NUM-MATH,
volume = "1",
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month = dec,
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CODEN = "NUMMA7",
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ISSN-L = "0029-599X",
MRclass = "65.00",
MRnumber = "MR0109435 (22 \#321)",
MRreviewer = "H. Rutishauser",
bibdate = "Mon Oct 18 01:28:20 MDT 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/w/wilkinson-james-hardy.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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}
›
Øé WE›†xq
@MastersThesis{Boldo:2001:FAP,
author = "Sylvie Boldo",
title = "Formalisation, am{\'e}lioration et preuves
d'algorithmes en arithm{\'e}tique flottante. ({French})
[Formalization, improvement, and proofs of algorithms
in floating-point arithmetic]",
type = "{Master}'s thesis",
school = "{\'E}cole Normale Sup{\'e}rieure de Lyon",
address = "69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France",
pages = "ix + 42",
day = "27",
month = jun,
year = "2001",
bibdate = "Tue Nov 23 09:48:04 2004",
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note = "Also issued as Report DEA No. 2001-03.",
URL = "ftp://ftp.ens-lyon.fr/pub/LIP/Rapports/DEA/DEA2001/DEA2001-03.ps.Z",
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@MastersThesis{Bhargava:1990:DFP,
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title = "Design of a floating point data acquisition system and
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author = "David Mark Blaker",
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type = "Thesis ({M.S.})",
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keywords = "Computer arithmetic.; Floating-point arithmetic.",
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author = "Thomas P. Biddulph",
title = "A modified {FORTRAN\slash 77} compiler that will
implement the proposed {IEEE\slash KCS} floating point
standard via calls to emulation routines",
type = "{Master of Science, Plan II}",
school = "Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Sciences",
address = "Berkeley, CA, USA",
pages = "????",
year = "1979",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
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author = "Bruce P. Benjamin",
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author = "John Mackay Young",
title = "A study of some methods of numerical integration using
floating point arithmetic",
type = "Thesis ({M.S. in Mathematics})",
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library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE",
note = "This important book is the primary description of the
influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its
architects.",
URL = "http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/IBM-7030-Planning-McJones.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "The text of the book is in the public domain, with the
permission of the author in 2003.
See \cite{MacKenzie:1991:IAL} for a remark about the
noisy mode for floating-point arithmetic in the IBM
7030 Stretch. That mode is first mentioned on page 25
of this book, and described in detail on page 102,
which states:
``By definition of ordinary normalized FLP operations,
numbers are frequently extended on the right by
attaching zeros. During addition the n-digit operand
that is not preshifted is extended with n zeros, so as
to provide the extra positions to which the preshifted
operand can be added. Any operand or result that is
shifted left to be normalized requires a corresponding
number of zeros to be shifted in at the right. Both
sets of zeros tend to produce numbers smaller in
absolute value than they would have been if more digits
had been carried. In the noisy mode these numbers are
simply extended with 1 s instead of zeros (1 s in a
binary machine, 9s in a decimal machine). So all
numbers tend to be too large in absolute value. The
true value, if there had been no significance loss,
should lie between these two extremes. Hence, two runs,
one made without and one made with the noisy mode,
should show differences in result that indicate which
digits may have been affected by significance loss.
The principal weakness of the noisy-mode procedure is
that it requires two runs for the same problem. A much
less important weakness is that the loss of
significance cannot be guaranteed to show up --- it
merely has a very high probability of showing up ---
whereas built-in significance checks can be made
slightly pessimistic, so that actual significance loss
will not be greater than indicated. On the other hand,
little extra hardware and no extra storage are required
for the noisy-mode approach. Furthermore, significance
loss is relatively rare, so that running a problem
twice when Significance loss is suspected does not pose
a serious problem. What is serious is the possibility
of unsuspected significance loss.
In discussions of significance two points are often
overlooked. The first of these is trivial: the best way
of ensuring significant results is to use an adequate
number of fraction digits. The second is almost equally
mundane: for a given procedure, normalized FLP
arithmetic will ordinarily produce the greatest
precision possible for the number of fraction digits
used. Normalized FLP arithmetic has been criticized
with respect to significance loss, because such loss is
not indicated by the creation of leading zeros, as it
is with fixed-point arithmetic. In other words, the
contention is not that normalized FLP arithmetic is
more prone to significance loss than equivalent
Á
-ÁŠh"W #'%e;]7Ea;]%eŒarticlefparith.bibCroy:1960:IADJohn E. CroyImproved Arrangement of a Decimal Multiplierj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-92263--263jun61960IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1960.52198300367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 15:34:11 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 15:34:11 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219830IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJohn E. CroyImproved Arrangement of a Decimal Multiplier
@Article{Croy:1960:IAD,
author = "John E. Croy",
title = "Improved Arrangement of a Decimal Multiplier",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-9",
number = "2",
pages = "263--263",
month = jun,
year = "1960",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1960.5219830",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 15:34:11 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219830",
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fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}‹O!Y #));]7Ea;])Œuarticlefparith.bibBrown:1960:EDCDavid T. BrownError Detecting and Correcting Binary Codes for Arithmetic Operationsj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-93333--337sep91960IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1960.52198550367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 15:34:12 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 15:34:12 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219855IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbDavid T. BrownError Detecting and Correcting Binary Codes for Arithmetic Operations
@Article{Brown:1960:EDC,
author = "David T. Brown",
title = "Error Detecting and Correcting Binary Codes for
Arithmetic Operations",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-9",
number = "3",
pages = "333--337",
month = sep,
year = "1960",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1960.5219855",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 15:34:12 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219855",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
È £ÈW$W #)!57Eƒ1;?c!articlefparith.bibGurzi:1960:HSMFred GurziA High-Speed Multiplication Process for Digital Computersj-CACM34241--245apr41960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Gurzi60; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:26 MSTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Fred GurziA High-Speed Multiplication Process for Digital Computers
@Article{Gurzi:1960:HSM,
author = "Fred Gurzi",
title = "A High-Speed Multiplication Process for Digital
Computers",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "3",
number = "4",
pages = "241--245",
month = apr,
year = "1960",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
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bibdate = "Fri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Gurzi60;
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
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}ŒY#Y #+%57E‚5;??c%Ccarticlefparith.bibErcoli:1960:LEEPaolo ErcoliLetter to the Editor: Errors Due to Overflow in Arithmetic Operationsj-CACM312A9--A9dec121960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:29 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:29 MSTSee cite Ercoli:1957:EDO.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Paolo ErcoliSee \cite{Ercoli:1957:EDO}.Letter to the {Editor}: {Errors} Due to Overflow in Arithmetic Operations
@Article{Ercoli:1960:LEE,
author = "Paolo Ercoli",
title = "Letter to the {Editor}: {Errors} Due to Overflow in
Arithmetic Operations",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "3",
number = "12",
pages = "A9--A9",
month = dec,
year = "1960",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 25 18:19:29 MST 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Ercoli:1957:EDO}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
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‹x%X !#+%m%1Em;m9%mŒktechreportfparith.bibJensen:1960:CIFB. A. JensenCoding instructions for floating point trigonometric, inverse trigonometric hyperbolic and exponential functionsGroup report30G-0009Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln LaboratoryLexington, MA, USA71960Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MSTTrigonometrical functions --- Computer programs.Cover title. ``Millstone Hill Radar Station.'' ``1 November 1960.'' Air Force Contractack-nhfbB. A. JensenCoding instructions for floating point trigonometric, inverse trigonometric hyperbolic and exponential functions
@TechReport{Jensen:1960:CIF,
author = "B. A. Jensen",
title = "Coding instructions for floating point trigonometric,
inverse trigonometric hyperbolic and exponential
functions",
type = "Group report",
number = "30G-0009",
institution = "Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln
Laboratory",
address = "Lexington, MA, USA",
pages = "7",
year = "1960",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Trigonometrical functions --- Computer programs.",
remark = "Cover title. ``Millstone Hill Radar Station.'' ``1
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}i Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Knuth60;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
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MathSciNet database",
note = "Errata, {\sl Commun\-i\-ca\-tions of the ACM\/ \bf 4}
(August 1961), 355 \cite{Knuth:1961:EIN}. See
\cite{Nadler:1961:DSR} for extension to division and
square root.",
abstract = "For centuries the decimal number system reigned
supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians,
until the advent of digital computers brought the
binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper
introduces another number system which may prove useful
for manipulating complex numbers on machines.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
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€€š|&[ #)+A57-Eƒ[;‚7„q?c„q+‚WAœarticlefparith.bibKnuth:1960:INSDonald E. KnuthAn Imaginary Number Systemj-CACM34245--247apr41960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 0001078265.9923\#B554C. B. HaselgroveFri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Knuth60; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; MathSciNet database2005.11.25 18:19:26 MSTErrata, sl Communications of the ACM bf 4 (August 1961), 355 cite Knuth:1961:EIN. See cite Nadler:1961:DSR for extension to division and square root.For centuries the decimal number system reigned supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians, until the advent of digital computers brought the binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper introduces another number system which may prove useful for manipulating complex numbers on machines.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79For centuries the decimal number system reigned supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians, until the advent of digital computers brought the binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper introduces another number system which may prove useful for manipulating complex numbers on machines.Donald E. KnuthErrata, {\sl Commun\-i\-ca\-tions of the ACM\/ \bf 4} (August 1961), 355 \cite{Knuth:1961:EIN}. See \cite{Nadler:1961:DSR} for extension to division and square root.An Imaginary Number System
@Article{Knuth:1960:INS,
author = "Donald E. Knuth",
title = "An Imaginary Number System",
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bibdate = "Fri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
MathSciNet database",
note = "Errata, {\sl Commun\-i\-ca\-tions of the ACM\/ \bf 4}
(August 1961), 355 \cite{Knuth:1961:EIN}. See
\cite{Nadler:1961:DSR} for extension to division and
square root.",
abstract = "For centuries the decimal number system reigned
supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians,
until the advent of digital computers brought the
binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper
introduces another number system which may prove useful
for manipulating complex numbers on machines.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
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ƒóó
"3ß‹œ¤]É;
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Briggs",
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journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
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*
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author = "Arnold N. Lowan",
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author = "Arnold N. Lowan",
title = "On the Propagation of Round-Off Errors in the
Numerical Integration of the Heat Equation",
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number = "70",
pages = "139--146",
month = apr,
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ISSN = "0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0025-5718",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
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author = "I. E. Perlin and J. R. Garrett",
title = "High Precision Calculation of $ \operatorname {Arcsin}
x $, $ \operatorname {Arccos} x $, and $ \operatorname
{Arctan} x $ (in {Technical Notes and Short Papers})",
journal = j-MATH-COMPUT,
volume = "14",
number = "71",
pages = "270--274",
month = jul,
year = "1960",
CODEN = "MCMPAF",
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}Œ?/Y #+'57E‚5;?ac'karticlefparith.bibSilver:1960:LERRoland SilverLetter to the Editor: Rounding in Floating-Point Arithmeticj-CACM312A9--A9dec121960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:29 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:29 MSTCommunications of the ACMfloating-point arithmetic; rounding errorsack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Roland SilverLetter to the {Editor}: Rounding in Floating-Point Arithmetic
@Article{Silver:1960:LER,
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((T1Y #)#S57Eƒ1;C?c#GW‘karticlefparith.bibTraub:1960:CNMJ. F. TraubComments on a recent paper [``A New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without Using Division'']j-CACM3286--86feb21960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:25 MST 2005http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Traub60; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:25 MSTSee cite Sarafyan:1959:NMC.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79J. F. TraubSee \cite{Sarafyan:1959:NMC}.Comments on a recent paper [{``A New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without Using Division''}]
