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)+?indexsqlite_autoindex_strtab_1strtabŒ#,ûöñìæàÚÔÎÈÂ¼¶°ª¤ž˜’Œt F. Oberman, e-mail: path =stuart.oberman@amd.com=@String{ack-sfo = "Stuart F. Oberman,
e-mail: \path=stuart.oberman@amd.com="}„ ƒ#…ack-rfbRonald F. Boisvert, Applied and Computational Mathematics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA, Tel: +1 301 975 3812, e-mail: path =boisvert@cam.nist.gov=@String{ack-rfb = "Ronald F. Boisvert,
Applied and Computational Mathematics Division,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA,
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e-mail: \path=boisvert@cam.nist.gov="}ƒ3‚„Kack-pbPreston Briggs, Tera Computer Company, 2815 Eastlake East, Seattle, WA 98102, USA, Tel: +1 206 325-0800, e-mail: path |preston@tera.com|@String{ack-pb = "Preston Briggs,
Tera Computer Company,
2815 Eastlake East,
Seattle, WA 98102,
USA,
Tel: +1 206 325-0800,
e-mail: \path|preston@tera.com|"}‚-Oƒ
ack-njNorbert Juffa, 2445 Mission College Blvd. Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA email: path =norbert@iit.com=@String{ack-nj = "Norbert Juffa,
2445 Mission College Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA
email: \path=norbert@iit.com="}†v…ˆcack-nhfbNelson H. F. Beebe, University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB, 155 S 1400 E RM 233, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA, Tel: +1 801 581 5254, FAX: +1 801 581 4148, e-mail: path |beebe@math.utah.edu|, path |beebe@acm.org|, path |beebe@computer.org| (Internet), URL: path |http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
University of Utah,
Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
155 S 1400 E RM 233,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
\path|beebe@acm.org|,
\path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}ƒq‚W…ack-mfcMichael F. Cowlishaw, IBM UK (MP5), PO Box 31, Birmingham Road, Warwick, CV34 5JL, UK, e-mail: path |mfc@uk.ibm.com|, URL: path |http://www2.hursley.ibm.com/decimal|@String{ack-mfc = "Michael F. Cowlishaw,
IBM UK (MP5),
PO Box 31,
Birmingham Road,
Warwick, CV34 5JL,
UK,
e-mail: \path|mfc@uk.ibm.com|,
URL: \path|http://www2.hursley.ibm.com/decimal|"}„ƒ…ack-krKarin Remington, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building 820, Room 365, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA, Tel: +1 301 975-5119, FAX: +1 301 990-4127, e-mail: path |karin@cam.nist.gov|@String{ack-kr = "Karin Remington,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Building 820, Room 365,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA,
Tel: +1 301 975-5119,
FAX: +1 301 990-4127,
e-mail: \path|karin@cam.nist.gov|"}ƒ‚„ack-jrJon Rokne, Department of Computer Science, The University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada@String{ack-jr = "Jon Rokne,
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2500 University Drive N.W.,
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Tera Computer Company,
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@String{ack-nj = "Norbert Juffa,
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author-dates = "Johan Vilhelm Nystr{\"o}m (1824--1885)",
remark = "Thanks for Paul Hardy of Unifoundry in San Diego, CA,
USA, for information about Nystrom's promotion of
hexadecimal arithmetic, and for creating a Web site
about Nystrom's tonal system, as well as developing
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subject = "Weights and measures; Numeration; base-16 arithmetic;
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6 ƒ6ˆJ[ ##-+u=m;a+iu‡q
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88“E_ #-I‚=7E%;e„O%QI‚•bookfparith.bibNystrom:1862:PNSJohn W. (John William) NystromProject of a new system of arithmetic, weight, measure and coins, proposed to be called the tonal system, with sixteen to the baseJ. B. Lippincott and Co.Philadelphia, PA, USA1061862QC96 .N95Sat Oct 29 10:28:27 MDT 2016http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2016.10.29 10:28:27 MDThttp://unifoundry.com/tonal/; https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011602816; https://lccn.loc.gov/04025433Thanks for Paul Hardy of Unifoundry in San Diego, CA, USA, for information about Nystrom's promotion of hexadecimal arithmetic, and for creating a Web site about Nystrom's tonal system, as well as developing Unicode-compatible fonts to represent the additional digits needed by the system.Weights and measures; Numeration; base-16 arithmetic; hexadecimal arithmeticack-nhfbJohan Vilhelm Nystrom (1824--1885)John W. (John William) NystromProject of a new system of arithmetic, weight, measure and coins, proposed to be called the tonal system, with sixteen to the base
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author = "John W. (John William) Nystrom",
title = "Project of a new system of arithmetic, weight, measure
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digits needed by the system.",
subject = "Weights and measures; Numeration; base-16 arithmetic;
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}
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remark = "Cited in \cite[ref. 14]{Carter:2013:ESF}.",
}–
` #-'#57=m;A„[Ks‚„['•iarticlefparith.bibNewcomb:1881:NFUSimon NewcombNote on the frequency of use of the different digits in natural numbersj-AM-J-MATH41/439--401881AJMAAN0002-9327 (print), 1080-6377 (electronic) OR 00029327 (print), 10806377 (electronic)0002-9327 OR 00029327Thu Feb 15 16:35:24 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.15 16:35:24 ???http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9327%281881%294%3A1%2F4%3C39%3ANOTFOU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-KThat the ten digits do not occur with equal frequency must be evident to any one making much use of logarithmic tables, and noticing how much faster the first pages wear out than the last ones. The first significant figure is oftener 1 than any other digit, and the frequency diminishes up to 9.American Journal of MathematicsBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's LawFrom p. 40: ``The law of probability of the occurrence of numbers is such that all mantissas of their logarithms are equally probable.''ack-nhfbThat the ten digits do not occur with equal frequency must be evident to any one making much use of logarithmic tables, and noticing how much faster the first pages wear out than the last ones. The first significant figure is oftener 1 than any other digit, and the frequency diminishes up to 9.Simon NewcombNote on the frequency of use of the different digits in natural numbers
@Article{Newcomb:1881:NFU,
author = "Simon Newcomb",
title = "Note on the frequency of use of the different digits
in natural numbers",
journal = j-AM-J-MATH,
volume = "4",
number = "1/4",
pages = "39--40",
year = "1881",
CODEN = "AJMAAN",
ISSN = "0002-9327 (print), 1080-6377 (electronic)",
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bibdate = "Thu Feb 15 16:35:24 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9327%281881%294%3A1%2F4%3C39%3ANOTFOU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K",
abstract = "That the ten digits do not occur with equal frequency
must be evident to any one making much use of
logarithmic tables, and noticing how much faster the
first pages wear out than the last ones. The first
significant figure is oftener 1 than any other digit,
and the frequency diminishes up to 9.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "American Journal of Mathematics",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From p. 40: ``The law of probability of the occurrence
of numbers is such that all mantissas of their
logarithms are equally probable.''",
}
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author = "Silas W. Holman",
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Examples Taken Mainly From Physics And Electrical
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author = "D. F. Barrow",
title = "Questions and Discussions: Discussions: On Taking
Square Roots of Integers",
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volume = "31",
number = "10",
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year = "1924",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "American Mathematical Monthly",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.html",
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author = "L. {Torres y Quevedo}",
title = "Essais sur l'automatique. Sa definition. {{\'E}}tendue
th{\'e}orique de ses applications ({French}) [{Essays}
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Translated by Mr. R. Basu.",
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fjournal = "Revue G{\'e}n{\'e}rale des Sciences Pures et
Appliqu{\'e}es",
language = "French",
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journal = j-J-INST-ACTUARIES,
volume = "67",
number = "??",
pages = "187--221",
year = "1936",
ISSN = "0020-2681",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:33:16 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 7.1]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Institute of Actuaries",
}Œa[ #-'s57Eƒ;Qo'sŽarticlefparith.bibCalvert:1936:DDSH. R. CalvertDecimal Division of Scales before the Metric Systemj-ISIS252433--436sep91936ISISA40021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic) OR 00211753 (print), 15456994 (electronic)0021-1753 OR 00211753Tue Jul 30 21:21:25 MDT 2013http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis; http://www.jstor.org/stable/i211115; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1930.bib2013.07.30 21:21:25 MDThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/225380Isisack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.htmlH. R. CalvertDecimal Division of Scales before the Metric System
@Article{Calvert:1936:DDS,
author = "H. R. Calvert",
title = "Decimal Division of Scales before the Metric System",
journal = j-ISIS,
volume = "25",
number = "2",
pages = "433--436",
month = sep,
year = "1936",
CODEN = "ISISA4",
ISSN = "0021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0021-1753",
bibdate = "Tue Jul 30 21:21:25 MDT 2013",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis;
http://www.jstor.org/stable/i211115;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1930.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/225380",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Isis",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.html",
}
”
k”‰T]#/g#=m;[g‰Ibookfparith.bibMillikan:1937:MMPRobert A. Millikan and Duane E. Roller and Earnest C. WatsonMechanics, Molecular Physics, Heat, and Soundpub-MITpub-MIT:adr1937Mon May 21 17:16:04 2018http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2018.05.21 17:16:04 ???See Appendix: Significant Figures and Notations by Powers of Ten.Cited in cite [ref. 22]Carter:2013:ESF.ack-nhfbRobert A. Millikan and Duane E. Roller and Earnest C. WatsonSee Appendix: Significant Figures and Notations by Powers of Ten.Mechanics, Molecular Physics, Heat, and Sound
@Book{Millikan:1937:MMP,
author = "Robert A. Millikan and Duane E. Roller and Earnest C.
Watson",
title = "Mechanics, Molecular Physics, Heat, and Sound",
publisher = pub-MIT,
address = pub-MIT:adr,
pages = "????",
year = "1937",
bibdate = "Mon May 21 17:16:04 2018",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See Appendix: Significant Figures and Notations by
Powers of Ten.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Cited in \cite[ref. 22]{Carter:2013:ESF}.",
}‹] #+%%357E
;G%%Œarticlefparith.bibEscott:1937:QDNE. B. EscottQuestions, Discussions, and Notes: Rapid Method for Extracting a Square Rootj-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY4410644--646dec121937AMMYAE0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic) OR 00029890 (print), 19300972 (electronic)0002-9890 OR 00029890Mon Jun 28 12:38:44 MDT 1999http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1999.06.28 12:38:44 MDTAmerican Mathematical Monthlyack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.htmlE. B. EscottQuestions, Discussions, and Notes: Rapid Method for Extracting a Square Root
@Article{Escott:1937:QDN,
author = "E. B. Escott",
title = "Questions, Discussions, and Notes: Rapid Method for
Extracting a Square Root",
journal = j-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY,
volume = "44",
number = "10",
pages = "644--646",
month = dec,
year = "1937",
CODEN = "AMMYAE",
ISSN = "0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0002-9890",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 28 12:38:44 MDT 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "American Mathematical Monthly",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.html",
}rith.bib",
note = "Not submitted until 1940",
URL = "http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/11173/34541425.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "April 30, 1916--February 24, 2001",
remark = "Smiley \cite[p. 91]{Smiley:2010:MWI} claims: ``He
[Shannon] also had the insight, like Atanasoff, that
the binary arithmetic that relay switches represented
would simplify information systems. His master's
thesis, written when he as twenty-one and published
when he was twenty-two, is considered to be one of the
most important, if not the most important, master's
thesis of the twentieth century.''\par
Pages 59--61 of the thesis are a section called
``Electric Adder to the Base Two'', and pages 62--68,
``A Factor Table Machine'', describe a machine that
will print a table of factors and primes of all the
integers from 1 to 100,000,000. Shannon notes on page
68: ``As to the practicality of such a device, it might
be said that J. P. Kulik spent 20 years in constructing
a table of primes up to 100,000,000 and when finished
it was found to contain so many errors that it was not
worth publishing. The machine described here could
probably be made to handle 5 numbers per second so that
the table would require only about 2 months to
construct.''",
}
66G [ '#-7s/_1=m;=
=O7=s¡%mastersthesisfparith.bibShannon:1937:SARClaude Elwood ShannonA Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching CircuitsMaster of ScienceDepartment of Electrical Engineering, MITCambridge, MA, USA7210aug81937Thu Nov 18 10:35:20 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.11.18 10:35:20 ???Not submitted until 1940http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/11173/34541425.pdfSmiley cite [p. 91]Smiley:2010:MWI claims: ``He [Shannon] also had the insight, like Atanasoff, that the binary arithmetic that relay switches represented would simplify information systems. His master's thesis, written when he as twenty-one and published when he was twenty-two, is considered to be one of the most important, if not the most important, master's thesis of the twentieth century.''par Pages 59--61 of the thesis are a section called ``Electric Adder to the Base Two'', and pages 62--68, ``A Factor Table Machine'', describe a machine that will print a table of factors and primes of all the integers from 1 to 100,000,000. Shannon notes on page 68: ``As to the practicality of such a device, it might be said that J. P. Kulik spent 20 years in constructing a table of primes up to 100,000,000 and when finished it was found to contain so many errors that it was not worth publishing. The machine described here could probably be made to handle 5 numbers per second so that the table would require only about 2 months to construct.''ack-nhfbApril 30, 1916--February 24, 2001Claude Elwood ShannonNot submitted until 1940A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits
@MastersThesis{Shannon:1937:SAR,
author = "Claude Elwood Shannon",
title = "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits",
type = "{Master of Science}",
school = "Department of Electrical Engineering, MIT",
address = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
pages = "72",
day = "10",
month = aug,
year = "1937",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 10:35:20 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Not submitted until 1940",
URL = "http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/11173/34541425.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "April 30, 1916--February 24, 2001",
remark = "Smiley \cite[p. 91]{Smiley:2010:MWI} claims: ``He
[Shannon] also had the insight, like Atanasoff, that
the binary arithmetic that relay switches represented
would simplify information systems. His master's
thesis, written when he as twenty-one and published
when he was twenty-two, is considered to be one of the
most important, if not the most important, master's
thesis of the twentieth century.''\par
Pages 59--61 of the thesis are a section called
``Electric Adder to the Base Two'', and pages 62--68,
``A Factor Table Machine'', describe a machine that
will print a table of factors and primes of all the
integers from 1 to 100,000,000. Shannon notes on page
68: ``As to the practicality of such a device, it might
be said that J. P. Kulik spent 20 years in constructing
a table of primes up to 100,000,000 and when finished
it was found to contain so many errors that it was not
worth publishing. The machine described here could
probably be made to handle 5 numbers per second so that
the table would require only about 2 months to
construct.''",
}umbers begin with the
digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some
20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources
shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first
digits when the numbers are composed of four or more
digits. An analysis of the numbers from different
sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated
subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a
much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution
than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other
formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that
numbers that individually are without relationship are,
when considered in large groups, in good agreement with
a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous
Numbers.''\par
A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency
for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric
series. If the series is made up of numbers containing
three or more digits the first digits form a
logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single
digits the geometric relation still holds but the
simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.\par
An equation is given showing the frequencies of first
digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10
to 100, etc.\par
The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the
second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it
is shown that the same law applies to
reciprocals.\par
There are many instances showing that the geometric
series, or the logarithmic law, has long been
recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature
and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and
drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the
astronomer and the sensory response curves of the
psychologist are all particular examples of a
relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs.
The Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general
probability law of widespread application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Proceedings of the {American Philosophical Society}
held at {Philadelphia} for promoting useful knowledge",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/journal/procamerphilsoci",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From \cite{Logan:1978:FDP}: ``Benford's paper was
published in 1938 in a journal of rather limited
circulation and not usually read by mathematicians. It
so happened that it was immediately followed in the
same issue by a physics paper which became of some
importance for secret nuclear work during World War II
[H. A. Bethe, M. E. Rose, and L. P. Smith, `The
Multiple Scattering of Electrons', Proc. Amer. Phil.
Soc. 78(4), 573--585 (1938)]. That is why Benford's
paper caught the attention of physicists in the early
1940's and was much discussed. This led to the notes in
Nature by Goudsmit and Furry [3] and Furry and Hurwitz
[4] containing an effort to explain Benford's law. We
considered it at that time merely a welcome diversion
and did not expect that over thirty papers would be
devoted to this subject in subsequent years.'' The 2006
bibliography \cite{Hurlimann:2006:BLB} cites 325
publications about Benford's Law.",
}!
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acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
}©&e Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general probability law of widespread application.Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledgeBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's LawFrom cite Logan:1978:FDP: ``Benford's paper was published in 1938 in a journal of rather limited circulation and not usually read by mathematicians. It so happened that it was immediately followed in the same issue by a physics paper which became of some importance for secret nuclear work during World War II [H. A. Bethe, M. E. Rose, and L. P. Smith, `The Multiple Scattering of Electrons', Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 78(4), 573--585 (1938)]. That is why Benford's paper caught the attention of physicists in the early 1940's and was much discussed. This led to the notes in Nature by Goudsmit and Furry [3] and Furry and Hurwitz [4] containing an effort to explain Benford's law. We considered it at that time merely a welcome diversion and did not expect that over thirty papers would be devoted to this subject in subsequent years.'' The 2006 bibliography cite Hurlimann:2006:BLB cites 325 publications about Benford's Law.ack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/journal/procamerphilsociIt has been observed that the first pages of a table of common logarithms show more wear than do the last pages, indicating that more used numbers begin with the digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some 20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first digits when the numbers are composed of four or more digits. An analysis of the numbers from different sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that numbers that individually are without relationship are, when considered in large groups, in good agreement with a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous Numbers.''\par A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric series. If the series is made up of numbers containing three or more digits the first digits form a logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single digits the geometric relation still holds but the simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.\par An equation is given showing the frequencies of first digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10 to 100, etc.\par The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it is shown that the same law applies to reciprocals.\par There are many instances showing that the geometric series, or the logarithmic law, has long been recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the astronomer and the sensory response curves of the psychologist are all particular examples of a relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs. The Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general probability law of widespread application.Frank BenfordThe Law of Anomalous Numbers
@Article{Benford:1938:LAN,
author = "Frank Benford",
title = "The Law of Anomalous Numbers",
journal = j-PROC-AMER-PHIL-SOC,
volume = "78",
number = "4",
pages = "551--572",
month = mar,
year = "1938",
CODEN = "PAPCAA",
ISSN = "0003-049X (print), 2326-9243 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0003-049X",
bibdate = "Thu Feb 15 16:28:28 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X%2819380331%2978%3A4%3C551%3ATLOAN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G",
abstract = "It has been observed that the first pages of a table
of common logarithms show more wear than do the last
pages, indicating that more used numbers begin with the
digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some
20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources
shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first
digits when the numbers are composed of four or more
digits. An analysis of the numbers from different
sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated
subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a
much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution
than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other
formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that
numbers that individually are without relationship are,
when considered in large groups, in good agreement with
a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous
Numbers.''\par
A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency
for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric
series. If the series is made up of numbers containing
three or more digits the first digits form a
logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single
digits the geometric relation still holds but the
simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.\par
An equation is given showing the frequencies of first
digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10
to 100, etc.\par
The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the
second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it
is shown that the same law applies to
reciprocals.\par
There are many instances showing that the geometric
series, or the logarithmic law, has long been
recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature
and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and
drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the
astronomer and the sensory response curves of the
psychologist are all particular examples of a
relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs.
The Law of Anomalous Numbers is thus a general
probability law of widespread application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Proceedings of the {American Philosophical Society}
held at {Philadelphia} for promoting useful knowledge",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/journal/procamerphilsoci",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From \cite{Logan:1978:FDP}: ``Benford's paper was
published in 1938 in a journal of rather limited
circulation and not usually read by mathematicians. It
so happened that it was immediately followed in the
same issue by a physics paper which became of some
importance for secret nuclear work during World War II
[H. A. Bethe, M. E. Rose, and L. P. Smith, `The
Multiple Scattering of Electrons', Proc. Amer. Phil.
Soc. 78(4), 573--585 (1938)]. That is why Benford's
paper caught the attention of physicists in the early
1940's and was much discussed. This led to the notes in
Nature by Goudsmit and Furry [3] and Furry and Hurwitz
[4] containing an effort to explain Benford's law. We
considered it at that time merely a welcome diversion
and did not expect that over thirty papers would be
devoted to this subject in subsequent years.'' The 2006
bibliography \cite{Hurlimann:2006:BLB} cites 325
publications about Benford's Law.",
}
mmÓ!_ #-'E557=m;CŸ]WsŽEgŸe'EÌSarticlefparith.bibBenford:1938:LANFrank BenfordThe Law of Anomalous Numbersj-PROC-AMER-PHIL-SOC784551--572mar31938PAPCAA0003-049X (print), 2326-9243 (electronic) OR 0003049X (print), 23269243 (electronic)0003-049X OR 0003049XThu Feb 15 16:28:28 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.15 16:28:28 ???http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X%2819380331%2978%3A4%3C551%3ATLOAN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-GIt has been observed that the first pages of a table of common logarithms show more wear than do the last pages, indicating that more used numbers begin with the digit 1 than with the digit 9. A compilation of some 20,000 first digits taken from widely divergent sources shows that there is a logarithmic distribution of first digits when the numbers are composed of four or more digits. An analysis of the numbers from different sources shows that the numbers taken from unrelated subjects, such as a group of newspaper items, show a much better agreement with a logarithmic distribution than do numbers from mathematical tabulations or other formal data. There is here the peculiar fact that numbers that individually are without relationship are, when considered in large groups, in good agreement with a distribution law---hence the name ``Anomalous Numbers.''par A further analysis of the data shows a strong tendency for bodies of numerical data to fall into geometric series. If the series is made up of numbers containing three or more digits the first digits form a logarithmic series. If the numbers contain only single digits the geometric relation still holds but the simple logarithmic relation no longer applies.par An equation is given showing the frequencies of first digits in the different orders of numbers 1 to 10, 10 to 100, etc.par The equation also gives the frequency of digits in the second, third + place of a multi-digit number, and it is shown that the same law applies to reciprocals.par There are many instances showing that the geometric series, or the logarithmic law, has long been recognized as a common phenomenon in factual literature and in the ordinary affairs of life. The wire gauge and drill gauge of the mechanic, the magnitude scale of the astronomer and the sensory response curves of the psychologist are all particular examples of a relationship that seems to extend to all human affairs. Th%
Q Q‡=#[#)]!)!=m;]‡I£bookfparith.bibHardy:1938:ITNG. H. (Godfrey Harold) Hardy and E. M. (Edward Maitland) WrightAn Introduction to the Theory of Numberspub-OXFORDpub-OXFORD:adrxvi + 4031938QA241 .H28Fri Nov 30 06:49:15 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.11.30 06:49:15 ???ack-nhfbG. H. (Godfrey Harold) Hardy and E. M. (Edward Maitland) WrightAn Introduction to the Theory of Numbers
@Book{Hardy:1938:ITN,
author = "G. H. (Godfrey Harold) Hardy and E. M. (Edward
Maitland) Wright",
title = "An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers",
publisher = pub-OXFORD,
address = pub-OXFORD:adr,
pages = "xvi + 403",
year = "1938",
LCCN = "QA241 .H28",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 30 06:49:15 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}l"] #3'ƒ7-G'=m;''/ƒ_ phdthesisfparith.bibCouffignal:1938:AMAL. CouffignalSur l'analyse mecanique. Application aux machines a calculer et aux calculs de la mecanique celeste. (French) [On mechanical analysis. Application to calculating machines and to calculation in celestial mechanics]Gauthier-VillarsFaculte des Sciences de ParisParis, France551--5721938Wed Oct 13 11:17:22 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:17:22 ???Extracts reprinted in cite [ 2.7]Randell:1982:ODC. Translated by Mr. R. Basu.Frenchack-nhfbL. CouffignalExtracts reprinted in \cite[\S 2.7]{Randell:1982:ODC}. Translated by Mr. R. Basu.Sur l'analyse m{\'e}canique. Application aux machines {\`a} calculer et aux calculs de la m{\'e}canique c{\'e}leste. ({French}) [{On} mechanical analysis. Application to calculating machines and to calculation in celestial mechanics]
@PhdThesis{Couffignal:1938:AMA,
author = "L. Couffignal",
title = "Sur l'analyse m{\'e}canique. Application aux machines
{\`a} calculer et aux calculs de la m{\'e}canique
c{\'e}leste. ({French}) [{On} mechanical analysis.
Application to calculating machines and to calculation
in celestial mechanics]",
publisher = "Gauthier-Villars",
school = "Facult{\'e} des Sciences de Paris",
address = "Paris, France",
year = "1938",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:17:22 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Extracts reprinted in \cite[\S 2.7]{Randell:1982:ODC}.
