%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.135",
%%%     date            = "09 August 2014",
%%%     time            = "16:29:10 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "compsurv.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "42501 49531 219253 2334558",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography, BibTeX, Computing Surveys",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE bibliography of ACM
%%%                        Computing Surveys (known just as Computing
%%%                        Surveys until volume 3 in 1971), covering
%%%                        all volumes from 1969 to date.
%%%
%%%                        Volume 28, number 4es, and Volume 30,
%%%                        number 3es, are electronic supplements that
%%%                        are only available online at World-Wide Web
%%%                        URLs given in the entries.  The articles in
%%%                        the first supplement are listed in the
%%%                        table of contents of volume 28, number 4,
%%%                        but do not appear in the issue itself.  The
%%%                        last article in Volume 28, number 4es is
%%%                        missing from that table of contents.
%%%
%%%                        The journal ISSN changed from 0010-4892 to
%%%                        0360-0300 at the June 1983 issue, for no
%%%                        obvious reason: the journal title remained
%%%                        unchanged.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.135, the COMPLETE year coverage
%%%                        looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             1969 (  17)    1985 (  22)    2001 (  12)
%%%                             1970 (  18)    1986 (  20)    2002 (  14)
%%%                             1971 (   9)    1987 (  20)    2003 (  13)
%%%                             1972 (  12)    1988 (  17)    2004 (  12)
%%%                             1973 (   9)    1989 (  22)    2005 (  11)
%%%                             1974 (  14)    1990 (  22)    2006 (  13)
%%%                             1975 (  15)    1991 (  23)    2007 (  12)
%%%                             1976 (  17)    1992 (  23)    2008 (  19)
%%%                             1977 (  27)    1993 (  19)    2009 (  20)
%%%                             1978 (  38)    1994 (  17)    2010 (  15)
%%%                             1979 (  41)    1995 (  92)    2011 (  31)
%%%                             1980 (  29)    1996 ( 336)    2012 (  38)
%%%                             1981 (  30)    1997 (  19)    2013 (  92)
%%%                             1982 (  28)    1998 (  43)    2014 (  12)
%%%                             1983 (  27)    1999 (  87)
%%%                             1984 (  19)    2000 (  55)
%%%
%%%                             Article:       1499
%%%                             Book:             2
%%%
%%%                             Total entries: 1501
%%%
%%%                        The bibliography also includes entries for
%%%                        all editorial comments, and for Surveyor's
%%%                        Forum letters.  Articles and letters that
%%%                        comment on them are cross-referenced in both
%%%                        directions, so that citation of one of them
%%%                        will automatically include the others.  A
%%%                        small number of additional entries from
%%%                        outside ACM Computing Surveys are included to
%%%                        satisfy cross references.
%%%
%%%                        The initial draft of this bibliography was
%%%                        extracted from the ACM Computing Archive CD
%%%                        ROM for the 1980s, with manual corrections
%%%                        and additions.  Major additions were then
%%%                        obtained from the huge Computer Science
%%%                        bibliography archive on ftp.ira.uka.de.  The
%%%                        remaining entries were added by hand, and all
%%%                        entries were rechecked against the original
%%%                        journal issues, which resulted in numerous
%%%                        corrections.  Math Review MRclass and
%%%                        MRnumber values were supplied from a search
%%%                        of the American Mathematical Society's
%%%                        MathSciNet database for six entries, the
%%%                        only ones covered there.  At version 1.36
%%%                        [18-Dec-1996], search results from the
%%%                        Compendex databases (1970--1996) were used
%%%                        to check and augment the bibliographic
%%%                        data.
%%%
%%%                        Numerous errors in the sources noted above
%%%                        have been corrected.  Spelling has been
%%%                        verified with the UNIX spell and GNU ispell
%%%                        programs using the exception dictionary
%%%                        stored in the companion file with extension
%%%                        .sok.
%%%
%%%                        The ACM maintains Web pages with journal
%%%                        tables of contents for 1985--date at
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc
%%%
%%%                        The Web pages for Computing Surveys are at
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204
%%%
%%%                        That data has been automatically converted to
%%%                        BibTeX form, corrected for spelling and page
%%%                        number errors, and merged into this file.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.  Article reviews have been
%%%                        omitted, until their copyright status has
%%%                        been clarified.
%%%
%%%                        bibsource keys in the bibliography entries
%%%                        below indicate the entry originally came
%%%                        from the computer science bibliography
%%%                        archive, even though it has likely since
%%%                        been corrected and updated.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted by
%%%                        journal, and then by publication order, with
%%%                        the help of ``bibsort -byvolume''.  The
%%%                        bibsort utility is available from
%%%                        ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bibsort-x.y.*,
%%%                        where x.y is a version number.
%%%
%%%                        Fields within entries have been put into a
%%%                        consistent order by the biborder utility
%%%                        [ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/biborder-x.y.*].
%%%                        and the entire bibliography has been
%%%                        processed by the bibclean syntax checker and
%%%                        prettyprinter,
%%%                        [ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bibclean-x.y.*],
%%%                        and by bibcheck
%%%                        [ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bibcheck-x.y.*].
%%%
%%%                        Numerous heuristic checks on the validity
%%%                        of the bibliography files have been made
%%%                        using software developed by the author for
%%%                        maintenance of the TeX Users Group and
%%%                        BibNet bibliography collections.
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================

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                Les-lie
                Pren-tice
                Rich-ard
                Schlotz-hauer
                Spring-er
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-COMP-SURV             = "ACM Computing Surveys"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Publisher abbreviations:

@String{pub-MIT                 = "MIT Press"}

@String{pub-MIT:adr             = "Cambridge, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-SUCSLI              = "Stanford University Center for the Study of
                                  Language and Information"}

@String{pub-SUCSLI:adr          = "Stanford, CA, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries: The book entries at the end of this file are
%%% cross-referenced from earlier article entries.

@Article{Finerman:1969:EN,
  author =       "Aaron Finerman",
  title =        "An Editorial Note",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356540.356541",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1969:EPa,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview\ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2--5",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356540.356542",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Rosen:1969:ECH,
  author =       "Saul Rosen",
  title =        "Electronic Computers: a Historical Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--36",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356540.356543",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The first large scale electronic computers were built
                 in connection with university projects sponsored by
                 government military and research organizations. Many
                 established companies, as well as new companies,
                 entered the computer field during the first generation,
                 1947--1959, in which the vacuum tube was almost
                 universally used as the active component in the
                 implementation of computer logic. The second generation
                 was characterized by the transistorized computers that
                 began to appear in 1959. Some of the computers built
                 then and since are considered super computers; they
                 attempt to go to the limit of current technology in
                 terms of size, speed, and logical complexity. From 1965
                 onward, most new computers belong to a third
                 generation, which features integrated circuit
                 technology and multiprocessor multiprogramming
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer history; electronic computers; magnetic drum
                 computers; super computers; time-sharing;
                 transistorized computers; university computer projects;
                 vacuum tube computers",
}

@Article{Rosin:1969:SMS,
  author =       "Robert F. Rosin",
  title =        "Supervisory and Monitor Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "37--54",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356540.356544",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Glass:1969:EDC,
  author =       "R. L. Glass",
  title =        "An Elementary Discussion of Compiler\slash Interpreter
                 Writing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "55--77",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356540.356545",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1969:EPb,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "81--84",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356546.356547",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hoffman:1969:CPS,
  author =       "Lance J. Hoffman",
  title =        "Computers and Privacy: a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "85--103",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356546.356548",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Survey, discussion, and large Bibliography.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{McKinney:1969:SAT,
  author =       "J. M. McKinney",
  title =        "A Survey of Analytical Time-Sharing Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "105--116",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356546.356549",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dodd:1969:EDM,
  author =       "George G. Dodd",
  title =        "Elements of Data Management Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "117--133",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356546.356550",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:12:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "definitions and examples of various file org.
                 methods.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1969:EPc,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "135--138",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356551.356552",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wilkes:1969:GIM,
  author =       "M. V. Wilkes",
  title =        "The Growth of Interest in Microprogramming: a
                 Literature Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "139--145",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356551.356553",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Rosenfeld:1969:PPC,
  author =       "Azriel Rosenfeld",
  title =        "Picture Processing by Computer",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "147--176",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356551.356554",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1969:EPd,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Postview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "177--177",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356551.356555",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1969:EPe,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "179--182",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356556.356557",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kent:1969:ALM,
  author =       "William Kent",
  title =        "Assembler-Language Macroprogramming: a Tutorial
                 Oriented Toward the {IBM 360}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "183--196",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356556.356558",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Christoph:1970:LEA,Kent:1970:LEA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Rosin:1969:CCM,
  author =       "Robert F. Rosin",
  title =        "Contemporary Concepts of Microprogramming and
                 Emulation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "197--212",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356556.356559",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Rosin:1970:ECC}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Aron:1969:ISP,
  author =       "J. D. Aron",
  title =        "Information Systems in Perspective",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "213--236",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1969",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356556.356560",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Introduction to the present and future capabilities of
                 management information systems in the context of file
                 handling, system design, and management use.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1970:EPa,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356561.356562",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dolotta:1970:FST,
  author =       "T. A. Dolotta",
  title =        "Functional Specifications for Typewriter-Like
                 Time-Sharing Terminals",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--31",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356561.356563",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Beech:1970:SVP,
  author =       "David Beech",
  title =        "A Structural View of {PL/I}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--64",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356561.356564",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Cohen:1970:LSF,
  author =       "Doron J. Cohen and C. C. Gotlieb",
  title =        "A List Structure Form of Grammars for Syntactic
                 Analysis",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "65--82",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356561.356565",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:13:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1970:EPb,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "83--87",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356566.356567",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sedelow:1970:CHF,
  author =       "Sally Yeates Sedelow",
  title =        "The Computer in the Humanities and Fine Arts",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "89--110",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356566.356568",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hellerman:1970:TAS,
  author =       "H. Hellerman and H. J. {Smith, Jr.}",
  title =        "Throughput Analysis of Some Idealized Input, Output,
                 and Compute Overlap Configurations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "111--118",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356566.356569",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Chapin:1970:FAS,
  author =       "Ned Chapin",
  title =        "Flowcharting With the {ANSI Standard}: a Tutorial",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "119--146",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356566.356570",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1970:EPc,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Preview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "147--152",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356572",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1970:VM,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Virtual Memory",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "153--189",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356573",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{MacDougall:1970:CSS,
  author =       "M. H. MacDougall",
  title =        "Computer System Simulation: an Introduction",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "191--209",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356574",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Smith:1970:DCI,
  author =       "Cecil L. Smith",
  title =        "Digital Control of Industrial Processes",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "211--241",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356575",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dorn:1970:EPd,
  author =       "William S. Dorn",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Postview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "243--243",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356576",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Christoph:1970:LEA,
  author =       "Albert C. Christoph",
  title =        "Letter to the {Editor}: {``Assembler-Language
                 Macroprogramming: A Tutorial Oriented Toward the IBM
                 360''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "243--244",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356577",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Kent:1969:ALM,Kent:1970:LEA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kent:1970:LEA,
  author =       "William Kent",
  title =        "Letter to the {Editor}: {``Assembler-Language
                 Macroprogramming: A Tutorial Oriented Toward the IBM
                 360''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "244--244",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356578",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Kent:1969:ALM,Christoph:1970:LEA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Rosin:1970:ECC,
  author =       "Robert F. Rosin",
  title =        "Erratum: {``Contemporary Concepts of Microprogramming
                 and Emulation''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "244--244",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356571.356579",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:14:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Rosin:1969:CCM}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Knuth:1970:NFC,
  author =       "Donald E. Knuth",
  title =        "{Von Neumann}'s First Computer Program",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "247--260",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356580.356581",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:01 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted in \cite{Aspray:1987:PJN}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Smith:1970:SIG,
  author =       "Lyle B. Smith",
  title =        "A Survey of Interactive Graphical Systems for
                 Mathematics",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "261--301",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356580.356582",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:01 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Williams:1971:SDS,
  author =       "Robin Williams",
  title =        "A Survey of Data Structures for Computer Graphics
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--21",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356583.356584",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This is a survey of a data structures and their use in
                 computer graphics systems. First, the reasons for using
                 data structures are given. Then the sequential, random,
                 and list organizations are discussed, and it is shown
                 how they may be used to build complex data structures.
                 Representative samples of languages specifically
                 designed for creating and manipulating data structures
                 are described next. Finally some typical computer
                 graphics systems and their data structures are
                 described. It is also pointed out that much work
                 remains to be done to develop a satisfactory
                 theoretical foundation for designing data structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Foster:1971:UTS,
  author =       "Caxton C. Foster",
  title =        "An Unclever Time-Sharing System",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "23--48",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356583.356585",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the internal structure of a
                 time-sharing system in some detail. This system is
                 dedicated to providing remote access, and has a simple
                 file structure. It is intended for use in a university
                 type environment where there are many short jobs that
                 will profit from one- or two-second turnaround. Despite
                 its simplicity, this system can serve as a useful
                 introduction to the problems encountered by the
                 designers of any time-sharing system. Included are a
                 discussion of the command language, the hardware
                 organization toward which the design is oriented, the
                 general internal organization, the command sequences,
                 the CPU scheduler, handling of interrupts, the
                 assignment of core space, execution and control of the
                 user's program, backup storage management, and the
                 handling of errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Price:1971:TLT,
  author =       "C. E. Price",
  title =        "Table Lookup Techniques",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "49--64",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356586.356587",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:20 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Consideration is given to the basic methodology for
                 table searching in computer programming. Only static
                 tables are treated, but references are made to
                 techniques for handling dynamic tables. Methods
                 described are: sequential search, merge search, binary
                 search, estimated entry, and direct entry. The
                 rationale of key transformation is discussed, with some
                 consideration of methods of ``hash addressing.'' A
                 general guide to technique selection is given in
                 conclusion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "binary search; hashing; search techniques; table
                 lookup techniques",
}

@Article{Coffman:1971:SD,
  author =       "E. G. Coffman and M. J. Elphick and A. Shoshani",
  title =        "System Deadlocks",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "67--78",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356586.356588",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:20 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A problem of increasing importance in the design of
                 large multiprogramming systems is the, so-called,
                 deadlock or deadly-embrace problem. In this article we
                 survey the work that has been done on the treatment of
                 deadlocks from both the theoretical and practical
                 points of view.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Lucas:1971:PEM,
  author =       "Henry C. {Lucas, Jr.}",
  title =        "Performance Evaluation and Monitoring",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "79--91",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356589.356590",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1971.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Three major purposes for evaluating the hardware and
                 software performance of computer systems--selection
                 evaluation, performance projection, and performance
                 monitoring--are described. Eight techniques that have
                 been used or suggested for evaluating performance are
                 discussed. Each of these techniques is rated on its
                 suitability for the three purposes of evaluation.
                 Recommendations are made on the most appropriate
                 technique for each evaluation purpose. These
                 suggestions include the development of a comprehensive
                 set of synthetic programs on an industry-wide basis for
                 selection evaluation purposes. Simulation is
                 recommended as the most suitable technique for
                 performance projection. Finally, a number of hardware
                 and software monitors are available for performance
                 monitoring.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Three major purposes for evaluating the hardware and
                 software performance of computer systems - selection
                 evaluation, performance projection, and performance
                 monitoring - are described. Eight techniques that have
                 been used or suggested for evaluating performance are
                 discussed.",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "09/01/80",
  descriptors =  "Performance evaluation; simulation; monitoring;
                 performance projection; computer selection; benchmark;
                 test tool;",
  enum =         "2009",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "59",
}

@Article{vanDam:1971:LTE,
  author =       "Andries {van Dam} and David E. Rice",
  title =        "On-line Text Editing: a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "93--114",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356589.356591",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper is a survey of current methods for the
                 on-line creation and editing of computer programs and
                 of ordinary manuscripts text. The characteristics of
                 on-line editing systems are examined and examples of
                 various implementations are described in three
                 categories: program editors, text editors, and
                 terminals with local editing facilities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ledgard:1971:TML,
  author =       "Henry F. Ledgard",
  title =        "Ten Mini-Languages: a Study of Topical Issues in
                 Programming Languages",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "115--146",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356589.356592",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The proliferation of programming languages has raised
                 many issues of language design, definition, and
                 implementation. This paper presents a series of ten
                 mini-languages, each of which exposes salient features
                 found in existing programming languages. The value of
                 the mini-languages lies in their brevity of description
                 and the isolation of important linguistic features: in
                 particular, the notions of assignment, transfer of
                 control, functions, parameter passing, type checking,
                 data structures, string manipulation, and input/output.
                 The mini-languages may serve a variety of uses:
                 notably, as a pedagogical tool for teaching programming
                 languages, as a subject of study for the design of
                 programming languages, and as a set of test cases for
                 methods of language implementation or formal
                 definition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Martin:1971:S,
  author =       "W. A. Martin",
  title =        "Sorting",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "147--174",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356593.356594",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The bibliography appearing at the end of this article
                 lists 37 sorting algorithms and 100 books and papers on
                 sorting published in the last 20 years. The basic ideas
                 presented here have been abstracted from this body of
                 work, and the best algorithms known are given as
                 examples. As the algorithms are explained, references
                 to related algorithms and mathematical or experimental
                 analyses are given. Suggestions are then made for
                 choosing the algorithm best suited to a given
                 situation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1971:TGC,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Third Generation Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "175--216",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356593.356595",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:15:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The common features of third generation operating
                 systems are surveyed from a general view, with emphasis
                 on the common abstractions that constitute at least the
                 basis for a ``theory'' of operating systems. Properties
                 of specific systems are not discussed except where
                 examples are useful. The technical aspects of issues
                 and concepts are stressed, the nontechnical aspects
                 mentioned only briefly. A perfunctory knowledge of
                 third generation systems is presumed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "An operating systems approach to storage management,
                 good illustration of deadlock, extensive
                 bibliography.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1972:NPD,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "A Note on Paging Drum Efficiency",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356596.356597",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Do not assume uniform distribution over sector
                 queues.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wegner:1972:VDL,
  author =       "Peter Wegner",
  title =        "The {Vienna Definition Language}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--63",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356596.356598",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Schucany:1972:SSP,
  author =       "W. R. Schucany and Paul D. Minton and B. Stanley
                 {Shannon, Jr.}",
  title =        "A Survey of Statistical Packages",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "65--79",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356599.356600",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents a survey of the existing
                 packages of computer programs that are being used for
                 the statistical analysis of data. The basic
                 capabilities of a general-purpose package are listed
                 and discussed briefly. The various types of statistical
                 packages are classified into five general categories,
                 and a description of each category is given. Brief
                 abstracts and summary descriptions of 37 packages are
                 presented, as well as a list of 18 additional packages
                 and 17 related references. 17 refs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 922",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data processing; statistical methods; statistical
                 package",
}

@Article{Nievergelt:1972:WMC,
  author =       "J. Nievergelt and J. C. Farrar",
  title =        "What Machines Can and Cannot Do",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "81--96",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356599.356601",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Elspas:1972:ATP,
  author =       "Bernard Elspas and Karl N. Levitt and Richard J.
                 Waldinger and Abraham Waksman",
  title =        "An Assessment of Techniques for Proving Program
                 Correctness",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "97--147",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356599.356602",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to point out the
                 significant quantity of work in progress on techniques
                 that will enable programmers to prove their programs
                 correct. This work has included: investigations in the
                 theory of program schemas or abstract programs;
                 development of the art of the informal or manual proof
                 of correctness; and development of mechanical or
                 semi-mechanical approaches to proving correctness. At
                 present, these mechanical approaches rely upon the
                 availability of powerful theorem-provers, development
                 of which is being actively pursued. All of these
                 technical areas are here surveyed in detail, and
                 recommendations are made concerning the direction of
                 future research toward producing a semi-mechanical
                 program verifier.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computers; program schema; theorem-proving",
  xxnote =       "There is a page 147 in each of numbers 2 and 3 of
                 volume 4.",
}