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h,h‹@3W #1+e!577-=;7U+eŒmarticlefparith.bibWilkinson:1960:EAFJ. H. WilkinsonError Analysis of Floating-Point Computationj-NUM-MATH2319--340dec121960NUMMA70029-599X (print), 0945-3245 (electronic) OR 0029599X (print), 09453245 (electronic)0029-599X OR 0029599X65.00MR0116477 (22 \#7264)C. B. HaselgroveFri May 14 17:18:08 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/w/wilkinson-james-hardy.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.05.14 17:18:08 ???Numerische Mathematikack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/211J. H. WilkinsonError Analysis of Floating-Point Computation
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bibdate = "Fri May 14 17:18:08 2010",
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articlefparith.bibWadey:1960:FAW. G. WadeyFloating-Point Arithmeticsj-J-ACM72129--139apr41960JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 0004541165.00 (68.00)22\#6090Fri Dec 08 14:44:46 1995http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.08 14:44:46 ???Three types of floating-point arithmetics with error control are discussed and compared with conventional floating-point arithmetic. General multiplication and division shift criteria are derived (for any base) for Metropolis-style arithmetics. The limitations and most suitable range of application for each arithmetic are discussed.Journal of the ACMCited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401C. B. HaselgroveThree types of floating-point arithmetics with error control are discussed and compared with conventional floating-point arithmetic. General multiplication and division shift criteria are derived (for any base) for Metropolis-style arithmetics. The limitations and most suitable range of application for each arithmetic are discussed.W. G. WadeyFloating-Point Arithmetics
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xxmonth = "none",
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ISSN-L = "0006-3835",
bibdate = "Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006",
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~/~‡-5U !#1==E[=m;M=ˆ techreportfparith.bibAnonymous:1961:MCMAnonymousModern Computing MethodsNotes on Applied Science16National Physical LaboratoryHer Majesty's Stationery Office, London220--2221961Fri Aug 20 10:05:25 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.08.20 10:05:25 ???Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbAnonymousModern Computing Methods
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}‘M4Z#)C#I)Q57C‚;cKqYCg-’warticlefparith.bibAmble:1961:AFPO. Amble and Jan V. GarwickOn the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers [BIT bf 1(2), 1961, pp. 87--88]j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND13220--222sep91961BITTEL, NBITABhttps://doi.org/10.1007/BF019334340006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic) OR 00063835 (print), 15729125 (electronic)0006-3835 OR 00063835Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=3; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2006.01.04 18:52:07 MSTSee cite Garwick:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF.http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=3&spage=220floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/10543O. Amble and Jan V. GarwickSee \cite{Garwick:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.On the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers {[BIT {\bf 1}(2), 1961, pp. 87--88]}
@Article{Amble:1961:AFP,
author = "O. Amble and Jan V. Garwick",
title = "On the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers {[BIT {\bf
1}(2), 1961, pp. 87--88]}",
journal = j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND,
volume = "1",
number = "3",
pages = "220--222",
month = sep,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "BITTEL, NBITAB",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01933434",
ISSN = "0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0006-3835",
bibdate = "Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006",
bibsource = "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=3;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Garwick:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.",
URL = "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=3&spage=220",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
xxpages = "220--221??",
}
‹b6Y #11
;]7Ea;]=
articlefparith.bibAvizienis:1961:SDNAlgirdas AvizienisSigned-Digit Number Representations for Fast Parallel Arithmeticj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-103389--400sep91961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52192270367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:04 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:04 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219227IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbAlgirdas Avi{\v{z}}ienisSigned-Digit Number Representations for Fast Parallel Arithmetic
@Article{Avizienis:1961:SDN,
author = "Algirdas Avi{\v{z}}ienis",
title = "Signed-Digit Number Representations for Fast Parallel
Arithmetic",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "3",
pages = "389--400",
month = sep,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219227",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:04 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219227",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219154",
abstract = "A system design for a digital correlator based on the
application of the residue number system for
computation is presented. Areas of investigation
include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical
design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog
conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed
digital correlator. The advantages of speed of
computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a
residue number system are shown to result in a
significantly faster and simpler system than if a
conventional number system were used. The resulting
digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling
and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}·
œœœ`7Y #+5{;]7Ea;Š=]Š=5{šWarticlefparith.bibCheney:1961:DCBPhilip Warren CheneyA Digital Correlator Based on the Residue Number Systemj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-10163--70mar31961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52191540367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:02 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:02 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219154A system design for a digital correlator based on the application of the residue number system for computation is presented. Areas of investigation include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed digital correlator. The advantages of speed of computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a residue number system are shown to result in a significantly faster and simpler system than if a conventional number system were used. The resulting digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbA system design for a digital correlator based on the application of the residue number system for computation is presented. Areas of investigation include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed digital correlator. The advantages of speed of computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a residue number system are shown to result in a significantly faster and simpler system than if a conventional number system were used. The resulting digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.Philip Warren CheneyA Digital Correlator Based on the Residue Number System
@Article{Cheney:1961:DCB,
author = "Philip Warren Cheney",
title = "A Digital Correlator Based on the Residue Number
System",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "1",
pages = "63--70",
month = mar,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219154",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:02 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219154",
abstract = "A system design for a digital correlator based on the
application of the residue number system for
computation is presented. Areas of investigation
include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical
design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog
conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed
digital correlator. The advantages of speed of
computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a
residue number system are shown to result in a
significantly faster and simpler system than if a
conventional number system were used. The resulting
digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling
and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
[[‰!8V #/)c57=m;?c)cŠarticlefparith.bibClarkson:1961:DMIW. K. ClarksonA Divisionless Method of Integer Conversionj-CACM47315--316jul71961CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Thu Sep 08 08:14:59 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.08 08:14:59 ???Communications of the ACMack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79W. K. ClarksonA Divisionless Method of Integer Conversion
@Article{Clarkson:1961:DMI,
author = "W. K. Clarkson",
title = "A Divisionless Method of Integer Conversion",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "7",
pages = "315--316",
month = jul,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 08 08:14:59 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
} 14:07:44 2005",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Since computers have means to detect overflow on
addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple
precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a
sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to
be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a =
a_0 + a_1 t + \cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of
like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a
positive integer determined by the word length of the
computer. Consider the expression $ c = a \pm b = (a_0
\pm b_0) + (a_1 \pm b_1)t + \cdots + (a_n \pm b_n)t^n$.
Here $ a_i \pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of
one word or may have a sign different from $c$.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}¹
--O9Y #%I[W57=ƒ;Š?cŠI[›Qarticlefparith.bibCox:1961:NMPAlbert G. Cox and H. A. LutherA Note on Multiple Precision Arithmeticj-CACM48353--353aug81961CACMA2https://doi.org/10.1145/366678.3666930001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Sat Dec 03 14:07:44 2005ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.12.03 14:07:44 ???Since computers have means to detect overflow on addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a = a_0 + a_1 t + cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a positive integer determined by the word length of the computer. Consider the expression $ c = a pm b = (a_0 pm b_0) + (a_1 pm b_1)t + cdots + (a_n pm b_n)t^n$. Here $ a_i pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of one word or may have a sign different from $c$.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Since computers have means to detect overflow on addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a = a_0 + a_1 t + \cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a positive integer determined by the word length of the computer. Consider the expression $ c = a \pm b = (a_0 \pm b_0) + (a_1 \pm b_1)t + \cdots + (a_n \pm b_n)t^n$. Here $ a_i \pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of one word or may have a sign different from $c$.Albert G. Cox and H. A. LutherA Note on Multiple Precision Arithmetic
@Article{Cox:1961:NMP,
author = "Albert G. Cox and H. A. Luther",
title = "A Note on Multiple Precision Arithmetic",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "8",
pages = "353--353",
month = aug,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/366678.366693",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Sat Dec 03 14:07:44 2005",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Since computers have means to detect overflow on
addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple
precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a
sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to
be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a =
a_0 + a_1 t + \cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of
like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a
positive integer determined by the word length of the
computer. Consider the expression $ c = a \pm b = (a_0
\pm b_0) + (a_1 \pm b_1)t + \cdots + (a_n \pm b_n)t^n$.
Here $ a_i \pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of
one word or may have a sign different from $c$.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}
k Êkˆ[;W #-'!=m;+'‹
articlefparith.bibFreiman:1961:SACC. V. FreimanStatistical analysis of certain binary division algorithmsj-IRE-PROC49191--103jan11961Mon Sep 16 16:12:21 2002http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2002.09.16 16:12:21 ???IRE Proceedingsack-sfoC. V. FreimanStatistical analysis of certain binary division algorithms
@Article{Freiman:1961:SAC,
author = "C. V. Freiman",
title = "Statistical analysis of certain binary division
algorithms",
journal = j-IRE-PROC,
volume = "49",
number = "1",
pages = "91--103",
month = jan,
year = "1961",
bibdate = "Mon Sep 16 16:12:21 2002",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-sfo # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Proceedings",
xxnote = "Check author name: I have found this paper cited both
as Freiman and as Frieman?? Hennessy and Patterson
\cite{Hennessy:2002:CAQ} have Freiman.",
}Œ2:Y #'%];]7Ea;]%]7articlefparith.bibCroy:1961:RTMJohn E. CroyRapid Technique of Manual or Machine Binary-to-Decimal Integer Conversion Using Decimal Radix Arithmeticj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-104777--777dec121961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52192860367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:05 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:05 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219286IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJohn E. CroyRapid Technique of Manual or Machine Binary-to-Decimal Integer Conversion Using Decimal Radix Arithmetic
@Article{Croy:1961:RTM,
author = "John E. Croy",
title = "Rapid Technique of Manual or Machine Binary-to-Decimal
Integer Conversion Using Decimal Radix Arithmetic",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "4",
pages = "777--777",
month = dec,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219286",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:05 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219286",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}ibdate = "Thu Nov 18 09:27:06 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/5023/4/bac2784.0001.001.txt",
abstract = "The purpose of the research performed under this
contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue
number systems in their applications to digital
computers. The problems of such an application are the
ones of magnitude determination, sign determination,
overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not
independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A
theoretical treatment of residue number systems is
given which lays the foundation for a unified study of
the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational
nature are given which deal with multiplication,
division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the
theoretical and organizational studies to physical
realizations involving networks is treated also. The
question of whether the residue number system can be
successfully applied to general purpose computers is
still an open one. Their application to special purpose
machines is considered both feasible and practical.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This report represents the results of research
performed by the group at The University of Michigan
under the direction of Professor H. L. Garner.