Translated by Mr. R. Basu.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
language = "French",
} http://www2.research.att.com/~njas/doc/shannonbio.html",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6413714",
remark = "This is Shannon's first published paper (his Master's
thesis). In 1940, it received the Alfred Noble Prize of
the combined engineering societies of the United
States, an award given each year to a person not over
thirty for a paper published in one of the journals of
the participating societies. H. H. Goldstine
\cite{Goldstine:1972:CPN} called this work ``one of the
most important master's theses ever written ... a
landmark in that it helped to change digital circuit
design from an art to a science.''",
}$
õõ”$] #-/sA7=]; ‡}/s–Uarticlefparith.bibShannon:1938:SARClaude E. ShannonA Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuitsj-TRANS-AMER-INST-ELEC-ENG57713--723dec121938TAEEA50096-3860 OR 00963860Sat Nov 20 08:54:12 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www2.research.att.com/~njas/doc/shannonbio.html2010.11.20 08:54:12 ???Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical EngineersThis is Shannon's first published paper (his Master's thesis). In 1940, it received the Alfred Noble Prize of the combined engineering societies of the United States, an award given each year to a person not over thirty for a paper published in one of the journals of the participating societies. H. H. Goldstine cite Goldstine:1972:CPN called this work ``one of the most important master's theses ever written ... a landmark in that it helped to change digital circuit design from an art to a science.''ack-nhfbhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6413714Claude E. ShannonA Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits
@Article{Shannon:1938:SAR,
author = "Claude E. Shannon",
title = "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits",
journal = j-TRANS-AMER-INST-ELEC-ENG,
volume = "57",
number = "??",
pages = "713--723",
month = dec,
year = "1938",
CODEN = "TAEEA5",
ISSN = "0096-3860",
bibdate = "Sat Nov 20 08:54:12 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www2.research.att.com/~njas/doc/shannonbio.html",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6413714",
remark = "This is Shannon's first published paper (his Master's
thesis). In 1940, it received the Alfred Noble Prize of
the combined engineering societies of the United
States, an award given each year to a person not over
thirty for a paper published in one of the journals of
the participating societies. H. H. Goldstine
\cite{Goldstine:1972:CPN} called this work ``one of the
most important master's theses ever written ... a
landmark in that it helped to change digital circuit
design from an art to a science.''",
}
¸ ¸ŠW&\ ##
)KE‚#;S]‹articlefparith.bibK:1939:BRBdM. G. K.Book Review: booktitle Duodecimal Arithmetic, by George S. Terryj-J-R-STAT-SOC1022299--3001939https://doi.org/10.2307/2980013Sat Jan 24 11:18:08 MST 2015http://www.jstor.org/stable/i349540; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jrss-a-1930.bib2015.01.24 11:18:08 MSThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2980013Journal of the Royal Statistical Societyack-nhfbM. G. K.Book Review: {{\booktitle{Duodecimal Arithmetic}}, by George S. Terry}
@Article{K:1939:BRBd,
author = "M. G. K.",
title = "Book Review: {{\booktitle{Duodecimal Arithmetic}}, by
George S. Terry}",
journal = j-J-R-STAT-SOC,
volume = "102",
number = "2",
pages = "299--300",
month = "????",
year = "1939",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.2307/2980013",
bibdate = "Sat Jan 24 11:18:08 MST 2015",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/i349540;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jrss-a-1930.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/2980013",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Royal Statistical Society",
}k%]#)Q57Eƒ;QoQarticlefparith.bibJager:1939:AADRobert Jager and Boyd C. PattersonThe Artificial Arithmetick in Decimals of Robert Jager (London, 1651)j-ISIS31125--31nov111939ISISA40021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic) OR 00211753 (print), 15456994 (electronic)0021-1753 OR 00211753Tue Jul 30 21:26:49 MDT 2013http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis; http://www.jstor.org/stable/i302217; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1930.bib2013.07.30 21:26:49 MDThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/226014Isisack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.htmlRobert Jager and Boyd C. PattersonThe Artificial Arithmetick in Decimals of {Robert Jager} ({London}, 1651)
@Article{Jager:1939:AAD,
author = "Robert Jager and Boyd C. Patterson",
title = "The Artificial Arithmetick in Decimals of {Robert
Jager} ({London}, 1651)",
journal = j-ISIS,
volume = "31",
number = "1",
pages = "25--31",
month = nov,
year = "1939",
CODEN = "ISISA4",
ISSN = "0021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0021-1753",
bibdate = "Tue Jul 30 21:26:49 MDT 2013",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis;
http://www.jstor.org/stable/i302217;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1930.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/226014",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Isis",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.html",
}
Z†ÈJZ |*Z '#)7#1'=m;‡-!7³kmastersthesisfparith.bibBerry:1941:DEDClifford Edward BerryDesign of electrical data recording and reading mechanismM.S. thesisIowa State CollegeAmes, IA, USA321941Thu Nov 18 11:18:18 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.11.18 11:18:18 ???This thesis may be one of the earliest surviving records of the ABC computer built by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in the late 1930s. T/†{)Y !#)'9C/=m;_'g‡techreportfparith.bibStibitz:1940:CG. R. StibitzComputerUnpublished memorandumBell Telephone LaboratoriesNew York, NY, USA299--3001940Wed Oct 13 11:30:38 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:30:38 ???Reprinted in cite [ 6.1]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbG. R. StibitzReprinted in \cite[\S 6.1]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Computer
@TechReport{Stibitz:1940:C,
author = "G. R. Stibitz",
title = "Computer",
type = "Unpublished memorandum",
institution = "Bell Telephone Laboratories",
address = "New York, NY, USA",
year = "1940",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:30:38 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 6.1]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‰;(\ #%5=m;‚#‚+5ˆ}miscfparith.bibBush:1940:AMV. BushArithmetical Machine299--3001940Wed Oct 13 11:37:32 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:37:32 ???Reprinted in cite [ 7.3]Randell:1982:ODC. Copyright interest in the unpublished writings of Vannevar Bush has been dedicated to the public.ack-nhfbVannevar Bush Papers, Container 18, Folder: Caldwell, Samuel, 1939--1940V. BushReprinted in \cite[\S 7.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}. Copyright interest in the unpublished writings of Vannevar Bush has been dedicated to the public.Arithmetical Machine
@Misc{Bush:1940:AM,
author = "V. Bush",
title = "Arithmetical Machine",
howpublished = "Vannevar Bush Papers, Container 18, Folder: Caldwell,
Samuel, 1939--1940",
year = "1940",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:37:32 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 7.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}.
Copyright interest in the unpublished writings of
Vannevar Bush has been dedicated to the public.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}ˆw'[ !#1+/91'=m;_+g/ˆqtechreportfparith.bibAtanasoff:1940:CMSJ. V. AtanasoffComputing machine for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equationsUnpublished memorandumIowa State CollegeAmes, IA, USA299--300aug81940Wed Oct 13 11:36:11 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:36:11 ???Reprinted in cite [ 7.2]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbJ. V. AtanasoffReprinted in \cite[\S 7.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Computing machine for the solution of large systems of linear algebraic equations
@TechReport{Atanasoff:1940:CMS,
author = "J. V. Atanasoff",
title = "Computing machine for the solution of large systems of
linear algebraic equations",
type = "Unpublished memorandum",
institution = "Iowa State College",
address = "Ames, IA, USA",
month = aug,
year = "1940",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:36:11 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 7.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
¸
–§ß ó
@Article{Fisher:1984:UAP,
author = "Gerry Fisher",
title = "Universal Arithmetic Packages",
journal = j-SIGADA-LETTERS,
volume = "3",
number = "6",
pages = "30--47",
month = may # "\slash " # jun™!²C
@Article{Fit-Florea:2009:DLN,
author = "A. Fit-Florea and L. Li and M. A. Thornton and D. W.
Matula",
title = "A Discrete Logarithm Number System for Integer
Arithmetic Modulo $ 2^k $: Algorithms and Lookup
Structures",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "58",
number = "2",
pages = "163--174",
month = feb,
year = "2009",
CODEN = "ITCOB4",
DOI = K…S‹'
@Article{Fiske:1988:RAP,
author = "S. Fiske and W. J. Dally",
title = "The reconfigurable arithmetic processor",
journal = j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
volume = "16",
number = "2",
pages = "30--36",
month = may,
year = "1988",
CODEN = "CANED2",
ISSN = "0163-5964 (print), 1943-5851 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0163-5964",
bibdate = "Fri May 12 09:40:45 MDT 2006",
bibsource = "http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}5†2Œe
@Article{Flehinger:1966:PRI,
author = "B. J. Flehinger",
title = "On the Probability that a Random Integer Has Initial
Digit `{A}'",
journal = j-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY,
volume = "73",
number = "??",
pages = "1056--1061",
year = "1966",
CODEN = "AMMYAE",
ISSN = "0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0002-9890",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 14 18:53:58 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "American Mathematical Monthly",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.html",
remark = "Probably November or December issue; missing from
amermathmonthly1960.bib.",
}_¥E
@Article{Fischler:1962:TRA,
author = "M. A. Fischler and E. A. Poe",
title = "Threshold Realization of Arithmetic Circuits",
journal = Š”
@Article{Fit-Florea:2005:ABE,
author = "A. Fit-Florea and D. W. Matula and M. A. Thornton",
title = "Addition-based exponentiation modulo $ 2^k $",
journal = j-ELECT-LETTERS,
volume = "41",
number = "2",
pages = "56--57",
day = "20",
month = jan,
year = "2005",
CODEN = "ELLEAK",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1049/el:20057538",
ISSN = "0013-5194 (print), 1350-911X (electronic)"Š>”}
@Article{Fitzpatrick:1997:EBE,
author = "P. Fitzpatrick",
title = "Extending backward error assertions to tolerance of
large errors in floating point computations",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "46",
number = "4",
pages = "505--510",
month = apr,
year = "1997",
CODEN = "ITCOB4",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/12.588072",
ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-995¨„h‰Q
@Article{Fitzpatrick:1988:PVF,
author = "S. Fitzpatrick",
title = "Processeur {\`a} virgule flottante {\`a} 33 {Mflops}
\toenglish {33 Mflops Floating-Point Processor}
\endtoenglish",
journal = "Electronique Industrielle",
volume = "148",
pages = "30--32",
day = "15",
month = sep,
year = "1988",
bibdate = "Sat Oct 24 15:01:51 1998",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
}6"1918--1963",
historical-note = "From
http://www.lib.iastate.edu/arch/rgrp/5-2-1-1.html:
``John Vincent Atanasoff received his M.S. (1926) in
Mathematics from Iowa State College (University) and
received his Ph.D. (1930) in Theoretical Physics from
the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He returned to
Iowa State in 1930 as Assistant Professor in
mathematics and physics and was promoted to Associate
Professor (1936). Atanasoff began developing concepts
for an electronic computing machine in 1937. It was
shortly thereafter that he, along with graduate student
Clifford Berry, started work on the world's first
electronic digital computer. The computer would later
be named the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC).
Work on the machine stopped at the start of World War
II in 1941 and the ABC was never patented. Atanasoff
and Berry were both called to support the war effort
and left Iowa State. By the end of the decade, the ABC
was removed from the basement of Physics Hall and
dismantled.
Atanasoff and the ABC were part of a major court case
between Honeywell, Inc. and Sperry Rand Corporation
which occurred 1967-1973. The case involved the ENIAC
patent which covered basic ownership rights to the
design of electronic digital computers. During the
trial, the judge concluded that the invention of the
ENIAC was derived from the work of John Vincent
Atanasoff at Iowa State University.
A replica of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer was completed
and unveiled to the public in 1996. The ABC replica was
constructed by a team of Iowa State scientists at the
Ames Laboratory and was exhibited at museums throughout
the country over the next several years.''",
remark = "This thesis may be one of the earliest surviving
records of the ABC computer built by John Atanasoff and
Clifford Berry in the late 1930s. The one-of-a-kind ABC
was destroyed in 1948, and most of its parts were lost.
Also cited in ``Charles W. Bradley Collection on the
ENIAC Trial, 1930--1966'', (found in
http://discover.lib.umn.edu/): CWB as an attorney for
the group retained by Honeywell in the Honeywell v.
Sperry Rand ENIAC trial. The ABC had a 50-bit word.",
}*he one-of-a-kind ABC was destroyed in 1948, and most of its parts were lost. Also cited in ``Charles W. Bradley Collection on the ENIAC Trial, 1930--1966'', (found in http://discover.lib.umn.edu/): CWB as an attorney for the group retained by Honeywell in the Honeywell v. Sperry Rand ENIAC trial. The ABC had a 50-bit word.ack-nhfb1918--1963Clifford Edward BerryDesign of electrical data recording and reading mechanism
@MastersThesis{Berry:1941:DED,
author = "Clifford Edward Berry",
title = "Design of electrical data recording and reading
mechanism",
type = "{M.S.} thesis",
school = "Iowa State College",
address = "Ames, IA, USA",
pages = "32",
year = "1941",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 11:18:18 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
author-dates = "1918--1963",
historical-note = "From
http://www.lib.iastate.edu/arch/rgrp/5-2-1-1.html:
``John Vincent Atanasoff received his M.S. (1926) in
Mathematics from Iowa State College (University) and
received his Ph.D. (1930) in Theoretical Physics from
the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He returned to
Iowa State in 1930 as Assistant Professor in
mathematics and physics and was promoted to Associate
Professor (1936). Atanasoff began developing concepts
for an electronic computing machine in 1937. It was
shortly thereafter that he, along with graduate student
Clifford Berry, started work on the world's first
electronic digital computer. The computer would later
be named the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC).
Work on the machine stopped at the start of World War
II in 1941 and the ABC was never patented. Atanasoff
and Berry were both called to support the war effort
and left Iowa State. By the end of the decade, the ABC
was removed from the basement of Physics Hall and
dismantled.
Atanasoff and the ABC were part of a major court case
between Honeywell, Inc. and Sperry Rand Corporation
which occurred 1967-1973. The case involved the ENIAC
patent which covered basic ownership rights to the
design of electronic digital computers. During the
trial, the judge concluded that the invention of the
ENIAC was derived from the work of John Vincent
Atanasoff at Iowa State University.
A replica of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer was completed
and unveiled to the public in 1996. The ABC replica was
constructed by a team of Iowa State scientists at the
Ames Laboratory and was exhibited at museums throughout
the country over the next several years.''",
remark = "This thesis may be one of the earliest surviving
records of the ABC computer built by John Atanasoff and
Clifford Berry in the late 1930s. The one-of-a-kind ABC
was destroyed in 1948, and most of its parts were lost.
Also cited in ``Charles W. Bradley Collection on the
ENIAC Trial, 1930--1966'', (found in
http://discover.lib.umn.edu/): CWB as an attorney for
the group retained by Honeywell in the Honeywell v.
Sperry Rand ENIAC trial. The ABC had a 50-bit word.",
}
ž~ž
E4‰k Ú9
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}
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Computer Design",
}ß‡zu
@Article{Sarafyan:1959:NMC,
author = "Diran Sarafyan",
title = "A New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without
Using Division",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "2",
number = "11",
pages = "23--24",
month = nov,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:24 MDT 2004",
bibœ‡J
@Article{Sarafyan:1960:DCS,
author = "Diran Sarafyan",
title = "Divisionless computation of square roots through
continued squaring",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "3",
number = "5",
pages = "319--321",
month = may,
year = "1960",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
MRclass = "65.00",
MRnumber = "22\#8639",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "$\sqrt(x)$; elementary functions",
ZMreviewer = "M. Lotkin",
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@TechReport{Rajchman:1942:REP,
author = "J. A. Rajchman and G. A. Morton and A. W. Vance",
title = "Report on Electronic Predictors for Anti-Aircraft Fire
Control",
institution = "Research Laboratories, R. C. A. Manufacturing Company,
Inc.",
address = "Camden, NJ, USA",
month = apr,
year = "1942",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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}‰7,Z !#-'K7=m;_'g‰]techreportfparith.bibMauchly:1942:UHSJ. W. MauchlyThe use of high speed vacuum tube devices for calculatingPrivately circulated memorandumMoore School of Electrical Engineering, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PA, USA112--115aug81942Wed Oct 13 11:52:54 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:52:54 ???Reprinted in cite [ 7.6]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbJ. W. MauchlyReprinted in \cite[\S 7.6]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The use of high speed vacuum tube devices for calculating
@TechReport{Mauchly:1942:UHS,
author = "J. W. Mauchly",
title = "The use of high speed vacuum tube devices for
calculating",
type = "Privately circulated memorandum",
institution = "Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of
Pennsylvania",
address = "Philadelphia, PA, USA",
month = aug,
year = "1942",
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}*+[ #1/i/57Eƒ;SkW/iŽ]articlefparith.bibLancaster:1942:MMEOtis E. LancasterMachine Method for the Extraction of Cube Rootj-J-AM-STAT-ASSOC37217112--115mar31942JSTNAL0162-1459 (print), 1537-274X (electronic) OR 01621459 (print), 1537274X (electronic)0162-1459 OR 01621459Wed Jan 25 08:05:24 MST 2012http://www.jstor.org/journals/01621459.html; http://www.jstor.org/stable/i314096; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jamstatassoc1940.bib2012.01.25 08:05:24 MSThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2279437Journal of the American Statistical Associationack-nhfbhttp://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uasa20Otis E. LancasterMachine Method for the Extraction of Cube Root
@Article{Lancaster:1942:MME,
author = "Otis E. Lancaster",
title = "Machine Method for the Extraction of Cube Root",
journal = j-J-AM-STAT-ASSOC,
volume = "37",
number = "217",
pages = "112--115",
month = mar,
year = "1942",
CODEN = "JSTNAL",
ISSN = "0162-1459 (print), 1537-274X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0162-1459",
bibdate = "Wed Jan 25 08:05:24 MST 2012",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/journals/01621459.html;
http://www.jstor.org/stable/i314096;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jamstatassoc1940.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/2279437",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the American Statistical Association",
journal-URL = "http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uasa20",
}
'
Ž'Œd/] !#3+WQ7=m;‚9+[Qtechreportfparith.bibRademacher:1943:MTIHans RademacherMathematical Topics of Interest in PX, Part Two: Summary of Articles Dealing with Rounding off ErrorsPX Report14Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Office of the Director Records, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PA, USA190--19130nov111943Fri Jun 15 17:39:28 2018http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2018.06.15 17:39:28 ???Cited on page 34 of Haigh, Priestley, and Rope, booktitle ENIAC in Action (2016) (ISBN 0-262-03398-4) as an annotated bibliography of rounding errors.ack-nhfbHans RademacherMathematical Topics of Interest in {PX}, Part Two: Summary of Articles Dealing with Rounding off Errors
@TechReport{Rademacher:1943:MTI,
author = "Hans Rademacher",
title = "Mathematical Topics of Interest in {PX}, Part Two:
Summary of Articles Dealing with Rounding off Errors",
type = "{PX} Report",
number = "14",
institution = "Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Office of the
Director Records, University of Pennsylvania",
address = "Philadelphia, PA, USA",
day = "30",
month = nov,
year = "1943",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 15 17:39:28 2018",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Cited on page 34 of Haigh, Priestley, and Rope,
\booktitle{ENIAC in Action} (2016) (ISBN 0-262-03398-4)
as an annotated bibliography of rounding errors.",
}Šo.] #//357E
;G/‹marticlefparith.bibCrawford:1943:DNSW. S. H. CrawfordDiscussions and Notes: Square Roots from a Table of Cosinesj-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY503190--191mar31943AMMYAE0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic) OR 00029890 (print), 19300972 (electronic)0002-9890 OR 00029890Mon Jun 28 12:36:57 MDT 1999http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1999.06.28 12:36:57 MDTAmerican Mathematical Monthlyack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.htmlW. S. H. CrawfordDiscussions and Notes: Square Roots from a Table of Cosines
@Article{Crawford:1943:DNS,
author = "W. S. H. Crawford",
title = "Discussions and Notes: Square Roots from a Table of
Cosines",
journal = j-AMER-MATH-MONTHLY,
volume = "50",
number = "3",
pages = "190--191",
month = mar,
year = "1943",
CODEN = "AMMYAE",
ISSN = "0002-9890 (print), 1930-0972 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0002-9890",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 28 12:36:57 MDT 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "American Mathematical Monthly",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.html",
} "0028-0836",
bibdate = "Sun Sep 18 11:57:19 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v154/n3921/pdf/154800a0.pdf",
abstract = "A rough qualitative explanation of this fact can
easily be given. If we consider tables in which the
entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw
the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say,
between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more
entries on the small side than on the large side.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Nature",
journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/archive/",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
}0
žž”_0]#/IuM57=m;
„ysW„yIu”;articlefparith.bibGoudsmit:1944:SFNS. A. Goudsmit and W. H. FurrySignificant Figures of Numbers in Statistical Tablesj-NATURE1543921800--80123dec121944NATUAShttps://doi.org/10.1038/154800a00028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic) OR 00280836 (print), 14764687 (electronic)0028-0836 OR 00280836Sun Sep 18 11:57:19 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2011.09.18 11:57:19 ???http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v154/n3921/pdf/154800a0.pdfA rough qualitative explanation of this fact can easily be given. If we consider tables in which the entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say, between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more entries on the small side than on the large side.NatureBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Lawack-nhfbhttp://www.nature.com/nature/archive/A rough qualitative explanation of this fact can easily be given. If we consider tables in which the entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say, between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more entries on the small side than on the large side.S. A. Goudsmit and W. H. FurrySignificant Figures of Numbers in Statistical Tables
@Article{Goudsmit:1944:SFN,
author = "S. A. Goudsmit and W. H. Furry",
title = "Significant Figures of Numbers in Statistical Tables",
journal = j-NATURE,
volume = "154",
number = "3921",
pages = "800--801",
day = "23",
month = dec,
year = "1944",
CODEN = "NATUAS",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1038/154800a0",
ISSN = "0028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0028-0836",
bibdate = "Sun Sep 18 11:57:19 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v154/n3921/pdf/154800a0.pdf",
abstract = "A rough qualitative explanation of this fact can
easily be given. If we consider tables in which the
entries become rarer the larger they are, we can draw
the obvious conclusion that in any interval, say,
between 10 and 99, or 10,000 and 99,999, there are more
entries on the small side than on the large side.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Nature",
journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/archive/",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
}
> Œ>ŽK2[ !#3-UA=‚ ;_‚u-gY‘utechreportfparith.bibvonNeumann:1945:FDRJohn von NeumannFirst Draft of a Report on the EDVACUniversity of Pennsylvania52--5330jun61945Mon Jun 06 19:17:03 2005ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Ai/alife.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.06.06 19:17:03 ???Reprinted in cite [ 8.2]Randell:1982:ODC.This is the report that got von Neumann's name associated with the serial, stored-program, general purpose, digital architecture upon which 99.99% of all computers today are based.ack-nhfbJohn von NeumannReprinted in \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.First Draft of a Report on the {EDVAC}
@TechReport{vonNeumann:1945:FDR,
author = "John von Neumann",
title = "First Draft of a Report on the {EDVAC}",
institution = "University of Pennsylvania",
day = "30",
month = jun,
year = "1945",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 06 19:17:03 2005",
bibsource = "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Ai/alife.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This is the report that got von Neumann's name
associated with the serial, stored-program, general
purpose, digital architecture upon which 99.99\% of all
computers today are based.",
xxnote = "Report prepared for U.S. Army Ordinance Department
under Contract W-670-ORD-4926. Reprinted in
\cite[pp.~177--246]{Stern:1981:EUA},
\cite[pp.~399--413]{Randell:1982:ODC},
\cite{vonNeumann:1993:FDR}, and
\cite{Laplante:1996:GPC}.",
}Œq1]#)GM57=m;
sWGŽ#articlefparith.bibFurry:1945:DNDW. H. Furry and Henry HurwitzDistribution of Numbers and Distribution of Significant Figuresj-NATURE15552--5313jan11945NATUAShttps://doi.org/10.1038/155052a00028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic) OR 00280836 (print), 14764687 (electronic)0028-0836 OR 00280836Sun Sep 18 11:51:37 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2011.09.18 11:51:37 ???http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v155/n3924/pdf/155052a0.pdfNatureBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Lawack-nhfbhttp://www.nature.com/nature/archive/W. H. Furry and Henry HurwitzDistribution of Numbers and Distribution of Significant Figures
@Article{Furry:1945:DND,
author = "W. H. Furry and Henry Hurwitz",
title = "Distribution of Numbers and Distribution of
Significant Figures",
journal = j-NATURE,
volume = "155",
number = "??",
pages = "52--53",
day = "13",
month = jan,
year = "1945",
CODEN = "NATUAS",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1038/155052a0",
ISSN = "0028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0028-0836",
bibdate = "Sun Sep 18 11:51:37 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v155/n3924/pdf/155052a0.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Nature",
journal-URL = "http://www.nature.com/nature/archive/",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
}n \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This is the report that got von Neumann's name
associated with the serial, stored-program, general
purpose, digital architecture upon which 99.99\% of all
computers today are based.",
xxnote = "Report prepared for U.S. Army Ordinance Department
under Contract W-670-ORD-4926. Reprinted in
\cite[pp.~177--246]{Stern:1981:EUA},
\cite[pp.~399--413]{Randell:1982:ODC},
\cite{vonNeumann:1993:FDR}, and
\cite{Laplante:1996:GPC}.",
}2
lal‡r5Y #+!917=m;_=!g9ˆ[articlefparith.bibCesareo:1946:RIO. CesareoThe Relay Interpolatorj-BELL-LABS-RECORD23457--4601946BLRCAB0005-8564 OR 00058564Wed Oct 13 11:31:47 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:31:47 ???Reprinted in cite [ 6.2]Randell:1982:ODC.Bell Laboratories Recordack-nhfbO. CesareoReprinted in \cite[\S 6.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The Relay Interpolator
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author = "O. Cesareo",
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volume = "23",
number = "??",
pages = "457--460",
year = "1946",
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ISSN = "0005-8564",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:31:47 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 6.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
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fjournal = "Bell Laboratories Record",
}« 4a!#)13;=„q;‚Y•U‚i1®]techreportfparith.bibBurks:1946:PDLArthur W. Burks and Herman H. Goldstine and John von NeumannPreliminary discussion of the logical design of an electronic computing instrumentinst-INST-ADV-STUDYinst-INST-ADV-STUDY:adr4228jun61946Wed Oct 13 08:17:48 2004ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/computer.arithmetic.bib; ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/fparith.bib; ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/arith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.10.13 08:17:48 ???Report to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted in cite [pp.~221--259]Swartzlander:1976:CDD, cite [ 8.3]Randell:1982:ODC, and cite [pp.~97--146]Aspray:1987:PJNDiscusses floating-point versus fixed-point computation, and concludes that floating-point is probably not justifiable. They wrote:par ``There appear to be two major purposes in a `floating' decimal point system both of which arise from the fact that the number of digits in a word is a constant fixed by design considerations for each particular machine. The first of these purposes is to retain in a sum or product as many significant digits as possible and the second of these is to free the human operator from the burden of estimating and inserting into a problem `scale factors' --- multipl9‰q3Z#)Ee%E7=m;_EgiŠAarticlefparith.bibAiken:1946:ASCH. H. Aiken and G. M. HopperThe Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculatorj-ELECTR-ENG65384--391, 449--454, 522--5281946ELENAC0095-9197 OR 00959197Wed Oct 13 11:26:29 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:26:29 ???Reprinted in cite [ 5.2]Randell:1982:ODC.Electrical Engineering (American Institute of Electrical Engineers)ack-nhfbH. H. Aiken and G. M. HopperReprinted in \cite[\S 5.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The {Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator}
@Article{Aiken:1946:ASC,
author = "H. H. Aiken and G. M. Hopper",
title = "The {Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator}",
journal = j-ELECTR-ENG,
volume = "65",
number = "??",
pages = "384--391, 449--454, 522--528",
year = "1946",
CODEN = "ELENAC",
ISSN = "0095-9197",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:26:29 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 5.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Electrical Engineering (American Institute of
Electrical Engineers)",
}p://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/computer.arithmetic.bib;
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note = "Report to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted
in \cite[pp.~221--259]{Swartzlander:1976:CDD}, \cite[\S
8.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}, and
\cite[pp.~97--146]{Aspray:1987:PJN}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Discusses floating-point versus fixed-point
computation, and concludes that floating-point is
probably not justifiable. They wrote:\par
``There appear to be two major purposes in a `floating'
decimal point system both of which arise from the fact
that the number of digits in a word is a constant fixed
by design considerations for each particular machine.