@Article{Weiss:1972:A,
  author =       "Eric A. Weiss",
  title =        "An Appreciation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "147--147",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 30 00:31:17 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  xxnote =       "There is a page 147 in each of numbers 2 and 3 of
                 volume 4.",
}

@Article{Presser:1972:LL,
  author =       "Leon Presser and John R. White",
  title =        "Linkers and Loaders",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "149--167",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356603.356605",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This is a paper on the linking and loading stages of
                 the language transformation process. First, loaders are
                 classified and discussed. Next, the linking process is
                 treated in terms of the various times at which it may
                 occur (i.e., binding to logical space). Finally, the
                 linking and loading functions are explained in detail
                 through a careful examination of their implementation
                 in the IBM System\slash 360. Examples are presented,
                 and a number of possible system trade-offs are pointed
                 out.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "binary loaders; computer operating systems; linking
                 loaders; relocating loaders",
}

@Article{Hoare:1972:I,
  author =       "C. A. R. Hoare and D. C. S. Allison",
  title =        "Incomputability",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "169--178",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356603.356606",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Russell's logical paradox, formulated in terms of
                 English adjectives, is considered as a convenient
                 starting point for this discussion of incomputability.
                 It is shown to be impossible, under a wide variety of
                 circumstances, to program a function which will
                 determine whether another function written in the same
                 programming language will terminate. The theory of
                 types is introduced in an attempt to evade the paradox.
                 Finally, it is shown that any language containing
                 conditionals and recursive function definitions, which
                 is powerful enough to program its own interpreter,
                 cannot be used to program its own terminates
                 function.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer metatheory --- Formal Logic; computer
                 programming languages; incomputability; logical
                 paradox; recursion",
}

@Article{Holt:1972:SDP,
  author =       "Richard C. Holt",
  title =        "Some Deadlock Properties of Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "179--196",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356603.356607",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Several examples of deadlock occurring in present day
                 computer systems are given. Next, there is a discussion
                 of the strategies which can be used to deal with the
                 deadlock problem. A theory of computer systems is
                 developed so that the terms ``process'' and
                 ``deadlock'' can be defined. ``Reusable resources'' are
                 introduced to model objects that are shared among
                 processes, and ``consumable resources'' are introduced
                 to model signals or messages passed among processes.
                 Then a simple graph model of computer systems is
                 developed, and its deadlock properties are
                 investigated. This graph model unifies a number of
                 previous results, leads to efficient deadlock detection
                 and prevention algorithms, and is useful for teaching
                 purposes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Abstract of thesis, survey and solutions.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems",
}

@Article{Stutzman:1972:DCC,
  author =       "Byron W. Stutzman",
  title =        "Data Communication Control Procedures",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "197--220",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356608.356609",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper is a tutorial on the methods used to
                 control the transmission of digital information on data
                 communication links. Simple models of data
                 communication systems are introduced and terminology
                 for describing their functions and operation is
                 established. Various graphical methods of representing
                 communication control procedures are discussed and used
                 to describe significant features of communication
                 control procedures in detail.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "718; 722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computers; data processing --- Data Handling; data
                 transmission",
}

@Article{Barnes:1972:PVA,
  author =       "Bruce H. Barnes",
  title =        "A Programmer's View of Automata",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "221--239",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356608.356610",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this discussion is to introduce the
                 Computer Scientist to the concepts, definitions,
                 notation and ideas of finite automata theory and to
                 suggest how these ideas might relate to some of the
                 other fields of Computer Science. Since understanding
                 of the basic concepts is the purpose of this
                 discussion, emphasis will be placed on definitions and
                 examples than on theorems and proofs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "721",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "automata theory; deterministic automation",
}

@Article{Willoughby:1972:SMF,
  author =       "Theodore C. Willoughby",
  title =        "Staffing the {MIS} Function",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "241--259",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356608.356611",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This tutorial describes MIS (Business Data Processing)
                 staffing problems. Aspects included are job
                 descriptions, recruitment, selection and turnover. The
                 job descriptions described are traditional, trait
                 analysis and task analysis. The recruiting section
                 includes both inside and outside sources. Selection is
                 discussed in terms of satisfactoriness and
                 satisfaction. The more popular tests are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Discussion of the value of human assets.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data processing, business; managerial information
                 system (MIS)",
}

@Article{Organick:1973:EP,
  author =       "Elliott I. Organick",
  title =        "Editorial Policy \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356612.356613",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:58 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Horning:1973:PS,
  author =       "J. J. Horning and B. Randell",
  title =        "Process Structuring",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--30",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356612.356614",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:58 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Baer:1973:SST,
  author =       "J. L. Baer",
  title =        "A Survey of Some Theoretical Aspects of
                 Multiprocessing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--80",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356612.356615",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:16:58 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Rosenfeld:1973:PPP,
  author =       "Azriel Rosenfeld",
  title =        "Progress in Picture Processing: 1969--71",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "81--108",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356616.356617",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Pooch:1973:SIT,
  author =       "Udo W. Pooch and Al Nieder",
  title =        "A Survey of Indexing Techniques for Sparse Matrices",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "109--133",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356616.356618",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{White:1973:SRC,
  author =       "William W. White",
  title =        "A Status Report on Computing Algorithms for
                 Mathematical Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "135--166",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356619.356620",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Couger:1973:EBS,
  author =       "J. Daniel Couger",
  title =        "Evolution of Business System Analysis Techniques",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "167--198",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356619.356621",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Timmreck:1973:CSM,
  author =       "E. M. Timmreck",
  title =        "Computer Selection Methodology",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "200--222",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356622.356623",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{BrinchHansen:1973:CPC,
  author =       "Per {Brinch Hansen}",
  title =        "Concurrent Programming Concepts",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "223--245",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356622.356624",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sutherland:1974:CTH,
  author =       "Ivan E. Sutherland and Robert F. Sproull and Robert A.
                 Schumacker",
  title =        "A Characterization of Ten Hidden-Surface Algorithms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--55",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356625.356626",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Graphics/imager/imager.75.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "A classic paper; describes all the major hidden
                 surface algorithms of the time, and gives a
                 classification scheme.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "parallel processing; survey; visible surfaces",
}

@Article{Freeman:1974:CPL,
  author =       "Herbert Freeman",
  title =        "Computer Processing of Line-Drawing Images",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "57--97",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356625.356627",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Aho:1974:LP,
  author =       "A. V. Aho and S. C. Johnson",
  title =        "{LR} Parsing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--124",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356628.356629",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The LR syntax analysis method is a useful and
                 versatile technique for parsing deterministic
                 context-free languages in compiling applications. This
                 paper provides an informal exposition of LR parsing
                 techniques emphasizing the mechanical generation of
                 efficient LR parsers for context-free grammars.
                 Particular attention is given to extending the parser
                 generation techniques to apply to ambiguous grammars.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "ambiguous grammars; compilers; context-free languages;
                 grammars; LR grammars; parsers",
}

@Article{Pooch:1974:TDT,
  author =       "Udo W. Pooch",
  title =        "Translation of Decision Tables",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "125--151",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356628.356630",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:17:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Pooch:1974:CTD}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bobrow:1974:NPL,
  author =       "Daniel G. Bobrow and Bertram Raphael",
  title =        "New Programming Languages for Artificial Intelligence
                 Research",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "153--174",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356631.356632",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Severance:1974:ISM,
  author =       "Dennis G. Severance",
  title =        "Identifier Search Mechanisms: a Survey and Generalized
                 Model",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "175--194",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356631.356633",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Evaluation model is core memory oriented.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Nievergelt:1974:BST,
  author =       "J. Nievergelt",
  title =        "Binary Search Trees and File Organisation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--207",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356631.356634",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1974:GEO,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Overview \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "209--211",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356636",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Brown:1974:PDS,
  author =       "P. J. Brown",
  title =        "Programming and Documenting Software Projects",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "213--220",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356637",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Yohe:1974:OPP,
  author =       "J. M. Yohe",
  title =        "An Overview of Programming Practices",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "221--245",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356638",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wirth:1974:CWS,
  author =       "Niklaus Wirth",
  title =        "On the Composition of Well-Structured Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "247--259",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356639",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Recently, the subject of programming methods,
                 generally applicable rules and patterns of development,
                 has received considerable attention. ``Structured
                 programming'' is the formulation of programs as
                 hierarchical, nested structures of statements and
                 objects of computation. The author gives brief examples
                 of structured programs, shows the essence of this
                 approach, discusses its relationship with program
                 verification, and comments on the role of structured
                 languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; programming methods",
}

@Article{Knuth:1974:SPG,
  author =       "Donald E. Knuth",
  title =        "Structured Programming with {\tt go to} Statements",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "261--301",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356640",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted with revisions in {\sl Current Trends in
                 Programming Methodology}, Raymond T. Yeh, ed., {\bf 1}
                 (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977), 140--194;
                 {\sl Classics in Software Engineering}, Edward Nash
                 Yourdon, ed.\ (New York: Yourdon Press, 1979),
                 259--321. Reprinted with ``final'' revisions in
                 \cite[pp. 17--89]{Knuth:1992:LP}.",
  abstract =     "This study focuses largely on two issues: (a) improved
                 syntax for iterations and error exits, making it
                 possible to write a larger class of programs clearly
                 and efficiently without ``go to'' statements; (b) a
                 methodology of program design, beginning with readable
                 and correct, but possibly inefficient programs that are
                 systematically transformed in necessary into efficient
                 and correct, but possibly less readable code. The
                 discussion brings out opposing points of view about
                 whether or not ``go to'' statements should be
                 abolished; some merit is found on both sides of this
                 question. Finally, an attempt is made to define the
                 true nature of structured programming, and to recommend
                 fruitful directions for further study.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; structured programming",
}

@Article{Kernighan:1974:PSE,
  author =       "Brian W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger",
  title =        "Programming Style: {Examples} and Counterexamples",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "303--319",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356641",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper is a survey of some aspects of programming
                 style, primarily expression and structure, showing by
                 example what happens when principles of style are
                 violated, and what can be done to improve programs. The
                 examples are all taken verbatim from programming
                 textbooks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; programming methods,
                 control-flow structures; programming style; structured
                 programming",
}

@Article{Pooch:1974:CTD,
  author =       "Udo W. Pooch",
  title =        "Corrigendum: {``Translation of Decision Tables''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--321",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356635.356642",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Pooch:1974:TDT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Organick:1975:EO,
  author =       "Elliott I. Organick",
  title =        "Editor's Overview",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356643.356644",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:53 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Maurer:1975:HTM,
  author =       "W. D. Maurer and T. G. Lewis",
  title =        "Hash Table Methods",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--19",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356643.356645",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:53 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This is a survey of hash table methods, chiefly
                 intended for programmers and students of programming
                 who are encountering the subject for the first time.
                 The better-known methods of calculating hash addresses
                 and of handling collisions and bucket overflow are
                 presented and compared. It is shown that under certain
                 conditions we can guarantee that no two items belonging
                 to a certain class will have the same hash code, thus
                 providing an improvement over the usual notion of a
                 hash code as a randomizing technique. Several
                 alternatives to hashing are discussed, and suggestions
                 are made for further research and further
                 development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Short review of key-to-address transformation,
                 collision handling, and other access techniques.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Presser:1975:MC,
  author =       "Leon Presser",
  title =        "Multiprogramming Coordination",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21--44",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356643.356646",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:53 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Presser:1975:CMC}.",
  abstract =     "This paper commences with an overview of
                 multiprogrammed operating systems that uncovers an
                 architecture consisting of cooperating, but competing
                 processes working in parallel. This is followed by a
                 formal treatment of processes, and an analysis of the
                 fundamental coordination needs of concomitant
                 processes. The analysis leads to a set of two
                 coordination primitives originally defined by E. W.
                 Dijkstra. In the rest of the paper, an evolutionary
                 series of examples of increasing coordination
                 complexity is formulated and solved. As the various
                 examples are discussed, cumulative extensions to the
                 original set of coordination primitives are justified
                 and formally defined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems programming",
}

@Article{Mooers:1975:CSC,
  author =       "Calvin N. Mooers",
  title =        "Computer Software and Copyright",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "45--72",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356643.356647",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:18:53 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Boyse:1975:SMC,
  author =       "John W. Boyse and David R. Warn",
  title =        "A Straightforward Model for Computer Performance
                 Prediction",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "73--93",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356648.356649",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:06 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Both simulation and analytic models of computer
                 systems can be very useful for predicting the
                 performance of proposed new systems or proposed changes
                 to existing systems. Many potential users of models are
                 reluctant to use them because of the complexity of many
                 such models. This tutorial paper leads the reader
                 through the development and use of an easily understood
                 analytic model. This is then placed in context with a
                 class of similar analytic models. In spite of the
                 simplicity of these models they have proved useful and
                 quite accurate in predicting performance (utilization,
                 throughput, and response) using only the most basic
                 system data as input. These parameters can either be
                 estimates or measurements from a running system. The
                 model equations and assumptions are defined, and a
                 detailed case study is presented as an example of their
                 use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
}

@Article{Cotton:1975:MMC,
  author =       "Ira W. Cotton",
  title =        "Microeconomics and the Market for Computer Services",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "95--111",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356648.356650",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:06 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Huang:1975:APT,
  author =       "J. C. Huang",
  title =        "An Approach to Program Testing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "113--128",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356651.356652",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kimbleton:1975:CCN,
  author =       "Stephen R. Kimbleton and G. Michael Schneider",
  title =        "Computer Communication Networks: {Approaches},
                 Objectives, and Performance Considerations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "129--173",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356651.356653",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Effective network utilization requires an
                 understanding of network functional components and
                 their interactions. Describing these issues is the
                 objective of this paper. To do this, the three basic
                 network sharing alternatives are first identified. For
                 those two which involve host\slash host communication,
                 the basic traffic types are discussed. The
                 communications alternatives are then detailed and a
                 hypothesis is advanced that the ``packet-switched''
                 networks provide the most appropriate technology for
                 supporting multimodal traffic between hosts.
                 Consequently, a careful examination of the functional
                 components of the packet switch is provided. This
                 provides a basis for describing factors which must be
                 considered in implementing a packet-switched
                 subnetwork. Additional issues which should be
                 considered when several hosts and, perhaps, the
                 communications subnetwork are under the control of a
                 single administrative organization are then discussed.
                 The paper concludes with a description of three
                 networking examples and an identification of areas for
                 future research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computers",
  xxnote =       "There is a page 173 in each of numbers 3 and 4 of
                 volume 4.",
}

@Article{Organick:1975:EPU,
  author =       "Elliott I. Organick",
  title =        "Editorial Policy Update",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "173--173",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356654.356655",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  xxnote =       "There is a page 173 in each of numbers 3 and 4 of
                 volume 4.",
}

@Article{Patil:1975:GEN,
  author =       "Suhas S. Patil",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Note \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "175--175",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356654.356656",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Keller:1975:LAP,
  author =       "Robert M. Keller",
  title =        "Look-Ahead Processors",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "177--195",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356654.356657",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Methods of achieving look-ahead in processing units
                 are discussed. An optimality criterion is proposed, and
                 several schemes are compared against the optimum under
                 varying assumptions. These schemes include existing and
                 proposed machine organizations, and theoretical
                 treatments not mentioned before in this context. The
                 problems of eliminating associative searches in the
                 processor control and the handling of loop-forming
                 decisions are also considered. The inherent limitations
                 of such processors are discussed. Finally, a number of
                 enhancements to look-ahead processors is qualitatively
                 surveyed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture; computer operating systems",
}

@Article{Anderson:1975:CIS,
  author =       "George A. Anderson and E. Douglas Jensen",
  title =        "Computer Interconnection Structures: {Taxonomy},
                 Characteristics, and Examples",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "197--213",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356654.356658",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A taxonomy, or naming scheme, for systems of
                 interconnected computer is presented. It is an attempt
                 to provide an implementation-independent method by
                 which to identify designs, and a common context in
                 which to discuss them. The taxonomy is based on
                 interprocessor message handling and hardware
                 interconnection topology, and distinguishes ten basic
                 multiple-computer architectures. Various relevant
                 attributes are identified and discussed, and examples
                 of actual designs are given for each architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture",
}

@Article{Thurber:1975:APP,
  author =       "Kenneth J. Thurber and Leon D. Wald",
  title =        "Associative and Parallel Processors",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "215--255",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356654.356659",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This tutorial survey of the area of parallel and
                 associative processors covers the main design tradeoffs
                 and major architectures of SIMD (Single Instruction
                 Stream Multiple Data Stream) systems. Summaries of
                 ILLIAC IV, STARAN, OMEN, and PEPE, the major SIMD
                 processors, are included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems",
}

@Article{Organick:1975:EN,
  author =       "Elliott I. Organick",
  title =        "Editor's Note",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "257--257",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356654.356660",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Presser:1975:CMC,
  author =       "Leon Presser",
  title =        "Corrigendum: {``Multiprogramming Coordination''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "257--257",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 28 16:51:57 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Presser:1975:MC}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sibley:1976:GEI,
  author =       "E. H. Sibley",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Introduction: {The} Development of
                 Data-Base Technology",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356662.356663",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Fry:1976:EDB,
  author =       "James P. Fry and Edgar H. Sibley",
  title =        "Evolution of Data-Base Management Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--42",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356662.356664",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The history and definitions common to data-base
                 technology are outlined. The objectives of data-base
                 management systems are given, important concepts
                 discussed, terminology defined and the development of
                 data-base systems methodology traced. An example is
                 presented along with trends and issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base management; data processing",
}

@Article{Chamberlin:1976:RDB,
  author =       "Donald D. Chamberlin",
  title =        "Relational Data-Base Management Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--66",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356662.356665",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted in A. R. Hurson, L. L. Miller, and S. H.
                 Pakzad, Parallel Architectures for Database Systems,
                 IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington, DC, 1989.",
  abstract =     "The essential concepts of the relational data model
                 are defined, and normalization, relational languages
                 based on the model, as well as advantages and
                 implementations of relational systems are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Introductory paper.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base management; data processing",
}

@Article{Taylor:1976:CDB,
  author =       "Robert W. Taylor and Randall L. Frank",
  title =        "{CODASYL} Data-Base Management Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--103",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356662.356666",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Presentation of the concepts, notation, and data-base
                 languages that were defined by the CODASYL Data
                 Description Language and Programming Language
                 Committees. Data structure diagram notation is
                 explained, and sample data-base definition is developed
                 along with several sample programs. Advanced features
                 of the languages are discussed, together with examples
                 of their use. An extensive bibliography is included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base management; data processing",
}

@Article{Tsichritzis:1976:HDB,
  author =       "D. C. Tsichritzis and F. H. Lochovsky",
  title =        "Hierarchical Data-Base Management: a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "105--123",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356662.356667",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This survey discusses the facilities provided by
                 hierarchical data-base management systems. The systems
                 are based on the hierarchical data model which is
                 defined as a special case of the network data model.
                 Different methods used to access hierarchically
                 organized data are outlined. Constructs and examples of
                 programming languages are presented to illustrate the
                 features of hierarchical systems. This is followed by a
                 discussion of techniques for implementing such systems.
                 Finally, a brief comparison is made between the
                 hierarchical, the network, and the relational
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base management; data processing",
}