Concurrently, research on the same subject was being
conducted at Harvard University under the direction of
Professor Howard Aiken, and at the Lockheed Missile
System Division under the direction of Dr. Richard
Tanaka. There was a considerable exchange of
information among the above groups during the course of
the research effort. The efforts attained exhibit
little overlap, rather they are complementary. A
portion of this report was extracted from the doctoral
dissertation of D. P. Rozenberg. His work was supported
by this contract, and led to the Ph.D..",
}¼His work was supported by this contract, and led to the Ph.D..ack-nhfbThe purpose of the research performed under this contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue number systems in their applications to digital computers. The problems of such an application are the ones of magnitude determination, sign determination, overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A theoretical treatment of residue number systems is given which lays the foundation for a unified study of the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational nature are given which deal with multiplication, division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the theoretical and organizational studies to physical realizations involving networks is treated also. The question of whether the residue number system can be successfully applied to general purpose computers is still an open one. Their application to special purpose machines is considered both feasible and practical.H. L. Garner and R. F. Arnold and B. C. Benson and C. G. Brockus and R. J. Gonzalez and D. P. RozenbergResidue number systems for computers
@TechReport{Garner:1961:RNS,
author = "H. L. Garner and R. F. Arnold and B. C. Benson and C.
G. Brockus and R. J. Gonzalez and D. P. Rozenberg",
title = "Residue number systems for computers",
type = "{ASD} Technical Report",
number = "61-483",
institution = "Electronic Technology Laboratory, The University of
Michigan",
address = "Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 09:27:06 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/5023/4/bac2784.0001.001.txt",
abstract = "The purpose of the research performed under this
contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue
number systems in their applications to digital
computers. The problems of such an application are the
ones of magnitude determination, sign determination,
overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not
independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A
theoretical treatment of residue number systems is
given which lays the foundation for a unified study of
the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational
nature are given which deal with multiplication,
division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the
theoretical and organizational studies to physical
realizations involving networks is treated also. The
question of whether the residue number system can be
successfully applied to general purpose computers is
still an open one. Their application to special purpose
machines is considered both feasible and practical.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This report represents the results of research
performed by the group at The University of Michigan
under the direction of Professor H. L. Garner.
Concurrently, research on the same subject was being
conducted at Harvard University under the direction of
Professor Howard Aiken, and at the Lockheed Missile
System Division under the direction of Dr. Richard
Tanaka. There was a considerable exchange of
information among the above groups during the course of
the research effort. The efforts attained exhibit
little overlap, rather they are complementary. A
portion of this report was extracted from the doctoral
dissertation of D. P. Rozenberg. His work was supported
by this contract, and led to the Ph.D..",
}
°g<\!#+[U51=m;#Žy‹Žy[Uw
techreportfparith.bibGarner:1961:RNSH. L. Garner and R. F. Arnold and B. C. Benson and C. G. Brockus and R. J. Gonzalez and D. P. RozenbergResidue number systems for computersASD Technical Report61-483Electronic Technology Laboratory, The University of MichiganAnn Arbor, MI, USA91--103oct101961Thu Nov 18 09:27:06 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.11.18 09:27:06 ???http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/5023/4/bac2784.0001.001.txtThe purpose of the research performed under this contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue number systems in their applications to digital computers. The problems of such an application are the ones of magnitude determination, sign determination, overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A theoretical treatment of residue number systems is given which lays the foundation for a unified study of the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational nature are given which deal with multiplication, division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the theoretical and organizational studies to physical realizations involving networks is treated also. The question of whether the residue number system can be successfully applied to general purpose computers is still an open one. Their application to special purpose machines is considered both feasible and practical.This report represents the results of research performed by the group at The University of Michigan under the direction of Professor H. L. Garner. Concurrently, research on the same subject was being conducted at Harvard University under the direction of Professor Howard Aiken, and at the Lockheed Missile System Division under the direction of Dr. Richard Tanaka. There was a considerable exchange of information among the above groups during the course of the research effort. The efforts attained exhibit little overlap, rather they are complementary. A portion of this report was extracted from the doctoral dissertation of D. P. Rozenberg. ½ "Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006",
bibsource = "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See also comment and reply
\cite{Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.",
URL = "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2&spage=87",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
}½
¬>Y #-'AI)57=I;_qY'cK[articlefparith.bibGarwick:1961:RAFJ. V. GarwickReply to ``On the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers'' [BIT bf 1(3), 1961, pp. 220--221]j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND13222--2221961BITTEL, NBITAB0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic) OR 00063835 (print), 15729125 (electronic)0006-3835 OR 00063835Mon Nov 16 14:36:22 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1998.11.16 14:36:22 ???See cite Garwick:1961:AFP,Amble:1961:AFP.floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/10543J. V. GarwickSee \cite{Garwick:1961:AFP,Amble:1961:AFP}.Reply to {``On the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers'' [BIT {\bf 1}(3), 1961, pp. 220--221]}
@Article{Garwick:1961:RAF,
author = "J. V. Garwick",
title = "Reply to {``On the Accuracy of Floating Point
Computers'' [BIT {\bf 1}(3), 1961, pp. 220--221]}",
journal = j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND,
volume = "1",
number = "3",
pages = "222--222",
year = "1961",
CODEN = "BITTEL, NBITAB",
ISSN = "0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0006-3835",
bibdate = "Mon Nov 16 14:36:22 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Garwick:1961:AFP,Amble:1961:AFP}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
}P=Z #-)]I)Q57C‚;
IqY)]‘warticlefparith.bibGarwick:1961:AFPJan V. GarwickThe Accuracy of Floating Point Computersj-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND1287--88jun61961BITTEL, NBITABhttps://doi.org/10.1007/BF019392210006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic) OR 00063835 (print), 15729125 (electronic)0006-3835 OR 00063835Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2006.01.04 18:52:07 MSTSee also comment and reply cite Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF.http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2&spage=87floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/10543Jan V. GarwickSee also comment and reply \cite{Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.The Accuracy of Floating Point Computers
@Article{Garwick:1961:AFP,
author = "Jan V. Garwick",
title = "The Accuracy of Floating Point Computers",
journal = j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND,
volume = "1",
number = "2",
pages = "87--88",
month = jun,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "BITTEL, NBITAB",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01939221",
ISSN = "0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0006-3835",
bibdate = "Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006",
bibsource = "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2;
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URL = "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2&spage=87",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
}b",
abstract = "Error checking codes based on residues have the
advantage over parity-based codes of monitoring
arithmetic as well as transmission operations. Codes
may be devised to detect burst-type errors, to correct
single errors in a binary arithmetic operation, to
correct burst errors and finally to correct any
single-digit error in a decimal operation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "decimal arithmetic",
}¿
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author = "E. Kettel and W. Schneider",
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volume = "EC-10",
number = "2",
pages = "269--272",
month = jun,
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@InProceedings{Henderson:1961:RCE,
author = "D. S. Henderson",
booktitle = "{Proceedings of the 1961 16th ACM national meeting}",
title = "Residue class error checking codes",
publisher = pub-ACM,
address = pub-ACM:adr,
pages = "132.101--132.104",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Error checking codes based on residues have the
advantage over parity-based codes of monitoring
arithmetic as well as transmission operations. Codes
may be devised to detect burst-type errors, to correct
single errors in a binary arithmetic operation, to
correct burst errors and finally to correct any
single-digit error in a decimal operation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "decimal arithmetic",
}
æRkæ%†Œ
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|EY #+' 57E‚5;=?Mc'A qarticlefparith.bibNadler:1961:DSRMorton NadlerDivision and square root in the quater-imaginary number systemj-CACM44192--193apr41961CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 0001078265.9923\#B555Fri Nov 25 18:19:32 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:32 MSTSee cite Knuth:1960:INS.Communications of the ACM$sqrt (x)$; elementary functionsack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Morton NadlerSee \cite{Knuth:1960:INS}.Division and square root in the quater-imaginary number system
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pages = "192--193",
month = apr,
year = "1961",
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MRclass = "65.99",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Knuth:1960:INS}.",
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journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "$\sqrt(x)$; elementary functions",
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}/links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-4851%28196112%2932%3A4%3C1223%3AOTDOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T",
abstract = "It has been noticed by astute observers that well used
tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the
front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to
inquire whether there are more physical constants with
low order first significant digits than high. Actual
counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the
case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that
whenever one has a large body of physical data,
Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber
Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first
significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $
\log_{10}(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this
``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment
wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example,
approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the
Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($
\log_{10}(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted
with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $
ths.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Annals of Mathematical Statistics",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From p. 1223: ``\ldots{} the proportion of these data
with first significant digit $n$ or less is
approximately $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.''\par
\ldots{} ``The only distribution for first significant
digits which is invariant under scale change of the
underlying distribution is $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.
Contrary to suspicion this is a non-trivial
mathematical result, for the variable $n$ is
discrete.''.\par
From p. 1230: ``The foregoing results bear on questions
of round-off in computing machines. Since $ d(u v) = u
d v + v d u $, the error resulting from multiplying two
rounded numbers will be governed primarily by the first
significant digits of the two numbers being multiplied.
Now the distribution of first significant digits,
favoring as it does low order digits, tends to produce
less error than would be the case if first significant
digits were uniform as has sometimes been
assumed.''\par
Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
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fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
}|stants with low order first significant digits than high. Actual counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that whenever one has a large body of physical data, Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this ``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example, approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($ \log_{10}(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $ ths.Roger S. PinkhamOn the Distribution of First Significant Digits
@Article{Pinkham:1961:DFS,
author = "Roger S. Pinkham",
title = "On the Distribution of First Significant Digits",
journal = j-ANN-MATH-STAT,
volume = "32",
number = "4",
pages = "1223--1230",
month = dec,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "AASTAD",
ISSN = "0003-4851",
bibdate = "Thu Feb 15 15:07:57 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-4851%28196112%2932%3A4%3C1223%3AOTDOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T",
abstract = "It has been noticed by astute observers that well used
tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the
front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to
inquire whether there are more physical constants with
low order first significant digits than high. Actual
counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the
case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that
whenever one has a large body of physical data,
Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber
Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first
significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $
\log_{10}(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this
``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment
wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example,
approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the
Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($
\log_{10}(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted
with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $
ths.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Annals of Mathematical Statistics",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From p. 1223: ``\ldots{} the proportion of these data
with first significant digit $n$ or less is
approximately $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.''\par
\ldots{} ``The only distribution for first significant
digits which is invariant under scale change of the
underlying distribution is $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.