The first of these purposes is to retain in a sum or
product as many significant digits as possible and the
second of these is to free the human operator from the
burden of estimating and inserting into a problem
`scale factors' --- multiplicative constants which
serve to keep numbers within the limits of the
machine.\par
There is, of course, no denying the fact that human
time is consumed in arranging for the introduction of
suitable scale factors. We only argue that the time so
consumed is a very small percentage of the total time
we will spend in preparing an interesting problem for
our machine. The first advantage of the floating point
is, we feel, somewhat illusory. In order to have such a
floating point, one must waste memory capacity which
could otherwise be used for carrying more digits per
word. It would therefore seem to us not at all clear
whether the modest advantages of a floating binary
point offset the loss of memory capacity and the
increased complexity of the arithmetic and control
circuits.''",
}4icative constants which serve to keep numbers within the limits of the machine.par There is, of course, no denying the fact that human time is consumed in arranging for the introduction of suitable scale factors. We only argue that the time so consumed is a very small percentage of the total time we will spend in preparing an interesting problem for our machine. The first advantage of the floating point is, we feel, somewhat illusory. In order to have such a floating point, one must waste memory capacity which could otherwise be used for carrying more digits per word. It would therefore seem to us not at all clear whether the modest advantages of a floating binary point offset the loss of memory capacity and the increased complexity of the arithmetic and control circuits.''ack-nhfbArthur W. Burks and Herman H. Goldstine and John von NeumannReport to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted in \cite[pp.~221--259]{Swartzlander:1976:CDD}, \cite[\S 8.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}, and \cite[pp.~97--146]{Aspray:1987:PJN}Preliminary discussion of the logical design of an electronic computing instrument
@TechReport{Burks:1946:PDL,
author = "Arthur W. Burks and Herman H. Goldstine and John von
Neumann",
title = "Preliminary discussion of the logical design of an
electronic computing instrument",
institution = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY,
address = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY:adr,
pages = "42",
day = "28",
month = jun,
year = "1946",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 08:17:48 2004",
bibsource = "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/computer.arithmetic.bib;
ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Math/fparith.bib;
ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Theory/arith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Report to the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Reprinted
in \cite[pp.~221--259]{Swartzlander:1976:CDD}, \cite[\S
8.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}, and
\cite[pp.~97--146]{Aspray:1987:PJN}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Discusses floating-point versus fixed-point
computation, and concludes that floating-point is
probably not justifiable. They wrote:\par
``There appear to be two major purposes in a `floating'
decimal point system both of which arise from the fact
that the number of digits in a word is a constant fixed
by design considerations for each particular machine.
The first of these purposes is to retain in a sum or
product as many significant digits as possible and the
second of these is to free the human operator from the
burden of estimating and inserting into a problem
`scale factors' --- multiplicative constants which
serve to keep numbers within the limits of the
machine.\par
There is, of course, no denying the fact that human
time is consumed in arranging for the introduction of
suitable scale factors. We only argue that the time so
consumed is a very small percentage of the total time
we will spend in preparing an interesting problem for
our machine. The first advantage of the floating point
is, we feel, somewhat illusory. In order to have such a
floating point, one must waste memory capacity which
could otherwise be used for carrying more digits per
word. It would therefore seem to us not at all clear
whether the modest advantages of a floating binary
point offset the loss of memory capacity and the
increased complexity of the arithmetic and control
circuits.''",
}
¿‹#7[#1S}K7E
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author = "H. H. Goldstine and Adele Goldstine",
title = "The {Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
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volume = "2",
number = "15",
pages = "97--110",
month = jul,
year = "1946",
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bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:44:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 7.7]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
}Ž>6]!#+Cƒ;=m;'C/ƒŽ#techreportfparith.bibDreyer:1946:REMH.-J. Dreyer and A. WaltherDer Rechenautomat Ipm. Entwicklung Mathematischer Instrumente in Deutschland 1939 bis 1945. (German) [The Ipm Calculator. The development of mathematical instruments in Germany 1939--1945]BerichtA3Institut fur Praktische Mathematik, Technische HochschuleDarmstadt, West Germany457--46019aug81946Wed Oct 13 11:20:15 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:20:15 ???Reprinted in cite [ 3.3]Randell:1982:ODC. Translated by Mr. and Mrs. P. JonesGermanack-nhfbH.-J. Dreyer and A. WaltherReprinted in \cite[\S 3.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}. Translated by Mr. and Mrs. P. Jones{Der Rechenautomat Ipm. Entwicklung Mathematischer Instrumente in Deutschland 1939 bis 1945}. ({German}) [{The} {Ipm} Calculator. {The} development of mathematical instruments in {Germany} 1939--1945]
@TechReport{Dreyer:1946:REM,
author = "H.-J. Dreyer and A. Walther",
title = "{Der Rechenautomat Ipm. Entwicklung Mathematischer
Instrumente in Deutschland 1939 bis 1945}. ({German})
[{The} {Ipm} Calculator. {The} development of
mathematical instruments in {Germany} 1939--1945]",
type = "{Bericht}",
number = "A3",
institution = "Institut f{\"u}r Praktische Mathematik, Technische
Hochschule",
address = "Darmstadt, West Germany",
day = "19",
month = aug,
year = "1946",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:20:15 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 3.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}.
Translated by Mr. and Mrs. P. Jones",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
language = "German",
}
^M<
‚ Ç^+‰’=
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ajournal = "J. Netw. Comput. Appl.",
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journal-URL = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10848045",
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Æ
ö‡`9Y #'917=m;_=g9ˆKarticlefparith.bibJuley:1947:BCJ. JuleyThe Ballistic Computerj-BELL-LABS-RECORD245--91947BLRCAB0005-8564 OR 00058564Wed Oct 13 11:32:38 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:32:38 ???Reprinted in cite [ 6.3]Randell:1982:ODC.Bell Laboratories Recordack-nhfbJ. JuleyReprinted in \cite[\S 6.3]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The Ballistic Computer
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}8]!#1]-3;=m;„;]„Ctechreportfparith.bibGoldstine:1947:PCPHerman H. Goldstine and John von NeumannPlanning and coding of problems for an electronic computing instrumentTechnical report1inst-INST-ADV-STUDYinst-INST-ADV-STUDY:adr691apr41947Wed Jun 01 17:41:33 2005http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.06.01 17:41:33 ???Report prepared for U.S. Army Ordnance Department under contract W-36-034-OKD-7481. Reprinted in cite [80--151]Taub:1963:JNCa. Knuth cite [p.~278]Knuth:1998:SA cites pp.~142--151 of this report as the first published treatment of double-precision arithmetic on digital computers.ack-nhfbHerman H. Goldstine and John von NeumannReport prepared for U.S. Army Ordnance Department under contract W-36-034-OKD-7481. Reprinted in \cite[80--151]{Taub:1963:JNCa}. Knuth \cite[p.~278]{Knuth:1998:SA} cites pp.~142--151 of this report as the first published treatment of double-precision arithmetic on digital computers.Planning and coding of problems for an electronic computing instrument
@TechReport{Goldstine:1947:PCP,
author = "Herman H. Goldstine and John von Neumann",
title = "Planning and coding of problems for an electronic
computing instrument",
type = "Technical report",
number = "1",
institution = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY,
address = inst-INST-ADV-STUDY:adr,
pages = "69",
day = "1",
month = apr,
year = "1947",
bibdate = "Wed Jun 01 17:41:33 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Report prepared for U.S. Army Ordnance Department
under contract W-36-034-OKD-7481. Reprinted in
\cite[80--151]{Taub:1963:JNCa}. Knuth
\cite[p.~278]{Knuth:1998:SA} cites pp.~142--151 of this
report as the first published treatment of
double-precision arithmetic on digital computers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
d ¯dŒH;[ #/)[57Eƒ;Qo)_Ž
articlefparith.bibRicheson:1947:FAPA. W. RichesonThe First Arithmetic Printed in Englishj-ISIS371--247--56may51947ISISA40021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic) OR 00211753 (print), 15456994 (electronic)0021-1753 OR 00211753Tue Jul 30 21:27:09 MDT 2013http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis; http://www.jstor.org/stable/i302230; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/isis1940.bib2013.07.30 21:27:09 MDThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/226161Isisack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/page/journal/isis/about.htmlA. W. RichesonThe First Arithmetic Printed in {English}
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journal = j-ISIS,
volume = "37",
number = "1--2",
pages = "47--56",
month = may,
year = "1947",
CODEN = "ISISA4",
ISSN = "0021-1753 (print), 1545-6994 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0021-1753",
bibdate = "Tue Jul 30 21:27:09 MDT 2013",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=isis;
http://www.jstor.org/stable/i302230;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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}ŒN:] '#-'Ck=1=m;‚''G‚;o‹?inproceedingsfparith.bibMauchly:1947:PPEJ. W. MauchlyProceedings of a Symposium on Large Scale Digital Calculating Machinery, 7--10 January 1947Preparation of problems for EDVAC-type machinesHarvard University PressCambridge, MA, USA5--91947Wed Oct 13 11:55:58 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:55:58 ???Reprinted in em Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, bf 16, 203--207 (1948). Reprinted in cite [ 8.2]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbJ. W. Mauchly{Proceedings of a Symposium on Large Scale Digital Calculating Machinery, 7--10 January 1947}Reprinted in {\em Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University}, {\bf 16}, 203--207 (1948). Reprinted in \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Preparation of problems for {EDVAC}-type machines
@InProceedings{Mauchly:1947:PPE,
author = "J. W. Mauchly",
booktitle = "{Proceedings of a Symposium on Large Scale Digital
Calculating Machinery, 7--10 January 1947}",
title = "Preparation of problems for {EDVAC}-type machines",
publisher = "Harvard University Press",
address = "Cambridge, MA, USA",
year = "1947",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:55:58 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in {\em Annals of the Computation Laboratory
of Harvard University}, {\bf 16}, 203--207 (1948).
Reprinted in \cite[\S 8.2]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}9,471b)",
MRreviewer = "E. Bodewig",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 8 14:49:36 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Goldstine:1951:NIM} for Part II. Reprinted
in \cite[v.~5, pp.~479--557]{Taub:1961:JNC}.",
ZMnumber = "0031.31402",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb # " and " # ack-jg,
fjournal = "Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society",
kwds = "nla, linear system, rounding error",
referred = "[Markov1999a].",
remark = "This may be the first journal publication about the
use of double-precision arithmetic on computers, used
for the accumulation of inner products and matrix
products. On pp.~1035--1038, the authors show that when
the sum of $m$ products of two $s$-digit numbers is
accumulated in precision $ 2 s $, with rounding to $s$
digits only after the final sum is complete, then the
rounding error is essentially one unit in the last
place, instead of $m$ times that value. Cited in
\cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}<
@@—=<]#3]g!!571!;m;Gg‡m!]Ogš3Oarticlefparith.bibvonNeumann:1947:NIMJohn von Neumann and Herman H. GoldstineNumerical Inverting of Matrices of High Orderj-BULL-AMS53111021--1099nov111947BAMOAD0002-9904 (print), 1936-881X (electronic) OR 00029904 (print), 1936881X (electronic)0002-9904 OR 0002990465.0XMR0024235 (9,471b)E. BodewigThu Nov 8 14:49:36 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.11.08 14:49:36 ???See cite Goldstine:1951:NIM for Part II. Reprinted in cite [v.~5, pp.~479--557]Taub:1961:JNC.Bulletin of the American Mathematical SocietyThis may be the first journal publication about the use of double-precision arithmetic on computers, used for the accumulation of inner products and matrix products. On pp.~1035--1038, the authors show that when the sum of $m$ products of two $s$-digit numbers is accumulated in precision $ 2 s $, with rounding to $s$ digits only after the final sum is complete, then the rounding error is essentially one unit in the last place, instead of $m$ times that value. Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.0031.31402ack-nhfbJohn von Neumann and Herman H. GoldstineSee \cite{Goldstine:1951:NIM} for Part II. Reprinted in \cite[v.~5, pp.~479--557]{Taub:1961:JNC}.Numerical Inverting of Matrices of High Order
@Article{vonNeumann:1947:NIM,
author = "John von Neumann and Herman H. Goldstine",
title = "Numerical Inverting of Matrices of High Order",
journal = j-BULL-AMS,
volume = "53",
number = "11",
pages = "1021--1099",
month = nov,
year = "1947",
CODEN = "BAMOAD",
ISSN = "0002-9904 (print), 1936-881X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0002-9904",
MRclass = "65.0X",
MRnumber = "MR0024235 (9,471b)",
MRreviewer = "E. Bodewig",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 8 14:49:36 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Goldstine:1951:NIM} for Part II. Reprinted
in \cite[v.~5, pp.~479--557]{Taub:1961:JNC}.",
ZMnumber = "0031.31402",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb # " and " # ack-jg,
fjournal = "Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society",
kwds = "nla, linear system, rounding error",
referred = "[Markov1999a].",
remark = "This may be the first journal publication about the
use of double-precision arithmetic on computers, used
for the accumulation of inner products and matrix
products. On pp.~1035--1038, the authors show that when
the sum of $m$ products of two $s$-digit numbers is
accumulated in precision $ 2 s $, with rounding to $s$
digits only after the final sum is complete, then the
rounding error is essentially one unit in the last
place, instead of $m$ times that value. Cited in
\cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}
NN
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bibdate = "Mon JÈ
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}ŠF=Z #'%uK7E
;_o=%g}‹U
articlefparith.bibAlt:1948:BTLaFranz L. AltA Bell Telephone Laboratories' Computing Machine---Ij-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT3211--13jan11948MTTCAS0891-6837 OR 08916837Tue Oct 13 08:44:19 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:44:19 MDTReprinted in cite [ 6.4]Randell:1982:ODC.Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computationack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/Franz L. AltReprinted in \cite[\S 6.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.A {Bell Telephone Laboratories}' Computing Machine---{I}
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fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
} John W. Mauchly: ``I just
wanted to remark that this paper is probably one of the
first to appear as a result of the interaction between
computing machines and mathematics. I think many of us
have been looking forward with certainty to the day
when the advent of computing machines would influence
the course of mathematics, and there are still many
directions in which we can look forward to further such
impacts. This reaction is not, of course, one way.
Mathematics should also influence the computing
machine.''",
}?
aˆF@Z !#)'S7)1=‚Q;'S‰3techreportfparith.bibTukey:1948:NSRJohn W. TukeyA note on the square-root iterationSRG Memorandum report10inst-PRINCETONinst-PRINCETON:adr181948Tue May 15 08:00:09 2012http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/elefunt.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2012.05.15 08:00:09 ???ack-nhfbJohn W. TukeyA note on the square-root iteration
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author = "John W. Tukey",
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type = "SRG Memorandum report",
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institution = inst-PRINCETON,
address = inst-PRINCETON:adr,
pages = "18",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/elefunt.bib;
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}‘?\ '#31E1=m;ˆE1E’;inproceedingsfparith.bibRademacher:1948:AEPHans A. RademacherOn the Accumulation of Errors in Processes of Integration on High-Speed Calculating MachinesAnonymous:1948:PSL176--1871948Mon Jun 18 11:03:56 2018http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2018.06.18 11:03:56 ???From page 186, remark by John W. Mauchly: ``I just wanted to remark that this paper is probably one of the first to appear as a result of the interaction between computing machines and mathematics. I think many of us have been looking forward with certainty to the day when the advent of computing machines would influence the course of mathematics, and there are still many directions in which we can look forward to further such impacts. This reaction is not, of course, one way. Mathematics should also influence the computing machine.''ack-nhfbHans A. RademacherOn the Accumulation of Errors in Processes of Integration on High-Speed Calculating Machines
@InProceedings{Rademacher:1948:AEP,
author = "Hans A. Rademacher",
title = "On the Accumulation of Errors in Processes of
Integration on High-Speed Calculating Machines",
crossref = "Anonymous:1948:PSL",
pages = "176--187",
year = "1948",
bibdate = "Mon Jun 18 11:03:56 2018",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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remark = "From page 186, remark by John W. Mauchly: ``I just
wanted to remark that this paper is probably one of the
first to appear as a result of the interaction between
computing machines and mathematics. I think many of us
have been looking forward with certainty to the day
when the advent of computing machines would influence
the course of mathematics, and there are still many
directions in which we can look forward to further such
impacts. This reaction is not, of course, one way.