@Article{Michaels:1976:CRC,
  author =       "Ann S. Michaels and Benjamin Mittman and C. Robert
                 Carlson",
  title =        "A Comparison of the Relational and {CODASYL}
                 Approaches to Data-Base Management",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "125--151",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356662.356668",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:19:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Data definition, manipulation, protection, and
                 independence, and system performance are important
                 factors when studying and evaluating data-base
                 management systems to be used in shared data-base
                 environments. The relational and CODASYL Data Base Task
                 Group approaches, which have been widely discussed and
                 debated, are compared and contrasted from these points
                 of view. It is concluded that since data-base
                 management systems are to serve the needs of widely
                 diverse communities of users, no single approach to
                 data-base management seems either desirable or likely
                 to emerge as dominant in the near future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base management; data processing",
}

@Article{Organick:1976:EO,
  author =       "Elliott I. Organick",
  title =        "Editorial Overview",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "153--153",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356669.356670",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Tanenbaum:1976:TA,
  author =       "Andrew S. Tanenbaum",
  title =        "A Tutorial on {Algol 68}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "155--190",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356669.356671",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Tanenbaum:1977:CTA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Marcotty:1976:SFD,
  author =       "Michael Marcotty and Henry F. Ledgard and Gregor V.
                 Bochmann",
  title =        "A Sampler of Formal Definitions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "191--276",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356669.356672",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Donahue:1977:SFC,Marcotty:1977:SFC,Marcotty:1977:CSF}.",
  abstract =     "Four well-known formal definition techniques are
                 presented: W-grammars, Production Systems with an
                 axiomatic approach to semantics, the Vienna Definition
                 Language, and Attribute Grammars. Each technique is
                 described tutorially and examples are given; then each
                 technique is applied to define the same small
                 programming language. These definitions provide a
                 usable basis for a critical discussion of the relative
                 clarity of the different methods. This leads to a
                 review of some of the debatable issues of formal
                 definition. Among these issues are the advantages, if
                 any, to the use of an underlying machine model, the
                 precise nature of a valid program, the relative merits
                 of generative and analytic definitions, and the place
                 of implementation-defined features in the definition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages",
}

@Article{Reddi:1976:CFC,
  author =       "S. S. Reddi and E. A. Feustel",
  title =        "A Conceptual Framework for Computer Architecture",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "277--300",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356669.356673",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Yeh:1976:GEa,
  author =       "Raymond T. Yeh",
  title =        "Guest Editorial \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "301--303",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356674.356675",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Reliable Software: Part I: Software
                 Validation",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Fosdick:1976:DFA,
  author =       "Lloyd D. Fosdick and Leon J. Osterweil",
  title =        "Data Flow Analysis in Software Reliability",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "305--330",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356674.356676",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The ways that the methods of data flow analysis can be
                 applied to improve software reliability are described.
                 There is also a review of the basic terminology from
                 graph theory and from data flow analysis in global
                 program optimization. The notation of regular
                 expressions is used to describe actions on data for
                 sets of paths. These expressions provide the basis of a
                 classification scheme for data flow which represents
                 patterns of data flow along paths within subprograms
                 and along paths which cross subprogram boundaries. Fast
                 algorithms, originally introduced for global
                 optimization, are described and it is shown how they
                 can be used to implement the classification scheme. It
                 is then shown how these same algorithms can also be
                 used to detect the presence of data flow anomalies
                 which are symptomatic of programming errors. Finally,
                 some characteristics of and experience with DAVE, a
                 data flow analysis system embodying some of these
                 ideas, are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; computer software reliability;
                 data flow analysis",
}

@Article{Hantler:1976:IPC,
  author =       "Sidney L. Hantler and James C. King",
  title =        "An Introduction to Proving the Correctness of
                 Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "331--353",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356674.356677",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Yeh:1976:GEb,
  author =       "Raymond T. Yeh",
  title =        "Guest Editorial \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "355--357",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356678.356679",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue on Reliable Software: Part II:
                 Fault-Tolerant Software",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1976:FTO,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Fault Tolerant Operating Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "359--389",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356678.356680",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Levin:1977:SFA,Iliffe:1977:SFE,Dennis:1977:SFE,Denning:1977:SFE}.",
  abstract =     "Four related architectural principles are developed
                 which can guide the construction of error-tolerant
                 operating systems. The fundamental principle, system
                 closure, specifies that no action is permissible unless
                 explicitly authorized. The capability based machine is
                 the most efficient known embodiment of this principle.
                 System closure implies a second principle, resource
                 control, that prevents processes from exchanging
                 information via residual values left in physical
                 resource units. These two principles enable a third,
                 decision verification by failure-independent processes.
                 These principles enable prompt error detection and
                 cost-effective recovery. Implementations of these
                 principles are given for process management, interrupts
                 and traps, store access through capabilities, protected
                 procedure entry, and tagged architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems; computer systems, digital
                 --- Fault Tolerant Capability",
}

@Article{Hecht:1976:FTS,
  author =       "H. Hecht",
  title =        "Fault-Tolerant Software for Real-Time Applications",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "391--407",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356678.356681",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Redundancy in fault-tolerant software requires
                 programs that are deliberately different from the
                 original ones which they are intended to back up. Error
                 detection and rollback provisions must be as
                 independent as possible of the software segments which
                 they protect. The recovery block concept pioneered by
                 B. Randell meets these requirements. Skeleton routines
                 are presented that illustrate the application of the
                 recovery block to real-time programs, particularly
                 those dealing with navigation and attitude control. The
                 concept is seen to be compatible with certain ad hoc
                 fault-tolerance techniques that are currently employed.
                 A technique for reliability analysis of the resulting
                 software system is developed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; computer systems, digital ---
                 Fault Tolerant Capability",
}

@Article{Linden:1976:OSS,
  author =       "Theodore A. Linden",
  title =        "Operating System Structures to Support Security and
                 Reliable Software",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "409--445",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356678.356682",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Iliffe:1977:SFE,Dennis:1977:SFE,Denning:1977:SFE}.",
  abstract =     "This survey focuses on two system structuring concepts
                 that support security: small protection domains and
                 extended-type objects. These two concepts are
                 especially promising because they also support reliable
                 software by encouraging and enforcing highly modular
                 software structures. Small protection domains allow
                 each subunit or module of a program to be executed in a
                 restricted environment that can prevent unanticipated
                 or undesirable actions by that module. Extended-type
                 objects provide a vehicle for data abstraction by
                 allowing objects of new types to be manipulated in
                 terms of operations that are natural for these objects.
                 This provides a way to extend system protection
                 features so that protection can be enforced in terms of
                 applications-oriented operations on objects. This
                 survey also explains one approach toward implementing
                 these concepts thoroughly and efficiently based on the
                 concept of capabilities incorporated into the
                 addressing structure of the computer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems; data processing ---
                 Security of Data",
}

@Article{Feng:1977:GEO,
  author =       "Tse-Yun Feng",
  title =        "Guest Editorial: an Overview of Parallel Processors
                 and Processing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356683.356684",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Yau:1977:APA,
  author =       "S. S. Yau and H. S. Fung",
  title =        "Associative Processor Architecture --- a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--27",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356683.356685",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A survey of the architecture of various associative
                 processors is presented with emphasis on their
                 characteristics, categorization, and implementation,
                 and especially on recent developments. Based on their
                 architecture, associative processors are classified
                 into four categories, namely fully parallel,
                 bit-serial, word-serial and block-oriented. The fully
                 parallel associative processors are divided into two
                 classes, word-organized and distributed logic
                 associative processors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture; computer operating systems",
}

@Article{Kuck:1977:SPM,
  author =       "David J. Kuck",
  title =        "A Survey of Parallel Machine Organization and
                 Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "29--59",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356683.356686",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Parallelism is defined in a broad sense, on the bit
                 level, operation level, and algorithm level. A number
                 of abstract and practical questions are discussed.
                 First, fast techniques for evaluating arithmetic
                 expressions and linear recurrences are treated. Next,
                 whole programs are discussed, and some experimental
                 results are presented. Finally, various aspects of
                 machine organization are discussed, including
                 processors, memories, and alignment networks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems programming; computer systems,
                 digital",
}

@Article{Ramamoorthy:1977:PA,
  author =       "C. V. Ramamoorthy and H. F. Li",
  title =        "Pipeline Architecture",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "61--102",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356683.356687",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Ramamoorthy:1978:CPA}.",
  abstract =     "This paper reviews the many theoretical considerations
                 and problems behind pipelining, surveying and comparing
                 various representative pipeline machines that operate
                 in either sequential or vector pipeline mode, the
                 practical solutions adopted, and the tradeoffs
                 involved. The performance of a simple pipe, the
                 physical speed limitation, and the control structures
                 for penalty-incurring events are analyzed separately.
                 The problems faced by the system designers are tackled,
                 including buffering, busing structure branching, and
                 interrupt handling. Aspects of sequential and vector
                 processing are studied. Fundamental advantages of
                 vector processing are unveiled, and additional
                 requirements (costs) are discussed to establish a
                 criterion for the tradeoff between sequential and
                 vector pipeline processing. Finally, two recent
                 machines (the Cray-1 and the Amdahl 470 V/6 systems)
                 are presented to demonstrate how complex pipeline
                 techniques can be used and how simple but advantageous
                 pipeline concepts can be exploited.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture",
}

@Article{Enslow:1977:MOS,
  author =       "Philip H. {Enslow, Jr.}",
  title =        "Multiprocessor Organization --- a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--129",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356683.356688",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:20:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Multiprocessors are defined as a subclass of MIMD
                 (Multiple Instruction Stream, Multiple Data Stream)
                 multiple-computer systems in which the processors have
                 common access to primary memory and the input\slash
                 output channels and there is a single operating system
                 controlling the entire complex. It is possible to
                 characterize the hardware organization by the nature of
                 the system utilized to interconnect the primary
                 functional units --- processors, memory, and
                 input\slash output channels. The three basic
                 interconnection systems discussed are: (1) time-shared
                 buses; (2) crossbar switch matrix; and (3) multibus,
                 multiport memories. Three organizations for
                 multiprocessor operating systems are also discussed:
                 (1) master-slave; (2) separate executive for each
                 processor; and (3) symmetric treatment of all
                 processors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
}

@Article{Denning:1977:ATIa,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "131--131",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356690",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1977:EP,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--135",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356691",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sedgewick:1977:PGM,
  author =       "Robert Sedgewick",
  title =        "Permutation Generation Methods",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "137--164",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356692",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Sedgewick:1977:CPG,Parsons:1977:SFF,MacCallum:1977:SFF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Levin:1977:SFA,
  author =       "Roy Levin and Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: an Amplification on {Hydra}'s
                 Capabilities",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "165--165",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356693",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Denning:1976:FTO}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Donahue:1977:SFC,
  author =       "James Donahue",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Criticism of Sampler",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "166--167",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356695",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Marcotty:1976:SFD,Marcotty:1977:SFC,Marcotty:1977:CSF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Marcotty:1977:SFC,
  author =       "Michael Marcotty and Henry F. Ledgard",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Criticism of Sampler",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "167--168",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356696",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Marcotty:1976:SFD,Donahue:1977:SFC,Marcotty:1977:CSF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Marcotty:1977:CSF,
  author =       "Michael Marcotty and Henry F. Ledgard and Gregor V.
                 Bochmann",
  title =        "Corrigendum: {``A Sampler of Formal Definitions''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "168--168",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356689.356697",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Marcotty:1976:SFD,Donahue:1977:SFC,Marcotty:1977:SFC}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1977:ATIb,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "171--172",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356699",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Gonzalez:1977:DPS,
  author =       "Mario J. {Gonzalez, Jr.}",
  title =        "Deterministic Processor Scheduling",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "173--204",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356700",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The deterministic scheduling of jobs in uniprocessor,
                 multiprocessor, and job-shop environments is surveyed.
                 The survey begins with a brief introduction to the
                 representation of task or job sets, followed by a
                 discussion of classification categories. These
                 categories include number of processors, task
                 interruptibility, job periodicity, deadlines, and
                 number of resources. Results are given for
                 single-processor schedules in job-shop and
                 multiprogramming environments, flow-shop schedules, and
                 multiprocessor schedules. They are stated in terms of
                 optimal constructive algorithms and suboptimal
                 heuristics. In most cases the latter are stated in
                 terms of performance bounds related to optimal results.
                 Annotations for most of the references are provided in
                 the form of a table classifying the referenced studies
                 in terms of various parameters. 54 refs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems programming",
}

@Article{Lipsky:1977:AQN,
  author =       "Lester Lipsky and J. D. Church",
  title =        "Applications of a Queueing Network Model for a
                 Computer System",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "205--221",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356701",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Phister:1978:SFP,Lipsky:1978:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Peterson:1977:PN,
  author =       "James L. Peterson",
  title =        "{Petri} Nets",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "223--252",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356702",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Genrich:1978:SFN,Peterson:1978:SFN}.",
  abstract =     "The basic concepts and uses of Petri nets are
                 surveyed. The structure of Petri nets, their markings
                 and execution, several examples of Petri net models of
                 computer hardware and software, and research into the
                 analysis of Petri nets are presented, as are the use of
                 the reachability tree and the decidability and
                 complexity of some Petri net problems. Petri net
                 languages, models of computation related to Petri nets,
                 and some extensions and subclasses of the Petri net
                 model are also briefly discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer metatheory",
}

@Article{Iliffe:1977:SFE,
  author =       "J. K. Iliffe",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: an Error Recovery",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "253--254",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356703",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Denning:1976:FTO,Linden:1976:OSS,Dennis:1977:SFE,Denning:1977:SFE}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dennis:1977:SFE,
  author =       "Jack B. Dennis",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: An Error Recovery",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "254--254",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356704",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Denning:1976:FTO,Linden:1976:OSS,Iliffe:1977:SFE,Denning:1977:SFE}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1977:SFE,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: an Error Recovery",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "254--255",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 30 00:28:11 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Denning:1976:FTO,Linden:1976:OSS,Iliffe:1977:SFE,Dennis:1977:SFE}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Tanenbaum:1977:CTA,
  author =       "Andrew S. Tanenbaum",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``A Tutorial on Algol 68''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "255--256",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356698.356706",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:21:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Tanenbaum:1976:TA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1977:AIL,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "257--257",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356708",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Severance:1977:PAS,
  author =       "D. G. Severance and J. V. Carlis",
  title =        "A Practical Approach to Selecting Record Access
                 Paths",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "259--272",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356709",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The process of selecting an efficient data-base design
                 is considered. It is suggested that all record storage
                 and retrieval structures of practical interest are
                 motivated by the accessing characteristics of secondary
                 storage. This architecture of secondary memory is
                 therefore analyzed in some detail. Three classes of
                 data retrieval problems are identified, and alternative
                 file structures and record search algorithms for these
                 problems are analyzed and compared. Finally, a method
                 for constructing reasonable database organizations is
                 presented: it is shown that through a series of design
                 decisions based upon application priorities, types of
                 retrieval, speed of response, and intensity of update,
                 it is possible to gather general specifications quickly
                 for a simple and efficient database organization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base systems",
}

@Article{Taggart:1977:SIR,
  author =       "William M. {Taggart, Jr.} and Marvin O. Tharp",
  title =        "A Survey of Information Requirements Analysis
                 Techniques",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "273--290",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356710",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This survey covers a variety of approaches to the
                 determination of information needs suggested during the
                 past decade. The presentation has two objectives: (1)
                 to review available information analysis methods with a
                 detailed look at several approaches; and (2) to suggest
                 research directions to improve the usefulness of these
                 methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "901; 912",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "information science; management science",
}

@Article{Weide:1977:SAT,
  author =       "Bruce Weide",
  title =        "A Survey of Analysis Techniques for Discrete
                 Algorithms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--313",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356711",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Gaschnig:1978:SFE,Weide:1978:SFE,Bender:1979:SFR,Weide:1979:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sedgewick:1977:CPG,
  author =       "Robert Sedgewick",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``Permutation Generation Methods''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "314--314",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356712",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Sedgewick:1977:PGM,Parsons:1977:SFF,MacCallum:1977:SFF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Parsons:1977:SFF,
  author =       "Thomas W. Parsons",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Forgotten Generation of
                 Permutations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "315--315",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356713",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Sedgewick:1977:PGM,Sedgewick:1977:CPG,MacCallum:1977:SFF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{MacCallum:1977:SFF,
  author =       "I. R. MacCallum",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Forgotten Generation of
                 Permutations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "316--317",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356707.356714",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:04 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Sedgewick:1977:PGM,Sedgewick:1977:CPG,Parsons:1977:SFF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1978:ATIa,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356716",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Fitzsimmons:1978:RES,
  author =       "Ann Fitzsimmons and Tom Love",
  title =        "A Review and Evaluation of Software Science",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--18",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356717",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Moranda:1978:SFS,Baker:1978:SFS,Fitzsimmons:1978:SFS,Fenichel:1979:SFH,Zweben:1979:SFH}.",
  abstract =     "Review of the theory, called ``Software science'' and
                 the evidence supporting it. A brief description of a
                 related theory, called ``software physics'', is
                 included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; software science",
}

@Article{King:1978:CBA,
  author =       "John Leslie King and Edward L. Schrems",
  title =        "Cost-Benefit Analysis in Information Systems
                 Development and Operation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--34",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356718",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Introduction and review of elements of cost-benefit
                 analysis as applied to computerized information
                 systems, and discussion of the major problems to be
                 avoided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data processing; information science --- Information
                 Use",
}

@Article{Sandewall:1978:PIE,
  author =       "Erik Sandewall",
  title =        "Programming in an Interactive Environment: the ``{{\sc
                 Lisp}}'' Experience",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--71",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356719",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Stallman:1978:SFS,Sandewall:1978:SFS}.",
  abstract =     "LISP systems have been used for highly interactive
                 programming for more than a decade. During that time,
                 special properties of the LISP language (such as
                 program\slash data equivalence) have enabled a certain
                 style of interactive programming to develop,
                 characterized by powerful interactive support for the
                 programmer, nonstandard program structures, and
                 nonstandard program development methods. A summary is
                 given of the LISP style of interactive programming for
                 readers outside the LISP community, describes those
                 properties of LISP systems that were essential for the
                 development of this style, and discusses some current
                 and not yet resolved issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Srodawa:1978:PEM,
  author =       "Ronald J. Srodawa",
  title =        "Positive Experiences with a Multiprocessing System",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--82",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356720",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Phister:1978:SFP,
  author =       "Montgomery {Phister, Jr.}",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Putting} Costs Through
                 Effectively",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "83--83",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356721",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Lipsky:1977:AQN,Lipsky:1978:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Lipsky:1978:SFP,
  author =       "Lester Lipsky and James D. Church",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Putting} Costs Through Effectively:
                 {Author}'s Reply",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "83--84",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356722",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Lipsky:1977:AQN,Phister:1978:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Genrich:1978:SFN,
  author =       "H. J. Genrich and P. S. Thiagarajan",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Net} Progress",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "84--85",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356723",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Peterson:1977:PN,Peterson:1978:SFN}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Peterson:1978:SFN,
  author =       "James Peterson",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Net} Progress: {Author}'s Reply",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "85--85",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356715.356724",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Peterson:1977:PN,Genrich:1978:SFN}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1978:ATIb,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "87--87",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356726",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1978:EP,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "89--92",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356727",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Davis:1978:SBU,
  author =       "N. C. Davis and S. E. Goodman",
  title =        "The {Soviet Bloc}'s Unified System of Computers",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "93--122",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356728",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "During the past ten years the Soviet Bloc has
                 designed, developed, and put into production a series
                 of upward-compatible third-generation computers known
                 as the Unified System or Ryad. This family is
                 effectively a reverse engineering of the IBM S/360
                 system. Although backward by current Western and
                 Japanese standards, the Unified System is of
                 considerable technological, political, and economic
                 importance. A comprehensive survey and analysis of the
                 Ryad project is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
}