Contrary to suspicion this is a non-trivial
mathematical result, for the variable $n$ is
discrete.''.\par
From p. 1230: ``The foregoing results bear on questions
of round-off in computing machines. Since $ d(u v) = u
d v + v d u $, the error resulting from multiplying two
rounded numbers will be governed primarily by the first
significant digits of the two numbers being multiplied.
Now the distribution of first significant digits,
favoring as it does low order digits, tends to produce
less error than would be the case if first significant
digits were uniform as has sometimes been
assumed.''\par
Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}
f×fˆmGV #3'C57=m;?c'C‰uarticlefparith.bibRabinowitz:1961:MPDP. RabinowitzMultiple-Precision Divisionj-CACM4298--98feb21961CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Thu Sep 08 00:29:25 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.08 00:29:25 ???Communications of the ACMack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79P. RabinowitzMultiple-Precision Division
@Article{Rabinowitz:1961:MPD,
author = "P. Rabinowitz",
title = "Multiple-Precision Division",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "2",
pages = "98--98",
month = feb,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 08 00:29:25 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}´FY #--k+!7=m;CŽmOsŽ7Žu-k³5articlefparith.bibPinkham:1961:DFSRoger S. PinkhamOn the Distribution of First Significant Digitsj-ANN-MATH-STAT3241223--1230dec121961AASTAD0003-4851 OR 00034851Thu Feb 15 15:07:57 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.15 15:07:57 ???http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-4851%28196112%2932%3A4%3C1223%3AOTDOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-TIt has been noticed by astute observers that well used tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to inquire whether there are more physical constants with low order first significant digits than high. Actual counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that whenever one has a large body of physical data, Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $ log _10(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this ``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example, approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($ log _10(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $ ths.Annals of Mathematical StatisticsBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's LawFrom p. 1223: ``ldots the proportion of these data with first significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $ log _10(n + 1) $.''par ldots ``The only distribution for first significant digits which is invariant under scale change of the underlying distribution is $ log _10(n + 1) $. Contrary to suspicion this is a non-trivial mathematical result, for the variable $n$ is discrete.''.par From p. 1230: ``The foregoing results bear on questions of round-off in computing machines. Since $ d(u v) = u d v + v d u $, the error resulting from multiplying two rounded numbers will be governed primarily by the first significant digits of the two numbers being multiplied. Now the distribution of first significant digits, favoring as it does low order digits, tends to produce less error than would be the case if first significant digits were uniform as has sometimes been assumed.''par Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbIt has been noticed by astute observers that well used tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to inquire whether there are more physical conÊ
¤
S¤‹+IY #1)'57Ek;A=)ŒM articlefparith.bibSpielberg:1961:ECFKurt SpielbergEfficient Continued Fraction Approximations To Elementary Functionsj-MATH-COMPUT1576409--417oct101961MCMPAF0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic) OR 00255718 (print), 10886842 (electronic)0025-5718 OR 00255718Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:06:19 MDTMathematics of Computationack-njhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/Kurt SpielbergEfficient Continued Fraction Approximations To Elementary Functions
@Article{Spielberg:1961:ECF,
author = "Kurt Spielberg",
title = "Efficient Continued Fraction Approximations To
Elementary Functions",
journal = j-MATH-COMPUT,
volume = "15",
number = "76",
pages = "409--417",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "MCMPAF",
ISSN = "0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0025-5718",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR
database",
acknowledgement = ack-nj # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematics of Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
}‹)HW #-){;]7Ea;]){Œ_articlefparith.bibSaltman:1961:RCTRoy G. SaltmanReducing Computing Time for Synchronous Binary Divisionj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-102169--174jun61961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52191860367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:03 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:03 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219186IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbRoy G. SaltmanReducing Computing Time for Synchronous Binary Division
@Article{Saltman:1961:RCT,
author = "Roy G. Saltman",
title = "Reducing Computing Time for Synchronous Binary
Division",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "2",
pages = "169--174",
month = jun,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
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ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:03 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219186",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
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and G. C. J. Yang",
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State-Space Digital Filter Structures",
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author = "S. G. Smith and P. B. Denyer",
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@Article{Smith:1985:FIP,
author = "S. P. Smith and H. C. Torng",
title = "A fast inner product processor based on equal
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volume = "2",
number = "4",
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month = nov,
year = "1985",
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bibdate = "Sat Apr 12 19:06:31 MDT 0… Š
@Article{Smith:1983:FPA,
author = "Burks Smith",
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in Computers [letter] in {DDC}",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}%ˆ
@Article{Smith:1981:ERA,
author = "J. M. Smith and F. W. J. Olver and D. W. Lozier",
title = "Extended-Range Arithmetic and Normalized {Legendre}
Polynomials",
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volume = "7",
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pages = "93--105",
month = mar,
year = "1981",
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i9mÉÐ‡
Ž
@Article{Hatzinakos:1993:AFP,
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summary = "A floating point roundoff error analysis in the
estimation of higher-order statistics, moments or
cumulants of real stationary processes from single data
records is provided. Closed form expressions or upper
bounds are derived for the mean and \ldots{}",
}sH‡Ž=
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author = "Reinhold Heckmann",
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http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1378/13780172.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
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}vÅ…v‹m
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}³
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author = "M. A. Hasan",
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in Memory Constrained Cryptosystems",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; OCLC
Proceedings database",
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fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
keywords = "ARITH-14",
remark = "Selected papers from ARITH'14 \cite{Koren:1999:ISC}.",
}˜$ˆ
@Article{Harvey:2011:FAS,
author = "David Harvey",
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of power series",
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volume = "80",
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month = jan,
year = "2011",
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ISSN = "0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic)",
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KX #'!O%-1%=m;†M!†MSEbookfparith.bibTaub:1961:JNCA. H. TaubJohn von Neumann: Collected Workspub-PERGAMONpub-PERGAMON:adr??? (vol. 1), 568 (vol. 2), 574 (vol. 3), 516 (vol. 4), ??? (vol. 5), ??? (vol. 6)1961 -- 1963Wed Jun 01 16:58:29 2005http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.06.01 16:58:29 ???Six volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961); Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV: Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V: Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games, Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).ack-nhfbA. H. TaubSix volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961); Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV: Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V: Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games, Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).{John von Neumann}: Collected Works
@Book{Taub:1961:JNC,
editor = "A. H. Taub",
title = "{John von Neumann}: Collected Works",
publisher = pub-PERGAMON,
address = pub-PERGAMON:adr,
pages = "??? (vol. 1), 568 (vol. 2), 574 (vol. 3), 516 (vol.
4), ??? (vol. 5), ??? (vol. 6)",
year = "1961--1963",
LCCN = "????",
bibdate = "Wed Jun 01 16:58:29 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Six volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and
Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic
Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961);
Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV:
Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V:
Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical
Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games,
Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‹\JY #1%[57=K;1e%[ŒGarticlefparith.bibSpielberg:1961:RPSK. SpielbergRepresentation of Power Series in Terms of Polynomials, Rational Approximations and Continued Fractionsj-J-ACM84613--627oct101961JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Sat Dec 09 14:01:44 1995ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.09 14:01:44 ???Journal of the ACMack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401K. SpielbergRepresentation of Power Series in Terms of Polynomials, Rational Approximations and Continued Fractions
@Article{Spielberg:1961:RPS,
author = "K. Spielberg",
title = "Representation of Power Series in Terms of
Polynomials, Rational Approximations and Continued
Fractions",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "8",
number = "4",
pages = "613--627",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
bibdate = "Sat Dec 09 14:01:44 1995",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}x volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and
Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic
Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961);
Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV:
Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V:
Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical
Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games,
Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}Ë
‰
‰ŠsLY #-75'57E
;A=;5‹Warticlefparith.bibThacher:1961:ISRHenry C. Thacher, Jr.Iterated Square Root Expansions for the Inverse Cosine and Inverse Hyperbolic Cosinej-MATH-COMPUT1576399--403oct101961MCMPAF0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic) OR 00255718 (print), 10886842 (electronic)0025-5718 OR 00255718Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:06:19 MDTMathematics of Computationack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/Henry C. {Thacher, Jr.}Iterated Square Root Expansions for the Inverse Cosine and Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine
@Article{Thacher:1961:ISR,
author = "Henry C. {Thacher, Jr.}",
title = "Iterated Square Root Expansions for the Inverse Cosine
and Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine",
journal = j-MATH-COMPUT,
volume = "15",
number = "76",
pages = "399--403",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "MCMPAF",
ISSN = "0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0025-5718",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematics of Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
}tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Based on the results of a third survey, the
engineering and programming characteristics of two
hundred twenty-two different electronic digital
computing systems are given. The data are presented
from the point of view of application, numerical and
arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage
systems, construction and checking features, power,
space, weight, and site preparation and personnel
requirements, production records, cost and rental
rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating
experience, and time availability, engineering
modifications and improvements and other related
topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen
comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised
bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer
engineering and programming terminology are included.",
acknowledgement = ack-mfc # " and " # ack-nhfb,
}Í
rr
MY !#')KM=m;Œ]Œ])™atechreportfparith.bibWeik:1961:TSDMartin H. WeikA Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing SystemsReport1115Ballistic Research LaboratoriesAberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA1131mar31961Fri Nov 28 19:37:51 2003http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2003.11.28 19:37:51 ???Based on the results of a third survey, the engineering and programming characteristics of two hundred twenty-two different electronic digital computing systems are given. The data are presented from the point of view of application, numerical and arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage systems, construction and checking features, power, space, weight, and site preparation and personnel requirements, production records, cost and rental rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating experience, and time availability, engineering modifications and improvements and other related topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer engineering and programming terminology are included.ack-mfcBased on the results of a third survey, the engineering and programming characteristics of two hundred twenty-two different electronic digital computing systems are given. The data are presented from the point of view of application, numerical and arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage systems, construction and checking features, power, space, weight, and site preparation and personnel requirements, production records, cost and rental rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating experience, and time availability, engineering modifications and improvements and other related topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer engineering and programming terminology are included.Martin H. WeikA Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems
@TechReport{Weik:1961:TSD,
author = "Martin H. Weik",
title = "A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital
Computing Systems",
type = "Report",
number = "1115",
institution = "Ballistic Research Laboratories",
address = "Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA",
pages = "1131",
month = mar,
year = "1961",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 28 19:37:51 2003",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Based on the results of a third survey, the
engineering and programming characteristics of two
hundred twenty-two different electronic digital
computing systems are given. The data are presented
from the point of view of application, numerical and
arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage
systems, construction and checking features, power,
space, weight, and site preparation and personnel
requirements, production records, cost and rental
rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating
experience, and time availability, engineering
modifications and improvements and other related
topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen
comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised
bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer
engineering and programming terminology are included.",
acknowledgement = ack-mfc # " and " # ack-nhfb,
}
a
j—a‰!QV %#/)+c=+3%=%;M)g+=Šincollectionfparith.bibCampbell:1962:FPOS. G. CampbellWerner BuchholzPlanning a Computer System: Project StretchFloating-Point Operationpub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr92--1211962QA76.8.I2 I5Wed Feb 14 17:24:27 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2007.02.14 17:24:27 ???IBM 7030 (Computer); IBM Stretchack-nhfb322S. G. CampbellPlanning a Computer System: {Project Stretch}Werner BuchholzFloating-Point Operation
@InCollection{Campbell:1962:FPO,
author = "S. G. Campbell",
editor = "Werner Buchholz",
booktitle = "Planning a Computer System: {Project Stretch}",
title = "Floating-Point Operation",
publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
bookpages = "322",
pages = "92--121",
year = "1962",
LCCN = "QA76.8.I2 I5",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 14 17:24:27 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
subject = "IBM 7030 (Computer); IBM Stretch",
}älP\ #/+c+3!Eƒ{;{µC7ñ%+{g‚”eSbookfparith.bibBuchholz:1962:PCSWerner BuchholzPlanning a computer system: Project Stretchpub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adrxvii + 32219621876Fri Nov 19 10:02:31 MST 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/annhistcomput.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib; library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE2010.11.19 10:02:31 MSTThis important book is the primary description of the influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its architÙ…OOU '#3-M)=m;-Q…cinproceedingsfparith.bibAshenhurst:1962:MIAR. L. AshenhurstThe Maniac III Arithmetic SystemAFIPS:1962:APS192--2021962Wed Feb 14 17:14:21 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.14 17:14:21 ???ack-nhfbR. L. AshenhurstThe {Maniac III} Arithmetic System
@InProceedings{Ashenhurst:1962:MIA,
author = "R. L. Ashenhurst",
title = "The {Maniac III} Arithmetic System",
crossref = "AFIPS:1962:APS",
pages = "192--202",
year = "1962",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 14 17:14:21 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‹NW#+GY;]7Ea;]GYŒ7 articlefparith.bibWilson:1961:ARBJ. B. Wilson and R. S. LedleyAn Algorithm for Rapid Binary Divisionj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-104662--670dec121961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52192710367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:04 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:04 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219271IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJ. B. Wilson and R. S. LedleyAn Algorithm for Rapid Binary Division
@Article{Wilson:1961:ARB,
author = "J. B. Wilson and R. S. Ledley",
title = "An Algorithm for Rapid Binary Division",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "4",
pages = "662--670",
month = dec,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219271",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:04 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219271",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}Ö fixed-point arithmetic, which would be untrue, but that
an equivalent indication of such loss is not provided.