Mathematics should also influence the computing
machine.''",
} 2005",
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg-2ed.bib;
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite{Turing:1992:PM} with summary and
notes (including corrections)",
URL = "http://turing.ecs.soton.ac.uk/browse.php/B/18",
ZMnumber = "0033.28501",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied
Mathematics",
mynote = "The notes are not very good. They mainly correct
errors and fill in the gaps of derivations. Much better
would have been higher level comments from a numerical
analyst, e.g. on where Turing's ideas/predictions were
wrong.",
}A
Ð`§¸Ðƒf‡M
@Article{Weber-Wulff:1992:REC,
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}5‹(–Q
@Article{Webb:2008:IZN,
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@Article{Watson:1966:SCC,
author = "R. W. Watson and C. W. Hastings",
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}w‡0Ža
@Article{Waters:2010:RCW,
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}…}‹{
@Article{Waterhouse:1986:TMW,
author = "William C. Waterhouse",
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Irrational",
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pages = "213--214",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
JSTOR database",
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journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/page/journal/amermathmont/about.html",
}†N¡
@Article{Watanuki:1983:EAC,
author = "Osaaki Watanuki and Milo{\v{s}} D. Ercegovac",
title = "Error analysis of certain floating-point on-line
algorithms",
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volume = "C-32",
number = "4",
pages = "352--358",
month = apr,
year = "1983",
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DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TC.1983.1676236",
ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956R
•••‰}BZ#/GE57=m;_WGgEŠIarticlefparith.bibWilliams:1948:EDCF. C. Williams and T. KilburnElectronic digital computersj-NATURE162487??--??1948NATUAS0028-0836 (print), 1476-4687 (electronic) OR 00280836 (print), 14764687 (electronic)0028-0836 OR 00280836Wed Oct 13 12:00:02 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 12:00:02 ???Reprinted in cite [ 8.4]Randell:1982:ODC.Natureack-nhfbhttp://www.nature.com/nature/archive/F. C. Williams and T. KilburnReprinted in \cite[\S 8.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.Electronic digital computers
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}’hA\ #+%[C773!=„;+gy!%/[—
articlefparith.bibTuring:1948:REMA. M. TuringRounding-Off Errors in Matrix Processesj-QUART-J-MECH-APPLIED-MATH1287--308sep91948QJMMAV0033-5614 OR 003356140033-5614 OR 0033561465.0XMR0028100 (10,405c)E. BodewigSat Nov 19 12:09:58 2005http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/a/turing-alan-mathison.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg-2ed.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.19 12:09:58 ???Reprinted in cite Turing:1992:PM with summary and notes (including corrections)http://turing.ecs.soton.ac.uk/browse.php/B/18Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics0033.28501ack-nhfbA. M. TuringReprinted in \cite{Turing:1992:PM} with summary and notes (including corrections)Rounding-Off Errors in Matrix Processes
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author = "A. M. Turing",
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volume = "1",
pages = "287--308",
month = sep,
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MRclass = "65.0X",
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MRreviewer = "E. Bodewig",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/a/turing-alan-mathison.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg-2ed.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite{Turing:1992:PM} with summary and
notes (including corrections)",
URL = "http://turing.ecs.soton.ac.uk/browse.php/B/18",
ZMnumber = "0033.28501",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied
Mathematics",
mynote = "The notes are not very good. They mainly correct
errors and fill in the gaps of derivations. Much better
would have been higher level comments from a numerical
analyst, e.g. on where Turing's ideas/predictions were
wrong.",
}
–üò–ˆYEZ!#)K7)1=m;K‰techreportfparith.bibTukey:1949:TRAJohn W. Tukey and M. F. FreemanTransformation related to the angular and the square-rootSRG Memorandum report24inst-PRINCETONinst-PRINCETON:adr1949Tue May 15 08:00:09 2012http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2012.05.15 08:00:09 ???ack-nhfbJohn W. Tukey and M. F. FreemanTransformation related to the angular and the square-root
@TechReport{Tukey:1949:TRA,
author = "John W. Tukey and M. F. Freeman",
title = "Transformation related to the angular and the
square-root",
type = "SRG Memorandum report",
number = "24",
institution = inst-PRINCETON,
address = inst-PRINCETON:adr,
pages = "??",
year = "1949",
bibdate = "Tue May 15 08:00:09 2012",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}ˆD[ #+%
97=m;M%
ˆiarticlefparith.bibHuskey:1949:PCPH. D. HuskeyOn the Precision of a Certain Procedure of Numerical Integrationj-J-RES-NATL-BUR-STAND4257--621949JRNBAG0091-0635 OR 00910635Fri Aug 20 09:32:34 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.08.20 09:32:34 ???Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbH. D. HuskeyOn the Precision of a Certain Procedure of Numerical Integration
@Article{Huskey:1949:PCP,
author = "H. D. Huskey",
title = "On the Precision of a Certain Procedure of Numerical
Integration",
journal = j-J-RES-NATL-BUR-STAND,
volume = "42",
number = "??",
pages = "57--62",
year = "1949",
CODEN = "JRNBAG",
ISSN = "0091-0635",
bibdate = "Fri Aug 20 09:32:34 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
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remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}ˆC[ #-S{=m;SˆIarticlefparith.bibHartree:1949:NSRDouglas R. (Douglas Rayner) HartreeNote On Systematic Roundoff Errors in Numerical IntegrationJournal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards4262--??1949Wed Feb 14 19:07:37 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.14 19:07:37 ???ack-nhfbDouglas R. (Douglas Rayner) HartreeNote On Systematic Roundoff Errors in Numerical Integration
@Article{Hartree:1949:NSR,
author = "Douglas R. (Douglas Rayner) Hartree",
title = "Note On Systematic Roundoff Errors in Numerical
Integration",
journal = "Journal of Research of the National Bureau of
Standards",
volume = "42",
number = "??",
pages = "62--??",
month = "????",
year = "1949",
bibdate = "Wed Feb 14 19:07:37 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}
¶ Û å„[3
@Book{Anonymous:1996:SROb,
author = "Anonymous",
tit„ˆ)
@Book{Alt:1960:AC,
editor = "Franz L. Alt and Andrew Donald Booth and Robert Emmet
Meagher",
booktitle = "Advances in Computers",
title = "Advances in Computers",
publisher = pub-ACADEMIC,
address = pub-ACADEMIC:adr,
pages = "x + 316",
year = "1960",
ISSN = "0065-2458",
LCCN = "QA76 .A3",
bibdate = "Sat Nov 29 11:05:31 2003",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}y/3
@Book{Anonymous:1996:SROa,
author = „*ˆU
@Book{Alt:1965:AC,
editor = "Franz L. Alt and Morris Rubinoff and Andrew Donald
Booth and Robert Emmet Meagher",
booktitle = "Advances in Computers",
title = "Advances in Computers",
publisher = pub-ACADEMIC,
address = pub-ACADEMIC:adr,
pages = "xiv + 310",
year = "1965",
ISSN = "0065-2458",
LCCN = "QA76 .A3",
bibdate = "Sat Nov 29 11:06:34 2003",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}„
c
@Bo„g‰O
@Book{Anbar:1987:CM,
editor = "Michael Anbar",
booktitle = "Computers in medicine",
title = "Computers in medicine",
publisher = "Computer Science Press, Inc.",
address = "Rockville, MD, USA",
pages = "314",
year = "1987",
ISBN = "0-88175-080-8",
ISBN-13 = "978-0-88175-080-5",
LCCN = "????",
bibdate = "Sat Nov 29 11:19:13 2003",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
price = "US\$32.95",
series = "Applications of computer science series",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}Ý„U‰+
@Book{Anonymous:1993:SRT,
author = "Anonymous",
title = "The Square Root of Two to 100,000 digits",
volume = "52",
publisher = pub-PROJECT-GUTENBERG,
address = pub-PROJECT-GUTENBERG:adr,
year = "1993",
bibdate = "Sun Jan 24 10:00:27 MST 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
series = ser-PROJECT-GUTENBERG,
URL = "ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext93/2sqrt10.zip",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb # " and " # ack-st,
subject = "Mathematical constants.",
}L…"ŠG
@Book{Alt:1957:EDC,
editor = "Franz L. Alt",
title = "Electronic Digital Computers: Their Use in Science and
Engineering",
publisher = pub-ACADEMIC,
address = pub-ACADEMIC:adr,
pages = "x + 335",
year = "1957",
bibdate = "Sun Jun 17 18:53:23 2018",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Section 2.3 discusses number representation and
decimal versus binary arithmetic.",
xxnote = "Check page count: incomplete view in Google books. Price bibliography says 1958.",
tableofcontents = "
",
}|’
@Book{Albrecht:1993:VNT,
editor = "R. (Rudolf F.) Albrecht and G. (G{\"o}tz) Alefeld and
H. (Hans) J. Stetter",
title = "Validation numerics: theory and applications",
volume = "9",
publisher = pub-SV,
address = pub-SV:adr,
pages =„Y‰3
@Book{Anonymous:1996:SROc,
author = "Anonymous",
title = "The Square Root of 6 to onª(ÔQ
@Book{Alefeld:2001:SAM,
editor = "G{\"o}tz Alefeld and Ji{\v{r}}i Rohn and Siegfried
Rump and Tetsuro Yamamoto",
title = "Symbolic algebraic methods and verification methods",
publisher = pub-SV,
address = pub-SV:adr,
pages = "ix + 266",
year = "2001",
ISBN = "3-211-83593-8",
ISBN-13 = "978-3-211-83593-7",
LCCN = "QA76.9.M35 S92 2001",
bibdate = "Thu May 09 07:34:15 2002",
bibsourU
Ãî‰WH[ '#+'7;Q'=m;_';g?‰Uinproceedingsfparith.bibWorsley:1950:EDB. H. WorsleyReport of a Conference on High Speed Automatic Calculating Machines, 22--25 June 1949The EDSAC demonstrationUniversity Mathematical LaboratoryCambridge, UK12--16jan11950Wed Oct 13 11:39:09 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:39:09 ???Reprinted in cite [ 8.6]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbB. H. WorsleyReport of a Conference on High Speed Automatic Calculating Machines, {22--25 June 1949}Reprinted in \cite[\S 8.6]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The {EDSAC} demonstration
@InProceedings{Worsley:1950:ED,
author = "B. H. Worsley",
booktitle = "Report of a Conference on High Speed Automatic
Calculating Machines, {22--25 June 1949}",
title = "The {EDSAC} demonstration",
publisher = "University Mathematical Laboratory",
address = "Cambridge, UK",
pages = "12--16",
month = jan,
year = "1950",
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title = "The {EDSAC}",
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title = "High-speed computing devices",
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address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "xiii + 451",
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remark = "Supervised by Charles Brown Tompkins and C. H.
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report to the Office of Naval Research, prepared under
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bibdate = "Fri Dec 03 09:17:58 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Bell Laboratories Model 1--5 relay computers; complex
fixed-point decimal arithmetic; complex floating-point
decimal arithmetic",
}
"
g¢"Š}S['#-AQga/=m;_AYgkŠIinproceedingsfparith.bibSheldon:1952:ICPJ. W. Sheldon and L. TatumReview of Electronic Digital Computers. Joint AIEE--IRE Computer Confer ence. 10--12 December 1951The IBM card-programmed electronic calculatorAmerican Institute of Electrical EngineersNew York, NY, USA30--361952Wed Oct 13 11:28:45 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.10.13 11:28:45 ???Reprinted in cite [ 5.4]Randell:1982:ODC.ack-nhfbJ. W. Sheldon and L. TatumReview of Electronic Digital Computers. Joint {AIEE--IRE} Computer Confer ence. {10--12 December 1951}Reprinted in \cite[\S 5.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.The {IBM} card-programmed electronic calculator
@InProceedings{Sheldon:1952:ICP,
author = "J. W. Sheldon and L. Tatum",
booktitle = "Review of Electronic Digital Computers. Joint
{AIEE--IRE} Computer Confer ence. {10--12 December
1951}",
title = "The {IBM} card-programmed electronic calculator",
publisher = "American Institute of Electrical Engineers",
address = "New York, NY, USA",
pages = "30--36",
year = "1952",
bibdate = "Wed Oct 13 11:28:45 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Reprinted in \cite[\S 5.4]{Randell:1982:ODC}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‰BR[#-EQQ=a;EQŠearticlefparith.bibMorrill:1952:SEMC. D. Morrill and R. V. BaumA Stabilized Electronic Multiplierj-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUTEC-152--59dec121952Fri Jul 15 15:20:53 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.15 15:20:53 ???Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on Electronic Computersack-nhfbC. D. Morrill and R. V. BaumA Stabilized Electronic Multiplier
@Article{Morrill:1952:SEM,
author = "C. D. Morrill and R. V. Baum",
title = "A Stabilized Electronic Multiplier",
journal = j-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-1",
number = "??",
pages = "52--59",
month = dec,
year = "1952",
CODEN = "????",
ISSN = "????",
bibdate = "Fri Jul 15 15:20:53 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on
Electronic Computers",
}‹QZ #1-/!K77E‚#;SGc-/articlefparith.bibMichaelson:1952:BAR. L. MichaelsonBinary Arithmeticj-INC-STAT3135--40feb21952https://doi.org/10.2307/29865911466-9404 OR 146694041466-9404 OR 14669404Thu Jan 22 18:10:18 MST 2015http://www.jstor.org/stable/i349863; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jrss-d-1950.bib2015.01.22 18:10:18 MSThttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2986591The Incorporated Statisticianack-nhfbhttp://www.jstor.org/journals/14669404.htmlR. L. MichaelsonBinary Arithmetic
@Article{Michaelson:1952:BA,
author = "R. L. Michaelson",
title = "Binary Arithmetic",
journal = j-INC-STAT,
volume = "3",
number = "1",
pages = "35--40",
month = feb,
year = "1952",
CODEN = "????",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.2307/2986591",
ISSN = "1466-9404",
ISSN-L = "1466-9404",
bibdate = "Thu Jan 22 18:10:18 MST 2015",
bibsource = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/i349863;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jrss-d-1950.bib",
URL = "http://www.jstor.org/stable/2986591",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "The Incorporated Statistician",
journal-URL = "http://www.jstor.org/journals/14669404.html",
}U891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0891-6837",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib;
JSTOR database",
abstract = "The difficulties which arise when programming
calculations for large automatic calculating machines
which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This
leads to a consideration of the possibility of using
floating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of
calculations. A method by which floating decimal
arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed
decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme
adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in
detail.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
keywords = "floating-point decimal arithmetic",
remark-01 = "From page 38: ``The problem [of programmer-controlled
numeric scaling] does not arise with machines designed
to operate directly with numbers expressed in the
floating radix form. Numbers in this form are
represented by $a \cdot r^p$. The first machine of this
kind was the Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computer
Model V(1). This is a decimal machine (that is, $r =
10$) in which $1 > |a| > 0.1$, $19 > p > -19$ and $a$
is expressed to an accuracy of seven significant
figures. Since this was completed all important relay
machines have been equipped with similar facilities. No
electronic machine of this kind has yet been built but
we would remark that in our opinion an electronic
machine provided with a floating point arithmetical
unit would be a powerful computing instrument even if
it had a relatively slow store, a magnetic drum, for
example.''",
remark-02 = "From page 39: ``Two long and two short storage
locations are set aside to form a kind of `arithmetical
unit.' One long location holds the numerical part of a
number and one short location holds the exponent.
Together they form the {\em floating decimal
accumulator}. In a similar fashion the other long
location and the other short location form the {\em
floating decimal register}.''",
remark-03 = "From page 40: ``the floating decimal accumulator is
then `cleared' by replacing the number held in it by
zero, that is, by the special number $010^{-63}$.''",
remark-04 = "From page 40: `The use of two separate storage
locations for the floating decimal accumulator allows
the range and accuracy of numbers held therein to be
greater than those held in a single storage location
elsewhere. This enables products to be accumulated
without loss of accuracy due to intermediate
rounding-off errors.''",
remark-05 = "From the conclusion on page 46: ``From a direct
comparison it would seem that the floating 'orders,'
other than those used for reading and writing, are
about 60 times as slow as the machine orders and hence
that a programme using the interpretive subroutine
would be slower by the same factor. This is not
altogether true because in such a programme fewer
orders' are needed than would otherwise be necessary as
there are no scale factors to deal with and the
techniques for counting and for the modification of
orders' have been streamlined. Moreover, the time taken
by the C auxiliaries is about the same as that taken by
the corresponding subroutine in fixed decimal-point
working. These factors vary from problem to problem but
our experience has shown that the reduction in speed
varies from about 20 to 1 to about 4 to 1. The
reduction of the time taken to code a problem has to be
experienced to be believed!''",
}T
?
Ô
¼Í÷.?h›Q
@Article{Cox:1961:NMP,
author = "Albert G. Cox and H. A. Luther",
title = "A Note on Multiple Precision Arithmetic",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "8",
pages = "353--353",
month = aug,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/366678.366693",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Sat Dec 03¿…G‹
@Article{Cowlishaw:2004:FFE,
author = "Mike Cowlishaw and Joshua Bloch and Joseph D. Darcy",
title = "Fixed, Floating, and Exact Computation in {Java}'s
{{\em BigDecimal\/}}: Calculations just got easier",
journal = j-DDJ,
volume = "29",
number = "7",
pages = "22, 24, 26--27",
month = jul,
year = "2004",
CODEN = "DDJOEB",
ISSN = "1044-789X",
bibdate = "Thu Jun 03 07:31:12 2004",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
}ü…T‹)
@Article{Cowlishaw:2002:DPD,
author = "Michael F. Cowlishaw",
title = "Densely Packed Decimal Encoding",
journal = j-IEE-PROC-COMPUT-DIGIT-TECH,
volume = "149",
number = "3",
pages = "102--104",
year = "2002",
CODEN = "ICDTEA",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-cdt:20020407",
ISSN = "1350-2387 (print), 1359-7027 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "1350-2387",
bibdate = "Fri Jun 07 11:08:45 2002",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEE Proceedings. Computers and Digital Techniques",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
}ã’X¥1
@Article{Cowlishaw:1984:DRL,
author = "M. F. Cowlishaw",
title = "The Design of the {REXX} Language",
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volume = "23",
number = "4",
pages = "326--335",
year = "1984",
CODEN = "IBMSA7",
ISSN = "0018-8670",
bibdate = "Wed Jan 08 16:35:07 1997",
bibsource = "Compendex database;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "First publp†Œ-
@Article{Cowgill:1964:LEB,
author = "D. Cowgill",
title = "Logic Equations for a Built-In Square Root Method",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-13",
number = "2",
pages = "156--157",
month = apr,
year = "1964",
CODEN = "IEECA8",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/PGEC.1964.263791",
ISSN = "0367-7508",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 06:56:59 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4038119",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}„*ˆU
@Article{Coupe:1983:SPZ,
author = "B. Coupe",
title = "Superefficient programs for 8080 and {Z80} multiply",
journal = j-ELECTRONICS,
volume = "56",
number = "6",
pages = "142--143",
month = mar,
year = "1983",
ISSN = "0883-4989",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 1 10:15:08 1994",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Electronics",
}×oating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of
calculations. A method by which floating decimal
arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed
decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme
adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in
detail.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
keywords = "floating-point decimal arithmetic",
remark-01 = "From page 38: ``The problem [of programmer-controlled
numeric scaling] does not arise with machines designed
to operate directly with numbers expressed in the
floating radix form. Numbers in this form are
represented by $a \cdot r^p$. The first machine of this
kind was the Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computer
Model V(1). This is a decimal machine (that is, $r =
10$) in which $1 > |a| > 0.1$, $19 > p > -19$ and $a$
is expressed to an accuracy of seven significant
figures. Since this was completed all important relay
machines have been equipped with similar facilities. No
electronic machine of this kind has yet been built but
we would remark that in our opinion an electronic
machine provided with a floating point arithmetical
unit would be a powerful computing instrument even if
it had a relatively slow store, a magnetic drum, for
example.''",
remark-02 = "From page 39: ``Two long and two short storage
locations are set aside to form a kind of `arithmetical
unit.' One long location holds the numerical part of a
number and one short location holds the exponent.
Together they form the {\em floating decimal
accumulator}. In a similar fashion the other long
location and the other short location form the {\em
floating decimal register}.''",
remark-03 = "From page 40: ``the floating decimal accumulator is
then `cleared' by replacing the number held in it by
zero, that is, by the special number $010^{-63}$.''",
remark-04 = "From page 40: `The use of two separate storage
locations for the floating decimal accumulator allows
the range and accuracy of numbers held therein to be
greater than those held in a single storage location
elsewhere. This enables products to be accumulated
without loss of accuracy due to intermediate
rounding-off errors.''",
remark-05 = "From the conclusion on page 46: ``From a direct
comparison it would seem that the floating 'orders,'
other than those used for reading and writing, are
about 60 times as slow as the machine orders and hence
that a programme using the interpretive subroutine
would be slower by the same factor. This is not
altogether true because in such a programme fewer
orders' are needed than would otherwise be necessary as
there are no scale factors to deal with and the
techniques for counting and for the modification of
orders' have been streamlined. Moreover, the time taken
by the C auxiliaries is about the same as that taken by
the corresponding subroutine in fixed decimal-point
working. These factors vary from problem to problem but
our experience has shown that the reduction in speed
varies from about 20 to 1 to about 4 to 1. The
reduction of the time taken to code a problem has to be
experienced to be believed!''",
}
ÍïÍ†U[ #%+#=m;/†7bookfparith.bibIBM:1953:POTIBM CorporationPrinciples of Operation: Type 701 and Associated Equipmentpub-IBMpub-IBM:adr1031953Wed Sep 14 23:17:49 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.14 23:17:49 ???ack-nhfb{IBM Corporation}Principles of Operation: Type 701 and Associated Equipment
@Book{IBM:1953:POT,
author = "{IBM Corporation}",
title = "Principles of Operation: Type 701 and Associated
Equipment",
publisher = pub-IBM,
address = pub-IBM:adr,
pages = "103",
year = "1953",
bibdate = "Wed Sep 14 23:17:49 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}¶T_#-K-Ko57E{;‡oO=‡K1Ðkarticlefparith.bibBrooker:1953:FOER. A. Brooker and D. J. WheelerFloating Operations on the EDSAC (in Automatic Computing Machinery; Discussions)j-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT74137--47jan11953MTTCAShttps://doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-1953-0052901-30891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic) OR 08916837 (print), 23264853 (electronic)0891-6837 OR 08916837Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:06:19 MDTThe difficulties which arise when programming calculations for large automatic calculating machines which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This leads to a consideration of the possibility of using floating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of calculations. A method by which floating decimal arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in detail.Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computationfloating-point decimal arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/The difficulties which arise when programming calculations for large automatic calculating machines which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This leads to a consideration of the possibility of using floating decimal arithmetic for certain kinds of calculations. A method by which floating decimal arithmetic can be carried out with any fixed decimal-point machine is outlined and the scheme adopted for use with the EDSAC is described in detail.R. A. Brooker and D. J. WheelerFloating Operations on the {EDSAC} (in Automatic Computing Machinery; Discussions)
@Article{Brooker:1953:FOE,
author = "R. A. Brooker and D. J. Wheeler",
title = "Floating Operations on the {EDSAC} (in Automatic
Computing Machinery; Discussions)",
journal = j-MATH-TABLES-OTHER-AIDS-COMPUT,
volume = "7",
number = "41",
pages = "37--47",
month = jan,
year = "1953",
CODEN = "MTTCAS",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1090/S0025-5718-1953-0052901-3",
ISSN = "0891-6837 (print), 2326-4853 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0891-6837",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib;
JSTOR database",
abstract = "The difficulties which arise when programming
calculations for large automatic calculating machines
which have a fixed decimal point are discussed. This
leads to a consideration of the possibility of using
flW",
URL = "http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/FORTRAN/paper/p4-backus.pdf",
abstract = "The IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of
instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a
three-address floating point calculator. Let us call
this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to
operating in floating point, this Speedcoding
calculator has extremely convenient means for getting
information into the machine and for printing results;
it has an extensive set of operations to make the job
of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also
provides automatic address modification, flexible
tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and
built-in checking.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}V
TT™)V] #+%I57=m;'‰1e‰%M—Marticlefparith.bibBackus:1954:ISSJ. W. BackusThe IBM 701 Speedcoding Systemj-J-ACM114--6jan11954JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Fri Nov 04 00:18:27 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.11.04 00:18:27 ???http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/FORTRAN/paper/p4-backus.pdfThe IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a three-address floating point calculator. Let us call this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to operating in floating point, this Speedcoding calculator has extremely convenient means for getting information into the machine and for printing results; it has an extensive set of operations to make the job of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also provides automatic address modification, flexible tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and built-in checking.Journal of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401The IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a three-address floating point calculator. Let us call this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to operating in floating point, this Speedcoding calculator has extremely convenient means for getting information into the machine and for printing results; it has an extensive set of operations to make the job of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also provides automatic address modification, flexible tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and built-in checking.J. W. BackusThe {IBM 701 Speedcoding} System
@Article{Backus:1954:ISS,
author = "J. W. Backus",
title = "The {IBM 701 Speedcoding} System",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "1",
number = "1",
pages = "4--6",
month = jan,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 04 00:18:27 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://community.computerhistory.org/scc/projects/FORTRAN/paper/p4-backus.pdf",
abstract = "The IBM 701 Speedcoding System is a set of
instructions which causes the 701 to behave like a
three-address floating point calculator. Let us call
this the Speedcoding calculator. In addition to
operating in floating point, this Speedcoding
calculator has extremely convenient means for getting
information into the machine and for printing results;
it has an extensive set of operations to make the job
of programming as easy as possible. Speedcoding also
provides automatic address modification, flexible
tracing, convenient use of auxiliary storage, and
built-in checking.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}d coding manual --- Datatron
operation manual --- Central computer handbook ---
Paper tape system handbook --- Card converter Model 500
handbook --- Magnetic tape system handbook ---
Cardatron system handbook --- Model 560 DATAFILE
handbook --- Control console and consolette handbook
--- Floating point control unit handbook --- External
switching unit handbook --- Tape preparation unit
handbook.",
}W
R±RŒ\X\#-?WQ=a;‚[?[ŽEarticlefparith.bibFreeman:1954:TSAH. Freeman and E. ParsonsTime-Sharing Analog Multiplier (TSAM)j-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUTEC-3111--17mar31954Fri Jul 15 15:20:53 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.15 15:20:53 ???Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on Electronic ComputersCited in US Patent 3,043,516 (10 July 1962): Time Summing Device for Division, Multiplication, Root Taking and Interpolation, by Harold W. Abbott and Vernon P. Mathis.ack-nhfbH. Freeman and E. ParsonsTime-Sharing Analog Multiplier ({TSAM})
@Article{Freeman:1954:TSA,
author = "H. Freeman and E. Parsons",
title = "Time-Sharing Analog Multiplier ({TSAM})",
journal = j-TRANS-IRE-PROF-GROUP-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-3",
number = "1",
pages = "11--17",
month = mar,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "????",
ISSN = "????",
bibdate = "Fri Jul 15 15:20:53 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Transactions of the I.R.E. Professional Group on
Electronic Computers",
remark = "Cited in US Patent 3,043,516 (10 July 1962): Time
Summing Device for Division, Multiplication, Root
Taking and Interpolation, by Harold W. Abbott and
Vernon P. Mathis.",
}ŽLWZ #/O1%/Em;-3†WS-1manualfparith.bibBurroughs:1954:DHBurroughs Corporation.ElectroDataDatatron handbooksThe DivisionPasadena, CA, USA4--61954Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MST12 volumes in 1.Datatron (Computer)Datatron programming and coding manual --- Datatron operation manual --- Central computer handbook --- Paper tape system handbook --- Card converter Model 500 handbook --- Magnetic tape system handbook --- Cardatron system handbook --- Model 560 DATAFILE handbook --- Control console and consolette handbook --- Floating point control unit handbook --- External switching unit handbook --- Tape preparation unit handbook.ack-nhfb{Burroughs Corporation.ElectroData}12 volumes in 1.Datatron handbooks
@Manual{Burroughs:1954:DH,
author = "{Burroughs Corporation.ElectroData}",
title = "Datatron handbooks",
organization = "The Division",
address = "Pasadena, CA, USA",
year = "1954",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "12 volumes in 1.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Datatron (Computer)",
remark = "Datatron programming and coding manual --- Datatron
operation manual --- Central computer handbook ---
Paper tape system handbook --- Card converter Model 500
handbook --- Magnetic tape system handbook ---
Cardatron system handbook --- Model 560 DATAFILE
handbook --- Control console and consolette handbook
--- Floating point control unit handbook --- External
switching unit handbook --- Tape preparation unit
handbook.",
}
ÅC‡Å‰?[Z#)g[;7=a;]g[Š'articlefparith.bibMayer:1954:ODFM. A. Mayer and B. M. Gordon and R. N. NicolaAn operational digital feedback dividerj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-3117--20mar31954IRELAO0367-9950 OR 03679950Sun Jul 17 09:52:58 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.17 09:52:58 ???IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbM. A. Mayer and B. M. Gordon and R. N. NicolaAn operational digital feedback divider
@Article{Mayer:1954:ODF,
author = "M. A. Mayer and B. M. Gordon and R. N. Nicola",
title = "An operational digital feedback divider",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-3",
number = "1",
pages = "17--20",
month = mar,
year = "1954",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Sun Jul 17 09:52:58 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
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year = "1976",
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in its own right for commentary on the recursive
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}Š9\\ #-%57=m;1Oe%‹=articlefparith.bibMoshman:1954:GPRJack MoshmanThe Generation of Pseudo-Random Numbers on a Decimal Calculatorj-J-ACM1288--91apr41954JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Fri Nov 04 00:18:27 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.11.04 00:18:27 ???Journal of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401Jack MoshmanThe Generation of Pseudo-Random Numbers on a Decimal Calculator
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author = "Jack Moshman",