@Article{Randell:1978:RIC,
  author =       "B. Randell and P. A. Lee and P. C. Treleaven",
  title =        "Reliability Issues in Computing System Design",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--165",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356729",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The various problems involved in achieving very high
                 reliability from complex computing systems are
                 surveyed, and the relationship between system
                 structuring techniques and techniques of fault
                 tolerance are discussed. Topics covered include: (1)
                 protective redundancy in hardware and software; (2) the
                 use of atomic actions to structure the activity of a
                 system to limit information flow; (3) error detection
                 techniques; (4) strategies for locating and dealing
                 with faults and for assessing the damage they have
                 caused; and (5) forward and backward error recovery
                 techniques, based on the concepts of recovery line,
                 commitment, exception, and compensation. Three specific
                 systems the JPL-STARt, the Bell Laboratories ESS No. 1A
                 processor, and the PLURIBUS are described in detail and
                 compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Reliability; computer
                 systems, digital",
}

@Article{Verhofstad:1978:RTD,
  author =       "Joost S. M. Verhofstad",
  title =        "Recovery Techniques for Database Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "167--195",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356730",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Object/Nierstrasz.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A survey of techniques and tools used in filing
                 systems, database systems, and operating systems for
                 recovery, backing out, restart, the maintenance of
                 consistency, and for the provision of crash resistance
                 is given. A particular view on the use of recovery
                 technique in a database system and a categorization of
                 different kinds of recovery and recovery techniques and
                 basic principles are presented. The purposes for which
                 these recovery techniques can be used are described.
                 Each recovery technique is illustrated by examples of
                 its application in existing systems described in the
                 literature.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base systems, dblit reliability recovery db",
}

@Article{Zelkowitz:1978:PSE,
  author =       "Marvin V. Zelkowitz",
  title =        "Perspectives in Software Engineering",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "197--216",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356731",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Wendel:1979:SFR,Zelkowitz:1979:SFR,Alberts:1979:SFQ,Zelkowitz:1979:SFQ}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Relles:1978:SFD,
  author =       "Nathan Relles",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Devising} the Rhetoric of
                 Rhetorical Devices",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "217--217",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356725.356732",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:22:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Graham:1978:GEO,
  author =       "G. Scott Graham",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Overview\ldots Queuing Network Models
                 of Computer System Performance",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "219--224",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356734",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1978.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Special Issue: Queuing Network Models of Computer
                 System Performance",
  descriptors =  "Queueing Network; Performance Evaluation; computer
                 performance;",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1978:OAQ,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning and Jeffrey P. Buzen",
  title =        "The Operational Analysis of Queueing Network Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "225--261",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356735",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1978.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Bard:1979:SFS,Buzen:1979:SFS}.",
  abstract =     "Queueing network models have proved to be cost
                 effective tools for analyzing modern computer systems.
                 This tutorial paper presents basic results using the
                 operational approach, a framework which allows the
                 analyst to test whether each assumption is met in a
                 given system. The nature of queueing network models and
                 their applications for calculating and prediction
                 performance quantities are described. The basic
                 performance quantities --- such as utilizations, mean
                 queue lengths, and mean response times --- are defined,
                 and operational relationships among them are derived.
                 Following this, the concept of job flow balance is
                 introduced and used to study asymptotic throughputs and
                 response times. The concepts of state transition
                 balance, one-step behavior, and homogeneity are then
                 used to relate the proportions of time that each system
                 state is occupied to the parameters of job demand and
                 to device characteristics. Efficient methods for
                 computing basic performance quantities are also
                 described. Finally the concept of decomposition is used
                 to simplify analyses by replacing subsystems with
                 equivalent devices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "The early sections describe the nature of queueing
                 network models and their applications for calculating
                 and predicting performance quantities. The basic
                 performance quantities- such as utilizations, mean
                 queue lengths, and mean response times- are defined and
                 operational relationships among them are derived.
                 Following this, the concept of job flow balance is
                 introduced and used to study asymptotic throughputs and
                 response times.",
  classification = "722; 723",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "10/12/79",
  descriptors =  "Survey; reference; Queueing network; operational
                 analysis;",
  enum =         "757",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital; queueing networks",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "72",
}

@Article{Rose:1978:MPQ,
  author =       "Clifford A. Rose",
  title =        "A Measurement Procedure for Queueing Network Models of
                 Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "263--280",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356736",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1978.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A procedure is described for obtaining input parameter
                 values and output performance measures for a popular
                 class of queueing network models. The procedure makes
                 use of current measurement monitors as much as
                 possible. The two basic approaches to monitoring
                 computer systems (event trace and sampling) and the
                 three types of monitors (hardware, software, and
                 hybrid) are surveyed. Also surveyed are measurement
                 tools for the analytical modeling of several current
                 families of computer systems. Examples of model
                 validations and performance predictions are discussed
                 in detail to illustrate the measurement procedures and
                 the class of models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "(VBI-000913)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "01/07/93",
  descriptors =  "Queueing network;",
  enum =         "11044",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital; queueing network models",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "0",
}

@Article{Chandy:1978:AMA,
  author =       "K. Mani Chandy and Charles H. Sauer",
  title =        "Approximate Methods for Analyzing Queueing Network
                 Models of Computing Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--317",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356737",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The two primary issues in choosing a computing system
                 model are credibility of the model and cost of
                 developing and solving the model. It is the contention
                 of this paper that queueing network models with
                 credible assumptions can be solved approximately to
                 provide credible performance estimates at low cost.
                 This contention is supported by examples of approximate
                 solutions of queueing at low cost. This contention is
                 supported by examples of approximate solutions of
                 queueing network models. Two major approaches to
                 approximate solution, aggregation (decomposition) and
                 diffusion, are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital; queueing network models",
}

@Article{Buzen:1978:QNM,
  author =       "Jeffrey P. Buzen",
  title =        "A Queueing Network Model of {MVS}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "319--331",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356738",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The major resource allocation mechanisms used by the
                 MVS operating system are described, and a queueing
                 network model that represents these mechanisms is
                 presented. The model incorporates a number of
                 refinements that have not been reported previously: the
                 use of shared domains, the explicit representation of
                 separate queues for each domain, and the treatment of
                 domain migration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems; queueing network models",
}

@Article{Bard:1978:VPP,
  author =       "Y. Bard",
  title =        "The {VM\slash 370} Performance Predictor",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "333--342",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356739",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1978.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A tool for helping system engineers configure VM\slash
                 370 systems is described. It consists of a data
                 reduction package that produces a workload
                 characterization from VM\slash 370 Monitor data, and an
                 analytic model that accepts the workload
                 characterization as an input, and provides estimated
                 performance measures as outputs. The tool is easy to
                 use and routinely achieves accuracy levels within 5
                 percent for utilizations and 30 percent for response
                 times.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "(VBI-000916)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "01/07/93",
  descriptors =  "PERFORMANCE PREDICTION;",
  enum =         "9228",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "0",
}

@Article{Wong:1978:QNM,
  author =       "J. W. Wong",
  title =        "Queueing Network Modeling of Computer Communication
                 Networks",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "343--351",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356740",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The application of queueing network models to the
                 performance analysis of message-switched (or
                 packet-switched) communication networks is surveyed.
                 The main topics covered are the analysis of end-to-end
                 delay and the analysis of buffer management schemes. A
                 brief discussion on flow control is also included. A
                 queueing network model is developed for a simple
                 user-resource network. The mean response time of a host
                 computer in this network is illustrated by a numerical
                 example.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer networks; queueing network models",
}

@Article{Muntz:1978:QNC,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "Queueing Networks: a Critique of the State of the Art
                 and Directions for the Future",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "353--359",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356741",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Buzen:1979:SFP,Muntz:1979:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Gaschnig:1978:SFE,
  author =       "John Gaschnig",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Experimental} Analysis Discretely
                 Done",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "361--361",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356742",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Weide:1977:SAT,Weide:1978:SFE,Bender:1979:SFR,Weide:1979:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Weide:1978:SFE,
  author =       "Bruce W. Weide",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Experimental} Analysis Discretely
                 Done: {Author}'s Reply",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "361--362",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356733.356743",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Weide:1977:SAT,Gaschnig:1978:SFE,Bender:1979:SFR,Weide:1979:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1978:ATIc,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "363--364",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356745",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue: Graphics Standards",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Newman:1978:RET,
  author =       "William M. Newman and Andries van Dam",
  title =        "Recent Efforts Towards Graphics Standardization",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "365--380",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356746",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "standards",
}

@Article{Michener:1978:FOC,
  author =       "James C. Michener and Andries {van Dam}",
  title =        "Functional Overview of the {Core System} with
                 Glossary",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--387",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356747",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The Core System was developed by the ACM\slash
                 SIGGRAPH Graphics Standards Planning Committee to
                 promote application program portability and
                 device-independence. The Core System defines graphics
                 software capabilities that support a wide variety of
                 applications. The functional capabilities of the Core
                 System are summarized. Grouping of functions into
                 levels of implementation is motivated and described. A
                 glossary is given of terms that are used in this
                 article and the companion articles on the Core System
                 in this issue.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer graphics; computer programming, Core;
                 standards",
}

@Article{Bergeron:1978:GPU,
  author =       "R. Daniel Bergeron and Peter R. Bono and James D.
                 Foley",
  title =        "Graphics Programming Using the {Core System}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "389--443",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356748",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Graphics/imager/imager.78.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Ths principal concepts of interactive graphics
                 programming using the Core Graphics System are
                 presented. The Core System is a subroutine package
                 which provides with extensive examples facilities for
                 creating arbitrary views of two-and three-dimensional
                 objects and for supporting interaction between the
                 application program and its user.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; Core; standards, computer
                 graphics",
}

@Article{Michener:1978:SMI,
  author =       "James C. Michener and James D. Foley",
  title =        "Some Major Issues in the Design of the {Core Graphics
                 System}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "445--463",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356749",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Graphics/imager/imager.78.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Design issues of the Core System, a proposed standard
                 graphics programming system, are presented. Alternative
                 resolutions for each issue are set forth, together with
                 their motivating arguments. In each case, the
                 alternative that was selected is made clear. The issues
                 presented here were chosen because they must be
                 considered in the design of any interactive graphics
                 package and because they help in understanding the
                 design of the Core System.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming; Core; standards, computer
                 graphics",
}

@Article{Carlbom:1978:PGP,
  author =       "Ingrid Carlbom and Joseph Paciorek",
  title =        "Planar Geometric Projections and Viewing
                 Transformations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "465--502",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356750",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Christiaen:1979:SFP,Carlbom:1979:SFP,Carlbom:1979:CGP}.",
  abstract =     "In computer graphics one is often concerned with
                 representing three-dimensional objects on a
                 two-dimensional display surface. The choice of such a
                 representation depends on several factors, including
                 the purpose for which the representation is intended,
                 the visual effects that are desired, and the shape of
                 the object. This paper describes how two-dimensional
                 views can be obtained using planar geometric
                 projections such as perspective and parallel
                 projections. It discusses how these projections can be
                 generated from a three-dimensional representation of an
                 object in a manner suitable for computer graphics
                 systems. In particular, it shows how these projections
                 can be generated using the viewing transformations of
                 the Core Graphics System. The factors that affect the
                 choice of projection are also discussed, and some
                 guidelines for making such a choice are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer graphics",
}

@Article{Moranda:1978:SFS,
  author =       "Paul B. Moranda",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Is} Software Science Hard?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "503--504",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356751",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Fitzsimmons:1978:RES,Baker:1978:SFS,Fitzsimmons:1978:SFS,Fenichel:1979:SFH,Zweben:1979:SFH}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Baker:1978:SFS,
  author =       "T. P. Baker",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Is} Software Science Hard?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "504--504",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356752",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Fitzsimmons:1978:RES,Moranda:1978:SFS,Fitzsimmons:1978:SFS,Fenichel:1979:SFH,Zweben:1979:SFH}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Fitzsimmons:1978:SFS,
  author =       "Ann Fitzsimmons and Tom Love",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Is} Software Science Hard?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "504--505",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356753",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Fitzsimmons:1978:RES,Moranda:1978:SFS,Baker:1978:SFS,Fenichel:1979:SFH,Zweben:1979:SFH}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Stallman:1978:SFS,
  author =       "Richard M. Stallman",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Structured} Editing with a {Lisp}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "505--507",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356754",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Sandewall:1978:PIE,Sandewall:1978:SFS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sandewall:1978:SFS,
  author =       "Erik Sandewall",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Structured} Editing with a {{\sc
                 Lisp}}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "507--508",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356755",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Sandewall:1978:PIE,Stallman:1978:SFS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ramamoorthy:1978:CPA,
  author =       "C. V. Ramamoorthy and H. F. Li",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``Pipeline Architecture''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "508--508",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356744.356756",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:23:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ramamoorthy:1977:PA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1979:AIL,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356758",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bernard:1979:MIC,
  author =       "Dan Bernard",
  title =        "Management Issues in Cooperative Computing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--17",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356759",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Badler:1979:DRH,
  author =       "Norman I. Badler and Stephen W. Smoliar",
  title =        "Digital Representations of Human Movement",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--38",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356760",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Buck-Lew:1979:SFD}.",
  abstract =     "The general issue of movement representation is
                 approached from two point of view: notation systems
                 designed for recording movement and animation systems
                 designed for the display of movement. The
                 interpretation of one particular notation system,
                 Labanotation, is examined to extract a set of
                 ``primitive movement concepts'' which can be used to
                 animate a realistic human body on a graphics display.
                 The body is represented computationally as a network of
                 special-purpose processors --- one processor situated
                 at each joint of the body --- each with an instruction
                 set designed around the movement concepts derived from
                 Labanotation. Movement is achieved by simulating the
                 behavior of these processors as they interpret their
                 respective programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "461; 723; 901",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer graphics; human engineering; kinesiology;
                 Labanotation, Applications",
}

@Article{Dasgupta:1979:OMS,
  author =       "Subrata Dasgupta",
  title =        "The Organization of Microprogram Stores",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--65",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356761",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A central issued in microprogramming is the
                 organization of the control store, the memory from
                 which a microprogram is executed. The structure of this
                 store has a major influence on the economy (in both
                 time and memory space) of the target machine
                 implementation, on the overall complexity of the host
                 machine organization, and on its microprogrammability.
                 Some aspects of control store architectures are
                 surveyed, including the organization of
                 microinstruction words, and the effects of different
                 timing schemes on the complexity of both control store
                 and host machine organizations. Some recent algorithms
                 for optimizing the width and length of control stores
                 are reviewed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture",
}

@Article{Bender:1979:SFR,
  author =       "Edward A. Bender",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Recurrent Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--68",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356762",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Weide:1977:SAT,Weide:1978:SFE,Weide:1979:SFR,Gaschnig:1978:SFE}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Weide:1979:SFR,
  author =       "Bruce W. Weide",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Recurrent Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--68",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356763",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Weide:1977:SAT,Weide:1978:SFE,Gaschnig:1978:SFE,Bender:1979:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wendel:1979:SFR,
  author =       "Irving K. Wendel",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {The} Real Costs of Software",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--68",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356764",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Zelkowitz:1978:PSE,Zelkowitz:1979:SFR,Alberts:1979:SFQ,Zelkowitz:1979:SFQ}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Zelkowitz:1979:SFR,
  author =       "Marvin Zelkowitz",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {The} Real Costs of Software",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--69",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356765",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Zelkowitz:1978:PSE,Wendel:1979:SFR,Alberts:1979:SFQ,Zelkowitz:1979:SFQ}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bard:1979:SFS,
  author =       "Yonathan Bard",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Stochastic} or Operational?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--70",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356766",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Denning:1978:OAQ,Buzen:1979:SFS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Buzen:1979:SFS,
  author =       "Jeffrey P. Buzen and Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Stochastic} or Operational?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "70--70",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356767",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Denning:1978:OAQ,Bard:1979:SFS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Buzen:1979:SFP,
  author =       "Jeffrey P. Buzen",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Predictable Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--72",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356768",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Muntz:1978:QNC,Muntz:1979:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1979:SFP,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Predictable Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "72--72",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356757.356769",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Muntz:1978:QNC,Buzen:1979:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1979:AILa,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "73--74",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356771",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1979:EP,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "75--78",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356772",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Cohen:1979:NDA,
  author =       "Jacques Cohen",
  title =        "Non-De\-ter\-min\-is\-tic Algorithms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "79--94",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356773",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Wilson:1980:SFD,Cohen:1980:SFD}.",
  abstract =     "Primitive commands representing the concepts of
                 choice, failure, and success are used to describe
                 non-deterministic algorithms for solving a variety of
                 problems. First, the role of the primitives is
                 explained in a manner appealing to the reader's
                 intuition. Then, a solution to the classical 8-queens
                 problem is presented as a non-deterministic program,
                 and its implementation is described. Two examples
                 follow, showing the usefulness of the primitives in
                 computer-aided problem solving: the first is a simple
                 question-answering program; the other is a parser for a
                 context-sensitive language. Finally, a brief survey of
                 current and related work is presented which includes:
                 additional desirable primitives, implementation,
                 correctness, efficiency, and theoretical
                 implications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "non-deterministic, computer programming",
}

@Article{Molina:1979:SRD,
  author =       "Francisco Walter Molina",
  title =        "A Survey of Resource Directive Decomposition in
                 Mathematical Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "95--104",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356774",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Resource-directive decomposition methods of
                 mathematical programming problems have attracted
                 considerable attention in recent years. A review of the
                 specialized literature is presented, and the features
                 and drawbacks of the most representative
                 resource-directive methods are analyzed. To give an
                 appropriate chronological and technical perspective,
                 early general methods, such as the ones of
                 Dantzig-Wolfe and Benders, are also included in the
                 survey.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "mathematical programming",
}

@Article{McKell:1979:CCR,
  author =       "Lynn J. McKell and James V. Hansen and Lester E.
                 Heitger",
  title =        "Charging for Computing Resources",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "105--120",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356775",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Modern computer configurations are often designed to
                 share a host of resources among many users who may be
                 simultaneously competing for their utilization. A
                 substantive issue in computer management focuses on how
                 to effectively allocate computing resources and
                 subsequently charge for them in this competing
                 environment. The issue is generally made more complex
                 by the dependencies in resource availability stemming
                 from the hardware configuration. This paper surveys
                 significant charging mechanisms which have been
                 proposed. The paper does not discuss specific
                 commercial software available to implement charging
                 approaches, but rather is written as a basic survey for
                 readers with an interest in both computers and
                 management science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 912",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computers; management science",
}

@Article{Comer:1979:UBT,
  author =       "Douglas Comer",
  title =        "Ubiquitous {B}-Tree",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "121--137",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356776",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Comer:1979:SFT}.",
  abstract =     "B-trees have become, de facto, a standard for file
                 organization. File indexes of users, dedicated database
                 systems, and general-purpose access methods have all
                 been proposed and implemented using B-trees. This paper
                 reviews B-trees and shows why they have been so
                 successful. It discusses the major variations of the
                 B-tree, especially the B** plus -tree, contrasting the
                 relative merits and costs of each implementation. It
                 illustrates a general purpose access method which uses
                 a B-tree.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "b-trees; data processing",
}