Loss of significance, however, is also a serious
problem in fixed-point arithmetic; multiplication and
division do not handle it at all correctly by means of
leading zeros. (In particular, fixed-point
multiplication may lead to serious or even total
significance loss, which would not have occurred with
normalized FLP arithmetic: and although leading zeros
in addition and subtraction of fixed-point operands do
give correct significance indications, the use of other
operations and of built-in scaling loops frequently
destroys entirely the leading-zeros method of counting
significance.)''",
subject = "Computer architecture",
tableofcontents = "Foreword v \\
Preface vii \\
1. Project Stretch 1 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
2. Architectural Philosophy 5 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 \\
2.2. Resources 6 \\
2.3. Guiding Principles 7 \\
2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10
\\
2.5. Hindsight 15 \\
3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
3.1. System Organization 17 \\
3.2. Memory Units 17 \\
3.3. Index Memory 19 \\
3.4. Special Registers 19 \\
3.5. Input and Output Facilities 19 \\
3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 \\
3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 \\
3.8. Instruction Controls 21 \\
3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 \\
3.10. Instruction Look-ahead 21 \\
3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 \\
3.12. Instruction Set 24 \\
3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 \\
3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 \\
3.15. Connective Operations 27 \\
3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 \\
3.17. Branching Operations 28 \\
3.18. Transmission Operations 28 \\
3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 \\
3.20. New Features 29 \\
3.21. Performance 32 \\
4. Natural Data Units 33 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33
\\
4.2. Procedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36
\\
4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 \\
4.4. Classes of Operations 40 \\
5. Choosing a Number Base 42 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
5.1. Introduction 42 \\
5.2. Information Content 45 \\
5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 \\
5.4. Numerical Data 50 \\
5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 \\
5.6. Addresses 52 \\
5.7. Transformation 53 \\
5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 \\
5.9. Program Interpretation 56 \\
5.10. Other Number Bases 58 \\
5.11. Conclusion 58 \\
6. Character Set 60 \\
[by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] \\
6.1. Introduction 60 \\
6.2. Size of Set 62 \\
6.3. Subsets 62 \\
6.4. Expansion of Set 63 \\
6.5. Code 63 \\
6.6. Parity Bit 66 \\
6.7. Sequence 66 \\
6.8. Blank 67 \\
6.9. Decimal Digits 68 \\
6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 \×\
6.11. Adjacency 69 \\
6.12. Uniqueness 69 \\
6.13. Signs 70 \\
6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 \\
6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 \\
6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 \\
7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
7.1. Introduction 75 \\
7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 \\
7.3. Field Length 77 \\
7.4. Byte Size 78 \\
7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 \\
7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 \\
7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 \\
7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 \\
7.9. Numerical Signs 82 \\
7.10. Indicators 84 \\
7.11. Arithmetical Operations 85 \\
7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 \\
7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 \\
7.14. Connective Operations 89 \\
8. Floating-point Operation 92 \\
[by S. G. Campbell] \\
General Discussion \\
8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 \\
8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 \\
8.3. Normalization 97 \\
8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 \\
8.5. Range and Precision 99 \\
8.6. Round-off Error 100 \\
8.7. Significance Checks 101 \\
8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 \\
8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 \\
Floating-point Features of the 7030 \\
8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 \\
8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 \\
8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 \\
8.13. Indicators 112 \\
8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 \\
8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 \\
8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 \\
8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized \\
Floating-point Operations 118 \\
8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 \\
8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 \\
8.20. General Remarks 121 \\
9. Instruction Formats 122 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
9.1. Introduction 122 \\
9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 \\
9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124
\\
9.4. Implied Addresses 125 \\
9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 \\
9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 \\
9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 \\
9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages
132 \\
10. Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
10.2. Instruction Counter 134 \\
10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 \\
10.4. Conditional Branching 136 \\
10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 \\
10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137
\\
10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 \\
10.8. Execute Instructions 146 \\
10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 \\
11. Indexing 150 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw] \\
11.1. Introduction 150 \\
11.2. Indexing Functions 151 \\
11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 \\
11.4. Incrementing 157 \\
11.5. Counting 159 \\
11.6. Advancing by One 161 \\
Ø 11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 \\
11.8. Data Transmission 162 \\
11.9. Data Ordering 163 \\
11.10. Refilling 165 \\
11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167
\\
11.12. Indexing Applications 169 \\
11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 \\
11.14. File Maintenance 175 \\
11.15. Subroutine Control 177 \\
11.16. Conclusion 178 \\
12. Input-Output Control 179 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting \\
Input-Output and External Storage 179 \\
12.2. Input-Output Instructions 180 \\
12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 \\
12.4. Writing and Reading 182 \\
12.5. Controlling and Locating 183 \\
12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 \\
12.7. Program Interruptions 184 \\
12.8. Buffering 180 \\
12.9. Interface 188 \\
12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 \\
13. Multiprogramming 192 \\
[by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A.