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journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
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MRnumber = "0071856",
bibdate = "Thu Feb 08 16:17:25 2018",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/mathcomp1950.bib",
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fjournal = "Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
remark = "Hidden inside \cite{Brenner:1955:TNS}, but important
in its own right for commentary on the recursive
algorithm for summation of Chebyshev series, and a
brief analysis of its accuracy.",
}]
˜`Þ˜ˆC`\#/U'/!=K;Uˆ_Ñbookfparith.bibHastings:1955:ADCCecil B. Hastings, Jr. and Jeanne T. Hayward and James P. Wong, Jr.Approximations for Digital Computerspub-PRINCETONpub-PRINCETON:adrviii + 2011955QA76 .H33Mon Sep 30 14:51:50 1996ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.09.30 14:51:50 ???ack-njCecil B. {Hastings, Jr.} and Jeanne T. Hayward and James P. {Wong, Jr.}Approximations for Digital Computers
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author = "W. J. (Wallace John) Eckert and Rebecca Bradley
Jones",
title = "Faster, faster; a simple description of a giant
electronic calculator and the problems it solves",
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address = pub-IBM:adr,
pages = "160",
year = "1955",
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z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
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author-dates = "1902--1971",
remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "Computers",
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}‰^Z#/IM%57=m;IMIM‰{articlefparith.bibCrockett:1955:GMMJ. B. Crockett and H. ChernoffGradient Methods of Maximizationj-PAC-J-MATH533--501955PJMAAI0030-8730 (print), 1945-5844 (electronic) OR 00308730 (print), 19455844 (electronic)0030-8730 OR 00308730Fri Aug 20 08:54:24 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.08.20 08:54:24 ???Pacific Journal of MathematicsCited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbJ. B. Crockett and H. ChernoffGradient Methods of Maximization
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pages = "33--50",
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P¨P†UcY #/;a+/'=m;;a†}‘bookfparith.bibRichards:1955:AODRichard Kohler RichardsArithmetic Operations in Digital ComputersD. Van NostrandNew York, NY, USAiv + 3971955QA75 .R5 1955Fri Nov 28 18:46:37 2003http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2003.11.28 18:46:37 ???ack-nhfbRichard Kohler RichardsArithmetic Operations in Digital Computers
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author = "Richard Kohler Richards",
title = "Arithmetic Operations in Digital Computers",
publisher = "D. Van Nostrand",
address = "New York, NY, USA",
pages = "iv + 397",
year = "1955",
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author = "Frances L. Parsons",
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Results of Digital Computer Arithmetic Operations",
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fjournal = "Electronic Engineering",
}
½Îõ
ÁÎ;½-š[
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subject = "Electronic digital computers; Arithmetic",
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author = "Guy L†+ŒW
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author = "Tom {St.Denis}",
title = "{BigNum} Math: Implementing Cryptographic Multiple
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address = pub-SYNGRESS:adr,
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keywords = "Karatsuba multiplication; modular exponentiation;
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author = "Otto Spaniol",
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address = pub-WILEY:adr,
pages = "280",
year = "1981",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "English translation of \cite{Spaniol:1976:AR}.",
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@Book{Spaniol:1976:AR,
author = "Otto Spaniol",
title = "{Arithmetik in Rechenanlagen: Logik und Entwurf}
\toenglish {Computer Arithmetic: Logic and Design}
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address = pub-TEUBNER:adr,
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year = "1976",
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note = "For an English translation, see
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price = "DM24.80",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
}¡
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author = "Thomas Teufel",
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accurate scalar product for digital signal processing",
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author = "Alexandre F. Tenca",
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¢‹)–S
@InProceedings{Thapliyal:2006:DNR,
author = "Himanshu Thapliyal and Sumedha K. Gupta",
title = "Design of Novel Reversible Carry Look-Ahead {BCD}
Subtractor",
crossref = "Mohanty:2006:IIC",
pages = "253--258",
year = "2006",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIT.2006.44",
bibdate = "Thu Aug 07 19:09:50 2008",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "IEEE 754r id‘v£m
@InProceedings{Thakkar:2006:PDP,
author = "Anuja J. Thakkar and Abdel Ejnioui",
title = "Pipelining of double precision floating point division
and square root operations",
crossref = "Menezes:2006:PAS",
pages = "488--493",
year = "2006",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/1185448.1185555",
bibdate = "Sat Oct 9 13:04:49 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = _‹`—A
@InProceedings{Thomas:2003:IMF,
author = "James W. Thomas",
title = "Inlining of mathematical functions in {HP-UX} for
{Itanium 2}",
crossref = "IEEE:2003:PCI",
pages = "135--144",
year = "2003",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/CGO.2003.1191540",
bibdate = "Thu Jun 09 18:37:10 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "HP-UX compilers inline mathematical ½
F
F‹Qe[ #+gc;]7Ea;]gcŒ_articlefparith.bibEstrin:1956:NHSG. Estrin and B. Gilchrist and J. H. PomereneA Note on High-Speed Digital Multiplicationj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-53140--140sep91956IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.52199360367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jun 30 15:46:27 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.06.30 15:46:27 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219936IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbG. Estrin and B. Gilchrist and J. H. PomereneA Note on High-Speed Digital Multiplication
@Article{Estrin:1956:NHS,
author = "G. Estrin and B. Gilchrist and J. H. Pomerene",
title = "A Note on High-Speed Digital Multiplication",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-5",
number = "3",
pages = "140--140",
month = sep,
year = "1956",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1956.5219936",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jun 30 15:46:27 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219936",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}‹cd] #1+;e7Ea;]+articlefparith.bibRobertson:1955:TCMJ. E. RobertsonTwo's Complement Multiplication in Binary Parallel Digital Computersj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-43118--119sep91955IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/IRETELC.1955.54079110367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jun 30 15:10:39 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.06.30 15:10:39 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5407911IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJ. E. RobertsonTwo's Complement Multiplication in Binary Parallel Digital Computers
@Article{Robertson:1955:TCM,
author = "J. E. Robertson",
title = "Two's Complement Multiplication in Binary Parallel
Digital Computers",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-4",
number = "3",
pages = "118--119",
month = sep,
year = "1955",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/IRETELC.1955.5407911",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jun 30 15:10:39 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5407911",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
} pure and applied mathematics",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "See also second edition
\cite{Hildebrand:1974:INA,Hildebrand:1987:INA}.",
subject = "Numerical analysis",
tableofcontents = "1. Introduction (significant figures, random
errors, error bounds, etc.) \\
2. Interpolation with divided differences \\
3. Lagrangian methods \\
4. Finite-difference interpolation \\
5. Operations with finite differences \\
6. Numerical solution of ordinary differential
equations \\
7. Least-squares polynomial approximation \\
8. Gaussian quadrature and related topics \\
9. Approximations of various types \\
10. Numerical solution of equations \\
Appendix: Justification of the Crout reduction",
}f
nn—f] #3AQ+3E%;u1‡5AQ‡q–)bookfparith.bibHildebrand:1956:INAFrancis Begnaud HildebrandIntroduction to Numerical Analysispub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr5111956QA300 .H5Fri Aug 20 09:19:58 MDT 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2010.08.20 09:19:58 MDTInternational series in pure and applied mathematicsSee also second edition cite Hildebrand:1974:INA,Hildebrand:1987:INA.Numerical analysis1. Introduction (significant figures, random errors, error bounds, etc.) 2. Interpolation with divided differences 3. Lagrangian methods 4. Finite-difference interpolation 5. Operations with finite differences 6. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations 7. Least-squares polynomial approximation 8. Gaussian quadrature and related topics 9. Approximations of various types 10. Numerical solution of equations Appendix: Justification of the Crout reductionack-nhfbFrancis Begnaud HildebrandIntroduction to Numerical Analysis1. Introduction (significant figures, random errors, error bounds, etc.) \\ 2. Interpolation with divided differences \\ 3. Lagrangian methods \\ 4. Finite-difference interpolation \\ 5. Operations with finite differences \\ 6. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations \\ 7. Least-squares polynomial approximation \\ 8. Gaussian quadrature and related topics \\ 9. Approximations of various types \\ 10. Numerical solution of equations \\ Appendix: Justification of the Crout reduction
@Book{Hildebrand:1956:INA,
author = "Francis Begnaud Hildebrand",
title = "Introduction to Numerical Analysis",
publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "511",
year = "1956",
LCCN = "QA300 .H5",
bibdate = "Fri Aug 20 09:19:58 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
series = "International series in pure and applied mathematics",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "See also second edition
\cite{Hildebrand:1974:INA,Hildebrand:1987:INA}.",
subject = "Numerical analysis",
tableofcontents = "1. Introduction (significant figures, random
errors, error bounds, etc.) \\
2. Interpolation with divided differences \\
3. Lagrangian methods \\
4. Finite-difference interpolation \\
5. Operations with finite differences \\
6. Numerical solution of ordinary differential
equations \\
7. Least-squares polynomial approximation \\
8. Gaussian quadrature and related topics \\
9. Approximations of various types \\
10. Numerical solution of equations \\
Appendix: Justification of the Crout reduction",
}
³ÃÚ‡
] #++U57Ek;†'?Oc†'+U–carticlefparith.bibSisson:1958:IDRRoger L. SissonAn Improved Decimal Redundancy Checkj-CACM1510--12may51958CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Mon Jan 22 07:22:12 MST 2001http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Sisson58; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2001.01.22 07:22:12 MSTAs more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy of data fed into automatic computing systems, more emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy must be of only one digit.Communications of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79As more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy of data fed into automatic computing systems, more emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy must be of only one digit.Roger L. SissonAn Improved Decimal Redundancy Check
@Article{Sisson:1958:IDR,
author = "Roger L. Sisson",
title = "An Improved Decimal Redundancy Check",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "1",
number = "5",
pages = "10--12",
month = may,
year = "1958",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 07:22:12 MST 2001",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Sisson58;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "As more emphasis is placed on improving the accuracy
of data fed into automatic computing systems, more
emphasis will be placed on redundancy checking of
predictable fields within the input. Two systems (at
least) of checking a field of decimal digits have been
proposed. In both of these it is assumed that the field
to be checked is all numeric and that the redundancy
must be of only one digit.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Sisson58",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Sisson58",
}
a7a‹R[ #)#I57E‚;?c#I}articlefparith.bibWadey:1958:TSRW. G. WadeyTwo Square-Root Approximationsj-CACM11113--14nov111958CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Wed Jul 14 15:48:22 MDT 2004http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Wadey58; http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.07.14 15:48:22 MDTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79W. G. WadeyTwo Square-Root Approximations
@Article{Wadey:1958:TSR,
author = "W. G. Wadey",
title = "Two Square-Root Approximations",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "1",
number = "11",
pages = "13--14",
month = nov,
year = "1958",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:22 MDT 2004",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm1.html#Wadey58;
http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
oldlabel = "Wadey58",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Wadey58",
}‰E[ #+%C77;m;y%Šcarticlefparith.bibTocher:1958:TMDK. D. TocherTechniques of Multiplication and Division for Automatic Binary Computersj-QUART-J-MECH-APPLIED-MATH113364--3841958QJMMAV0033-5614 OR 003356140033-5614 OR 00335614Thu Apr 2 08:38:35 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1998.04.02 08:38:35 ???Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematicsack-sfoK. D. TocherTechniques of Multiplication and Division for Automatic Binary Computers
@Article{Tocher:1958:TMD,
author = "K. D. Tocher",
title = "Techniques of Multiplication and Division for
Automatic Binary Computers",
journal = j-QUART-J-MECH-APPLIED-MATH,
volume = "11",
number = "3",
pages = "364--384",
month = "????",
year = "1958",
CODEN = "QJMMAV",
ISSN = "0033-5614",
ISSN-L = "0033-5614",
bibdate = "Thu Apr 2 08:38:35 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-sfo # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied
Mathematics",
}",
MRreviewer = "H. H. Goldstine",
bibdate = "Fri Dec 08 13:06:24 1995",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/m/metropolis-nicholas.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
ZMnumber = "0121.12102",
abstract = "Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are
described, in which fractional parts are not subject to
the usual normalization convention. These algorithms
give results in a form which furnishes some indication
of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage
error propagation is developed for each operation; a
suggested statistical model for long-run error
propagation is also set forth.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}
,,—P
]#3eY577+={;†3q!e†3eY—articlefparith.bibAshenhurst:1959:UFPRobert L. Ashenhurst and Nicholas MetropolisUnnormalized Floating Point Arithmeticj-J-ACM63415--428jul71959JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 0004541168.00MR0105833 (21 \#4568)H. H. GoldstineFri Dec 08 13:06:24 1995http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/m/metropolis-nicholas.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.08 13:06:24 ???Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are described, in which fractional parts are not subject to the usual normalization convention. These algorithms give results in a form which furnishes some indication of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage error propagation is developed for each operation; a suggested statistical model for long-run error propagation is also set forth.Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery0121.12102ack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are described, in which fractional parts are not subject to the usual normalization convention. These algorithms give results in a form which furnishes some indication of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage error propagation is developed for each operation; a suggested statistical model for long-run error propagation is also set forth.Robert L. Ashenhurst and Nicholas MetropolisUnnormalized Floating Point Arithmetic
@Article{Ashenhurst:1959:UFP,
author = "Robert L. Ashenhurst and Nicholas Metropolis",
title = "Unnormalized Floating Point Arithmetic",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "6",
number = "3",
pages = "415--428",
month = jul,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
MRclass = "68.00",
MRnumber = "MR0105833 (21 \#4568)",
MRreviewer = "H. H. Goldstine",
bibdate = "Fri Dec 08 13:06:24 1995",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/m/metropolis-nicholas.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
ZMnumber = "0121.12102",
abstract = "Algorithms for floating point computer arithmetic are
described, in which fractional parts are not subject to
the usual normalization convention. These algorithms
give results in a form which furnishes some indication
of their degree of precision. An analysis of one-stage
error propagation is developed for each operation; a
suggested statistical model for long-run error
propagation is also set forth.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
} bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Buchholz59;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Buchholz59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Buchholz59",
xxnote = "Check author first name: article has W. Buchholz; I
think it should be Werner, not Wilfried.",
}Ž
èóèŒ[ #'-c57E‚;?c1cŽ!articlefparith.bibCarr:1959:EAFJohn W. Carr IIIError Analysis in Floating Point Arithmeticj-CACM2510--15may51959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Wed Jul 14 15:48:23 MDT 2004http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Carr59a; http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2004.07.14 15:48:23 MDTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79John W. {Carr III}Error Analysis in Floating Point Arithmetic
@Article{Carr:1959:EAF,
author = "John W. {Carr III}",
title = "Error Analysis in Floating Point Arithmetic",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "2",
number = "5",
pages = "10--15",
month = may,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Wed Jul 14 15:48:23 MDT 2004",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Carr59a;
http://portal.acm.org/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
oldlabel = "Carr59a",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Carr59a",
}Ž ] #//57Eo;?Oc/‘- articlefparith.bibBuchholz:1959:FFCWilfried BuchholzFingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary Representation)j-CACM2123--111959CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Mon Jan 22 06:28:45 MST 2001http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Buchholz59; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2001.01.22 06:28:45 MSTCommunications of the ACMdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Wilfried BuchholzFingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary Representation)
@Article{Buchholz:1959:FFC,
author = "Wilfried Buchholz",
title = "Fingers or Fists? (The Choice of Decimal or Binary
Representation)",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "2",
number = "12",
pages = "3--11",
month = "????",
year = "1959",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 06:28:45 MST 2001",
bibsource = "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm2.html#Buchholz59;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
oldlabel = "Buchholz59",
XMLdata = "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Buchholz59",
xxnote = "Check author first name: article has W. Buchholz; I
think it should be Werner, not Wilfried.",
}
ú ,úˆ.Y #-'U;7=m;]O'Y‰?articlefparith.bibDaggett:1959:DBCD. H. DaggettDecimal-Binary Conversions in CORDICj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-85335--339sep91959IRELAO0367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Sep 08 08:14:00 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.08 08:14:00 ???IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersdecimal floating-point arithmeticack-njD. H. DaggettDecimal-Binary Conversions in {CORDIC}
@Article{Daggett:1959:DBC,
author = "D. H. Daggett",
title = "Decimal-Binary Conversions in {CORDIC}",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-8",
number = "5",
pages = "335--339",
month = sep,
year = "1959",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 08 08:14:00 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
keywords = "decimal floating-point arithmetic",
}P[ %#%-ym9'!=%;!‚;{1my!9Ž[incollectionfparith.bibCarr:1959:PCJohn W. Carr IIIEugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E. WooldridgeHandbook of Automation, Computation, and ControlProgramming and Codingpub-WILEYpub-WILEY:adr10--151959TJ213 .G72Fri Aug 20 08:41:16 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2010.08.20 08:41:16 ???Chapter 2.1958--1961: Volume 1. Control fundamentals. Volume 2. Computers and data processing. Volume 3. Systems and components. Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.automation; mathematics; computers; operations researchack-nhfbJohn W. {Carr III}Handbook of Automation, Computation, and ControlEugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E. WooldridgeChapter 2.Programming and Coding
@InCollection{Carr:1959:PC,
author = "John W. {Carr III}",
editor = "Eugene M. Grabbe and Simon Ramo and Dean E.
Wooldridge",
booktitle = "Handbook of Automation, Computation, and Control",
title = "Programming and Coding",
publisher = pub-WILEY,
address = pub-WILEY:adr,
bookpages = "????",
year = "1959",
LCCN = "TJ213 .G72",
bibdate = "Fri Aug 20 08:41:16 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
note = "Chapter 2.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "1958--1961: Volume 1. Control fundamentals. Volume 2.
Computers and data processing. Volume 3. Systems and
components. Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "automation; mathematics; computers; operations
research",
}
@ QnŽ\9
@Article{Gazeau:2012:NLM,
author = "Ivan Gazeau and Dale Miller and Catuscia Palamidessi",
title = "A non-local method for robustness analysis of floating
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title = "An Explicit Solution for Computing the Vertices of the
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Spheres in a Floating-Point Arithmetic",
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}‡aC
@Article{Geiselmann:2003:RRD,
author = "W. Geiselmann and R. Steinwandt",
title = "A redundant representation of {$ \mathrm {GF}(q^n) $}
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}_ˆ‘
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author = "Tung-Liang Chang and P. Fisher",
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author = "David T. Brown",
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number = "3",
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year = "1960",
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ISSN = "0367-9950",
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bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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À ŸÀ[+[ #)!57Eƒ1;?c!articlefparith.bibGurzi:1960:HSMFred GurziA High-Speed Multiplication Process for Digital Computersj-CACM34241--245apr41960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Gurzi60; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:26 MSTCommunications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Fred GurziA High-Speed Multiplication Process for Digital Computers
@Article{Gurzi:1960:HSM,
author = "Fred Gurzi",
title = "A High-Speed Multiplication Process for Digital
Computers",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "3",
number = "4",
pages = "241--245",
month = apr,
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}Œ]*] #+%57E‚5;??c%Ccarticlefparith.bibErcoli:1960:LEEPaolo ErcoliLetter to the Editor: Errors Due to Overflow in Arithmetic Operationsj-CACM312A9--A9dec121960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:29 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:29 MSTSee cite Ercoli:1957:EDO.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Paolo ErcoliSee \cite{Ercoli:1957:EDO}.Letter to the {Editor}: {Errors} Due to Overflow in Arithmetic Operations
@Article{Ercoli:1960:LEE,
author = "Paolo Ercoli",
title = "Letter to the {Editor}: {Errors} Due to Overflow in
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journal = j-CACM,
volume = "3",
number = "12",
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month = dec,
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
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‹|,\ !#+%m%1Em;m9%mŒktechreportfparith.bibJensen:1960:CIFB. A. JensenCoding instructions for floating point trigonometric, inverse trigonometric hyperbolic and exponential functionsGroup report30G-0009Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln LaboratoryLexington, MA, USA71960Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1996.02.24 15:01:45 MSTTrigonometrical functions --- Computer programs.Cover title. ``Millstone Hill Radar Station.'' ``1 November 1960.'' Air Force Contractack-nhfbB. A. JensenCoding instructions for floating point trigonometric, inverse trigonometric hyperbolic and exponential functions
@TechReport{Jensen:1960:CIF,
author = "B. A. Jensen",
title = "Coding instructions for floating point trigonometric,
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functions",
type = "Group report",
number = "30G-0009",
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address = "Lexington, MA, USA",
pages = "7",
year = "1960",
bibdate = "Sat Feb 24 15:01:45 MST 1996",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
MathSciNet database",
note = "Errata, {\sl Commun\-i\-ca\-tions of the ACM\/ \bf 4}
(August 1961), 355 \cite{Knuth:1961:EIN}. See
\cite{Nadler:1961:DSR} for extension to division and
square root.",
abstract = "For centuries the decimal number system reigned
supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians,
until the advent of digital computers brought the
binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper
introduces another number system which may prove useful
for manipulating complex numbers on machines.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
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||›-_ #)+A57-Eƒ[;‚7„q?c„q+‚WAœarticlefparith.bibKnuth:1960:INSDonald E. KnuthAn Imaginary Number Systemj-CACM34245--247apr41960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 0001078265.9923\#B554C. B. HaselgroveFri Nov 25 18:19:26 MST 2005http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Knuth60; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; MathSciNet database2005.11.25 18:19:26 MSTErrata, sl Communications of the ACM bf 4 (August 1961), 355 cite Knuth:1961:EIN. See cite Nadler:1961:DSR for extension to division and square root.For centuries the decimal number system reigned supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians, until the advent of digital computers brought the binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper introduces another number system which may prove useful for manipulating complex numbers on machines.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79For centuries the decimal number system reigned supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians, until the advent of digital computers brought the binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper introduces another number system which may prove useful for manipulating complex numbers on machines.Donald E. KnuthErrata, {\sl Commun\-i\-ca\-tions of the ACM\/ \bf 4} (August 1961), 355 \cite{Knuth:1961:EIN}. See \cite{Nadler:1961:DSR} for extension to division and square root.An Imaginary Number System
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
MathSciNet database",
note = "Errata, {\sl Commun\-i\-ca\-tions of the ACM\/ \bf 4}
(August 1961), 355 \cite{Knuth:1961:EIN}. See
\cite{Nadler:1961:DSR} for extension to division and
square root.",
abstract = "For centuries the decimal number system reigned
supreme, except, perhaps, among the Mayan Indians,
until the advent of digital computers brought the
binary and octal systems into the limelight. This paper
introduces another number system which may prove useful
for manipulating complex numbers on machines.",
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author = "Arnold N. Lowan",
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$$X8] #)#S57Eƒ1;C?c#GW‘karticlefparith.bibTraub:1960:CNMJ. F. TraubComments on a recent paper [``A New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without Using Division'']j-CACM3286--86feb21960CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Fri Nov 25 18:19:25 MST 2005http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm3.html#Traub60; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:25 MSTSee cite Sarafyan:1959:NMC.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79J. F. TraubSee \cite{Sarafyan:1959:NMC}.Comments on a recent paper [{``A New Method of Computation of Square Roots Without Using Division''}]
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abstract = "Three types of floating-point arithmetics with error
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abstract = "Three types of floating-point arithmetics with error
control are discussed and compared with conventional
floating-point arithmetic. General multiplication and
division shift criteria are derived (for any base) for
Metropolis-style arithmetics. The limitations and most
suitable range of application for each arithmetic are
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remark = "Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
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xxpages = "220--221??",
}»
v+v‡1] #+5{;]7Ea;Š=]Š=5{šWarticlefparith.bibCheney:1961:DCBPhilip Warren CheneyA Digital Correlator Based on the Residue Number Systemj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-10163--70mar31961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52191540367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:02 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:02 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219154A system design for a digital correlator based on the application of the residue number system for computation is presented. Areas of investigation include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed digital correlator. The advantages of speed of computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a residue number system are shown to result in a significantly faster and simpler system than if a conventional number system were used. The resulting digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbA system design for a digital correlator based on the application of the residue number system for computation is presented. Areas of investigation include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed digital correlator. The advantages of speed of computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a residue number system are shown to result in a significantly faster and simpler system than if a conventional number system were used. The resulting digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.Philip Warren CheneyA Digital Correlator Based on the Residue Number System
@Article{Cheney:1961:DCB,
author = "Philip Warren Cheney",
title = "A Digital Correlator Based on the Residue Number
System",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "1",
pages = "63--70",
month = mar,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219154",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:02 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219154",
abstract = "A system design for a digital correlator based on the
application of the residue number system for
computation is presented. Areas of investigation
include sampling, analog-to-residue conversion, logical
design of the arithmetic units, residue-to-analog
conversion, and modes of operation of the proposed
digital correlator. The advantages of speed of
computation and simplicity of logic due to the use of a
residue number system are shown to result in a
significantly faster and simpler system than if a
conventional number system were used. The resulting
digital correlator is designed for megacycle sampling
and computation with a 0.1 per cent system precision.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
WW‰%?Z #/)c57=m;?c)cŠarticlefparith.bibClarkson:1961:DMIW. K. ClarksonA Divisionless Method of Integer Conversionj-CACM47315--316jul71961CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Thu Sep 08 08:14:59 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.08 08:14:59 ???Communications of the ACMack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79W. K. ClarksonA Divisionless Method of Integer Conversion
@Article{Clarkson:1961:DMI,
author = "W. K. Clarkson",
title = "A Divisionless Method of Integer Conversion",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "7",
pages = "315--316",
month = jul,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 08 08:14:59 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
} 14:07:44 2005",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Since computers have means to detect overflow on
addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple
precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a
sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to
be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a =
a_0 + a_1 t + \cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of
like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a
positive integer determined by the word length of the
computer. Consider the expression $ c = a \pm b = (a_0
\pm b_0) + (a_1 \pm b_1)t + \cdots + (a_n \pm b_n)t^n$.