@Article{Nagy:1979:GDP,
  author =       "George Nagy and Sharad Wagle",
  title =        "Geographic Data Processing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "139--181",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356770.356777",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:24:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Graphics/siggraph/79.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This survey attempts to provide a unified framework
                 for the constituent elements of geographical data
                 processing systems. External aspects of such systems,
                 as perceived by potential users, are discussed with
                 regard to extent, coordinate system and base map, range
                 of applications, input\slash output mechanisms,
                 computer configuration, command and interaction,
                 documentation, and administration. The internal
                 aspects, which would concern the system designer, are
                 analyzed in terms of the type of spatial variables
                 involved and of their interrelationship with respect to
                 common operations. This point of view is shown to lead
                 to a workable classification of two-dimensional
                 geometric algorithms and data structures. To provide
                 concrete examples, ten representative geographic data
                 processing systems, ranging from automated cartography
                 to interactive decision support, are described. Some
                 comparisons are drawn between geographical data
                 processing systems and their conventional
                 business-oriented counterparts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "405; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data processing; geography and programming support;
                 maps and mapping --- Computer Application,
                 Applications",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1979:AILb,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "183--183",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356779",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kim:1979:RDS,
  author =       "Won Kim",
  title =        "Relational Database Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "187--211",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356780",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Fernandez:1980:SFR,Kim:1980:SFR,Friesen:1980:SFR}.",
  abstract =     "This paper first surveys all the relational database
                 systems which have been reported, highlighting their
                 most noteworthy features and concepts. It then surveys
                 and classifies proposals for implementing each of the
                 requisite functional components of a hypothetical,
                 comprehensive relational database system. It concludes
                 with some general observations about user responses to
                 relational systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "cellular associative processor; concurrency control;
                 distributed database; integrity assertions; integrity
                 control; natural language interface; recovery from
                 crashes; relational algebra; relational calculus;
                 relational database; relational interface optimization;
                 relational model of data; selective access control;
                 snapshots; user views",
}

@Article{Dale:1979:DMS,
  author =       "A. G. Dale",
  title =        "Database Management Systems Development in the
                 {USSR}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "213--226",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356781",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1979:DS,
  author =       "Dorothy E. Denning and Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Data Security",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "227--249",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356782",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Mohanty:1979:MMQ,
  author =       "Siba N. Mohanty",
  title =        "Models and Measurements for Quality Assessment of
                 Software",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "251--275",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356783",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1979.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Dunn:1980:SFW,Mohanty:1980:SFW}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Several software quality assessment methods which span
                 the software life cycle are discussed. The quality of a
                 system design can be estimated by measuring the system
                 entropy function or the system work function. The
                 quality improvement due to reconfiguration can be
                 determined by calculating system entropy loading
                 measures. Software science and Zipf's law are shown to
                 be useful for estimating program length and
                 implementation time.",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "11/10/79",
  descriptors =  "Software; design; software engineering; reliability;
                 measurement; model; fundamentals in statistics;
                 performance evaluation;",
  enum =         "2189",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "65",
}

@Article{Fenichel:1979:SFH,
  author =       "Robert Fenichel",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Heads I} Win, Tails You Lose",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--277",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356784",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Fitzsimmons:1978:RES,Moranda:1978:SFS,Baker:1978:SFS,Fitzsimmons:1978:SFS,Zweben:1979:SFH}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Zweben:1979:SFH,
  author =       "Stuart H. Zweben",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Heads I} Win, Tails You Lose",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--278",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356785",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Fitzsimmons:1978:RES,Moranda:1978:SFS,Baker:1978:SFS,Fitzsimmons:1978:SFS,Fenichel:1979:SFH}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Christiaen:1979:SFP,
  author =       "H. Christiaen",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Projecting} Problems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "278--279",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356786",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Carlbom:1978:PGP,Carlbom:1979:SFP,Carlbom:1979:CGP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Carlbom:1979:SFP,
  author =       "Ingrid Carlbom",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Projecting} Problems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--280",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356787",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Carlbom:1978:PGP,Christiaen:1979:SFP,Carlbom:1979:CGP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Carlbom:1979:CGP,
  author =       "Ingrid Carlbom and Joseph Paciorek",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``Geometric Projection and Viewing
                 Transformations''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "280--280",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356778.356788",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Carlbom:1978:PGP,Christiaen:1979:SFP,Carlbom:1979:SFP}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1979:AILc,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "281--281",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356790",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue: Cryptology",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Denning:1979:EOS,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Editor's Overview --- Special Section on Data
                 Encryption",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "283--283",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356791",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Lempel:1979:CT,
  author =       "Abraham Lempel",
  title =        "Cryptology in Transition",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "285--303",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356792",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Simmons:1979:SAE,
  author =       "Gustavus J. Simmons",
  title =        "Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "305--330",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356793",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Popek:1979:ESC,
  author =       "Gerald J. Popek and Charles S. Kline",
  title =        "Encryption and Secure Computer Networks",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "331--356",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356794",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bright:1979:QRN,
  author =       "Herbert S. Bright and Richard L. Enison",
  title =        "Quasi-Random Number Sequences from a Long-Period {TLP}
                 Generator with Remarks on Application to Cryptography",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--370",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356795",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sockut:1979:DRP,
  author =       "Gary H. Sockut and Robert P. Goldberg",
  title =        "Database Reorganization --- Principles and Practice",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "371--395",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356796",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: US Department of Commerce,
                 National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, Spec.
                 Publ. 500-47, April 1979.",
  abstract =     "Database reorganization can be defined as changing
                 some aspect of the way in which a database is arranged
                 logically and/or physically. An example is changing
                 from a one-to-one to a one-to-many relationship.
                 Reorganization is a necessary function in a database
                 system. This paper introduces the basic concepts of
                 reorganization, including why it is performed. Many
                 types of reorganization are described and classified
                 into logical/physical levels. Then pragmatic issues
                 such as reorganization strategies, a survey of several
                 commercial reorganization facilities, case studies, and
                 database administration considerations are covered.
                 Finally, several research efforts are surveyed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "database; database management; file maintenance;
                 reorganization; restructuring",
}

@Article{Bentley:1979:DSR,
  author =       "Jon Louis Bentley and Jerome H. Friedman",
  title =        "Data Structures for Range Searching",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "397--409",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356797",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "cells; k-d trees; k-ranges; multidimensional binary
                 search trees; orthogonal range queries; projection",
}

@Article{Alberts:1979:SFQ,
  author =       "David S. Alberts",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Question of Transition",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "411--411",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356798",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Zelkowitz:1978:PSE,Wendel:1979:SFR,Zelkowitz:1979:SFQ,Zelkowitz:1979:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Zelkowitz:1979:SFQ,
  author =       "Marvin V. Zelkowitz",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Question of Transition",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "411--412",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356799",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Zelkowitz:1978:PSE,Alberts:1979:SFQ,Wendel:1979:SFR,Zelkowitz:1979:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Comer:1979:SFT,
  author =       "Douglas Comer",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {The} Tree Branches",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "412--412",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356800",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Comer:1979:UBT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Buck-Lew:1979:SFD,
  author =       "Maylun Buck-Lew",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Dance Prelude",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "412--413",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356789.356801",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:25:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Badler:1979:DRH}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1980:AILa,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356803",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Maryanski:1980:BDS,
  author =       "Fred J. Maryanski",
  title =        "Backend Database Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--25",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356804",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Tutorial examines basic structure, their potential
                 benefits and drawbacks and the problems facing
                 developers of such systems. Several prototype systems
                 are described: XDMS, IDMS backend, GE MADMAN, Kansas
                 State University systems.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ellis:1980:OIS,
  author =       "Clarence A. Ellis and Gary J. Nutt",
  title =        "Office Information Systems and Computer Science",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--60",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356805",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Office information systems are defined as entities
                 within a distributed environment.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kling:1980:SAC,
  author =       "Rob Kling",
  title =        "Social Analyses of Computing: {Theoretical}
                 Perspectives in Recent Empirical Research",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "61--110",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356806",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Fernandez:1980:SFR,
  author =       "E. B. Fernandez",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Related} Information",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--112",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356807",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Kim:1979:RDS,Kim:1980:SFR,Friesen:1980:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kim:1980:SFR,
  author =       "Won Kim",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Related} Information",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "112--112",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356808",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Kim:1979:RDS,Fernandez:1980:SFR,Friesen:1980:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Friesen:1980:SFR,
  author =       "Oris D. Friesen",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Related} Information",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "112--113",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356802.356809",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:26:29 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Kim:1979:RDS,Fernandez:1980:SFR,Kim:1980:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1980:AILb,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--116",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356811",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1980:EP,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "117--120",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356812",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Jones:1980:EUM,
  author =       "Anita K. Jones and Peter Schwarz",
  title =        "Experience Using Multiprocessor Systems --- a Status
                 Report",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "121--165",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356813",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wong:1980:MEH,
  author =       "C. K. Wong",
  title =        "Minimizing Expected Head Movement in One-Dimensional
                 and Two-Dimensional Mass Storage Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "167--178",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356814",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Teorey:1980:LRA,
  author =       "Toby J. Teorey and James P. Fry",
  title =        "The Logical Record Access Approach to Database
                 Design",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "179--211",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356815",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Teorey:1980:CLR}.",
  abstract =     "Database management systems have evolved to the point
                 of general acceptance and wide application; however a
                 major problem still facing the user is the effective
                 utilization of these systems. Important to achieving
                 effective database usability and responsiveness is the
                 design of the database. This paper presents a practical
                 stepwise database design methodology that derives a
                 DBMS-processable database structure from a set of user
                 information and processing requirements. Although the
                 methodology emphasizes the logical design step, the
                 activities of requirements analysis and physical design
                 are also addressed. The methodology is illustrated with
                 a detailed example. Performance trade-offs among
                 multiple users of a single integrated database are
                 considered, and the relationship between short-term
                 design and design for flexibility to changing
                 requirements is discussed. Many steps in the database
                 design process can be assisted with proper use of
                 computer modeling techniques and other tools, such as
                 requirements analysis software. The example design
                 problem and its solution steps serve to point out when
                 and where current technology can be effectively used.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "analytical models; database administrator; database
                 design; database management systems; performance
                 evaluation; requirements analysis",
}

@Article{Erman:1980:HIS,
  author =       "Lee D. Erman and Frederick Hayes-Roth and Victor R.
                 Lesser and D. Raj Reddy",
  title =        "The {Hearsay-II} Speech-Understanding System:
                 Integrating Knowledge to Resolve Uncertainty",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "213--253",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356816",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dunn:1980:SFW,
  author =       "Stanley Dunn",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Working} on Interpretations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "255--255",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356817",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Mohanty:1979:MMQ,Mohanty:1980:SFW}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Mohanty:1980:SFW,
  author =       "Siba Mohanty",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Working} on Interpretations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "256--256",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356810.356818",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Mohanty:1979:MMQ,Dunn:1980:SFW}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1980:AILc,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "257--258",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356820",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Habib:1980:SSM,
  author =       "Stanley Habib",
  title =        "Special Section on Microprogramming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "259--259",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356821",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Landskov:1980:LMC,
  author =       "David Landskov and Scott Davidson and Bruce Shriver
                 and Patrick W. Mallett",
  title =        "Local Microcode Compaction Techniques",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--294",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356822",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dasgupta:1980:SAH,
  author =       "Subrata Dasgupta",
  title =        "Some Aspects of High-Level Microprogramming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "295--323",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356823",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Clark:1980:EML,
  author =       "Wesley A. Clark",
  title =        "From Electron Mobility to Logical Structure: a View of
                 Integrated Circuits",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "325--356",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356824",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wilson:1980:SFD,
  author =       "Walter Wilson",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Determining} a Search",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "357--358",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356825",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Cohen:1979:NDA,Cohen:1980:SFD}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Cohen:1980:SFD,
  author =       "Jacques Cohen",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Determining} a Search",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "358--358",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356819.356826",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:27:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Cohen:1979:NDA,Wilson:1980:SFD}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1980:AILd,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "359--360",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356828",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wetherell:1980:PLR,
  author =       "C. S. Wetherell",
  title =        "Probabilistic Languages: a Review and Some Open
                 Questions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "361--379",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356829",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hall:1980:ASM,
  author =       "Patrick A. V. Hall and Geoff R. Dowling",
  title =        "Approximate String Matching",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--402",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356830",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bird:1980:TTR,
  author =       "R. S. Bird",
  title =        "Tabulation Techniques for Recursive Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "403--417",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356831",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Richter:1981:SFR,Bird:1981:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Lueker:1980:STS,
  author =       "George S. Lueker",
  title =        "Some Techniques for Solving Recurrences",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "419--436",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356832",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Keenan:1981:SFG,Lueker:1981:SFG}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Requicha:1980:RRS,
  author =       "Aristides A. G. Requicha",
  title =        "Representations for Rigid Solids: {Theory}, Methods,
                 and Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "437--464",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356833",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Steinberg:1981:SFU,Requicha:1981:SFU}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "general references surveys and Methodologies; Modeling
                 geometric design/modeling and shape modeling and
                 Algorithmic Aspects solids representation; Techniques",
}

@Article{Teorey:1980:CLR,
  author =       "Toby J. Teorey and James P. Fry",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``The Logical Record Access Approach to
                 Database Design''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "465--465",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356827.356834",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Teorey:1980:LRA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Moran:1981:GEI,
  author =       "Thomas P. Moran",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Introduction: an Applied Psychology
                 of the User",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--11",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356835.356836",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Special Issue: The Psychology of Human-Computer
                 Interaction. See also
                 \cite{Floyd:1981:SFA,Moran:1981:SFA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Reisner:1981:HFS,
  author =       "Phyllis Reisner",
  title =        "Human Factors Studies of Database Query Languages: a
                 Survey and Assessment",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13--31",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356835.356837",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Empirical studies have been undertaken to measure the
                 ease-of-use of a query language, compare two or more
                 such languages for ease-of-use, study controversial
                 issues in query language design, and provide feedback
                 to designers for improving a language. Some primitive
                 attempts at constructing abstract models related to
                 query languages also exist. This paper discusses some
                 of the techniques that have been used and results
                 obtained. A primary goal is to show the reader
                 unfamiliar with behavioral research what the results do
                 and do not mean.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "behavioral science; data models; database systems;
                 evaluation of ease-of-use; human factors; improving
                 language design; procedurality; query languages;
                 syntax",
}

@Article{Embley:1981:BAT,
  author =       "David W. Embley and George Nagy",
  title =        "Behavioral Aspects of Text Editors",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--70",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356835.356838",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Leverett:1981:SFI,Embley:1981:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Rouse:1981:HCI,
  author =       "William B. Rouse",
  title =        "Human-Computer Interaction in the Control of Dynamic
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--99",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356835.356839",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Modes of human-computer interaction in the control of
                 dynamic systems are discussed, and the problem of
                 allocating tasks between human and computer considered.
                 Models of human performance in a variety of tasks
                 associated with the control of dynamic systems are
                 reviewed. These models are evaluated in the context of
                 a design example involving human-computer interaction
                 in aircraft operations. Other examples include power
                 plants, chemical plants, and ships.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "aircraft; control; dynamic systems; human-computer
                 interaction; mathematical models; system design; task
                 analysis",
}

@Article{Sheil:1981:PSP,
  author =       "B. A. Sheil",
  title =        "The Psychological Study of Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "101--120",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356835.356840",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Mayer:1981:PHN,
  author =       "Richard E. Mayer",
  title =        "The Psychology of How Novices Learn Computer
                 Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "121--141",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356835.356841",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:28:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1981:AILa,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "143--144",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356843",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1981:EP,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--148",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356844",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kohler:1981:STS,
  author =       "Walter H. Kohler",
  title =        "A Survey of Techniques for Synchronization and
                 Recovery in Decentralized Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "149--183",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356845",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Reed:1982:SFR,Kohler:1982:SFR}.",
  abstract =     "Two related and fundamental problems in designing
                 decentralized systems which support an object model of
                 computation are introduced, and proposed solution
                 techniques are surveyed. The first problem is
                 synchronizing access to shared objects while allowing a
                 high degree of concurrency. The second is the recovery
                 of objects in spite of user errors, application errors,
                 or partial system failure. The synchronization problem
                 is a generalization of the concurrency control problem
                 which arises in database and transaction-processing
                 systems. Concurrency control methods which use locking,
                 timestamps, circulating permit, tickets, conflict
                 analysis, and reservations are presented and compared.
                 The proposed approach to solving the recovery problem
                 is based on a software structuring abstraction called
                 the atomic action, a type of generalized transaction.
                 Requirements and techniques for implementing atomic
                 actions in a decentralized environment are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "The concurrency problem is described, as is its
                 statement, in terms of the notion of a serial
                 linearized schedule of atomic actions (transactions).
                 The role of atomic actions in recovery. A survey is
                 given of the techniques used for providing concurrency
                 control and recovery. The concurrency controls
                 discussed are locking, time-stamps, conflict analysis,
                 and a notion called `reservations'. `Ticketing' and its
                 use in distributed systems is also described briefly.",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
}

@Article{Bernstein:1981:CCD,
  author =       "Philip A. Bernstein and Nathan Goodman",
  title =        "Concurrency Control in Distributed Database Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "185--221",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356846",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: Auerbach Annual 1980,
                 North-Holland 1981. See also
                 \cite{Bender:1982:SFT,Gifford:1982:SFT,Bernstein:1982:SFT}.",
  abstract =     "The state of the art in distributed database
                 concurrency control is presented. The heart of our
                 analysis is a decomposition of the concurrency control
                 problem into two major subproblems: read-write and
                 write-write synchronization. A series of
                 synchronization techniques is described for solving
                 each subproblem and show how to combine these
                 techniques into algorithms for solving the entire
                 concurrency control problem. Such algorithms are called
                 ``concurrency control methods''. 48 principal methods
                 are described including all practical algorithms that
                 have appeared in the literature plus several new
                 ones.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base systems",
}

@Article{Gray:1981:RMS,
  author =       "Jim Gray and Paul McJones and Mike Blasgen and Bruce
                 Lindsay and Raymond Lorie and Tom Price and Franco
                 Putzolu and Irving Traiger",
  title =        "The {Recovery Manager} of the {System R Database
                 Manager}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "223--242",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356847",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The recovery subsystem of an experimental data
                 management system is described and evaluated. The
                 transaction concept allows application programs to
                 commit, abort, or partially undo their effects. The
                 DO-UNDO-REDO protocol allows new recoverable types and
                 operations to be added to the recovery system.
                 Application programs can record data in the transaction
                 log to facilitate application-specific recovery.
                 Transaction undo and redo are based on records kept in
                 a transaction log. The checkpoint mechanism is based on
                 differential files (shadows). The recovery log is
                 recorded on disk rather than tape.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base systems",
}

@Article{Bird:1981:SFR,
  author =       "R. S. Bird",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Recurring Bug",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "243--243",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356848",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Bird:1980:TTR,Richter:1981:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Richter:1981:SFR,
  author =       "Helmut Richter",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: a Recurring Bug",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "243--243",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356842.356849",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:03 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Bird:1980:TTR,Bird:1981:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1981:AILb,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "245--245",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356851",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Landwehr:1981:FMC,
  author =       "Carl E. Landwehr",
  title =        "Formal Models for Computer Security",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "247--278",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356852",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper reviews the need for formal security
                 models, describes the structure and operation of
                 military security controls, considers how automation
                 has affected security problems, surveys models that
                 have been proposed and applied to date, and suggests
                 possible directions for future models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer security; computer systems, digital; data
                 processing",
}