Scalzi] \\
13.1. Introduction 192 \\
13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 \\
13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195
\\
13.4. Programmed Logic 197 \\
13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 \\
13.6. References 201 \\
14. The Central Processing Unit 202 \\
[by E. Bloch] \\
14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 \\
14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit
204 \\
14.3. Data Flow 204 \\
14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 \\
14.5. Checking 216 \\
14.6. Component Count 216 \\
14.7. Performance 217 \\
14.8. Circuits 218 \\
14.9. Packaging 223 \\
15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 \\
[by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] \\
15.1. General Description 228 \\
15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 \\
15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 \\
15.4. Forwarding 240 \\
15.5. Counter Sequences 241 \\
15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 \\
15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 \\
16. The Exchange 248 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
16.1. General Description 248 \\
16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 \\
16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 \\
16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 \\
16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 \\
16.6. Multiple Operations 252 \\
16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 \\
16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 \\
16.9. Forced Termination 253 \\
17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 \\
[by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene]
\\
17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 \\
17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 \\
17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 \\
17.4. Pattern Selection 260 \\
17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 \\
17.6. Statistical Aids 263 \\
17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 \\
17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 \\
17.9. Instruction Set 265 \\
17.10. Collating Operations 266 \\
17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 \\
17.12. Example 267 \\
Appendix A. Summary Data 273 \\
A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers
273 \\
A.2. Instruction Formats 275 \\
A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 \\
A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 \\
A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 \\
Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 \\
Notation 292 \\
B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 \\
B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 \\
B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 \\
B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a \\
Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 \\
B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 \\
B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 \\
Index 305",
}ÐÚects.http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/IBM-7030-Planning-McJones.pdfThe text of the book is in the public domain, with the permission of the author in 2003. See cite MacKenzie:1991:IAL for a remark about the noisy mode for floating-point arithmetic in the IBM 7030 Stretch. That mode is first mentioned on page 25 of this book, and described in detail on page 102, which states: ``By definition of ordinary normalized FLP operations, numbers are frequently extended on the right by attaching zeros. During addition the n-digit operand that is not preshifted is extended with n zeros, so as to provide the extra positions to which the preshifted operand can be added. Any operand or result that is shifted left to be normalized requires a corresponding number of zeros to be shifted in at the right. Both sets of zeros tend to produce numbers smaller in absolute value than they would have been if more digits had been carried. In the noisy mode these numbers are simply extended with 1 s instead of zeros (1 s in a binary machine, 9s in a decimal machine). So all numbers tend to be too large in absolute value. The true value, if there had been no significance loss, should lie between these two extremes. Hence, two runs, one made without and one made with the noisy mode, should show differences in result that indicate which digits may have been affected by significance loss. The principal weakness of the noisy-mode procedure is that it requires two runs for the same problem. A much less important weakness is that the loss of significance cannot be guaranteed to show up --- it merely has a very high probability of showing up --- whereas built-in significance checks can be made slightly pessimistic, so that actual significance loss will not be greater than indicated. On the other hand, little extra hardware and no extra storage are required for the noisy-mode approach. Furthermore, significance loss is relatively rare, so that running a problem twice when Significance loss is suspected does not pose a serious problem. What is serious is the possibility of unsuspected significance loss. In discussions of significance two points are often overlooked. The first of these is trivial: the best way of ensuring significant results is to use an adequate number of fraction digits. The second is almost equally mundane: for a given procedure, normalized FLP arithmetic will ordinarily produce the greatest precision possible for the number of fraction digits used. Normalized FLP arithmetic has been criticized with respect to significance loss, because such loss is not indicated by the creation of leading zeros, as it is with fixed-point arithmetic. In other words, the contention is not that normalized FLP arithmetic is more prone to significance loss than equivalent fixed-point arithmetic, which would be untrue, but that an equivalent indication of such loss is not provided. Loss of significance, however, is also a serious problem in fixed-point arithmetic; multiplication and division do not handle it at all correctly by means of leading zeros. (In particular, fixed-point multiplication may lead to serious or even total significance loss, which would not have occurred with normalized FLP arithmetic: and although leading zeros in addition and subtraction of fixed-point operands do give correct significance indications, the use of other operations and of built-in scaling loops frequently destroys entirely the leading-zeros method of counting significance.)''Computer architectureForeword v Preface vii 1. Project Stretch 1 [by W. Buchholz] 2. Architectural Philosophy 5 [by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] 2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 2.2. Resources 6 2.3. Guiding Principles 7 2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10 2.5. Hindsight 15 3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 [by W. Buchholz] 3.1. System Organization 17 3.2. Memory Units 17 3.3. Index Memory 19 3.4. Special Registers 19 3.5. Input and Output Facilities 19 3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 3.8. Instruction Controls 21 3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 3.10. InstrÛuction Look-ahead 21 3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 3.12. Instruction Set 24 3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 3.15. Connective Operations 27 3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 3.17. Branching Operations 28 3.18. Transmission Operations 28 3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 3.20. New Features 29 3.21. Performance 32 4. Natural Data Units 33 [by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz] 4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33 4.2. Procedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36 4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 4.4. Classes of Operations 40 5. Choosing a Number Base 42 [by W. Buchholz] 5.1. Introduction 42 5.2. Information Content 45 5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 5.4. Numerical Data 50 5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 5.6. Addresses 52 5.7. Transformation 53 5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 5.9. Program Interpretation 56 5.10. Other Number Bases 58 5.11. Conclusion 58 6. Character Set 60 [by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] 6.1. Introduction 60 6.2. Size of Set 62 6.3. Subsets 62 6.4. Expansion of Set 63 6.5. Code 63 6.6. Parity Bit 66 6.7. Sequence 66 6.8. Blank 67 6.9. Decimal Digits 68 6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 6.11. Adjacency 69 6.12. Uniqueness 69 6.13. Signs 70 6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 [by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz] 7.1. Introduction 75 7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 7.3. Field Length 77 7.4. Byte Size 78 7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 7.9. Numerical Signs 82 7.10. Indicators 84 7.11. Arithmetical Operations 85 7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 7.14. Connective Operations 89 8. Floating-point Operation 92 [by S. G. Campbell] General Discussion 8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 8.3. Normalization 97 8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 8.5. Range and Precision 99 8.6. Round-off Error 100 8.7. Significance Checks 101 8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 Floating-point Features of the 7030 8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 8.13. Indicators 112 8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized Floating-point Operations 118 8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 8.20. General Remarks 121 9. Instruction Formats 122 [by W. Buchholz] 9.1. Introduction 122 9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124 9.4. Implied Addresses 125 9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages 132 10. Instruction Sequencing 133 [by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] 10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 10.2. Instruction Counter 134 10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 10.4. Conditional Branching 136 10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137 10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 10.8. Execute Instructions 146 10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 11. Indexing 150 [by G. P. Blaauw] 11.1. Introduction 150 11.2. Indexing Functions 151 11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 11.4. Incrementing 157 11.5. Counting 159 11.6. Advancing by One 161 11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 11.8. Data Transmission 162 11.9. Data Ordering 163 11.10. Refilling 165 11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167 11.12. Indexing Applications 169 11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 11.14. File Maintenance 175 11.15. Subroutine Control 177 11.16. Conclusion 178 12. Input-Output Control 179 [by W. Buchholz] 12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting Input-Output and External Storage 179 12.2. Input-Output ÜInstructions 180 12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 12.4. Writing and Reading 182 12.5. Controlling and Locating 183 12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 12.7. Program Interruptions 184 12.8. Buffering 180 12.9. Interface 188 12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 13. Multiprogramming 192 [by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A. Scalzi] 13.1. Introduction 192 13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195 13.4. Programmed Logic 197 13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 13.6. References 201 14. The Central Processing Unit 202 [by E. Bloch] 14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit 204 14.3. Data Flow 204 14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 14.5. Checking 216 14.6. Component Count 216 14.7. Performance 217 14.8. Circuits 218 14.9. Packaging 223 15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 [by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] 15.1. General Description 228 15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 15.4. Forwarding 240 15.5. Counter Sequences 241 15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 16. The Exchange 248 [by W. Buchholz] 16.1. General Description 248 16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 16.6. Multiple Operations 252 16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 16.9. Forced Termination 253 17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 [by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene] 17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 17.4. Pattern Selection 260 17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 17.6. Statistical Aids 263 17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 17.9. Instruction Set 265 17.10. Collating Operations 266 17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 17.12. Example 267 Appendix A. Summary Data 273 A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers 273 A.2. Instruction Formats 275 A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 Notation 292 B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 Index 305ack-nhfbWerner BuchholzThis important book is the primary description of the influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its architects.Planning a computer system: {Project Stretch}
@Book{Buchholz:1962:PCS,
editor = "Werner Buchholz",
title = "Planning a computer system: {Project Stretch}",
publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "xvii + 322",
year = "1962",
LCCN = "1876",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 19 10:02:31 MST 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/annhistcomput.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib;
library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE",
note = "This important book is the primary description of the
influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its
architects.",
URL = "http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/IBM-7030-Planning-McJones.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "The text of the book is in the public domain, with the
permission of the author in 2003.
See \cite{MacKenzie:1991:IAL} for a remark about the
noisy mode for floating-point arithmetic in the IBM
7030 Stretch. That mode is first mentioned on page 25
of this book, and described in detailÝ on page 102,
which states:
``By definition of ordinary normalized FLP operations,
numbers are frequently extended on the right by
attaching zeros. During addition the n-digit operand
that is not preshifted is extended with n zeros, so as
to provide the extra positions to which the preshifted
operand can be added. Any operand or result that is
shifted left to be normalized requires a corresponding
number of zeros to be shifted in at the right. Both
sets of zeros tend to produce numbers smaller in
absolute value than they would have been if more digits
had been carried. In the noisy mode these numbers are
simply extended with 1 s instead of zeros (1 s in a
binary machine, 9s in a decimal machine). So all
numbers tend to be too large in absolute value. The
true value, if there had been no significance loss,
should lie between these two extremes. Hence, two runs,
one made without and one made with the noisy mode,
should show differences in result that indicate which
digits may have been affected by significance loss.
The principal weakness of the noisy-mode procedure is
that it requires two runs for the same problem. A much
less important weakness is that the loss of
significance cannot be guaranteed to show up --- it
merely has a very high probability of showing up ---
whereas built-in significance checks can be made
slightly pessimistic, so that actual significance loss
will not be greater than indicated. On the other hand,
little extra hardware and no extra storage are required
for the noisy-mode approach. Furthermore, significance
loss is relatively rare, so that running a problem
twice when Significance loss is suspected does not pose
a serious problem. What is serious is the possibility
of unsuspected significance loss.
In discussions of significance two points are often
overlooked. The first of these is trivial: the best way
of ensuring significant results is to use an adequate
number of fraction digits. The second is almost equally
mundane: for a given procedure, normalized FLP
arithmetic will ordinarily produce the greatest
precision possible for the number of fraction digits
used. Normalized FLP arithmetic has been criticized
with respect to significance loss, because such loss is
not indicated by the creation of leading zeros, as it
is with fixed-point arithmetic. In other words, the
contention is not that normalized FLP arithmetic is
more prone to significance loss than equivalent
fixed-point arithmetic, which would be untrue, but that
an equivalent indication of such loss is not provided.
Loss of significance, however, is also a serious
problem in fixed-point arithmetic; multiplication and
division do not handle it at all correctly by means of
leading zeros. (In particular, fixed-point
multiplication may lead to serious or even total
significance loss, which would not have occurred with
normalized FLP arithmetic: and although leading zeros
in addition and subtraction of fixed-point operands do
give correct significance indications, the use of other
operations and of built-in scaling loops frequently
destÞroys entirely the leading-zeros method of counting
significance.)''",
subject = "Computer architecture",
tableofcontents = "Foreword v \\
Preface vii \\
1. Project Stretch 1 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
2. Architectural Philosophy 5 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 \\
2.2. Resources 6 \\
2.3. Guiding Principles 7 \\
2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10
\\
2.5. Hindsight 15 \\
3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
3.1. System Organization 17 \\
3.2. Memory Units 17 \\
3.3. Index Memory 19 \\
3.4. Special Registers 19 \\
3.5. Input and Output Facilities 19 \\
3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 \\
3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 \\
3.8. Instruction Controls 21 \\
3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 \\
3.10. Instruction Look-ahead 21 \\
3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 \\
3.12. Instruction Set 24 \\
3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 \\
3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 \\
3.15. Connective Operations 27 \\
3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 \\
3.17. Branching Operations 28 \\
3.18. Transmission Operations 28 \\
3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 \\
3.20. New Features 29 \\
3.21. Performance 32 \\
4. Natural Data Units 33 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33
\\
4.2. Procedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36
\\
4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 \\
4.4. Classes of Operations 40 \\
5. Choosing a Number Base 42 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
5.1. Introduction 42 \\
5.2. Information Content 45 \\
5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 \\
5.4. Numerical Data 50 \\
5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 \\
5.6. Addresses 52 \\
5.7. Transformation 53 \\
5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 \\
5.9. Program Interpretation 56 \\
5.10. Other Number Bases 58 \\
5.11. Conclusion 58 \\
6. Character Set 60 \\
[by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] \\
6.1. Introduction 60 \\
6.2. Size of Set 62 \\
6.3. Subsets 62 \\
6.4. Expansion of Set 63 \\
6.5. Code 63 \\
6.6. Parity Bit 66 \\
6.7. Sequence 66 \\
6.8. Blank 67 \\
6.9. Decimal Digits 68 \\
6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 \\
6.11. Adjacency 69 \\
6.12. Uniqueness 69 \\
6.13. Signs 70 \\
6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 \\
6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 \\
6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 \\
7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
7.1. Introduction 75 \\
7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 \\
7.3. Field Length 77 \\
7.4. Byte Size 78 \\
7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 \\
7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 \\
7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 \\
7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 \\
7.9. Numerical Sißgns 82 \\
7.10. Indicators 84 \\
7.11. Arithmetical Operations 85 \\
7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 \\
7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 \\
7.14. Connective Operations 89 \\
8. Floating-point Operation 92 \\
[by S. G. Campbell] \\
General Discussion \\
8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 \\
8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 \\
8.3. Normalization 97 \\
8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 \\
8.5. Range and Precision 99 \\
8.6. Round-off Error 100 \\
8.7. Significance Checks 101 \\
8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 \\
8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 \\
Floating-point Features of the 7030 \\
8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 \\
8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 \\
8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 \\
8.13. Indicators 112 \\
8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 \\
8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 \\
8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 \\
8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized \\
Floating-point Operations 118 \\
8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 \\
8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 \\
8.20. General Remarks 121 \\
9. Instruction Formats 122 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
9.1. Introduction 122 \\
9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 \\
9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124
\\
9.4. Implied Addresses 125 \\
9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 \\
9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 \\
9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 \\
9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages
132 \\
10. Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
10.2. Instruction Counter 134 \\
10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 \\
10.4. Conditional Branching 136 \\
10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 \\
10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137
\\
10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 \\
10.8. Execute Instructions 146 \\
10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 \\
11. Indexing 150 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw] \\
11.1. Introduction 150 \\
11.2. Indexing Functions 151 \\
11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 \\
11.4. Incrementing 157 \\
11.5. Counting 159 \\
11.6. Advancing by One 161 \\
11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 \\
11.8. Data Transmission 162 \\
11.9. Data Ordering 163 \\
11.10. Refilling 165 \\
11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167
\\
11.12. Indexing Applications 169 \\
11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 \\
11.14. File Maintenance 175 \\
11.15. Subroutine Control 177 \\
11.16. Conclusion 178 \\
12. Input-Output Control 179 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting \\
Input-Output and External Storage 179 \\
12.2. Input-Output Instructions 180 \\
12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 \\
12.4. Writing and Reading 182 \\
12.5. Controlling and Locating 183 \\
12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 \\
12.7. Program Interruptions 184 \\
12.8. Buffering 180 \\
12.9. Interface 188 \\
12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 \\
13. Multiprogramming 192 \\
[by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A.