Here $ a_i \pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of
one word or may have a sign different from $c$.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}À
))S@] #%I[W57=ƒ;Š?cŠI[›Qarticlefparith.bibCox:1961:NMPAlbert G. Cox and H. A. LutherA Note on Multiple Precision Arithmeticj-CACM48353--353aug81961CACMA2https://doi.org/10.1145/366678.3666930001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Sat Dec 03 14:07:44 2005ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.12.03 14:07:44 ???Since computers have means to detect overflow on addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a = a_0 + a_1 t + cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a positive integer determined by the word length of the computer. Consider the expression $ c = a pm b = (a_0 pm b_0) + (a_1 pm b_1)t + cdots + (a_n pm b_n)t^n$. Here $ a_i pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of one word or may have a sign different from $c$.Communications of the ACMack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Since computers have means to detect overflow on addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a = a_0 + a_1 t + \cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a positive integer determined by the word length of the computer. Consider the expression $ c = a \pm b = (a_0 \pm b_0) + (a_1 \pm b_1)t + \cdots + (a_n \pm b_n)t^n$. Here $ a_i \pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of one word or may have a sign different from $c$.Albert G. Cox and H. A. LutherA Note on Multiple Precision Arithmetic
@Article{Cox:1961:NMP,
author = "Albert G. Cox and H. A. Luther",
title = "A Note on Multiple Precision Arithmetic",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "8",
pages = "353--353",
month = aug,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/366678.366693",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Sat Dec 03 14:07:44 2005",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Since computers have means to detect overflow on
addition or subtraction, this can be used in a multiple
precision addition-subtraction subroutine to obviate a
sign analysis. Consider all integers in the computer to
be expressed ``radix t'', that is, in the form $ a =
a_0 + a_1 t + \cdots + a_n t^n $ where $ a_i $ are of
like sign and have magnitudes less than $t$. $t$ is a
positive integer determined by the word length of the
computer. Consider the expression $ c = a \pm b = (a_0
\pm b_0) + (a_1 \pm b_1)t + \cdots + (a_n \pm b_n)t^n$.
Here $ a_i \pm b_i$ may exceed the storage capacity of
one word or may have a sign different from $c$.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}
c Æcˆ_B[ #-'!=m;+'‹
articlefparith.bibFreiman:1961:SACC. V. FreimanStatistical analysis of certain binary division algorithmsj-IRE-PROC49191--103jan11961Mon Sep 16 16:12:21 2002http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2002.09.16 16:12:21 ???IRE Proceedingsack-sfoC. V. FreimanStatistical analysis of certain binary division algorithms
@Article{Freiman:1961:SAC,
author = "C. V. Freiman",
title = "Statistical analysis of certain binary division
algorithms",
journal = j-IRE-PROC,
volume = "49",
number = "1",
pages = "91--103",
month = jan,
year = "1961",
bibdate = "Mon Sep 16 16:12:21 2002",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-sfo # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Proceedings",
xxnote = "Check author name: I have found this paper cited both
as Freiman and as Frieman?? Hennessy and Patterson
\cite{Hennessy:2002:CAQ} have Freiman.",
}Œ6A] #'%];]7Ea;]%]7articlefparith.bibCroy:1961:RTMJohn E. CroyRapid Technique of Manual or Machine Binary-to-Decimal Integer Conversion Using Decimal Radix Arithmeticj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-104777--777dec121961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52192860367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:05 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:05 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219286IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJohn E. CroyRapid Technique of Manual or Machine Binary-to-Decimal Integer Conversion Using Decimal Radix Arithmetic
@Article{Croy:1961:RTM,
author = "John E. Croy",
title = "Rapid Technique of Manual or Machine Binary-to-Decimal
Integer Conversion Using Decimal Radix Arithmetic",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "4",
pages = "777--777",
month = dec,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219286",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:05 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219286",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}ibdate = "Thu Nov 18 09:27:06 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/5023/4/bac2784.0001.001.txt",
abstract = "The purpose of the research performed under this
contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue
number systems in their applications to digital
computers. The problems of such an application are the
ones of magnitude determination, sign determination,
overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not
independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A
theoretical treatment of residue number systems is
given which lays the foundation for a unified study of
the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational
nature are given which deal with multiplication,
division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the
theoretical and organizational studies to physical
realizations involving networks is treated also. The
question of whether the residue number system can be
successfully applied to general purpose computers is
still an open one. Their application to special purpose
machines is considered both feasible and practical.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This report represents the results of research
performed by the group at The University of Michigan
under the direction of Professor H. L. Garner.
Concurrently, research on the same subject was being
conducted at Harvard University under the direction of
Professor Howard Aiken, and at the Lockheed Missile
System Division under the direction of Dr. Richard
Tanaka. There was a considerable exchange of
information among the above groups during the course of
the research effort. The efforts attained exhibit
little overlap, rather they are complementary. A
portion of this report was extracted from the doctoral
dissertation of D. P. Rozenberg. His work was supported
by this contract, and led to the Ph.D..",
}ÃHis work was supported by this contract, and led to the Ph.D..ack-nhfbThe purpose of the research performed under this contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue number systems in their applications to digital computers. The problems of such an application are the ones of magnitude determination, sign determination, overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A theoretical treatment of residue number systems is given which lays the foundation for a unified study of the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational nature are given which deal with multiplication, division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the theoretical and organizational studies to physical realizations involving networks is treated also. The question of whether the residue number system can be successfully applied to general purpose computers is still an open one. Their application to special purpose machines is considered both feasible and practical.H. L. Garner and R. F. Arnold and B. C. Benson and C. G. Brockus and R. J. Gonzalez and D. P. RozenbergResidue number systems for computers
@TechReport{Garner:1961:RNS,
author = "H. L. Garner and R. F. Arnold and B. C. Benson and C.
G. Brockus and R. J. Gonzalez and D. P. Rozenberg",
title = "Residue number systems for computers",
type = "{ASD} Technical Report",
number = "61-483",
institution = "Electronic Technology Laboratory, The University of
Michigan",
address = "Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 09:27:06 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/5023/4/bac2784.0001.001.txt",
abstract = "The purpose of the research performed under this
contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue
number systems in their applications to digital
computers. The problems of such an application are the
ones of magnitude determination, sign determination,
overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not
independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A
theoretical treatment of residue number systems is
given which lays the foundation for a unified study of
the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational
nature are given which deal with multiplication,
division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the
theoretical and organizational studies to physical
realizations involving networks is treated also. The
question of whether the residue number system can be
successfully applied to general purpose computers is
still an open one. Their application to special purpose
machines is considered both feasible and practical.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "This report represents the results of research
performed by the group at The University of Michigan
under the direction of Professor H. L. Garner.
Concurrently, research on the same subject was being
conducted at Harvard University under the direction of
Professor Howard Aiken, and at the Lockheed Missile
System Division under the direction of Dr. Richard
Tanaka. There was a considerable exchange of
information among the above groups during the course of
the research effort. The efforts attained exhibit
little overlap, rather they are complementary. A
portion of this report was extracted from the doctoral
dissertation of D. P. Rozenberg. His work was supported
by this contract, and led to the Ph.D..",
}
‰‰°kC`!#+[U51=m;#Žy‹Žy[Uw
techreportfparith.bibGarner:1961:RNSH. L. Garner and R. F. Arnold and B. C. Benson and C. G. Brockus and R. J. Gonzalez and D. P. RozenbergResidue number systems for computersASD Technical Report61-483Electronic Technology Laboratory, The University of MichiganAnn Arbor, MI, USA91--103oct101961Thu Nov 18 09:27:06 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2010.11.18 09:27:06 ???http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/5023/4/bac2784.0001.001.txtThe purpose of the research performed under this contract was to investigate the feasibility of residue number systems in their applications to digital computers. The problems of such an application are the ones of magnitude determination, sign determination, overflow, scaling, and division. These problems are not independent, but are found to be quite interrelated. A theoretical treatment of residue number systems is given which lays the foundation for a unified study of the complete problem. Treatments of an organizational nature are given which deal with multiplication, division, and scaling. The matter of correlating the theoretical and organizational studies to physical realizations involving networks is treated also. The question of whether the residue number system can be successfully applied to general purpose computers is still an open one. Their application to special purpose machines is considered both feasible and practical.This report represents the results of research performed by the group at The University of Michigan under the direction of Professor H. L. Garner. Concurrently, research on the same subject was being conducted at Harvard University under the direction of Professor Howard Aiken, and at the Lockheed Missile System Division under the direction of Dr. Richard Tanaka. There was a considerable exchange of information among the above groups during the course of the research effort. The efforts attained exhibit little overlap, rather they are complementary. A portion of this report was extracted from the doctoral dissertation of D. P. Rozenberg. Ã "Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006",
bibsource = "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See also comment and reply
\cite{Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.",
URL = "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2&spage=87",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
}Ä
¨E] #-'AI)57=I;_qY'cK[articlefparith.bibGarwick:1961:RAFJ. V. GarwickReply to ``On the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers'' [BIT bf 1(3), 1961, pp. 220--221]j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND13222--2221961BITTEL, NBITAB0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic) OR 00063835 (print), 15729125 (electronic)0006-3835 OR 00063835Mon Nov 16 14:36:22 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1998.11.16 14:36:22 ???See cite Garwick:1961:AFP,Amble:1961:AFP.floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/10543J. V. GarwickSee \cite{Garwick:1961:AFP,Amble:1961:AFP}.Reply to {``On the Accuracy of Floating Point Computers'' [BIT {\bf 1}(3), 1961, pp. 220--221]}
@Article{Garwick:1961:RAF,
author = "J. V. Garwick",
title = "Reply to {``On the Accuracy of Floating Point
Computers'' [BIT {\bf 1}(3), 1961, pp. 220--221]}",
journal = j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND,
volume = "1",
number = "3",
pages = "222--222",
year = "1961",
CODEN = "BITTEL, NBITAB",
ISSN = "0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0006-3835",
bibdate = "Mon Nov 16 14:36:22 1998",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Garwick:1961:AFP,Amble:1961:AFP}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
}TD^ #-)]I)Q57C‚;
IqY)]‘warticlefparith.bibGarwick:1961:AFPJan V. GarwickThe Accuracy of Floating Point Computersj-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND1287--88jun61961BITTEL, NBITABhttps://doi.org/10.1007/BF019392210006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic) OR 00063835 (print), 15729125 (electronic)0006-3835 OR 00063835Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2006.01.04 18:52:07 MSTSee also comment and reply cite Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF.http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2&spage=87floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmeticack-nhfbhttp://link.springer.com/journal/10543Jan V. GarwickSee also comment and reply \cite{Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.The Accuracy of Floating Point Computers
@Article{Garwick:1961:AFP,
author = "Jan V. Garwick",
title = "The Accuracy of Floating Point Computers",
journal = j-NORDISK-TIDSKR-INFORM-BEHAND,
volume = "1",
number = "2",
pages = "87--88",
month = jun,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "BITTEL, NBITAB",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01939221",
ISSN = "0006-3835 (print), 1572-9125 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0006-3835",
bibdate = "Wed Jan 4 18:52:07 MST 2006",
bibsource = "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bit.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See also comment and reply
\cite{Amble:1961:AFP,Garwick:1961:RAF}.",
URL = "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0006-3835&volume=1&issue=2&spage=87",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
journal-URL = "http://link.springer.com/journal/10543",
keywords = "floating-point accuracy; floating-point arithmetic",
}b",
abstract = "Error checking codes based on residues have the
advantage over parity-based codes of monitoring
arithmetic as well as transmission operations. Codes
may be devised to detect burst-type errors, to correct
single errors in a binary arithmetic operation, to
correct burst errors and finally to correct any
single-digit error in a decimal operation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "decimal arithmetic",
}Æ
ž7ž‹G[#+A_;]7Ea;]A_Œ7articlefparith.bibKettel:1961:AAME. Kettel and W. SchneiderAn Accurate Analog Multiplier and Dividerj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-102269--272jun61961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52191980367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:03 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:03 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219198IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbE. Kettel and W. SchneiderAn Accurate Analog Multiplier and Divider
@Article{Kettel:1961:AAM,
author = "E. Kettel and W. Schneider",
title = "An Accurate Analog Multiplier and Divider",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "2",
pages = "269--272",
month = jun,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219198",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:03 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219198",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}‘EF[ '#1+oQ#-W=m;…?1…?+sQinproceedingsfparith.bibHenderson:1961:RCED. S. HendersonProceedings of the 1961 16th ACM national meetingResidue class error checking codespub-ACMpub-ACM:adr132.101--132.1041961https://doi.org/10.1145/800029.808563Thu Aug 07 19:04:58 2008http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2008.08.07 19:04:58 ???Error checking codes based on residues have the advantage over parity-based codes of monitoring arithmetic as well as transmission operations. Codes may be devised to detect burst-type errors, to correct single errors in a binary arithmetic operation, to correct burst errors and finally to correct any single-digit error in a decimal operation.decimal arithmeticack-nhfbError checking codes based on residues have the advantage over parity-based codes of monitoring arithmetic as well as transmission operations. Codes may be devised to detect burst-type errors, to correct single errors in a binary arithmetic operation, to correct burst errors and finally to correct any single-digit error in a decimal operation.D. S. Henderson{Proceedings of the 1961 16th ACM national meeting}Residue class error checking codes
@InProceedings{Henderson:1961:RCE,
author = "D. S. Henderson",
booktitle = "{Proceedings of the 1961 16th ACM national meeting}",
title = "Residue class error checking codes",
publisher = pub-ACM,
address = pub-ACM:adr,
pages = "132.101--132.104",
year = "1961",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/800029.808563",
bibdate = "Thu Aug 07 19:04:58 2008",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
abstract = "Error checking codes based on residues have the
advantage over parity-based codes of monitoring
arithmetic as well as transmission operations. Codes
may be devised to detect burst-type errors, to correct
single errors in a binary arithmetic operation, to
correct burst errors and finally to correct any
single-digit error in a decimal operation.",
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keywords = "decimal arithmetic",
}
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journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "$\sqrt(x)$; elementary functions",
ZMreviewer = "C. B. Haselgrove",
}Ì
üüŽL] #+' 57E‚5;=?Mc'A qarticlefparith.bibNadler:1961:DSRMorton NadlerDivision and square root in the quater-imaginary number systemj-CACM44192--193apr41961CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 0001078265.9923\#B555Fri Nov 25 18:19:32 MST 2005http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.11.25 18:19:32 MSTSee cite Knuth:1960:INS.Communications of the ACM$sqrt (x)$; elementary functionsack-nhfbhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79Morton NadlerSee \cite{Knuth:1960:INS}.Division and square root in the quater-imaginary number system
@Article{Nadler:1961:DSR,
author = "Morton Nadler",
title = "Division and square root in the quater-imaginary
number system",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "4",
pages = "192--193",
month = apr,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
MRclass = "65.99",
MRnumber = "23\#B555",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 25 18:19:32 MST 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Knuth:1960:INS}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
keywords = "$\sqrt(x)$; elementary functions",
ZMreviewer = "C. B. Haselgrove",
}th.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-4851%28196112%2932%3A4%3C1223%3AOTDOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T",
abstract = "It has been noticed by astute observers that well used
tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the
front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to
inquire whether there are more physical constants with
low order first significant digits than high. Actual
counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the
case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that
whenever one has a large body of physical data,
Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber
Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first
significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $
\log_{10}(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this
``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment
wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example,
approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the
Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($
\log_{10}(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted
with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $
ths.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Annals of Mathematical Statistics",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From p. 1223: ``\ldots{} the proportion of these data
with first significant digit $n$ or less is
approximately $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.''\par
\ldots{} ``The only distribution for first significant
digits which is invariant under scale change of the
underlying distribution is $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.
Contrary to suspicion this is a non-trivial
mathematical result, for the variable $n$ is
discrete.''.\par
From p. 1230: ``The foregoing results bear on questions
of round-off in computing machines. Since $ d(u v) = u
d v + v d u $, the error resulting from multiplying two
rounded numbers will be governed primarily by the first
significant digits of the two numbers being multiplied.
Now the distribution of first significant digits,
favoring as it does low order digits, tends to produce
less error than would be the case if first significant
digits were uniform as has sometimes been
assumed.''\par
Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}Íal counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that whenever one has a large body of physical data, Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this ``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example, approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($ \log_{10}(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $ ths.Roger S. PinkhamOn the Distribution of First Significant Digits
@Article{Pinkham:1961:DFS,
author = "Roger S. Pinkham",
title = "On the Distribution of First Significant Digits",
journal = j-ANN-MATH-STAT,
volume = "32",
number = "4",
pages = "1223--1230",
month = dec,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "AASTAD",
ISSN = "0003-4851 (print), 2168-8990 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0003-4851",
bibdate = "Thu Feb 15 15:07:57 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
URL = "http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-4851%28196112%2932%3A4%3C1223%3AOTDOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T",
abstract = "It has been noticed by astute observers that well used
tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the
front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to
inquire whether there are more physical constants with
low order first significant digits than high. Actual
counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the
case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that
whenever one has a large body of physical data,
Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber
Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first
significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $
\log_{10}(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this
``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment
wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example,
approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the
Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($
\log_{10}(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted
with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $
ths.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Annals of Mathematical Statistics",
keywords = "Benford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's Law",
remark = "From p. 1223: ``\ldots{} the proportion of these data
with first significant digit $n$ or less is
approximately $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.''\par
\ldots{} ``The only distribution for first significant
digits which is invariant under scale change of the
underlying distribution is $ \log_{10}(n + 1) $.
Contrary to suspicion this is a non-trivial
mathematical result, for the variable $n$ is
discrete.''.\par
From p. 1230: ``The foregoing results bear on questions
of round-off in computing machines. Since $ d(u v) = u
d v + v d u $, the error resulting from multiplying two
rounded numbers will be governed primarily by the first
significant digits of the two numbers being multiplied.
Now the distribution of first significant digits,
favoring as it does low order digits, tends to produce
less error than would be the case if first significant
digits were uniform as has sometimes been
assumed.''\par
Cited in \cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
}
Ë@ËˆqNZ #3'C57=m;?c'C‰uarticlefparith.bibRabinowitz:1961:MPDP. RabinowitzMultiple-Precision Divisionj-CACM4298--98feb21961CACMA20001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic) OR 00010782 (print), 15577317 (electronic)0001-0782 OR 00010782Thu Sep 08 00:29:25 1994http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1994.09.08 00:29:25 ???Communications of the ACMack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79P. RabinowitzMultiple-Precision Division
@Article{Rabinowitz:1961:MPD,
author = "P. Rabinowitz",
title = "Multiple-Precision Division",
journal = j-CACM,
volume = "4",
number = "2",
pages = "98--98",
month = feb,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "CACMA2",
ISSN = "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0001-0782",
bibdate = "Thu Sep 08 00:29:25 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Communications of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}µ4M^ #--k+!57=m;CŽmOsŽ7Žu-k´1articlefparith.bibPinkham:1961:DFSRoger S. PinkhamOn the Distribution of First Significant Digitsj-ANN-MATH-STAT3241223--1230dec121961AASTAD0003-4851 (print), 2168-8990 (electronic) OR 00034851 (print), 21688990 (electronic)0003-4851 OR 00034851Thu Feb 15 15:07:57 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.15 15:07:57 ???http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-4851%28196112%2932%3A4%3C1223%3AOTDOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-TIt has been noticed by astute observers that well used tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to inquire whether there are more physical constants with low order first significant digits than high. Actual counts by Benford [2] show that not only is this the case but that it seems to be an empirical truth that whenever one has a large body of physical data, Farmer's Almanac, Census Reports, Chemical Rubber Handbook, etc., the proportion of these data with first significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $ log _10(n + 1) $. Any reader formerly unaware of this ``peculiarity'' will find an actual sampling experiment wondrously tantalizing. Thus, for example, approximately $ 0.7 $ of the physical constants in the Chemical Rubber Handbook begin with $4$ or less ($ log _10(4 + 1) = 0.699 $ ). This is to be contrasted with the widespread intuitive evaluation $ 4 / 9 $ ths.Annals of Mathematical StatisticsBenford's Law; Law of Anomalous Numbers; Zipf's LawFrom p. 1223: ``ldots the proportion of these data with first significant digit $n$ or less is approximately $ log _10(n + 1) $.''par ldots ``The only distribution for first significant digits which is invariant under scale change of the underlying distribution is $ log _10(n + 1) $. Contrary to suspicion this is a non-trivial mathematical result, for the variable $n$ is discrete.''.par From p. 1230: ``The foregoing results bear on questions of round-off in computing machines. Since $ d(u v) = u d v + v d u $, the error resulting from multiplying two rounded numbers will be governed primarily by the first significant digits of the two numbers being multiplied. Now the distribution of first significant digits, favoring as it does low order digits, tends to produce less error than would be the case if first significant digits were uniform as has sometimes been assumed.''par Cited in cite Sterbenz:1974:FPC.ack-nhfbIt has been noticed by astute observers that well used tables of logarithms are invariably dirtier at the front than at the back. Upon reflection one is led to inquire whether there are more physical constants with low order first significant digits than high. ActuÒ
Pû î P‡N
@Article{Revol:2014:NRP,
author = "Nathalie Revol and Philippe Theveny",
title = "Numerical Reproducibility and Parallel Computations:
Issues for Interval Algorithms",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
volume = "63",
number = "8",
pages = "1915--1924",
month = aug,
year = "2014",
CODEN = "ITCOB4",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TC.2014.2322593",
ISSN = "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0018-9340",
bibdate = "Mon Aug 25 08:24:32 2014",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput2010.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
journal-URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
keywords = "floating-point arithmetic; reproducible arithmetic",
}MŽD
@Article{Revol:2005:TMF,
author = "N. Revol and K. Makino and M. Berz",
title = "{Taylor} models and floating-point arithmetic: proof
that arithmetic operations are validated in {COSY}",
journal = j-J-LOGIC-ALG-PROG,
volume = "64",
number = "1",
pages = "135--154",
month = "????",
year = "2005",
CODEN = "????",
ISSN = "1567-8326",
ISSN-L = "1567-8326",
MRclass = ‹‡];
@Article{Renner:1974:RRN,
author = "K. Renner and S. Gupta",
title = "Reduction of roundoff noise in wave digital filters",
journal = j-IEEE-TRANS-CIRCUITS-SYST,
volume = "21",
number = "2",
pages = "305--310",
month = mar,
year = "1974",
CODEN = "ICSYBT",
ISSN = "0098-4094 (print), 1558-1276 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0098-4094",
bibdate = "Sat Jul 16 11:25:06 MDT 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems",
summary = "Roundoff noise generated by arithmetic operations in a
digital-filter computational sequence is undesirable in
that it serves to distort the true signal at the
output. Furthermore, coefficient wordlength is directly
related to the generated noise. \ldots{}",
}†Œ
@Article{Reiser:1975:EDFb,
author = "John F. Reiser and Donald E. Knuth",
title = "Erratum: ``{Evading} the drift in floating-point
addition''",
journal = j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
volume = "3",
number = "5",
pages = "164--164",
month = may,
year = "1975",
CODEN = "IFPLAT",
ISSN = "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0020-0190",
bibdate = "Sun Dec 04 12:21:42 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{Reiser:1975:EDFa}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Information Processing Letters",
journal-URL = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190",
}U†Œ
@Article{Reiser:1975:EDFa,
author = "John F. Reiser and Donald E. Knuth",
title = "Evading the drift in floating-point addition",
journal = j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
volume = "3",
number = "3",
pages = "84--87",
month = jan,
year = "1975",
CODEN = "IFPLAT",
ISSN = "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0020-0190",
bibdate = "Sun Dec 04 12:21:37 1994",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See also \cite{Reiser:1975:EDFb}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb # "\slash " # ack-nj,
fjournal = "Information Processing Letters",
journal-URL = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190",
}T
œ
Oœ‹/P] #1)'57Ek;A=)ŒM articlefparith.bibSpielberg:1961:ECFKurt SpielbergEfficient Continued Fraction Approximations To Elementary Functionsj-MATH-COMPUT1576409--417oct101961MCMPAF0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic) OR 00255718 (print), 10886842 (electronic)0025-5718 OR 00255718Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:06:19 MDTMathematics of Computationack-njhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/Kurt SpielbergEfficient Continued Fraction Approximations To Elementary Functions
@Article{Spielberg:1961:ECF,
author = "Kurt Spielberg",
title = "Efficient Continued Fraction Approximations To
Elementary Functions",
journal = j-MATH-COMPUT,
volume = "15",
number = "76",
pages = "409--417",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "MCMPAF",
ISSN = "0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0025-5718",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR
database",
acknowledgement = ack-nj # " and " # ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "Mathematics of Computation",
journal-URL = "http://www.ams.org/mcom/",
}‹-O[ #-){;]7Ea;]){Œ_articlefparith.bibSaltman:1961:RCTRoy G. SaltmanReducing Computing Time for Synchronous Binary Divisionj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-102169--174jun61961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52191860367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:03 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:03 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219186IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbRoy G. SaltmanReducing Computing Time for Synchronous Binary Division
@Article{Saltman:1961:RCT,
author = "Roy G. Saltman",
title = "Reducing Computing Time for Synchronous Binary
Division",
journal = j-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUT,
volume = "EC-10",
number = "2",
pages = "169--174",
month = jun,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219186",
ISSN = "0367-9950",
bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:03 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib",
URL = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219186",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal = "IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers",
}
’R\ #'!O%-1%=m;†M!†MSEbookfparith.bibTaub:1961:JNCA. H. TaubJohn von Neumann: Collected Workspub-PERGAMONpub-PERGAMON:adr??? (vol. 1), 568 (vol. 2), 574 (vol. 3), 516 (vol. 4), ??? (vol. 5), ??? (vol. 6)1961 -- 1963Wed Jun 01 16:58:29 2005http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2005.06.01 16:58:29 ???Six volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961); Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV: Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V: Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games, Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).ack-nhfbA. H. TaubSix volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961); Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV: Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V: Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games, Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).{John von Neumann}: Collected Works
@Book{Taub:1961:JNC,
editor = "A. H. Taub",
title = "{John von Neumann}: Collected Works",
publisher = pub-PERGAMON,
address = pub-PERGAMON:adr,
pages = "??? (vol. 1), 568 (vol. 2), 574 (vol. 3), 516 (vol.