@Article{Cheheyl:1981:VS,
  author =       "Maureen Harris Cheheyl and Morrie Gasser and George A.
                 Huff and Jonathan K. Millen",
  title =        "Verifying Security",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--339",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356853",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Four automated specification and verification
                 environments are surveyed and compared: HDM, FDM,
                 Gypsy, and AFFIRM. The emphasis of the comparison is on
                 the way these systems could be used to prove security
                 properties of an operating system design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems --- Design; data
                 processing; security verification",
}

@Article{Cohen:1981:GCL,
  author =       "Jacques Cohen",
  title =        "Garbage Collection of Linked Data Structures",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "341--367",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356854",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A concise and unified view of the numerous existing
                 algorithms for performing garbage collection of linked
                 data structures is presented. The emphasis is on
                 garbage collection proper, rather than on storage
                 allocation. First, the classical garbage collection
                 algorithms are reviewed, and their marking and
                 collecting phases, with and without compacting, are
                 discussed. Algorithms describing these phases are
                 classified according to the type of cells to be
                 collected: those for collecting single-sized cells are
                 simpler than those for varisized cells. Recently
                 proposed algorithms are presented and compared with the
                 classical ones. Special topics in garbage collection
                 are also covered. A bibliography with topical
                 annotations is included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Subroutines; data processing;
                 garbage collection",
}

@Article{Requicha:1981:SFU,
  author =       "Aristides A. G. Requicha",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: an Update on {SynthaVision}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "369--369",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356855",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Requicha:1980:RRS,Steinberg:1981:SFU}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Steinberg:1981:SFU,
  author =       "Herbert A. Steinberg",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: an Update on {SynthaVision}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "369--369",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356856",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Requicha:1980:RRS,Requicha:1981:SFU}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Keenan:1981:SFG,
  author =       "Douglas J. Keenan",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Generating Solutions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "370--370",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356857",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Lueker:1980:STS,Lueker:1981:SFG}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Lueker:1981:SFG,
  author =       "George S. Lueker",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Generating Solutions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "370--370",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356850.356858",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:28 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Lueker:1980:STS,Keenan:1981:SFG}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1981:AILc,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "371--372",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356860",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ahuja:1981:IM,
  author =       "Narendra Ahuja and B. J. Schachter",
  title =        "Image Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--397",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356861",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Sharma:1983:SFI,Ahuja:1983:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Srihari:1981:RTD,
  author =       "Sargur N. Srihari",
  title =        "Representation of Three-Dimensional Digital Images",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "399--424",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356862",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "I35 digital images and I35 3-D digital images",
}

@Article{Frank:1981:TDC,
  author =       "Edward H. Frank and Robert F. Sproull",
  title =        "Testing and Debugging Custom Integrated Circuits",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "425--451",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356863",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Tanenbaum:1981:NP,
  author =       "Andrew S. Tanenbaum",
  title =        "Network Protocols",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "453--489",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356864",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Floyd:1981:SFA,
  author =       "Christiane Floyd and Reinhard Keil and Erhard
                 Nullmeier",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Augmentation or Dehumanization?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "491--492",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356865",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Moran:1981:GEI,Moran:1981:SFA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Moran:1981:SFA,
  author =       "Thomas P. Moran",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Augmentation} or Dehumanization?",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "492--493",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356866",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Moran:1981:GEI,Floyd:1981:SFA}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Leverett:1981:SFI,
  author =       "Bruce Leverett",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Interpreting} Experimental Data",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "493--494",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356867",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Embley:1981:BAT,Embley:1981:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Embley:1981:SFI,
  author =       "David W. Embley and George Nagy",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Interpreting} Experimental Data",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "494--494",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356859.356868",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:29:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Embley:1981:BAT,Leverett:1981:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1982:AILa,
  author =       "Adele Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356869.356870",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Brady:1982:CAI,
  author =       "Michael Brady",
  title =        "Computational Approaches to Image Understanding",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--71",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356869.356871",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Recent theoretical developments in image understanding
                 are surveyed. Among the issues discussed are edge
                 finding, region finding, texture, shape from shading,
                 shape from texture, shape from contour, and the
                 representations of surfaces and objects. Much of the
                 work described was developed in the DARPA Image
                 Understanding project.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "I35 image understanding, image processing",
}

@Article{Feuer:1982:CPL,
  author =       "Alan R. Feuer and Narain H. Gehani",
  title =        "Comparison of the Programming Languages {C} and
                 {Pascal}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--92",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356869.356872",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Peterson:1982:SFI,Feuer:1982:SFI}.",
  abstract =     "The languages C and PASCAL are growing in popularity,
                 particularly among programmers of small computers. The
                 two languages are summarized and compared, including
                 their design philosophies, their handling of data
                 types, the programming facilities they provide, the
                 impact of these facilities on the quality of programs,
                 and how useful the facilities are for programming in a
                 variety of application domains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages",
}

@Article{Treleaven:1982:DDD,
  author =       "Philip C. Treleaven and David R. Brownbridge and
                 Richard P. Hopkins",
  title =        "Data-Driven and Demand-Driven Computer Architecture",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--143",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356869.356873",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Novel data-driven and demand-driven computer
                 architectures are under development in a large number
                 of laboratories in the United States, Japan, and
                 Europe. The concepts and relationships that exist both
                 within and between the two areas of research are
                 identified by examining data-driven and demand-driven
                 architecture at three levels: computation organization,
                 (stored) program organizations, and machine
                 organization. Finally, a survey of various novel
                 computer architectures under development is given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "The aim of this paper is to identify the concepts and
                 relationships that exist both within and between the
                 two areas of research of data-driven and demand-driven
                 architectures.",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture",
}

@Article{Reed:1982:SFR,
  author =       "David P. Reed",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Recovering} an Error",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "145--146",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356869.356874",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Kohler:1981:STS,Kohler:1982:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Kohler:1982:SFR,
  author =       "Walter H. Kohler",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Recovering} an Error",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "146--147",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356869.356875",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Kohler:1981:STS,Reed:1982:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1982:AILb,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "149--150",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356877",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1982:EP,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "151--157",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356878",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Adrion:1982:VVT,
  author =       "W. Richards Adrion and Martha A. Branstad and John C.
                 Cherniavsky",
  title =        "Validation, Verification, and Testing of Computer
                 Software",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "159--192",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356879",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Current verification, validation, and testing
                 approaches are surveyed, and their strengths,
                 weaknesses, and life-cycle usage are discussed. In
                 conjunction with these, the paper describes automated
                 tools used to implement validation, verification, and
                 testing. In the discussion of new research thrusts,
                 emphasis is given to the continued need to develop a
                 stronger theoretical basis for testing and the need to
                 employ combinations of tools and techniques that may
                 vary over each application.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer software",
}

@Article{Howden:1982:VSP,
  author =       "William E. Howden",
  title =        "Validation of Scientific Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "193--227",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356880",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A comprehensive approach to the validation of computer
                 programs which concentrates on the use of informal
                 validation methods, such as testing and static analysis
                 is described. Although many of the methods are general
                 and can be applied to any software system, the emphasis
                 is on the validation of individual scientific
                 subroutines. Most of the examples are in FORTRAN and
                 some of the described techniques are closely related to
                 features of the FORTRAN language. Methods for detecting
                 programming errors are described, the validation of
                 specifications and design, as well as their use in
                 generating test data are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Dunlop:1982:CAF,
  author =       "Douglas D. Dunlop and Victor R. Basili",
  title =        "A Comparative Analysis of Functional Correctness",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "229--244",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356881",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The functional correctness technique is presented and
                 discussed. It is also explained that the underlying
                 theory has an implication for the derivation of loop
                 invariants. The functional verification conditions
                 concerning program loops are then shown to be a
                 specialization of the commonly used inductive assertion
                 verification conditions. Next, the functional technique
                 is compared and contrasted with subgoal induction.
                 Finally, the difficulty of proving initialized loop
                 programs is examined in light of both the inductive
                 assertion and functional correctness theories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Allen:1982:IDD,
  author =       "Frank W. Allen and Mary E. S. Loomis and Michael V.
                 Mannino",
  title =        "The Integrated {Dictionary\slash Directory System}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "245--286",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356882",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The concept of an integrated Dictionary\slash
                 Directory (D/D) System is discussed in detail, and the
                 state of current systems in both the centralized and
                 distributed database environments is surveyed. For the
                 centralized database environment, three aspects are
                 emphasized: (1) the software interfaces between the D/D
                 System and the other software packages, (2) the convert
                 functions of the D/D System, and (3) the environmental
                 dependency between the D/D System and a Database
                 Management System (DBMS). For the distributed database
                 environment, the article elucidates the necessary
                 extensions to the centralized D/D, the additional
                 software interfaces required, and the use of the D/D as
                 a distributed database. An example of a commercial D/D
                 System that is integrated with a distributed DBMS is
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "A comprehensive survey of dictionary\slash directory
                 system features with examples from commercial systems",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data base systems",
}

@Article{Dowdy:1982:CMF,
  author =       "Lawrence W. Dowdy and Derrell V. Foster",
  title =        "Comparative Models of the File Assignment Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "287--313",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356883",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Kollias:1983:SFF,Dowdy:1983:SFF}.",
  abstract =     "The optimal distribution of files among storage nodes
                 is a major problem in computer system optimization.
                 Differing design goals, varying system assumptions, and
                 contrasting solution techniques yield a disparity of
                 optimal file assignments. This paper views the
                 differing file assignment models in a uniform manner.
                 Relative advantages and weaknesses of the various
                 models become immediately apparent. This perspective
                 exposes the further research which is necessary in
                 order to provide a truly satisfactory solution of the
                 file assignment problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital; distributed file systems",
}

@Article{Bender:1982:SFT,
  author =       "Heinz Bender",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Technical} Transactions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "315--316",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356884",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Bernstein:1981:CCD,Gifford:1982:SFT,Bernstein:1982:SFT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Gifford:1982:SFT,
  author =       "David Gifford",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Technical} Transactions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "316--316",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356885",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Bernstein:1981:CCD,Bender:1982:SFT,Bernstein:1982:SFT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bernstein:1982:SFT,
  author =       "Philip Bernstein and Nathan Goodman",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Technical} Transactions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "317--318",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356876.356886",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:30:43 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Bernstein:1981:CCD,Bender:1982:SFT,Gifford:1982:SFT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1982:AILc,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "319--320",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356887.356888",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Meyrowitz:1982:IESa,
  author =       "Norman Meyrowitz and Andries {Van Dam}",
  title =        "Interactive Editing Systems: {Part I}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "321--352",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356887.356889",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer-based interactive editing systems, which
                 allow users to change the state of targets such as
                 manuscripts and programs are examined. User and system
                 views of the editing process are provided, a historical
                 perspective is presented, and the functional
                 capabilities of editors are discussed, with emphasis on
                 user-level rather than implementation-level
                 considerations. References are given at the end of Part
                 II.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer software; interactive editing",
}

@Article{Meyrowitz:1982:IESb,
  author =       "Norman Meyrowitz and Andries {van Dam}",
  title =        "Interactive Editing Systems: {Part II}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "353--415",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356887.356890",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The state of the art of computer-based interactive
                 editing systems is surveyed. Numerous examples are
                 presented of systems in both the academic and
                 commercial arenas, covering line editors, screen
                 editors, interactive editor\slash formatters, structure
                 editors, syntax-directed editors, and commercial
                 word-processing editors. Pertinent issues in the field
                 are discussed, some observations about the future of
                 interactive editing are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer software; interactive editing",
}

@Article{Furuta:1982:DFS,
  author =       "Richard Furuta and Jeffrey Scofield and Alan Shaw",
  title =        "Document Formatting Systems: {Survey}, Concepts, and
                 Issues",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "417--472",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356887.356891",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Formatting systems are concerned with the physical
                 layout of a document for hard-and soft-copy media. This
                 paper characterize the formatting problem and its
                 relation to other aspects of document processing,
                 describes and evaluates several representative and
                 seminal systems, and discusses some issues and problems
                 relevant to future systems. The emphasis is on topics
                 related to the specification of document formats; these
                 include the underlying document and processing models,
                 functions performed by a formatter, the formatting
                 language and user interface, variety of document
                 objects, the integration of formatters with other
                 document processing tasks, and implementation
                 questions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data processing",
}

@Article{Smith:1982:CM,
  author =       "Alan Jay Smith",
  title =        "Cache Memories",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "473--530",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356887.356892",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:12 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The various aspects of cache memories are explained,
                 and the design features and trade-offs are discussed in
                 some detail. A large number of original, trace-driven
                 simulation results are presented. Consideration is
                 given to practical implementation questions as well as
                 to more abstract design issues. Specific aspects of
                 cache memories that are investigated include: the cache
                 fetch algorithm (demand versus prefetch), the placement
                 and replacement algorithms, line size, store-through
                 versus copy-back updating of main memory, cold-start
                 versus warm-start miss ratios, multicache consistency,
                 the effect of input\slash output through the cache, the
                 behavior of split data\slash instruction caches, and
                 cache size.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "cache memories; computer systems, digital; memory
                 structures",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1982:AILd,
  author =       "Adele J. Goldberg",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "531--532",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356894",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Marsland:1982:PSS,
  author =       "T. A. Marsland and M. Campbell",
  title =        "Parallel Search of Strongly Ordered Game Trees",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "533--551",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356895",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Over the past decade major enhancements to the
                 alpha-beta algorithm have been developed by people
                 building game-playing programs, and many of these
                 methods are surveyed and compared here. Contemporary
                 methods for searching chess game trees in parallel,
                 using an arbitrary number of independent processors are
                 studied. To make efficient use of these processors, one
                 must have a clear understanding of the basic properties
                 of the trees actually transversed when alpha-beta
                 cutoffs occur. This paper provides such insights and
                 concludes with a brief description of the author's
                 refinement to a standard parallel search algorithm for
                 this problem. 33 refs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Barnard:1982:CS,
  author =       "Stephen T. Barnard and Martin A. Fischler",
  title =        "Computational Stereo",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "553--572",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356896",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Computational stereo is broadly defined as the
                 recovery of the three-dimensional characteristics of a
                 scene from multiple images taken from different points
                 of view. First, each of the functional components of
                 the computational stereo paradigm --- image
                 acquisition, camera modeling, feature acquisition,
                 image matching, depth determination, and interpolation
                 --- is identified and discussed. Then, the criteria
                 that are important for evaluating the effectiveness of
                 various computational stereo techniques are presented.
                 Finally a representative sampling of computational
                 stereo research is provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 741",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "pattern recognition; vision",
}

@Article{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,
  author =       "Mahadevan Ganapathi and Charles N. Fischer and John L.
                 Hennessy",
  title =        "Retargetable Compiler Code Generation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "573--592",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356897",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Wulf:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Fraser:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  abstract =     "A classification of automated retargetable code
                 generation techniques and a survey of the work on these
                 techniques is presented. Retargetable code generation
                 research is classified into three categories:
                 interpretive code generation, pattern-matched code
                 generation, and table-driven code generation.
                 Interpretive code generation approaches generate code
                 for a virtual machine and then expand into real target
                 code. Pattern-matched code generation approaches
                 separate the machine description from the code
                 generation algorithm. Table-driven code generation
                 approaches employ a formal machine description and use
                 a code-generator generator to produce code generators
                 automatically. An analysis of these techniques and a
                 critique of automatic code generation algorithms are
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages",
}

@Article{Moret:1982:DTD,
  author =       "Bernard M. E. Moret",
  title =        "Decision Trees and Diagrams",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "593--623",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356898",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Decision trees and diagrams (also known as sequential
                 evaluation procedures) have widespread applications in
                 databases, decision table programming, concrete
                 complexity theory, switching theory, pattern
                 recognition, and taxonomy --- in short, wherever
                 discrete functions must be evaluated sequentially. In
                 this tutorial survey a common framework of definitions
                 and notation is established, the contributions of the
                 main fields of application are reviewed, recent results
                 and extensions are presented, and areas of ongoing and
                 future research are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "921; 922",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "I35 decision trees, decision theory and analysis;
                 mathematical techniques --- Trees",
}

@Article{Peterson:1982:SFI,
  author =       "James L. Peterson",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Idiomatic} Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "625--625",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356899",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Feuer:1982:CPL,Feuer:1982:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Feuer:1982:SFI,
  author =       "Alan R. Feuer and Narain H. Gehani",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Idiomatic} Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "625--626",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356893.356900",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:31:39 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Feuer:1982:CPL,Peterson:1982:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1983:AILa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356902",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Andrews:1983:CNC,
  author =       "Gregory R. Andrews and Fred B. Schneider",
  title =        "Concepts and Notations for Concurrent Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--43",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356903",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Atkins:1983:SFN,Andrews:1983:SFN,Andrews:1983:CCN}.",
  abstract =     "This paper identifies the major concepts of concurrent
                 programming and describes some of the more important
                 language notations for writing concurrent programs. The
                 roles of processes, communication, and synchronization
                 are discussed. Language notations for expressing
                 concurrent execution and for specifying process
                 interaction are surveyed. Synchronization primitives
                 based on shared variables and on message passing are
                 described. Finally, three general classes of concurrent
                 programming languages are identified and compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{March:1983:TSD,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Techniques for Structuring Database Records",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "45--79",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356904",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Structuring database records by considering data item
                 usage can yield substantial efficiencies in the
                 operating cost of database systems. However, since the
                 number of possible physical record structures for
                 database of practical significance is enormous, and
                 their evaluation is extremely complex, determining
                 efficient record structures by full enumeration is
                 generally infeasible. This paper discusses the
                 techniques of mathematical clustering, iterative
                 grouping refinement, mathematical programming, and
                 hierarchic aggregation, which can be used to quickly
                 determine efficient record structures for large, shared
                 databases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "First segmentation, then clustering (dedicated vs.
                 paged, Seq. vs. sec. indexes (partial and all)),
                 hierarchical aggregation.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "database systems",
}

@Article{Kollias:1983:SFF,
  author =       "J. (Yiannis) G. Kollias and Michalis Hatzopoulos",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {The} File Assignment Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "81--82",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356905",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Dowdy:1982:CMF,Dowdy:1983:SFF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Dowdy:1983:SFF,
  author =       "Lawrence W. Dowdy and Derrell V. Foster",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {The} File Assignment Problem",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "82--82",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356906",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Dowdy:1982:CMF,Kollias:1983:SFF}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sharma:1983:SFI,
  author =       "Govind Sharma",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Image} Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "83--84",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356907",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Ahuja:1981:IM,Ahuja:1983:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ahuja:1983:SFI,
  author =       "Narendra Ahuja and B. J. Schachter",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Image} Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "84--84",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356901.356908",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ahuja:1981:IM,Sharma:1983:SFI}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% NB: The ISSN changed from 0010-4892 to 0360-0300 at the June 1983
%%% issue, for no obvious reason: the journal title is exactly the same.
%%% ====================================================================

@Article{Wasserman:1983:AILb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "85--86",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356909.356910",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:27 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1983:EP,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "87--94",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356909.356911",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:27 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Broomell:1983:CCH,
  author =       "George Broomell and J. Robert Heath",
  title =        "Classification Categories and Historical Development
                 of Circuit Switching Topologies",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "95--133",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356909.356912",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:27 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1983.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A broad tutorial survey is given of the various
                 topologies available for use in circuit switching
                 systems for tightly coupled parallel\slash distributed
                 computer systems. Terminology and issues of circuit
                 switching as related to parallel\slash distributed
                 processing are first discussed. Circuit switching
                 networks are then classified according to connection
                 capability, topological geometry, and basis of
                 development. Topological relationships of specific
                 networks are addressed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "01/11/83",
  descriptors =  "Switching; circuit switching; survey;",
  enum =         "416",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "0",
}