Scalzi] \\
13.1. Introduction 192 \\
13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 \\
13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195
\\
13.4. Programmed Logic 197 \\
13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 \\
13.6. References 201 \\
14. The Central Processing Unit 202 \\
[by E. Bloch] \\
14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 \\
14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit
204 \\
14.3. Data Flow 204 \\
14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 \\
14.5. Checking 216 \\
14.6. Component Count 216 \\
14.7. Performance 217 \\
14.8. Circuits 218 \\
14.9. Packaging 223 \\
15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 \\
[by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] \\
15.1. General Description 228 \\
15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 \\
15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 \\
15.4. Forwarding 240 \\
15.5. Counter Sequences 241 \\
15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 \\
15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 \\
16. The Exchange 248 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
16.1. General Description 248 \\
16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 \\
16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 \\
16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 \\
16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 \\
16.6. Multiple Operations 252 \\
16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 \\
16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 \\
16.9. Forced Termination 253 \\
17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 \\
[by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene]
\\
17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 \\
17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 \\
17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 \\
17.4. Pattern Selection 260 \\
17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 \\
17.6. Statistical Aids 263 \\
17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 \\
17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 \\
17.9. Instruction Set 265 \\
17.10. Collating Operations 266 \\
17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 \\
17.12. Example 267 \\
Appendix A. Summary Data 273 \\
A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers
273 \\
A.2. Instruction Formats 275 \\
A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 \\
A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 \\
A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 \\
Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 \\
Notation 292 \\
B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 \\
B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 \\
B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 \\
B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a \\
Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 \\
B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 \\
B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 \\
Index 305",
}
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and Antoine Petitet and Roldan Pozo and Karin Remington
and R. Clint Whaley",
title = "An updated set of {Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms
(BLAS)}",
journal = j-TOMS,
volume†Ê…s‹g
@Article{Becker:2000:JST,
author = "Pete Becker",
title = "The Journeyman's Shop: Trap Handlers, Sticky Bits, and
Floating-Point Comparisons",
journal = j-CCCUJ,
volume = "18",
number = "12",
pages = "54--??",
month = dec,
year = "2000",
CODEN = "CCUJEX",
ISSN = "1075-2838",
bibdate = "Tue May 14 18:09:29 MDT 2002",
bibsource = "À…s‹g
@Article{Becker:2000:JST,
author = "Pete Becker",
title = "The Journeyman's Shop: Trap Handlers, Sticky Bits, and
Floating-Point Comparisons",
journal = j-CCCUJ,
volume = "18",
number = "12",
pages = "54--??",
month = dec,
year = "2000",
CODEN = "CCUJEX",
ISSN = "1075-2838",
bibdate = "Tue May 14 18:09:29 MDT 2002",
bibsource = "http://www.cuj.com/articles/2000/0012/0012toc.htm?topic=articles;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Pete wraps up his series on practical floating-point
math.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "C/C++ Users Journal",
}ofˆR‘%
@Article{Bardin:1989:IUI,
author = "B. Bardin and C. Colket and D. Smith",
title = "Implementation of unsigned integers in {Ada}",
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volume = "9",
number = "1",
pages = "47--70",
month = jan # "\slash " # feb,
year = "1989",
CODEN = "AALEE5",
ISSN = "1094-3641 (print), 1557-9476 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "1094-3641",
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5 .5uSZ !#/#1+Em;‚Yy/#1#techreportfparith.bibDescloux:1962:REFJ. DesclouxRemarks on errors in first order iterative processes with floating-point computersUniversity of Illinois Graduate College, Digital Computer LaboratoryUrbana, IL, USA71962Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MSTReport / University of Illinois, Digital Computer Laboratory; no. 113 Report (University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign campus). Digital Computer Laboratory); no. 113.Electronic digital computers.; Numerical calculations.Supported by: National Science Foundation under grant G16489. ``March 22, 1962.''ack-nhfbJ. DesclouxRemarks on errors in first order iterative processes with floating-point computers
@TechReport{Descloux:1962:REF,
author = "J. Descloux",
title = "Remarks on errors in first order iterative processes
with floating-point computers",
institution = "University of Illinois Graduate College, Digital
Computer Laboratory",
address = "Urbana, IL, USA",
pages = "7",
year = "1962",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
series = "Report / University of Illinois, Digital Computer
Laboratory; no. 113 Report (University of Illinois
(Urbana-Champaign campus). Digital Computer
Laboratory); no. 113.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Electronic digital computers.; Numerical
calculations.",
remark = "Supported by: National Science Foundation under grant
G16489. ``March 22, 1962.''",
}NRY#+S=;]7E‚?;]S=Žs
articlefparith.bibCantor:1962:LEFD. Cantor and G. Estrin and R. TurnLogarithmic and Exponential Function Evaluation in a Variable Structure Digital Computerj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-112155--164apr41962IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1962.52193480367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 09:11:49 MDT 2011ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 09:11:49 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219348IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-njD. Cantor and G. Estrin and R. TurnLogarithmic and Exponential Function Evaluation in a Variable Structure Digital Computer
@Article{Cantor:1962:LEF,
author = "D. Cantor and G. Estrin and R. Turn",
title = "Logarithmic and Exponential Function Evaluation in a
Variable Structure Digital Computer",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-11",
number = "2",
pages = "155--164",
month = apr,
year = "1962",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1962.5219348",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 09:11:49 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219348",
acknowledgement = ack-nj # "\slash " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
;Û
µô
0š
@Misc{Karlsson:2005:IIL,
author = "Kent Karlsson",
title = "{ISO\slash IEC 10967, Language Independent Arithmetic
(LIA)}",
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@Misc{Kahan:2005:FPA,
author = "William Kahan",
title = "Floating-Point Arithmetic Besieged by ``Business
Decisions''",
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pages = "28",
day = "5",
month = jul,
year = "2005",
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note = "A Keynote Address, prepared for the IEEE-Sponsored
ARITH 17 Symposium on Computer Arithmetic, delivered on
Mon. 27 June 2005 in Hyannis, Massachusetts.",
URL = "http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/ARITH_17.pdf",
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}£„^‰=
@Misc{Kahan:2004:SSR,
author = "W. Kahan",
title = "$ 128 $ Squares of $ 128 $ Square Roots",
howpublished = "World-Wide Web document",
pages = "3",
day = "29",
month = jan,
year = "2004",
bibdate = "Mon Apr 25 18:25:57 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/k/kahan-william-m.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Lecture notes for Math 128.",
URL = "http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/Math128/SqSqrts.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}Êg
@Misc{Kitajima:1981:MS,
author = "Osamu Kitajima",
title = "Masterless samurai",
publisher = "Headfirst",
address = "Los Angeles, CA, USA",
year = "1981",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "1 sound disc",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "New Age music.; Popular music --- 1981-1990.",
remark = "Golden mean --- Wild monk --- Sei-- essence --- Where
is the real Japan? --- Masterless samurai --- Breath of
night --- Edo townsfolk - - Floating garden ---
Koshaku-- to the point --- Whoga-- grace]›;
@Misc{Kahan:2008:BFU,
author = "William Kahan",
title = "Back to the Future of Undebuggable Floating-Point
Computation in Science and Engineering",
howpublished = "Web document",
day = "30",
month = mar,
year = "2008",
bibdate = "Mon Mar 31 16:50:19 2008",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "The Bay Area Scientific Computing Day, BASCD08,
hoåƒ?†
@Misc{Kahan:2006:AIR,
author = "William Kahan",
title = "Applications of {IEEE 754r}'s Rounding Modes",
howpublished = "World-Wide Web document.",
day = "16",
month = feb,
year = "2006",
bibdate = "Fri Feb 17 17:54:50 2006",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://nonabelian.com/754/RNDGMODE.TXT",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
},„I‰
@Misc{Kahan:2005:BTG,
author = "William Kahan",
title = "A Brief Tutorial on Gradual Underflow",
howpublished = "World-Wide Web lecture notes.",
pages = "15",
day = "8",
month = jul,
year = "2005",
bibdate = "Fri Jul 15 11:38:13 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Prepared for ARITH 17, Tues. 28 June 2005, and
subsequently augmented.",
URL = "http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wkahan/ARITH_17U.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}¡
X
X‹$TW#/Ee;]7Ea;]EeŒEarticlefparith.bibFischler:1962:TRAM. A. Fischler and E. A. PoeThreshold Realization of Arithmetic Circuitsj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-112287--288apr41962IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1962.52193660367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 09:11:50 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 09:11:50 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219366IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbM. A. Fischler and E. A. PoeThreshold Realization of Arithmetic Circuits
@Article{Fischler:1962:TRA,
author = "M. A. Fischler and E. A. Poe",
title = "Threshold Realization of Arithmetic Circuits",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-11",
number = "2",
pages = "287--288",
month = apr,
year = "1962",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1962.5219366",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 09:11:50 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219366",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}6",
bibdate = "Fri Dec 8 08:24:14 1995",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Algorithmic languages, such as ALGOL, make provision
for two types of numbers, real and integer, which are
usually implemented on the computer by means of
floating-point and fixed-point numbers respectively.