4), ??? (vol. 5), ??? (vol. 6)",
year = "1961--1963",
LCCN = "????",
bibdate = "Wed Jun 01 16:58:29 2005",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "Six volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and
Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic
Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961);
Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV:
Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V:
Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical
Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games,
Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‹`Q] #1%[57=K;1e%[ŒGarticlefparith.bibSpielberg:1961:RPSK. SpielbergRepresentation of Power Series in Terms of Polynomials, Rational Approximations and Continued Fractionsj-J-ACM84613--627oct101961JACOAH0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic) OR 00045411 (print), 1557735X (electronic)0004-5411 OR 00045411Sat Dec 09 14:01:44 1995ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib1995.12.09 14:01:44 ???Journal of the ACMack-njhttp://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401K. SpielbergRepresentation of Power Series in Terms of Polynomials, Rational Approximations and Continued Fractions
@Article{Spielberg:1961:RPS,
author = "K. Spielberg",
title = "Representation of Power Series in Terms of
Polynomials, Rational Approximations and Continued
Fractions",
journal = j-J-ACM,
volume = "8",
number = "4",
pages = "613--627",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "JACOAH",
ISSN = "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0004-5411",
bibdate = "Sat Dec 09 14:01:44 1995",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nj,
fjournal = "Journal of the ACM",
journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
}x volumes. Volume I: Logic, Theory of Sets and
Quantum Mechanics (1961); Volume II: Operators, Ergodic
Theory and Almost Periodic Functions in a Group (1961);
Volume III: Rings of Operators (1961); Volume IV:
Continuous Geometry and Other Topics (1962); Volume V:
Design of Computers, Theory of Automata and Numerical
Analysis (1963); Volume VI: Theory of Games,
Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (1963).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}Ò
ßSBS
û^ø†Œ)
@Book{Stevenson:1981:PSBb,
aßS
@Book{Stone:1975:ICA,
editor = "Harold S. Stone and Tien Chi Chen and Michael J. Flynn
and Samuel H. Fuller and others",
title = "Introduction to computer architecture",
publisher = "Science Research Associates",
address = Àvk
@Book{Sterbenz:1974:FPC,
author = "Pat H. Sterbenz",
title = "Floating Point Computation",
publisher = pub-PH,
address = pub-PH:adr,
pages = "xiv + 316",
year = "1974",
ISBN = "0-13-322495-3",
ISBN-13 = "978-0-13-322495-5",
LCCN = "QA76.8.I12 S771 1974",
MRclass = "68A05 (65G05)",
MRnumber = "50 1556",
bibdate = "Sat May 29 08:01:36 1999",
bibsource = "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-]„ˆ5
@Book{Stein:1971:IMA,
author = "Marvin L. Stein and William D. Munro",
title = "Introduction to machine arithmetic",
publisher = pub-AW,
address = pub-AW:adr,
pages = "viii + 295",
year = "1971",
LCCN = "QA76.5 .S752",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 9 19:20:08 MST 2007",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
subject = "Electronic digital computers; Arithmetic",
}[†Ž
@Book{Stifler:1950:HSC,
editor = "W. W. {Stifler, Jr.}",
title = "High-speed computing devices",
publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "xiii + 451",
year = "1950",
LCCN = "QA75 .E5",
bibdate = "Fri Aug 20 10:18:44 MDT 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "Supervised by Charles Brown Tompkins and C. H.
Wakelin, Engineering Research Associates. The contents
of this volume were first assembled in the form of a
report to the Office of Naval Research, prepared under
a provision of contract N6-ONR-240, Task 1. Cited in
\cite{Sterbenz:1974:FPC}.",
subject = "computers",
}F
ç)
@Book{Stevenson:19‹r—e
@Book{Stine:2004:DCA,
author = "James E. Stine",
title = "Digital computer arithmetic datapath design using
{Verilog HDL}",
publisher = pub-KLUWER,
address = pub-KLUWER:adr,
pages = "xi + 180",
year = "2004",
ISBN = "1-4020-7710-6",
ISBN-13 = "978-1-4020-7710-4",
LCCN = "TK7868.D5 S75 2004",
bibdate = "Thu Nov 18 09:03:42 MST 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex‡Q
@Book{Stone:1†Œ)
@Book{Stevenson:1981:PSBb,
author = "David Stevenson",
title = "A proposed standard for binary floating-point
arithmetic: draft 8.0 of {IEEE} Task {P754}",
publisher = pub-IEEE,
address = pub-IEEE:adr,
pages = "36",
year = "1981",
bibdate = "Sun May 02 09:22:07 1999",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib",
note = "See \cite{IEEE:1985:AIS,IEEE:1985:ASI}.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
keywords = "Compiling (Electronic computers).; Floating-point
arithmetic.",
remark = "Reprinted from: Computer, v. 14, no. 3 (Mar. 1981):
51--87. Includes articles by W.J. Cody, David Hough,
and Jerome T. Coonen.",
}^µXë1
@Book{Stewart:1996:ANA,
author = "G. W. (Gilbert W.) Stewart",
title = "Afternotes on numerical analysis: a series of lectures
on elementary numerical analysis presented at the
{University of Maryland at College Park} and recorded
after the fact",
publisher = pub-SIAM,
address = pub-SIAM:adr,
pages = "x + 200",
year = "1996",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1137/1.9781611971491o
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…ŠwS] #-75'57E
;A=;5‹Warticlefparith.bibThacher:1961:ISRHenry C. Thacher, Jr.Iterated Square Root Expansions for the Inverse Cosine and Inverse Hyperbolic Cosinej-MATH-COMPUT1576399--403oct101961MCMPAF0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic) OR 00255718 (print), 10886842 (electronic)0025-5718 OR 00255718Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; JSTOR database1998.10.13 08:06:19 MDTMathematics of Computationack-nhfbhttp://www.ams.org/mcom/Henry C. {Thacher, Jr.}Iterated Square Root Expansions for the Inverse Cosine and Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine
@Article{Thacher:1961:ISR,
author = "Henry C. {Thacher, Jr.}",
title = "Iterated Square Root Expansions for the Inverse Cosine
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journal = j-MATH-COMPUT,
volume = "15",
number = "76",
pages = "399--403",
month = oct,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "MCMPAF",
ISSN = "0025-5718 (print), 1088-6842 (electronic)",
ISSN-L = "0025-5718",
bibdate = "Tue Oct 13 08:06:19 MDT 1998",
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abstract = "Based on the results of a third survey, the
engineering and programming characteristics of two
hundred twenty-two different electronic digital
computing systems are given. The data are presented
from the point of view of application, numerical and
arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage
systems, construction and checking features, power,
space, weight, and site preparation and personnel
requirements, production records, cost and rental
rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating
experience, and time availability, engineering
modifications and improvements and other related
topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen
comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised
bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer
engineering and programming terminology are included.",
acknowledgement = ack-mfc # " and " # ack-nhfb,
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nnT] !#')KM=m;Œ]Œ])™atechreportfparith.bibWeik:1961:TSDMartin H. WeikA Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing SystemsReport1115Ballistic Research LaboratoriesAberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA1131mar31961Fri Nov 28 19:37:51 2003http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2003.11.28 19:37:51 ???Based on the results of a third survey, the engineering and programming characteristics of two hundred twenty-two different electronic digital computing systems are given. The data are presented from the point of view of application, numerical and arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage systems, construction and checking features, power, space, weight, and site preparation and personnel requirements, production records, cost and rental rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating experience, and time availability, engineering modifications and improvements and other related topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer engineering and programming terminology are included.ack-mfcBased on the results of a third survey, the engineering and programming characteristics of two hundred twenty-two different electronic digital computing systems are given. The data are presented from the point of view of application, numerical and arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage systems, construction and checking features, power, space, weight, and site preparation and personnel requirements, production records, cost and rental rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating experience, and time availability, engineering modifications and improvements and other related topics. An analysis of the survey data, fifteen comparative tables, a discussion of trends, a revised bibliography, and a complete glossary of computer engineering and programming terminology are included.Martin H. WeikA Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems
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hundred twenty-two different electronic digital
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arithmetic characteristics, input, output and storage
systems, construction and checking features, power,
space, weight, and site preparation and personnel
requirements, production records, cost and rental
rates, sale and lease policy, reliability, operating
experience, and time availability, engineering
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fô‰%XZ %#/)+c=+3%=%;M)g+=Šincollectionfparith.bibCampbell:1962:FPOS. G. CampbellWerner BuchholzPlanning a Computer System: Project StretchFloating-Point Operationpub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr92--1211962QA76.8.I2 I5Wed Feb 14 17:24:27 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager2007.02.14 17:24:27 ???IBM 7030 (Computer); IBM Stretchack-nhfb322S. G. CampbellPlanning a Computer System: {Project Stretch}Werner BuchholzFloating-Point Operation
@InCollection{Campbell:1962:FPO,
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}‚¢uWa #/+c+3!Eƒ{;{µC7ñ%+{gü‚”eSbookfparith.bibBuchholz:1962:PCSWerner BuchholzPlanning a computer system: Project Stretchpub-MCGRAW-HILLpub-MCGRAW-HILL:adrxvii + 32219621876Fri Nov 19 10:02:31 MST 2010http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/annhistcomput.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib; lâ…SVY '#3-M)=m;-Q…cinproceedingsfparith.bibAshenhurst:1962:MIAR. L. AshenhurstThe Maniac III Arithmetic SystemAFIPS:1962:APS192--2021962Wed Feb 14 17:14:21 2007http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib2007.02.14 17:14:21 ???ack-nhfbR. L. AshenhurstThe {Maniac III} Arithmetic System
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title = "The {Maniac III} Arithmetic System",
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acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}‹U[#+GY;]7Ea;]GYŒ7 articlefparith.bibWilson:1961:ARBJ. B. Wilson and R. S. LedleyAn Algorithm for Rapid Binary Divisionj-IRE-TRANS-ELEC-COMPUTEC-104662--670dec121961IRELAOhttps://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.52192710367-9950 OR 03679950Thu Jul 14 14:45:04 MDT 2011http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput.bib2011.07.14 14:45:04 MDThttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5219271IRE Transactions on Electronic Computersack-nhfbJ. B. Wilson and R. S. LedleyAn Algorithm for Rapid Binary Division
@Article{Wilson:1961:ARB,
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title = "An Algorithm for Rapid Binary Division",
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number = "4",
pages = "662--670",
month = dec,
year = "1961",
CODEN = "IRELAO",
DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.1961.5219271",
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bibdate = "Thu Jul 14 14:45:04 MDT 2011",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
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http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib;
library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE",
note = "This important book is the primary description of the
influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its
architects.",
URL = "http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/IBM-7030-Planning-McJones.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "The text of the book is in the public domain, with the
permission of the author in 2003.
See \cite{MacKenzie:1991:IAL} for a remark about the
noisy mode for floating-point arithmetic in the IBM
7030 Stretch. That mode is first mentioned on page 25
of this book, and described in detail on page 102,
which states:
``By definition of ordinary normalized FLP operations,
numbers are frequently extended on the right by
attaching zeros. During addition the n-digit operand
that is not preshifted is extended with n zeros, so as
to provide the extra positions to which the preshifted
operand can be added. Any operand or result that is
shifted left to be normalized requires a corresponding
number of zeros to be shifted in at the right. Both
sets of zeros tend to produce numbers smaller in
absolute value than they would have been if more digits
had been carried. In the noisy mode these numbers are
simply extended with 1 s instead of zeros (1 s in a
binary machine, 9s in a decimal machine). So all
numbers tend to be too large in absolute value. The
true value, if there had been no significance loss,
should lie between these two extremes. Hence, two runs,
one made without and one made with the noisy mode,
should show differences in result that indicate which
digits may have been affected by significance loss.
The principal weakness of the noisy-mode procedure is
that it requires two runs for the same problem. A much
less important weakness is that the loss of
significance cannot be guaranteed to show up --- it
merely has a very high probability of showing up ---
whereas built-in significance checks can be made
slightly pessimistic, so that actual significance loss
will not be greater than indicated. On the other hand,
little extra hardware and no extra storage are required
for the noisy-mode approach. Furthermore, significance
loss is relatively rare, so that running a problem
twice when Significance loss is suspected does not pose
a serious problem. What is serious is the possibility
of unsuspected significance loss.
In discussions of significance two points are often
overlooked. The first of these is trivial: the best way
of ensuring significant results is to use an adequate
number of fraction digits. The second is almost equally
mundane: for a given procedure, normalized FLP
arithmetic will ordinarily produce the greatest
precision possible for the number of fraction digits
used. Normalized FLP arithmetic has been criticized
with respect to significance loss, because such loss is
not indicated by the creation of leading zeros, as it
is with fixed-point arithmetic. In other words, the
contention is not that normalized FLP arithmetic is
more prone to significance loss than equivalent
ß fixed-point arithmetic, which would be untrue, but that
an equivalent indication of such loss is not provided.
Loss of significance, however, is also a serious
problem in fixed-point arithmetic; multiplication and
division do not handle it at all correctly by means of
leading zeros. (In particular, fixed-point
multiplication may lead to serious or even total
significance loss, which would not have occurred with
normalized FLP arithmetic: and although leading zeros
in addition and subtraction of fixed-point operands do
give correct significance indications, the use of other
operations and of built-in scaling loops frequently
destroys entirely the leading-zeros method of counting
significance.)''",
subject = "Computer architecture",
tableofcontents = "Foreword v \\
Preface vii \\
1. Project Stretch 1 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
2. Architectural Philosophy 5 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 \\
2.2. Resources 6 \\
2.3. Guiding Principles 7 \\
2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10
\\
2.5. Hindsight 15 \\
3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
3.1. System Organization 17 \\
3.2. Memory Units 17 \\
3.3. Index Memory 19 \\
3.4. Special Registers 19 \\
3.5. Input and Output Facilities 19 \\
3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 \\
3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 \\
3.8. Instruction Controls 21 \\
3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 \\
3.10. Instruction Look-ahead 21 \\
3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 \\
3.12. Instruction Set 24 \\
3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 \\
3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 \\
3.15. Connective Operations 27 \\
3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 \\
3.17. Branching Operations 28 \\
3.18. Transmission Operations 28 \\
3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 \\
3.20. New Features 29 \\
3.21. Performance 32 \\
4. Natural Data Units 33 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33
\\
4.2. Procedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36
\\
4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 \\
4.4. Classes of Operations 40 \\
5. Choosing a Number Base 42 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
5.1. Introduction 42 \\
5.2. Information Content 45 \\
5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 \\
5.4. Numerical Data 50 \\
5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 \\
5.6. Addresses 52 \\
5.7. Transformation 53 \\
5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 \\
5.9. Program Interpretation 56 \\
5.10. Other Number Bases 58 \\
5.11. Conclusion 58 \\
6. Character Set 60 \\
[by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] \\
6.1. Introduction 60 \\
6.2. Size of Set 62 \\
6.3. Subsets 62 \\
6.4. Expansion of Set 63 \\
6.5. Code 63 \\
6.6. Parity Bit 66 \\
6.7. Sequence 66 \\
6.8. Blank 67 \\
6.9. Decimal Digits 68 \\
6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 \à\
6.11. Adjacency 69 \\
6.12. Uniqueness 69 \\
6.13. Signs 70 \\
6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 \\
6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 \\
6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 \\
7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
7.1. Introduction 75 \\
7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 \\
7.3. Field Length 77 \\
7.4. Byte Size 78 \\
7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 \\
7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 \\
7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 \\
7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 \\
7.9. Numerical Signs 82 \\
7.10. Indicators 84 \\
7.11. Arithmetical Operations 85 \\
7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 \\
7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 \\
7.14. Connective Operations 89 \\
8. Floating-point Operation 92 \\
[by S. G. Campbell] \\
General Discussion \\
8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 \\
8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 \\
8.3. Normalization 97 \\
8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 \\
8.5. Range and Precision 99 \\
8.6. Round-off Error 100 \\
8.7. Significance Checks 101 \\
8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 \\
8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 \\
Floating-point Features of the 7030 \\
8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 \\
8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 \\
8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 \\
8.13. Indicators 112 \\
8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 \\
8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 \\
8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 \\
8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized \\
Floating-point Operations 118 \\
8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 \\
8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 \\
8.20. General Remarks 121 \\
9. Instruction Formats 122 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
9.1. Introduction 122 \\
9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 \\
9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124
\\
9.4. Implied Addresses 125 \\
9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 \\
9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 \\
9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 \\
9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages
132 \\
10. Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
10.2. Instruction Counter 134 \\
10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 \\
10.4. Conditional Branching 136 \\
10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 \\
10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137
\\
10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 \\
10.8. Execute Instructions 146 \\
10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 \\
11. Indexing 150 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw] \\
11.1. Introduction 150 \\
11.2. Indexing Functions 151 \\
11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 \\
11.4. Incrementing 157 \\
11.5. Counting 159 \\
11.6. Advancing by One 161 \\
á 11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 \\
11.8. Data Transmission 162 \\
11.9. Data Ordering 163 \\
11.10. Refilling 165 \\
11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167
\\
11.12. Indexing Applications 169 \\
11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 \\
11.14. File Maintenance 175 \\
11.15. Subroutine Control 177 \\
11.16. Conclusion 178 \\
12. Input-Output Control 179 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting \\
Input-Output and External Storage 179 \\
12.2. Input-Output Instructions 180 \\
12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 \\
12.4. Writing and Reading 182 \\
12.5. Controlling and Locating 183 \\
12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 \\
12.7. Program Interruptions 184 \\
12.8. Buffering 180 \\
12.9. Interface 188 \\
12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 \\
13. Multiprogramming 192 \\
[by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A.