@Article{Voydock:1983:SMH,
  author =       "Victor L. Voydock and Stephen T. Kent",
  title =        "Security Mechanisms in High-Level Network Protocols",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "135--171",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356909.356913",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:27 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Object/Nierstrasz.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The implications of adding security mechanisms to
                 high-level network protocols operating in an
                 open-system environment are analyzed. First the threats
                 to security that may arise in such an environment are
                 described, and then a set of goals for communications
                 security measures is established. This is followed by a
                 brief description of the two basic approaches to
                 communications security, link-oriented measures and
                 end-to-end measures, which concludes that end-to-end
                 measures are more appropriate in an open-system
                 environment. Next, relevant properties of data
                 encryption --- the fundamental technique on which all
                 communications security mechanisms are based --- are
                 discussed. The remainder of the paper describes how
                 end-to-end measures can be used to achieve each of the
                 security goals previously established.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "security os networks, computer networks",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1983:AILc,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "173--174",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356915",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Abadir:1983:FTS,
  author =       "Magdy S. Abadir and Hassan K. Reghbati",
  title =        "Functional Testing of Semiconductor Random Access
                 Memories",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "175--198",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356916",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "An overview is presented of the problem of testing
                 semiconductor random access memories (RAMs). An
                 important aspect of this test procedure is the
                 detection of permanent faults that cause the memory to
                 function incorrectly. Functional-level fault models are
                 very useful for describing a wide variety of RAM
                 faults. Several fault models are discussed, including
                 the stuck-at-0/1 faults, coupled-cell faults, and
                 single-cell pattern-sensitive faults. Test procedures
                 for these fault models are presented and their fault
                 coverage and execution times are discussed. The paper
                 is intended for the general computer science audience
                 and presupposes no background in the hardware testing
                 area.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "714; 721; 722",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data storage, digital --- Random Access; data storage,
                 semiconductor",
}

@Article{Partsch:1983:PTS,
  author =       "H. Partsch and R. Steinbr{\"u}ggen",
  title =        "Program Transformation Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "199--236",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356917",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/Dcs-1.0.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper reviews and classifies transformation
                 systems and is intended to acquaint the reader with the
                 current state of the art and provide a basis for
                 comparing the different approaches. It is also designed
                 to provide easy access to specific details of the
                 various methodologies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Angluin:1983:IIT,
  author =       "Dana Angluin and Carl H. Smith",
  title =        "Inductive Inference: {Theory} and Methods",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "237--269",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356918",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "There has been a great deal of theoretical and
                 experimental work in computer science on inductive
                 inference systems, that is, systems that try to infer
                 general rules from examples. However a complete and
                 applicable theory of such systems is still a distant
                 goal. This survey highlights and explains the main
                 ideas that have been developed in the study of
                 inductive inference, with special emphasis on the
                 relations between the general theory and the specific
                 algorithms and implementations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 912",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "systems science and cybernetics",
}

@Article{Lientz:1983:ISM,
  author =       "Bennet P. Lientz",
  title =        "Issues in Software Maintenance",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "271--278",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356919",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Some of the major issues that surfaced during several
                 extensive operational software studies are highlighted.
                 These studies have raised significant questions about
                 the roles of the users in operations and maintenance,
                 the management of maintenance, and the kinds of tools
                 and techniques that are needed for maintenance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer software",
}

@Article{Wulf:1983:SFR,
  author =       "William A. Wulf and Joe Newcomer and Bruce Leverett
                 and Rick Cattell and Paul Knueven",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--280",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356920",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Fraser:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,
  author =       "M. Ganapathi and J. L. Hennessy and C. N. Fischer",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "280--281",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356921",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Wulf:1983:SFR,Fraser:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Fraser:1983:SFR,
  author =       "Christopher W. Fraser",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--283",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356922",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Wulf:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ganapathi:1983:SFRb,
  author =       "M. Ganapathi and J. L. Hennessy and C. N. Fischer",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--284",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356914.356923",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Wulf:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Fraser:1983:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1983:AILd,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "285--286",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.357839",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Haerder:1983:PTO,
  author =       "Theo Haerder and Andreas Reuter",
  title =        "Principles of Transaction Oriented Database Recovery",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "287--317",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.291",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Object/Nierstrasz.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: Res. R No. 50-82, April 1982.
                 Reprinted in M. Stonebraker, Readings in Database
                 Systems, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1988",
  abstract =     "A terminological framework is provided for describing
                 different transaction-oriented recovery schemes for
                 database systems in a conceptual rather than an
                 implementation-dependent way. By introducing the terms
                 materialized database, propagation strategy, and
                 checkpoint, we obtain a means for classifying arbitrary
                 implementations from a unified viewpoint. This is
                 complemented by a classification scheme for logging
                 techniques, which are precisely defined by using the
                 other terms. It is shown that these criteria are
                 related to all relevant questions such as speed and
                 scope of recovery and amount of redundant information
                 required. In addition, an adequate and precise
                 terminology is established for this topic.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "database systems, dblit transactions recovery
                 reliability",
}

@Article{King:1983:CVD,
  author =       "John Leslie King",
  title =        "Centralized versus decentralized
                 computing:organizational considerations and management
                 options",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "319--349",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.290",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/misc.1.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The long-standing debate over whether to centralize or
                 decentralize computing is examined in terms of the
                 fundamental organizational and economic factors at
                 stake. The traditional debate is evaluated, and found
                 to focus predominantly on issues of efficiency versus
                 effectiveness, with solutions based on a rationalistic
                 strategy of optimizing in this trade-off. A behavioral
                 assessment suggests that the driving issues in the
                 debate are the politics of organization and resources,
                 centering on the issue of control. The economics of
                 computing deployment decisions are presented as an
                 important issue, but one that often serves as a field
                 of argument in which political concerns are dealt with.
                 The debate in this light appears to be unresolvable in
                 the long run, although effective strategies can be
                 developed when the larger issues are recognized. The
                 current situation facing managers of computing, given
                 the advent of small and comparatively inexpensive
                 computers, is examined in detail, and a set of
                 management options for dealing with this persistent
                 issue is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723; 912",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computers, digital; management",
}

@Article{Lee:1983:VRS,
  author =       "D. L. Lee and F. H. Lochovsky",
  title =        "Voice Response Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "351--374",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.292",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Common techniques for representing speech in voice
                 response systems are surveyed. Two major classes of
                 techniques --- waveform coding and parametric coding
                 --- and their variants are presented. The encoding,
                 decoding, and synthesis techniques as well as the
                 advantages and disadvantages of each method are
                 discussed. Also surveyed are two types of voice
                 response systems: systems with limited vocabulary and
                 systems with unlimited vocabulary. Some examples of the
                 latter type of system are described and discussed.
                 Finally, some applications of voice response systems
                 are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "751",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "design; theory, speech",
  review =       "ACM CR 8411-0897",
  subject =      "B.4.2 Hardware, INPUT/OUTPUT AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS,
                 Input/Output Devices, Voice \\ I.5 Computing
                 Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION, Applications",
}

@Article{Atkins:1983:SFN,
  author =       "M. Stella Atkins",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Notations for Concurrent
                 Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--376",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.357841",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Andrews:1983:CNC,Andrews:1983:SFN,Andrews:1983:CCN}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Andrews:1983:SFN,
  author =       "Gregory R. Andrews and Fred B. Schneider",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Notations for Concurrent
                 Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "376--377",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.357842",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Andrews:1983:CNC,Atkins:1983:SFN,Andrews:1983:CCN}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Andrews:1983:CCN,
  author =       "Gregory R. Andrews and Fred B. Schneider",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``Concepts and notations for concurrent
                 programs''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--377",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/289.357845",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Andrews:1983:CNC,Atkins:1983:SFN,Andrews:1983:SFN}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:AILa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/861.360084",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Stallings:1984:LN,
  author =       "William Stallings",
  title =        "Local Networks",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--41",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/861.871",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/networking.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The rapidly evolving field of local network technology
                 has produced a steady stream of local network products
                 in recent years. The IEEE 802 standards that are now
                 taking shape, because of their complexity, do little to
                 narrow the range of alternative technical approaches
                 and at the same time encourage more vendors into the
                 field. The purpose of this paper is to present a
                 systematic, organized overview of the alternative
                 architectures for and design approaches to local
                 networks.\par

                 The key elements that determine the cost and
                 performance of a local network are its topology,
                 transmission medium, and medium access control
                 protocol. Transmission media include twisted pair,
                 baseband and broadband coaxial cable, and optical
                 fiber. Topologies include bus, tree, and ring. Medium
                 access control protocols include CSMA/CD, token bus,
                 token ring, register insertion, and slotted ring. Each
                 of these areas is examined in detail, comparisons are
                 drawn between competing technologies, and the current
                 status of standards is reported.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 902",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer networks; standards",
}

@Article{Kurose:1984:MAP,
  author =       "James F. Kurose and Mischa Schwartz and Yechiam
                 Yemini",
  title =        "Multiple-Access Protocols and Time-Con\-strained
                 Communication",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--70",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/861.870",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/networking.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "During the past ten years, the field of
                 multiple-access communication has developed into a
                 major area of both practical and theoretical interest
                 within the field of computer communications. The
                 multiple-access problem arises from the necessity of
                 sharing a single communication channel among a
                 community of distributed users. The distributed
                 algorithm used by the stations to share the channel is
                 known as the multiple-access protocol. In this paper we
                 examine the multiple-access problem and various
                 approaches to its resolution.\par

                 In this survey we first define the multiple-access
                 problem and then present the underlying issues and
                 difficulties in achieving multiple-access
                 communication. A taxonomy for multiple-access protocols
                 is then developed in order to characterize common
                 approaches and to provide a framework within which
                 these protocols can be compared and contrasted.
                 Different proposed protocols are then described and
                 discussed, and aspects of their performance are
                 examined. The use of multiple-access protocols for
                 'real- time' or 'time-constrained' communication
                 applications, such as voice transmission, is examined
                 next. Issues in time-constrained communication are
                 identified, and recent work in the design of
                 time-constrained multiple-access protocols is
                 surveyed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer networks; multiple-access protocols;
                 real-time communication; time-constrained
                 communication, time-constrained",
}

@Article{Kim:1984:HAS,
  author =       "Won Kim",
  title =        "Highly Available Systems for Database Applications",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--98",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/861.866",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "As users entrust more and more of their applications
                 to computer systems, the need for systems that are
                 continuously operational (24 hours per day) has become
                 even greater. This paper presents a survey and analysis
                 of representative architectures and techniques that
                 have been developed for constructing highly available
                 systems for database applications. It then proposes a
                 design of a distributed software subsystem that can
                 serve as a unified framework for constructing database
                 application systems that meet various requirements for
                 high availability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "concurrency control; database recovery; database
                 systems; relational database",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:AILb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--100",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356924.356925",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:AAa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--102",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356924.356926",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:EP,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "103--110",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356924.356927",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Jarke:1984:QOD,
  author =       "Matthias Jarke and J{\"u}rgen Koch",
  title =        "Query Optimization in Database Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  publisher =    "acm",
  pages =        "111--152",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356924.356928",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Efficient methods of processing unanticipated queries
                 are a crucial prerequisite for the success of
                 generalized database management systems. A wide variety
                 of approaches to improve the performance of query
                 evaluation algorithms have been proposed: logic-based
                 and semantic transformations, fast implementations of
                 basic operations, and combinatorial or heuristic
                 algorithms for generating alternative access plans and
                 choosing among them.\par

                 These methods are presented in the framework of a
                 general query evaluation procedure using the relational
                 calculus representation of queries. In addition,
                 nonstandard query optimization issues such as higher
                 level query evaluation, query optimization in
                 distributed databases, and use of database machines are
                 addressed. The focus, however, is on query optimization
                 in centralized database systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "New York Univ, Graduate Sch of Business
                 Administration, New York, NY, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "New York Univ, Graduate Sch of Business
                 Administration, New York, NY, USA",
  annote =       "Representation, transformation, mapping to elementary
                 operations, choice.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; database implementation; performance;
                 query evaluation; query optimization; query
                 simplification, database systems; relational
                 calculation",
  owner =        "manning",
}

@Article{Gallaire:1984:LDD,
  author =       "Herv{\'e} Gallaire and Jack Minker and Jean-Marie
                 Nicolas",
  title =        "Logic and Databases: a Deductive Approach",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "153--185",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356924.356929",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to show that logic
                 provides a convenient formalism for studying classical
                 database problems. There are two main parts to the
                 paper, devoted respectively to conventional databases
                 and deductive databases. In the first part, we focus on
                 query languages, integrity modeling and maintenance,
                 query optimization, and data dependencies. The second
                 part deals mainly with the representation and
                 manipulation of deduced facts and incomplete
                 information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Compagnie Generale d'Electricite, Lab de Marcoussis,
                 Marcoussis, Fr",
  affiliationaddress = "Compagnie Generale d'Electricite, Lab de
                 Marcoussis, Marcoussis, Fr",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer metatheory --- Formal Logic; Deductive
                 Databases; deductive databases; Indefinite Data;
                 indefinite data; Logic and Databases; Null Values;
                 relational databases; Relational Databases, database
                 systems",
  owner =        "curtis",
}

@Article{Samet:1984:QRH,
  author =       "Hanan Samet",
  title =        "The Quadtree and Related Hierarchical Data
                 Structures",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "187--260",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/356924.356930",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:33:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A tutorial survey is presented of the quadtree and
                 related hierarchical data structures. They are based on
                 the principle of recursive decomposition. The emphasis
                 is on the representation of data used in applications
                 in image processing, computer graphics, geographic
                 information systems, and robotics. There is a greater
                 emphasis on region data (i.e., two-dimensional shapes)
                 and to a lesser extent on point, curvilinear, and
                 three-dimensional data. A number of operations in which
                 such data structures find use are examined in greater
                 detail.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland, at College Point, Computer Science
                 Dep, College Park, MD, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Maryland, at College Point, Computer
                 Science Dep, College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer graphics; Data Structures; database systems;
                 geographic information systems; hierarchical data
                 structures; I35 Quadtrees, data processing; image
                 databases; image processing; pattern recognition;
                 quadtree; robotics",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:ATIc,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--262",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:14:56 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:AAb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "263--264",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:21:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Shneiderman:1984:RTD,
  author =       "Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "Response Time and Display Rate in Human Performance
                 with Computers",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--285",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2514.2517",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper reviews the theory and reports on
                 experimental results concerning display rates, response
                 time expectations and attitudes, user productivity, and
                 variability. The decomposition of concerns and tasks
                 helps to clarify the issues, but substantial effort
                 remains before a predictive model can emerge. In
                 general, the results indicate that frequent users
                 prefer response times of less than a second for most
                 tasks, and that productivity does increase as response
                 time decreases. However, error rates increase with too
                 short or too long a response time. Users pick up the
                 pace of the system, but the profile of commands may
                 change with the speed of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland, Dep of Computer Science, College
                 Park, MD, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Maryland, Dep of Computer Science,
                 College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "461; 722; 723; 901",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer interfaces; computer programming; computer
                 systems, digital --- Interactive Operation; display
                 rate; human engineering; human/computer interaction;
                 response time",
}

@Article{Bitton:1984:TPS,
  author =       "Dina Bitton and David J. DeWitt and David K. Hsiao and
                 Jaishankar Menon",
  title =        "A Taxonomy of Parallel Sorting",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "287--318",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2514.2516",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "The authors propose a taxonomy of parallel sorting
                 that encompasses a broad range of array-and
                 file-sorting algorithms. They analyze how research on
                 parallel sorting has evolved, from the earliest sorting
                 networks to shared memory algorithms and VLSI sorters.
                 In the context of sorting networks, the authors
                 describe two fundamental parallel merging schemes: the
                 odd-even and the bitonic merge. They discuss sorting
                 algorithms that evolved from these merging schemes for
                 parallel computers, whose processors communicate
                 through interconnection networks such as the perfect
                 shuffle, the mesh, and a number of other sparse
                 networks. They describe how faster algorithms have been
                 derived from parallel enumeration sorting schemes,
                 where, with a shared memory model of parallel
                 computation, keys are first ranked and then rearranged
                 according to their rank. Parallel sorting algorithms
                 are evaluated according to several criteria related to
                 both the time complexity of an algorithm and its
                 feasibility from the viewpoint of computer
                 architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Weizmann Inst of Science, Dep of Applied Mathematics,
                 Rehovot, Isr",
  affiliationaddress = "Weizmann Inst of Science, Dep of Applied
                 Mathematics, Rehovot, Isr",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "bitonic merge sorting, prll; computer systems
                 programming; computer systems, digital --- Parallel
                 Processing; odd-even sorting; parallel sorting;
                 Sorting; sorting",
}

@Article{Quinn:1984:PGA,
  author =       "Michael J. Quinn and Narsingh Deo",
  title =        "Parallel Graph Algorithms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "319--348",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2514.2515",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:24 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Algorithms and data structures developed to solve
                 graph problems on parallel computers are surveyed. The
                 problems discussed relate to searching graphs and
                 finding connected components, maximal cliques, maximum
                 cardinality matchings, minimum spanning trees, shortest
                 paths, and traveling salesman tours. The algorithms are
                 based on a number of models of parallel computation,
                 including systolic arrays, associative processors,
                 array processors, and multiple CPU computers. The most
                 popular model is a direct extension of the standard RAM
                 model of sequential computation. It may not, however,
                 be the best basis for the study of parallel algorithms.
                 More emphasis has been focused recently on
                 communications issues in the analysis of the complexity
                 of parallel algorithms; thus parallel models are coming
                 to be more complementary to implementable
                 architectures. Most algorithms use relatively simple
                 data structures, such as the adjacency matrix and
                 adjacency lists, although a few algorithms using linked
                 lists, heaps, and trees are also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Washington State Univ, Computer Science Dep, Pullman,
                 WA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Washington State Univ, Computer Science Dep,
                 Pullman, WA, USA",
  classification = "722; 723; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; computer programming; computer systems,
                 digital --- Parallel Processing; mathematical
                 techniques --- Graph Theory; parallel graph
                 algorithms",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:ATId,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "349--350",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:21:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1984:AAc,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "351--351",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:21:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Svobodova:1984:FSN,
  author =       "Liba Svobodova",
  title =        "File Servers for Network-Based Distributed Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "353--398",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3872.3873",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:36 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A file server provides remote centralized storage of
                 data to workstations connected to it via a
                 communication network; it facilitates data sharing
                 among autonomous workstations and support of
                 inexpensive workstations that have limited or no
                 secondary storage. Various characteristics of file
                 servers and the corresponding implementation issues
                 based on a survey of a number of experimental file
                 servers are discussed and evaluated in this paper.
                 Particular emphasis is placed on the problem of atomic
                 update of data stored in a file server. The design
                 issues related to the scope of atomic transactions and
                 the granularity of data access supported by a file
                 server are studied in detail.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM, Zurich Research Lab, Rueschlikon, Switz",
  affiliationaddress = "IBM, Zurich Research Lab, Rueschlikon, Switz",
  annote =       "Mainly WFS (Woodstock), XDFS, CFS (Cambridge), FELIX,
                 SWALLOW, CMCFS, ALPINE; also Datacomputer, IFS, ACORN,
                 Z-ring (Zurich), VICE (CMU-ITC), LOCUS, DOMAIN
                 (Apollo), F-UNIX, R*, ENCOMPASS.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems; computer systems, digital
                 --- Distributed; design; file servers; network-based
                 distributed systems; reliability, computer networks",
  review =       "ACM CR 8601-0037",
  subject =      "C.2.2 Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Network Protocols,
                 Protocol architecture \\ D.4.1 Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Process Management, Concurrency \\ D.4.1
                 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Process Management,
                 Deadlocks \\ D.4.2 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Storage
                 Management, Allocation/deallocation strategies \\ D.4.3
                 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, File Systems Management,
                 Distributed file systems \\ D.4.3 Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, File Systems Management, File organization",
}