The concepts real and integer, however, are taken from
mathematics, where the set of integers forms a proper
subset of the set of real numbers. In implementation a
real problem is posed by the fact that the set of
fixed-point numbers is not a proper subset of the set
of floating-point numbers; this problem becomes very
apparent in attempts to implement ALGOL 60.
Furthermore, the {\em one\/} mathematical operation of
addition is implemented in the machine by one of {\em
two\/} machine operations, fixed-point addition or
floating-point addition.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
reviewer = "R. L. Ashenhurst",
}Õ
¤¤žXUZ #'!%57;m;‹c?c-‹w!%œarticlefparith.bibGrau:1962:FNRA. A. GrauOn a floating-point number representation for use with algorithmic languagesj-CACM53160--161mar31962CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 0001078268.0026\#4506Fri Dec 8 08:24:14 1995http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.08 08:24:14 ???Algorithmic languages, such as ALGOL, make provision for two types of numbers, real and integer, which are usually implemented on the computer by means of floating-point and fixed-point numbers respectively. The concepts real and integer, however, are taken from mathematics, where the set of integers forms a proper subset of the set of real numbers. In implementation a real problem is posed by the fact that the set of fixed-point numbers is not a proper subset of the set of floating-point numbers; this problem becomes very apparent in attempts to implement ALGOL 60. Furthermore, the em one mathematical operation of addition is implemented in the machine by one of em two machine operations, fixed-point addition or floating-point addition.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79R. L. AshenhurstAlgorithmic languages, such as ALGOL, make provision for two types of numbers, real and integer, which are usually implemented on the computer by means of floating-point and fixed-point numbers respectively. The concepts real and integer, however, are taken from mathematics, where the set of integers forms a proper subset of the set of real numbers. In implementation a real problem is posed by the fact that the set of fixed-point numbers is not a proper subset of the set of floating-point numbers; this problem becomes very apparent in attempts to implement ALGOL 60. Furthermore, the {\em one\/} mathematical operation of addition is implemented in the machine by one of {\em two\/} machine operations, fixed-point addition or floating-point addition.A. A. GrauOn a floating-point number representation for use with algorithmic languages
@Article{Grau:1962:FNR,
author = "A. A. Grau",
title = "On a floating-point number representation for use with
algorithmic languages",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "5",
number = "3",
pages = "160--161",
month = mar,
year = "1962",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
MRclass = "68.00",
MRnumber = "26\#4506",
bibdate = "Fri Dec 8 08:24:14 1995",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Algorithmic languages, such as ALGOL, make provision
for two types of numbers, real and integer, which are
usually implemented on the computer by means of
floating-point and fixed-point numbers respectively.
The concepts real and integer, however, are taken from
mathematics, where the set of integers forms a proper
subset of the set of real numbers. In implementation a
real problem is posed by the fact that the set of
fixed-point numbers is not a proper subset of the set
of floating-point numbers; this problem becomes very
apparent in attempts to implement ALGOL 60.
Furthermore, the {\em one\/} mathematical operation of
addition is implemented in the machine by one of {\em
two\/} machine operations, fixed-point addition or
floating-point addition.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
reviewer = "R. L. Ashenhurst",
}
ù öù‰yWV #-Ii+3!E%;uMmIiŠibookfparith.bibHamming:1962:NMSR. W. (Richard Wesley) HammingNumerical methods for scientists and engineerspub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr4111962QA297 .H28Fri Aug 20 09:12:08 MDT 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2010.08.20 09:12:08 MDTInternational series in pure and applied mathematicsCited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.Numerical analysis; Electronic digital computersack-nhfbR. W. (Richard Wesley) HammingNumerical methods for scientists and engineers
@Book{Hamming:1962:NMS,
author = "R. W. (Richard Wesley) Hamming",
title = "Numerical methods for scientists and engineers",
publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "411",
year = "1962",
LCCN = "QA297 .H28",
bibdate = "Fri Aug 20 09:12:08 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
series = "International series in pure and applied mathematics",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "Numerical analysis; Electronic digital computers",
}ŒVY #+-5;]7Ea;]-5
articlefparith.bibGuffin:1962:CSLRonald M. GuffinA Computer for Solving Linear Simultaneous Equations Using the Residue Number Systemj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-112164--173apr41962IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1962.52193490367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 09:11:49 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 09:11:49 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219349IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbRonald M. GuffinA Computer for Solving Linear Simultaneous Equations Using the Residue Number System
@Article{Guffin:1962:CSL,
author = "Ronald M. Guffin",
title = "A Computer for Solving Linear Simultaneous Equations
Using the Residue Number System",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-11",
number = "2",
pages = "164--173",
month = apr,
year = "1962",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1962.5219349",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 09:11:49 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219349",
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fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
ßTËb½ÎßŠ[•7
@InCollection{Crowell:1987:FPA,
author = "Charles Crowell",
title = "Floating-point arithmetic with the {TMS32020}",
crossref = "Lin:1987:DSP"Œ ˜
@InCollection{Corliss:1984:AGT,
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@InCollection{Cody:1971:SEF,
author = "W. J. Cody",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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}.ƒ8†q
@InCollection{Clark:1971:SCP,
author = "N. W. Clark and W. J. Cody and H. Kuki",
title = "Self-Contained Power Routines",
crossref = "Rice:1971:MS",
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@InCollection{Carr:1959:PC,
author = "John W. {Carr III}",
editor = "Eugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E.
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note = "Chapter 2.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "1958--1961: Volume 1. Control fundamentals. Volume 2.
Computers and data processing. Volume 3. Systems and
components. Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "automation; mathematics; computers; operations
research",
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@InCollection{Campbell:1962:FPO,
author = "S. G. Campbell",
editor = "Werner Buchholz",
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title = "Floating-Point Operation",
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address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
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z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
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subject = "IBM 7030 (Computer); IBM Stretch",
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@InCollection{Brown:1951:HRR,
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}E
¼"
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abstract = "Recently the complex residue number system, or RNS,
has been a subject of intense study. One special
embodiment of this theory is the single modulus complex
RNS processor which suggests both implementation and
performance advantages. In this paper these conjectures
are tested in the context of a CMOS gate array design
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keywords = "ARITH-8",
}¸ƒt‡i
@InProceedings{Kantabutra:1991:DOC,
author = "Vitit Kantabutra",
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URL = "http://www.acsel-lab.com/arithmetic/arith10/papers/ARITH10_Kantabutra.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "ARITH-10",
}
‡|y
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author = "A. Kanellakis and P. Agathoklis",
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ISCAS '94, 2 June 1994",
title = "Floating-point roundoff noise analysis of {$2$-D}
state-space digital filters",
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o Lo‹YfW #++KW57E‚5;?c+Sarticlefparith.bibSmith:1962:ACDaRobert L. SmithAlgorithm 116: Complex Divisionj-CACM58435--435aug81962CACMA2https://doi.org/10.1145/368637.3686610001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:40 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:40 MSTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Robert L. Smith{Algorithm 116}: {Complex} Division
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author = "Huberto M. Sierra",
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abstract = "The invention relates to digital computers and more
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ÄwÖ‹rW#)7ƒ[=m;!7ƒ‹articlefparith.bibGeier:1963:ACDA. Geier and I. SturzThe approximate calculation of a definite integral with automatic choice of integration steps (intervals). The program for the computer $ rm MECIPTI $ in a floating point regime. (Romanian)An. Univ. Timisoara Ser. Sti. Mat.-Fiz.1133--139196368.0030\#3588Fri Dec 08 13:52:47 1995http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.08 13:52:47 ???ack-nhfbR. N. GossA. Geier and I. SturzThe approximate calculation of a definite integral with automatic choice of integration steps (intervals). The program for the computer {$ {\rm MECIPTI} $} in a floating point regime. (Romanian)
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author = "A. Geier and I. Sturz",
title = "The approximate calculation of a definite integral
with automatic choice of integration steps (intervals).
The program for the computer {$ {\rm MECIPTI} $} in a
floating point regime. (Romanian)",
journal = "An. Univ. Timi{\c{s}}oara Ser. {\c{S}}ti. Mat.-Fiz.",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
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abstract = "The 7090 at NYU has been modified to include a
``Significance Mode'' of operation which is intended to
facilitate the identification of significant bits in
the results of floating-point arithmetic operations.
The manner in which floating-point arithmetic is
handled in this mode is discussed. Several numerical
experiments using this mode are described and
comparisons are made with the ordinary ``normalized
mode.'' Examples include power series evaluation,
linear equations solution, determinant evaluation and
matrix inversion.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}ó
™ssY #1'gW57E‚5;ˆ1?cˆ1'g˜Iarticlefparith.bibGoldstein:1963:SADMax GoldsteinSignificance arithmetic on a digital computerj-CACM63111--117mar31963CACMA2https://doi.org/10.1145/366274.3663390001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:45 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:45 MSTThe 7090 at NYU has been modified to include a ``Significance Mode'' of operation which is intended to facilitate the identification of significant bits in the results of floating-point arithmetic operations. The manner in which floating-point arithmetic is handled in this mode is discussed. Several numerical experiments using this mode are described and comparisons are made with the ordinary ``normalized mode.'' Examples include power series evaluation, linear equations solution, determinant evaluation and matrix inversion.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79The 7090 at NYU has been modified to include a ``Significance Mode'' of operation which is intended to facilitate the identification of significant bits in the results of floating-point arithmetic operations. The manner in which floating-point arithmetic is handled in this mode is discussed. Several numerical experiments using this mode are described and comparisons are made with the ordinary ``normalized mode.'' Examples include power series evaluation, linear equations solution, determinant evaluation and matrix inversion.Max GoldsteinSignificance arithmetic on a digital computer
@Article{Goldstein:1963:SAD,
author = "Max Goldstein",
title = "Significance arithmetic on a digital computer",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "6",
number = "3",
pages = "111--117",
month = mar,
year = "1963",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/366274.366339",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 25 18:19:45 MST 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "The 7090 at NYU has been modified to include a
``Significance Mode'' of operation which is intended to
facilitate the identification of significant bits in
the results of floating-point arithmetic operations.
The manner in which floating-point arithmetic is
handled in this mode is discussed. Several numerical
experiments using this mode are described and
comparisons are made with the ordinary ``normalized
mode.'' Examples include power series evaluation,
linear equations solution, determinant evaluation and
matrix inversion.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}