Scalzi] \\
13.1. Introduction 192 \\
13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 \\
13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195
\\
13.4. Programmed Logic 197 \\
13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 \\
13.6. References 201 \\
14. The Central Processing Unit 202 \\
[by E. Bloch] \\
14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 \\
14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit
204 \\
14.3. Data Flow 204 \\
14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 \\
14.5. Checking 216 \\
14.6. Component Count 216 \\
14.7. Performance 217 \\
14.8. Circuits 218 \\
14.9. Packaging 223 \\
15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 \\
[by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] \\
15.1. General Description 228 \\
15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 \\
15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 \\
15.4. Forwarding 240 \\
15.5. Counter Sequences 241 \\
15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 \\
15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 \\
16. The Exchange 248 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
16.1. General Description 248 \\
16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 \\
16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 \\
16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 \\
16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 \\
16.6. Multiple Operations 252 \\
16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 \\
16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 \\
16.9. Forced Termination 253 \\
17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 \\
[by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene]
\\
17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 \\
17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 \\
17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 \\
17.4. Pattern Selection 260 \\
17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 \\
17.6. Statistical Aids 263 \\
17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 \\
17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 \\
17.9. Instruction Set 265 \\
17.10. Collating Operations 266 \\
17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 \\
17.12. Example 267 \\
Appendix A. Summary Data 273 \\
A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers
273 \\
A.2. Instruction Formats 275 \\
A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 \\
A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 \\
A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 \\
Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 \\
Notation 292 \\
B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 \\
B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 \\
B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 \\
B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a \\
Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 \\
B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 \\
B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 \\
Index 305",
}×ãibrary.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE2010.11.19 10:02:31 MSTThis important book is the primary description of the influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its architects.http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/IBM-7030-Planning-McJones.pdfThe text of the book is in the public domain, with the permission of the author in 2003. See cite MacKenzie:1991:IAL for a remark about the noisy mode for floating-point arithmetic in the IBM 7030 Stretch. That mode is first mentioned on page 25 of this book, and described in detail on page 102, which states: ``By definition of ordinary normalized FLP operations, numbers are frequently extended on the right by attaching zeros. During addition the n-digit operand that is not preshifted is extended with n zeros, so as to provide the extra positions to which the preshifted operand can be added. Any operand or result that is shifted left to be normalized requires a corresponding number of zeros to be shifted in at the right. Both sets of zeros tend to produce numbers smaller in absolute value than they would have been if more digits had been carried. In the noisy mode these numbers are simply extended with 1 s instead of zeros (1 s in a binary machine, 9s in a decimal machine). So all numbers tend to be too large in absolute value. The true value, if there had been no significance loss, should lie between these two extremes. Hence, two runs, one made without and one made with the noisy mode, should show differences in result that indicate which digits may have been affected by significance loss. The principal weakness of the noisy-mode procedure is that it requires two runs for the same problem. A much less important weakness is that the loss of significance cannot be guaranteed to show up --- it merely has a very high probability of showing up --- whereas built-in significance checks can be made slightly pessimistic, so that actual significance loss will not be greater than indicated. On the other hand, little extra hardware and no extra storage are required for the noisy-mode approach. Furthermore, significance loss is relatively rare, so that running a problem twice when Significance loss is suspected does not pose a serious problem. What is serious is the possibility of unsuspected significance loss. In discussions of significance two points are often overlooked. The first of these is trivial: the best way of ensuring significant results is to use an adequate number of fraction digits. The second is almost equally mundane: for a given procedure, normalized FLP arithmetic will ordinarily produce the greatest precision possible for the number of fraction digits used. Normalized FLP arithmetic has been criticized with respect to significance loss, because such loss is not indicated by the creation of leading zeros, as it is with fixed-point arithmetic. In other words, the contention is not that normalized FLP arithmetic is more prone to significance loss than equivalent fixed-point arithmetic, which would be untrue, but that an equivalent indication of such loss is not provided. Loss of significance, however, is also a serious problem in fixed-point arithmetic; multiplication and division do not handle it at all correctly by means of leading zeros. (In particular, fixed-point multiplication may lead to serious or even total significance loss, which would not have occurred with normalized FLP arithmetic: and although leading zeros in addition and subtraction of fixed-point operands do give correct significance indications, the use of other operations and of built-in scaling loops frequently destroys entirely the leading-zeros method of counting significance.)''Computer architectureForeword v Preface vii 1. Project Stretch 1 [by W. Buchholz] 2. Architectural Philosophy 5 [by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] 2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 2.2. Resources 6 2.3. Guiding Principles 7 2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10 2.5. Hindsight 15 3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 [by W. Buchholz] 3.1. System Organization 17 3.2. Memory Units 17 3.3. Index Memory 19 3.4. Special Registers 19 3.5.ä Input and Output Facilities 19 3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 3.8. Instruction Controls 21 3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 3.10. Instruction Look-ahead 21 3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 3.12. Instruction Set 24 3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 3.15. Connective Operations 27 3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 3.17. Branching Operations 28 3.18. Transmission Operations 28 3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 3.20. New Features 29 3.21. Performance 32 4. Natural Data Units 33 [by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz] 4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33 4.2. Procedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36 4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 4.4. Classes of Operations 40 5. Choosing a Number Base 42 [by W. Buchholz] 5.1. Introduction 42 5.2. Information Content 45 5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 5.4. Numerical Data 50 5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 5.6. Addresses 52 5.7. Transformation 53 5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 5.9. Program Interpretation 56 5.10. Other Number Bases 58 5.11. Conclusion 58 6. Character Set 60 [by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] 6.1. Introduction 60 6.2. Size of Set 62 6.3. Subsets 62 6.4. Expansion of Set 63 6.5. Code 63 6.6. Parity Bit 66 6.7. Sequence 66 6.8. Blank 67 6.9. Decimal Digits 68 6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 6.11. Adjacency 69 6.12. Uniqueness 69 6.13. Signs 70 6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 [by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz] 7.1. Introduction 75 7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 7.3. Field Length 77 7.4. Byte Size 78 7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 7.9. Numerical Signs 82 7.10. Indicators 84 7.11. Arithmetical Operations 85 7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 7.14. Connective Operations 89 8. Floating-point Operation 92 [by S. G. Campbell] General Discussion 8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 8.3. Normalization 97 8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 8.5. Range and Precision 99 8.6. Round-off Error 100 8.7. Significance Checks 101 8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 Floating-point Features of the 7030 8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 8.13. Indicators 112 8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized Floating-point Operations 118 8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 8.20. General Remarks 121 9. Instruction Formats 122 [by W. Buchholz] 9.1. Introduction 122 9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124 9.4. Implied Addresses 125 9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages 132 10. Instruction Sequencing 133 [by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] 10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 10.2. Instruction Counter 134 10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 10.4. Conditional Branching 136 10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137 10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 10.8. Execute Instructions 146 10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 11. Indexing 150 [by G. P. Blaauw] 11.1. Introduction 150 11.2. Indexing Functions 151 11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 11.4. Incrementing 157 11.5. Counting 159 11.6. Advancing by One 161 11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 11.8. Data Transmission 162 11.9. Data Ordering 163 11.10. Refilling 165 11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167 11.12. Indexing Applications 169 11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 11.14. File Maintenance 175 11.15. Subroutine Control 177 11.1å6. Conclusion 178 12. Input-Output Control 179 [by W. Buchholz] 12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting Input-Output and External Storage 179 12.2. Input-Output Instructions 180 12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 12.4. Writing and Reading 182 12.5. Controlling and Locating 183 12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 12.7. Program Interruptions 184 12.8. Buffering 180 12.9. Interface 188 12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 13. Multiprogramming 192 [by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A. Scalzi] 13.1. Introduction 192 13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195 13.4. Programmed Logic 197 13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 13.6. References 201 14. The Central Processing Unit 202 [by E. Bloch] 14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit 204 14.3. Data Flow 204 14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 14.5. Checking 216 14.6. Component Count 216 14.7. Performance 217 14.8. Circuits 218 14.9. Packaging 223 15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 [by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] 15.1. General Description 228 15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 15.4. Forwarding 240 15.5. Counter Sequences 241 15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 16. The Exchange 248 [by W. Buchholz] 16.1. General Description 248 16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 16.6. Multiple Operations 252 16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 16.9. Forced Termination 253 17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 [by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene] 17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 17.4. Pattern Selection 260 17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 17.6. Statistical Aids 263 17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 17.9. Instruction Set 265 17.10. Collating Operations 266 17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 17.12. Example 267 Appendix A. Summary Data 273 A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers 273 A.2. Instruction Formats 275 A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 Notation 292 B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 Index 305ack-nhfbWerner BuchholzThis important book is the primary description of the influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its architects.Planning a computer system: {Project Stretch}Foreword v \\ Preface vii \\ 1. Project Stretch 1 \\ [by W. Buchholz] \\ 2. Architectural Philosophy 5 \\ [by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\ 2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 \\ 2.2. Resources 6 \\ 2.3. Guiding Principles 7 \\ 2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10 \\ 2.5. Hindsight 15 \\ 3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 \\ [by W. Buchholz] \\ 3.1. System Organization 17 \\ 3.2. Memory Units 17 \\ 3.3. Index Memory 19 \\ 3.4. Special Registers 19 \\ 3.5. Input and Output Facilities 19 \\ 3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 \\ 3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 \\ 3.8. Instruction Controls 21 \\ 3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 \\ 3.10. Instruction Look-ahead 21 \\ 3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 \\ 3.12. Instruction Set 24 \\ 3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 \\ 3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 \\ 3.15. Connective Operations 27 \\ 3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 \\ 3.17. Branching Operations 28 \\ 3.18. Transmission Operations 28 \\ 3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 \\ 3.20. New Features 29 \\ 3.21. Performance 32 \\ 4. Natural Data Units 33 \\ [by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz] \\ 4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33 \\ 4.2. Pærocedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36 \\ 4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 \\ 4.4. Classes of Operations 40 \\ 5. Choosing a Number Base 42 \\ [by W. Buchholz] \\ 5.1. Introduction 42 \\ 5.2. Information Content 45 \\ 5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 \\ 5.4. Numerical Data 50 \\ 5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 \\ 5.6. Addresses 52 \\ 5.7. Transformation 53 \\ 5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 \\ 5.9. Program Interpretation 56 \\ 5.10. Other Number Bases 58 \\ 5.11. Conclusion 58 \\ 6. Character Set 60 \\ [by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] \\ 6.1. Introduction 60 \\ 6.2. Size of Set 62 \\ 6.3. Subsets 62 \\ 6.4. Expansion of Set 63 \\ 6.5. Code 63 \\ 6.6. Parity Bit 66 \\ 6.7. Sequence 66 \\ 6.8. Blank 67 \\ 6.9. Decimal Digits 68 \\ 6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 \\ 6.11. Adjacency 69 \\ 6.12. Uniqueness 69 \\ 6.13. Signs 70 \\ 6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 \\ 6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 \\ 6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 \\ 7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 \\ [by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz] \\ 7.1. Introduction 75 \\ 7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 \\ 7.3. Field Length 77 \\ 7.4. Byte Size 78 \\ 7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 \\ 7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 \\ 7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 \\ 7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 \\ 7.9. Numerical Signs 82 \\ 7.10. Indicators 84 \\ 7.11. Arithmetical Operations 85 \\ 7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 \\ 7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 \\ 7.14. Connective Operations 89 \\ 8. Floating-point Operation 92 \\ [by S. G. Campbell] \\ General Discussion \\ 8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 \\ 8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 \\ 8.3. Normalization 97 \\ 8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 \\ 8.5. Range and Precision 99 \\ 8.6. Round-off Error 100 \\ 8.7. Significance Checks 101 \\ 8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 \\ 8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 \\ Floating-point Features of the 7030 \\ 8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 \\ 8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 \\ 8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 \\ 8.13. Indicators 112 \\ 8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 \\ 8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 \\ 8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 \\ 8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized \\ Floating-point Operations 118 \\ 8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 \\ 8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 \\ 8.20. General Remarks 121 \\ 9. Instruction Formats 122 \\ [by W. Buchholz] \\ 9.1. Introduction 122 \\ 9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 \\ 9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124 \\ 9.4. Implied Addresses 125 \\ 9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 \\ 9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 \\ 9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 \\ 9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages 132 \\ 10. Instruction Sequencing 133 \\ [by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\ 10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 \\ 10.2. Instruction Counter 134 \\ 10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 \\ 10.4. Conditional Branching 136 \\ 10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 \\ 10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137 \\ 10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 \\ 10.8. Execute Instructions 146 \\ 10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 \\ 11. Indexing 150 \\ [by G. P. Blaauw] \\ 11.1. Introduction 150 \\ 11.2. Indexing Functions 151 \\ 11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 \\ 11.4. Incrementing 157 \\ 11.5. Counting 159 \\ 11.6. Advancing by One 161 \\ 11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 \\ 11.8. Data Transmission 162 \\ 11.9. Data Ordering 163 \\ 11.10. Refilling 165 \\ 11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167 \\ 11.12. Indexing Applications 169 \\ 11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 \\ 11.14. File Maintenance 175 \\ 11.15. Subroutine Control 177 \\ 11.16. Conclusion 178 \\ 12. Input-Output Control 179 \\ [by W. Buchholz] \\ 12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting \\ Input-Output and External Storage 179 \\ 12.2. Input-Output Instructions 180 \\ 12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 \\ 12.4. Writing and Reading 182 \\ 12.5. Controlling and Locating 18ç3 \\ 12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 \\ 12.7. Program Interruptions 184 \\ 12.8. Buffering 180 \\ 12.9. Interface 188 \\ 12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 \\ 13. Multiprogramming 192 \\ [by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A. Scalzi] \\ 13.1. Introduction 192 \\ 13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 \\ 13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195 \\ 13.4. Programmed Logic 197 \\ 13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 \\ 13.6. References 201 \\ 14. The Central Processing Unit 202 \\ [by E. Bloch] \\ 14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 \\ 14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit 204 \\ 14.3. Data Flow 204 \\ 14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 \\ 14.5. Checking 216 \\ 14.6. Component Count 216 \\ 14.7. Performance 217 \\ 14.8. Circuits 218 \\ 14.9. Packaging 223 \\ 15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 \\ [by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] \\ 15.1. General Description 228 \\ 15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 \\ 15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 \\ 15.4. Forwarding 240 \\ 15.5. Counter Sequences 241 \\ 15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 \\ 15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 \\ 16. The Exchange 248 \\ [by W. Buchholz] \\ 16.1. General Description 248 \\ 16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 \\ 16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 \\ 16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 \\ 16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 \\ 16.6. Multiple Operations 252 \\ 16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 \\ 16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 \\ 16.9. Forced Termination 253 \\ 17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 \\ [by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene] \\ 17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 \\ 17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 \\ 17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 \\ 17.4. Pattern Selection 260 \\ 17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 \\ 17.6. Statistical Aids 263 \\ 17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 \\ 17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 \\ 17.9. Instruction Set 265 \\ 17.10. Collating Operations 266 \\ 17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 \\ 17.12. Example 267 \\ Appendix A. Summary Data 273 \\ A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers 273 \\ A.2. Instruction Formats 275 \\ A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 \\ A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 \\ A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 \\ Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 \\ Notation 292 \\ B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 \\ B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 \\ B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 \\ B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a \\ Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 \\ B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 \\ B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 \\ Index 305
@Book{Buchholz:1962:PCS,
editor = "Werner Buchholz",
title = "Planning a computer system: {Project Stretch}",
publisher = pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
address = pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
pages = "xvii + 322",
year = "1962",
LCCN = "1876",
bibdate = "Fri Nov 19 10:02:31 MST 2010",
bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/t/tukey-john-w.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/annhistcomput.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fparith.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmjrd.bib;
library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE",
note = "This important book is the primary description of the
influential IBM 7030 Stretch computer, written by its
architects.",
URL = "http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/IBM-7030-Planning-McJones.pdf",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
remark = "The text of the book is in the public domain, with the
permission of the author in 2003.
See \cite{MacKenzie:1991:IAL} for a remark about the
noisy mode for floating-point arithmetic in the IBM
7030 Stretch. That mode is first mentioned on page 25
of this book, and described in detail on page 102,
which states:
``By definition oèf ordinary normalized FLP operations,
numbers are frequently extended on the right by
attaching zeros. During addition the n-digit operand
that is not preshifted is extended with n zeros, so as
to provide the extra positions to which the preshifted
operand can be added. Any operand or result that is
shifted left to be normalized requires a corresponding
number of zeros to be shifted in at the right. Both
sets of zeros tend to produce numbers smaller in
absolute value than they would have been if more digits
had been carried. In the noisy mode these numbers are
simply extended with 1 s instead of zeros (1 s in a
binary machine, 9s in a decimal machine). So all
numbers tend to be too large in absolute value. The
true value, if there had been no significance loss,
should lie between these two extremes. Hence, two runs,
one made without and one made with the noisy mode,
should show differences in result that indicate which
digits may have been affected by significance loss.
The principal weakness of the noisy-mode procedure is
that it requires two runs for the same problem. A much
less important weakness is that the loss of
significance cannot be guaranteed to show up --- it
merely has a very high probability of showing up ---
whereas built-in significance checks can be made
slightly pessimistic, so that actual significance loss
will not be greater than indicated. On the other hand,
little extra hardware and no extra storage are required
for the noisy-mode approach. Furthermore, significance
loss is relatively rare, so that running a problem
twice when Significance loss is suspected does not pose
a serious problem. What is serious is the possibility
of unsuspected significance loss.
In discussions of significance two points are often
overlooked. The first of these is trivial: the best way
of ensuring significant results is to use an adequate
number of fraction digits. The second is almost equally
mundane: for a given procedure, normalized FLP
arithmetic will ordinarily produce the greatest
precision possible for the number of fraction digits
used. Normalized FLP arithmetic has been criticized
with respect to significance loss, because such loss is
not indicated by the creation of leading zeros, as it
is with fixed-point arithmetic. In other words, the
contention is not that normalized FLP arithmetic is
more prone to significance loss than equivalent
fixed-point arithmetic, which would be untrue, but that
an equivalent indication of such loss is not provided.
Loss of significance, however, is also a serious
problem in fixed-point arithmetic; multiplication and
division do not handle it at all correctly by means of
leading zeros. (In particular, fixed-point
multiplication may lead to serious or even total
significance loss, which would not have occurred with
normalized FLP arithmetic: and although leading zeros
in addition and subtraction of fixed-point operands do
give correct significance indications, the use of other
operations and of built-in scaling loops frequently
destroys entirely the leading-zeros method of counting
significanceé.)''",
subject = "Computer architecture",
tableofcontents = "Foreword v \\
Preface vii \\
1. Project Stretch 1 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
2. Architectural Philosophy 5 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
2.1. The Two Objectives of Project Stretch 5 \\
2.2. Resources 6 \\
2.3. Guiding Principles 7 \\
2.4. Contemporary Trends in Computer Architecture 10
\\
2.5. Hindsight 15 \\
3. System Summary of IBM 7030 17 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
3.1. System Organization 17 \\
3.2. Memory Units 17 \\
3.3. Index Memory 19 \\
3.4. Special Registers 19 \\
3.5. Input and Output Facilities 19 \\
3.6. High-speed Disk Units 20 \\
3.7. Central Processing Unit 20 \\
3.8. Instruction Controls 21 \\
3.9. Index-arithmetic Unit 21 \\
3.10. Instruction Look-ahead 21 \\
3.11. Arithmetic Unit 22 \\
3.12. Instruction Set 24 \\
3.13. Data Arithmetic 24 \\
3.14. Radix-conversion Operations 27 \\
3.15. Connective Operations 27 \\
3.16. Index-arithmetic Operations 27 \\
3.17. Branching Operations 28 \\
3.18. Transmission Operations 28 \\
3.19. Input-Output Operations 29 \\
3.20. New Features 29 \\
3.21. Performance 32 \\
4. Natural Data Units 33 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
4.1. Lengths and Structures of Natural Data Units 33
\\
4.2. Procedures for Specifying Natural Data Units 36
\\
4.3. Data Hierarchies 39 \\
4.4. Classes of Operations 40 \\
5. Choosing a Number Base 42 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
5.1. Introduction 42 \\
5.2. Information Content 45 \\
5.3. Arithmetic Speed 49 \\
5.4. Numerical Data 50 \\
5.5. Nonnumerical Data 51 \\
5.6. Addresses 52 \\
5.7. Transformation 53 \\
5.8. Partitioning of Memory 54 \\
5.9. Program Interpretation 56 \\
5.10. Other Number Bases 58 \\
5.11. Conclusion 58 \\
6. Character Set 60 \\
[by R. W. Bemer and W. Buchholz] \\
6.1. Introduction 60 \\
6.2. Size of Set 62 \\
6.3. Subsets 62 \\
6.4. Expansion of Set 63 \\
6.5. Code 63 \\
6.6. Parity Bit 66 \\
6.7. Sequence 66 \\
6.8. Blank 67 \\
6.9. Decimal Digits 68 \\
6.10. Typewriter Keyboard 68 \\
6.11. Adjacency 69 \\
6.12. Uniqueness 69 \\
6.13. Signs 70 \\
6.14. Tape-recording Convention 71 \\
6.15. Card-punching Convention 71 \\
6.16. List of 7030 Character Set 72 \\
7. Variable-field-length Operation 75 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw, F. P. Brooks, Jr., and W. Buchholz]
\\
7.1. Introduction 75 \\
7.2. Addressing of Variable-field-length Data 76 \\
7.3. Field Length 77 \\
7.4. Byte Size 78 \\
7.5. Universal Accumulator 79 \\
7.6. Accumulator Operand 79 \\
7.7. Binary and Decimal Arithmetic 80 \\
7.8. Integer Arithmetic 81 \\
7.9. Numerical Signs 82 \\
7.10. Indicators 84 \\
7.11. Arithmeêtical Operations 85 \\
7.12. Radix-conversion Operation 87 \\
7.13. Logical Connectives of Two Variables 87 \\
7.14. Connective Operations 89 \\
8. Floating-point Operation 92 \\
[by S. G. Campbell] \\
General Discussion \\
8.1. Problems of Fixed-point Arithmetic 92 \\
8.2. Floating-point Arithmetic 94 \\
8.3. Normalization 97 \\
8.4. Floating-point Singularities 98 \\
8.5. Range and Precision 99 \\
8.6. Round-off Error 100 \\
8.7. Significance Checks 101 \\
8.8. Forms of Floating-point Arithmetic 103 \\
8.9. Structure of Floating-point Data 104 \\
Floating-point Features of the 7030 \\
8.10. Floating-point Instruction Format 106 \\
8.11. Floating-point Data Formats 106 \\
8.12. Singular Floating-point Numbers 108 \\
8.13. Indicators 112 \\
8.14. Universal Accumulator 113 \\
8.15. Fraction Arithmetic 114 \\
8.16. Floating-point-arithmetic Operations 114 \\
8.17. Fixed-point Arithmetic Using Unnormalized \\
Floating-point Operations 118 \\
8.18. Special Functions and Forms of Arithmetic 119 \\
8.19. Multiple-precision Arithmetic 119 \\
8.20. General Remarks 121 \\
9. Instruction Formats 122 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
9.1. Introduction 122 \\
9.2. Earlier Instruction Languages 122 \\
9.3. Evolution of the Single-address Instruction 124
\\
9.4. Implied Addresses 125 \\
9.5. Basic 7030 Instruction Formats 126 \\
9.6. Instruction Efficiency 127 \\
9.7. The Simplicity of Complexity 131 \\
9.8. Relationship to Automatic Programming Languages
132 \\
10. Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
[by F. P. Brooks, Jr.] \\
10.1. Modes of Instruction Sequencing 133 \\
10.2. Instruction Counter 134 \\
10.3. Unconditional Branching 135 \\
10.4. Conditional Branching 136 \\
10.5. Program-interrupt System 136 \\
10.6. Components of the Program-interrupt System 137
\\
10.7. Examples of Program-interrupt Techniques 140 \\
10.8. Execute Instructions 146 \\
10.9. Execute Operations in the 7030 148 \\
11. Indexing 150 \\
[by G. P. Blaauw] \\
11.1. Introduction 150 \\
11.2. Indexing Functions 151 \\
11.3. Instruction Format for Indexing 155 \\
11.4. Incrementing 157 \\
11.5. Counting 159 \\
11.6. Advancing by One 161 \\
11.7. Progressive Indexing 161 \\
11.8. Data Transmission 162 \\
11.9. Data Ordering 163 \\
11.10. Refilling 165 \\
11.11. Indirect Addressing and Indirect Indexing 167
\\
11.12. Indexing Applications 169 \\
11.13. Record-handling Applications 172 \\
11.14. File Maintenance 175 \\
11.15. Subroutine Control 177 \\
11.16. Conclusion 178 \\
12. Input-Output Control 179 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
12.1. A Generalized Approach to Connecting \\
Input-Output and External Storage 179 \\
12.2. Input-Output Instructions 180 \\
12.3. Defining the Memory Area 181 \\
12.4. Writing and Reading 182 \\
12.5. Controlling and Locating 183 \\
12.6. An Alternative Approach 184 \\
12.7. Program Interruptions 184 \\
12.8. Buffering 180 \\
12.9. Interface 188 \\
12.10. Operator Control of Input-Output Units 190 \\
13. Multiprogramming 192 \\
[by E. F. Codd, E. S. Lowry, E. McDonough, and C. A.
Scalzi] \\
13.1. Introduction 192 \\
13.2. Multiprogramming Requirements 193 \\
13.3. 7030 Features that Assist Multiprogramming 195
\\
13.4. Programmed Logic 197 \\
13.5. Concluding Remarks 200 \\
13.6. References 201 \\
14. The Central Processing Unit 202 \\
[by E. Bloch] \\
14.1. Concurrent System Operation 202 \\
14.2. Concurrency within the Central Processing Unit
204 \\
14.3. Data Flow 204 \\
14.4. Arithmetic Unit 208 \\
14.5. Checking 216 \\
14.6. Component Count 216 \\
14.7. Performance 217 \\
14.8. Circuits 218 \\
14.9. Packaging 223 \\
15. The Look-ahead Unit 228 \\
[by R. S. Balance, J. Cocke, and H. G. Kolsky] \\
15.1. General Description 228 \\
15.2. Timing-simulation Program 230 \\
15.3. Description of the Look-ahead Unit 238 \\
15.4. Forwarding 240 \\
15.5. Counter Sequences 241 \\
15.6. Recovery after Interrupt 246 \\
15.7. A Look-back at the Look-ahead 247 \\
16. The Exchange 248 \\
[by W. Buchholz] \\
16.1. General Description 248 \\
16.2. Starting a WRITE or READ Operation 250 \\
16.3. Data Transfer during Writing 250 \\
16.4. Data Transfer during Reading 251 \\
16.5. Terminating a WRITE or READ Operation 252 \\
16.6. Multiple Operations 252 \\
16.7. CONTROL and LOCATE Operations 252 \\
16.8. Interrogating the Control Word 253 \\
16.9. Forced Termination 253 \\
17. A Nonarithmetical System Extension 254 \\
[by S. G. Campbell, P.S. Herwitz, and J. H. Pomerene]
\\
17.1. Nonarithmetical Processing 254 \\
17.2. The Set-up Mode 258 \\
17.3. Byte-sequence Formation 259 \\
17.4. Pattern Selection 260 \\
17.5. Transformation Facilities 261 \\
17.6. Statistical Aids 263 \\
17.7. The BYTE-BY-BYTE Instruction 263 \\
17.8. Monitoring for Special Conditions 264 \\
17.9. Instruction Set 265 \\
17.10. Collating Operations 266 \\
17.11. Table Look-up Operations 267 \\
17.12. Example 267 \\
Appendix A. Summary Data 273 \\
A.1. List of the Larger IBM Stored-program Computers
273 \\
A.2. Instruction Formats 275 \\
A.3. List of Registers and Special Addresses 276 \\
A.4. Summary of Operations and Modifiers 277 \\
A.5. Summary of Indicators 287 \\
Appendix B. Programming Examples 292 \\
Notation 292 \\
B.1. Polynomial Evaluation 295 \\
B.2. Cube-root Extraction 296 \\
B.3. Matrix Multiplication 298 \\
B.4. Conversion of Decimal Numbers to a \\
Floating-point Normalized Vector 299 \\
B.5. Editing a Typed Message 301 \\
B.6. Transposition of a Large Bit Matrix 303 \\
Index 305",
}
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