@Article{Yu:1984:DQP,
  author =       "C. T. Yu and C. C. Chang",
  title =        "Distributed Query Processing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "399--433",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3872.3874",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:36 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "Various techniques for optimizing queries in
                 distributed databases are presented. Although no
                 attempt is made to cover all proposed algorithms on
                 this topic, quite a few ideas extracted from existing
                 algorithms are outlined. It is hoped that large-scale
                 experiments will be conducted to verify the usefulness
                 of these ideas and that they will be integrated to
                 construct a powerful algorithm for distributed query
                 processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Dep of Electrical
                 Engineering \& Computer Science, Chicago, IL, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Dep of
                 Electrical Engineering \& Computer Science, Chicago,
                 IL, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Algorithms; CTYU
                 optimization, database systems; Distributed;
                 distributed query processing; heuristic algorithms;
                 query optimization; semijoins",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:ATIa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:25:27 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:AAa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:25:27 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Gupta:1985:RRD,
  author =       "Gopal K. Gupta and Ron Sacks-Davis and Peter E.
                 Tischer",
  title =        "A Review of Recent Developments in Solving {ODEs}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--47",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4078.4079",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:46 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4079.html",
  abstract =     "Mathematical models when simulating the behavior of
                 physical, chemical, and biological systems often
                 include one or more ordinary differential equations
                 (ODEs). To study the system behavior predicted by a
                 model, these equations are usually solved numerically.
                 Although many of the current methods for solving ODEs
                 were developed around the turn of the century, the past
                 15 years or so has been a period of intensive research.
                 The emphasis of this survey is on the methods and
                 techniques used in software for solving ODEs. ODEs can
                 be classified as stiff or nonstiff, and may be stiff
                 for some parts of an interval and nonstiff for others.
                 We discuss stiff equations, why they are difficult to
                 solve, and methods and software for solving both
                 nonstiff and stiff equations. We conclude this review
                 by looking at techniques for dealing with special
                 problems that may arise in some ODEs, for example,
                 discontinuities. Although important theoretical
                 developments have also taken place, we report only
                 those developments which have directly affected the
                 software and provide a review of this research. We
                 present the basic concepts involved but assume that the
                 reader has some background in numerical computing, such
                 as a first course in numerical methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Monash Univ, Dep of Computer Science, Clayton, Aust",
  affiliationaddress = "Monash Univ, Dep of Computer Science, Clayton,
                 Aust",
  classification = "723; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer software; Differential Equations;
                 mathematical software, algorithms; mathematical
                 techniques; numerical methods; ordinary differential
                 equations; performance; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf G.1.7}: Mathematics of Computing, NUMERICAL
                 ANALYSIS, Ordinary Differential Equations. {\bf G.4}:
                 Mathematics of Computing, MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE.",
}

@Article{Faloutsos:1985:AMT,
  author =       "Christos Faloutsos",
  title =        "Access Methods for Text",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--74",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4078.4080",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:46 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: ``{Multiattribute} Hashing Using
                 Gray Codes'', ACM SIGMOD, 1986.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4080.html",
  abstract =     "This paper compares text retrieval methods intended
                 for office systems. The operational requirements of the
                 office environment are discussed, and retrieval methods
                 from database systems and from information retrieval
                 systems are examined. We classify these methods and
                 examine the most interesting representatives of each
                 class. Attempts to speed up retrieval with special
                 purpose hardware are also presented, and issues such as
                 approximate string matching and compression are
                 discussed. A qualitative comparison of the examined
                 methods is presented. The signature file method is
                 discussed in more detail.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Toronto, Computer Systems Research Inst,
                 Toronto, Ont, Can",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Toronto, Computer Systems Research Inst,
                 Toronto, Ont, Can",
  annote =       "Signature files.",
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "database systems; design, information science;
                 document retrieval; Information Retrieval; office
                 automation; text retrieval",
  review =       "ACM CR 8601-0058",
  subject =      "{\bf H.3.3}: Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval. {\bf
                 H.2.2}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Physical Design, Access methods. {\bf H.3.6}:
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL,
                 Library Automation. {\bf H.4.1}: Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation.
                 {\bf I.7.m}: Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING,
                 Miscellaneous.",
}

@Article{Besl:1985:TDO,
  author =       "Paul J. Besl and Ramesh C. Jain",
  title =        "Three-Dimensional Object Recognition",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--145",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4078.4081",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:34:46 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/Reverse.eng.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4081.html",
  abstract =     "A general purpose computer vision system must be
                 capable of recognizing three-dimensional (3-D) objects.
                 This paper proposes a precise definition of the 3-D
                 object recognition problem, discusses basic concepts
                 associated with this problem, and reviews the relevant
                 literature. Because range images (or depth maps) are
                 often used as sensor input instead of intensity images,
                 techniques for obtaining, processing, and
                 characterizing range data are also surveyed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Michigan, Dep of Electrical Engineering \&
                 Computer Science, Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Michigan, Dep of Electrical Engineering
                 \& Computer Science, Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer vision; design; image processing;
                 scene analysis; theory, pattern recognition;
                 three-dimensional object recognition",
  subject =      "{\bf I.5.4}: Computing Methodologies, PATTERN
                 RECOGNITION, Applications, Computer vision. {\bf
                 I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene Understanding,
                 Intensity, color, photometry, and thresholding. {\bf
                 I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene Understanding, Modeling
                 and recovery of physical attributes. {\bf I.2.10}:
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Vision and Scene Understanding, Perceptual reasoning.
                 {\bf I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene Understanding,
                 Representations, data structures, and transforms. {\bf
                 I.3.5}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling, Curve,
                 surface, solid, and object representations. {\bf
                 I.4.6}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING,
                 Segmentation, Edge and feature detection. {\bf I.4.6}:
                 Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING,
                 Segmentation, Pixel classification. {\bf I.4.6}:
                 Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING,
                 Segmentation, Region growing, partitioning. {\bf
                 I.4.8}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING,
                 Scene Analysis, Depth cues. {\bf I.4.8}: Computing
                 Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Scene Analysis, Range
                 data.",
}

@Article{Abbott:1985:GEI,
  author =       "Curtis Abbott",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Introduction to the Special Issue on
                 Computer Music",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "147--151",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:25:27 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:AAb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "153--154",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:25:27 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:EP,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "155--162",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:25:27 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Roads:1985:RMA,
  author =       "Curtis Roads",
  title =        "Research in Music and Artificial Intelligence",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "163--190",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4468.4469",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4469.html",
  abstract =     "Although the boundaries of artificial intelligence
                 (AI) remain elusive, computers can now perform musical
                 tasks that were formerly associated exclusively with
                 naturally intelligent musicians. After a historical
                 note, this paper sermonizes on the need for AI
                 techniques in four areas of musical research:
                 composition, performance, music theory, and digital
                 sound processing. The next part surveys recent work
                 involving AI and music. The discussion concentrates on
                 applications in the four areas of research just
                 mentioned. The final part examines how AI techniques of
                 planning and learning could be used to expand the
                 knowledge base and enrich the behavior of musically
                 intelligent systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer music; computers, digital --- Applications;
                 design; experimentation, artificial intelligence",
  subject =      "{\bf J.5}: Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Music. {\bf I.2.1}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Applications and Expert Systems.",
}

@Article{Gordon:1985:SAC,
  author =       "John W. Gordon",
  title =        "System Architectures for Computer Music",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "191--233",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4468.4996",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4996.html",
  abstract =     "Computer music is a relatively new field. While a
                 large proportion of the public is aware of computer
                 music in one form or another, there seems to be a need
                 for a better understanding of its capabilities and
                 limitations in terms of synthesis, performance, and
                 recording hardware. This article addresses that need by
                 surveying and discussing the architecture of existing
                 computer music systems. System requirements vary
                 according to what the system will be used for. Common
                 uses for computer music systems include composition,
                 performance, research, home entertainment, and studio
                 recording/mixing. This paper outlines system components
                 with this wide diversity of possible uses in mind.
                 Current synthesis and analysis techniques, and the
                 different way in which these techniques can be
                 implemented in special-purpose hardware, are
                 comprehensively reviewed. Design specifications are
                 given for certain digital-to-analog (and
                 analog-to-digital) converters, disk interfaces, system
                 organization, control hardware and software, and
                 numerical precision. Several synthesis systems are
                 described in detail, with an emphasis on theoretical
                 developments and innovative design. Commercial
                 synthesizers and other architectures are also briefly
                 mentioned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Stanford Univ, Dep of Music, Stanford, CA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Stanford Univ, Dep of Music, Stanford, CA, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer music; computers, digital ---
                 Applications; design; theory, computer architecture",
  subject =      "{\bf J.5}: Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Music. {\bf B.0}: Hardware, GENERAL. {\bf C.3}:
                 Computer Systems Organization, SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND
                 APPLICATION-BASED SYSTEMS.",
}

@Article{Loy:1985:PLC,
  author =       "Gareth Loy and Curtis Abbott",
  title =        "Programming Languages for Computer Music Synthesis,
                 Performance, and Composition",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "235--265",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4468.4485",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4485.html",
  abstract =     "The development of formal, descriptive, and procedural
                 notations has become a practical concern within the
                 field of music now that computers are being applied to
                 musical tasks. Music combines the real-time demands of
                 performance with the intellectual demands of highly
                 developed symbolic systems that are quite different
                 from natural language. The richness and variety of
                 these demands makes the programming language paradigm a
                 natural one in the musical application of computers.
                 This paradigm provides musicians with a fresh
                 perspective on their work. At the same time, music is a
                 very advanced form of human endeavor, making computer
                 music applications a worthy challenge for computer
                 scientists. In this paper we outline the traditional
                 tasks and forms of representation in music, then
                 proceed with a survey of languages that deal with music
                 programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California, Computer Audio Research Lab, San
                 Diego, CA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of California, Computer Audio Research Lab,
                 San Diego, CA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer music; computer programming languages;
                 computers, digital --- Applications; music programming
                 languages, languages",
  subject =      "{\bf J.5}: Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Music. {\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES,
                 Language Classifications, Data-flow languages. {\bf
                 D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Extensible languages. {\bf D.3.2}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Very high-level languages. {\bf
                 D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Nonprocedural languages. {\bf D.3.3}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features, Coroutines.",
}

@Article{Pennycook:1985:CMI,
  author =       "Bruce W. Pennycook",
  title =        "Computer-Music Interfaces: a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "267--289",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/4468.4470",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:05 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/4470.html",
  abstract =     "This paper is a study of the unique problems posed by
                 the use of computers by composers and performers of
                 music. The paper begins with a presentation of the
                 basic concepts involved in the musical interaction with
                 computer devices, followed by a detailed discussion of
                 three musical tasks: music manuscript preparation,
                 music language interfaces for composition, and
                 real-time performance interaction. Fundamental design
                 principles are exposed through an examination of
                 several early computer music systems, especially the
                 Structured Sound Synthesis Project. A survey of
                 numerous systems, based on the following categories, is
                 presented: compositions and synthesis languages,
                 graphics score editing, performance instruments,
                 digital audio processing tools, and computer-aided
                 instruction in music systems. An extensive reference
                 list is provided for further study in the field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf J.5}: Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Music. {\bf I.3.6}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques, Interaction
                 techniques.",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:ATIb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "291--292",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:31:36 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:AAc,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "293--294",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:31:36 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hester:1985:SOL,
  author =       "James H. Hester and Daniel S. Hirschberg",
  title =        "Self-Organizing Linear Search",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "295--311",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/5505.5507",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:21 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/5507.html",
  abstract =     "Algorithms that modify the order of linear search
                 lists are surveyed. First the problem, including
                 assumptions and restrictions, is defined. Next a
                 summary of analysis techniques and measurements that
                 apply to these algorithms is given. The main portion of
                 the survey presents algorithms in the literature with
                 absolute analyses when available. The following section
                 gives relative measures that are applied between two or
                 more algorithms. The final section presents open
                 questions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; computer operating systems --- Storage
                 Allocation; computer programming; measurement;
                 performance; search algorithms, algorithms;
                 self-organizing liner search; theory",
  review =       "ACM CR 8609-0809",
  subject =      "{\bf E.1}: Data, DATA STRUCTURES, Lists. {\bf E.1}:
                 Data, DATA STRUCTURES, Tables. {\bf D.4.2}: Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Storage Management, Swapping. {\bf
                 F.2.2}: Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS
                 AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and
                 Problems, Sorting and searching. {\bf F.2.3}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Tradeoffs among Complexity Measures.",
}

@Article{Jarke:1985:FCD,
  author =       "Matthias Jarke and Yannis Vassiliou",
  title =        "A Framework for Choosing a Database Query Language",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "313--340",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/5505.5506",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:21 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/5506.html",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a systematic approach to matching
                 cate- gories of query language interfaces with the
                 requirements of certain user types. The method is based
                 on a trend model of query language development on the
                 dimensions of functional capabilities and query
                 languages, a criterion hierarchy for query language
                 evaluation, a comprehensive classification scheme of
                 query language users and their requirements, and
                 preliminary recommendations for allocating language
                 classes to user types.\par

                 The method integrates the results of existing human
                 factors studies and provides a structured framework for
                 future research in this area. Current and expected
                 developments are exemplified by the description of
                 ``new generation'' database query languages. In a
                 preselecting suitable query language types; the final
                 selection decision will also depend on
                 organization-specific factors, such as the available
                 database management system, hardware and software
                 strategies, and financial system costs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "New York Univ, New York, NY, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "New York Univ, New York, NY, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages; database systems;
                 human factors; language evaluation; languages; query
                 language; query language interfaces, databases; Query
                 Languages; user classification",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.3}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Languages, Query languages. {\bf D.3.2}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Classifications, Very
                 high-level languages. {\bf H.1.2}: Information Systems,
                 MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human
                 factors. {\bf H.3.3}: Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search and
                 Retrieval, Query formulation.",
}

@Article{Davidson:1985:CPN,
  author =       "Susan B. Davidson and Hector Garcia-Molina and Dale
                 Skeen",
  title =        "Consistency in Partitioned Networks",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "341--370",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/5505.5508",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:21 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: University of Pennsylvania, TR
                 No. Management Science, Journal of TIMS-Conference on
                 Information Systems, sponsored by Machine Intelligence,
                 eds: Meltzer, and Michie, vars. Publishers, TIMS, ACM
                 SIGBDP-84-04, Aug. 1984. Also published in/as:
                 Princeton University, TR EECS 320, 1984.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/5508.html",
  abstract =     "Recently, several strategies have been proposed for
                 transaction processing in partitioned distributed
                 database systems with replicated data. These strategies
                 are surveyed in light of the competing goals of
                 maintaining correctness and achieving high
                 availability. Extensions and combinations are then
                 discussed, and guidelines are presented for selecting
                 strategies for particular applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer programming --- Algorithms;
                 consistency; Distributed; partitioned networks;
                 performance; reliability, database systems",
  review =       "ACM CR 8809-0690",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.3}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, File Systems
                 Management, File organization. {\bf C.4}: Computer
                 Systems Organization, PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS,
                 Reliability, availability, and serviceability. {\bf
                 H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Transaction processing. {\bf H.2.4}:
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems,
                 Distributed systems.",
  xxtitle =      "Consistency in a partitioned network: a survey",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:ATIc,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--376",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:34:40 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1985:AAd,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--378",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 24 23:34:40 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Quarterman:1985:EUS,
  author =       "John S. Quarterman and Abraham Silberschatz and James
                 L. Peterson",
  title =        "{4.2BSD} and {4.3BSD} as Examples of the {UNIX}
                 System",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "379--418",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6041.6043",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6043.html",
  abstract =     "This paper presents an in-depth examination of the 4.2
                 Berkeley Software Distribution, Virtual VAX-11 Version
                 (4.2BSD), which is a version of the UNIX Time-Sharing
                 System. There are notes throughout on 4.3BSD, the
                 forthcoming system from the University of California at
                 Berkeley. We trace the historical development of the
                 UNIX system from its conception in 1969 until today,
                 and describe the design principles that have guided
                 this development. We then present the internal data
                 structures and algorithms used by the kernel to support
                 the user interface. In particular, we describe process
                 management, memory management, the file system, the I/O
                 system, and communications. These are treated in as
                 much detail as the UNIX licenses will allow. We
                 conclude with a brief description of the user interface
                 and a set of bibliographic notes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Texas, Austin, TX, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Texas, Austin, TX, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "4.2BSD UNIX; 4.3BSD UNIX; computer operating systems;
                 computer systems, digital --- Distributed; distributed
                 operating systems, design; performance; reliability;
                 security; theory",
  review =       "ACM CR 8706-0484",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.0}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, General,
                 UNIX. {\bf D.4.7}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Organization and Design, Interactive systems. {\bf
                 K.2}: Computing Milieux, HISTORY OF COMPUTING.",
}

@Article{Tanenbaum:1985:DOS,
  author =       "Andrew S. Tanenbaum and Robbert {van Renesse}",
  title =        "Distributed Operating Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "419--470",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6041.6074",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/Mach.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6074.html",
  abstract =     "Distributed operating systems have many aspects in
                 common with centralized ones, but they also differ in
                 certain ways. This paper is intended as an introduction
                 to distributed operating systems, and especially to
                 current university research about them. After a
                 discussion of what constitutes a distributed operating
                 system and how it is distinguished from a computer
                 network, various key design issues are discussed. Then
                 several examples of current research projects are
                 examined in some detail, namely, the Cambridge
                 Distributed Computing System, Amoeba, V, and Eden.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Vrije Univ, Amsterdam, Neth",
  affiliationaddress = "Vrije Univ, Amsterdam, Neth",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Amoeba system; Cambridge distributed computing system;
                 computer operating systems; computer systems, digital
                 --- Distributed; design; distributed operating systems;
                 Eden system, algorithms; reliability; Research;
                 security; V system",
  review =       "ACM CR 8612-1093",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.7}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Organization
                 and Design, Distributed systems. {\bf D.4.3}: Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, File Systems Management, Distributed
                 file systems. {\bf D.4.5}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Reliability, Fault-tolerance. {\bf D.4.6}: Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Security and Protection, Access
                 controls. {\bf D.4.0}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 General. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Network operating systems.",
}

@Article{Cardelli:1985:UTD,
  author =       "Luca Cardelli and Peter Wegner",
  title =        "On Understanding Types, Data Abstraction, and
                 Polymorphism",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "471--522",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6041.6042",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6042.html",
  abstract =     "Our objective is to understand the notion of type in
                 programming languages, present a model of typed,
                 polymorphic programming languages that reflects recent
                 research in type theory, and examine the relevance of
                 recent research to the design of practical programming
                 languages. Object-oriented languages provide both a
                 framework and a motivation for exploring the
                 interaction among the concepts of type, data
                 abstraction, and polymorphism, since they extend the
                 notion of type to data abstraction and since type
                 inheritance is an important form of polymorphism. We
                 develop a $ \lambda $-calculus-based model for type
                 systems that allows us to explore these interactions in
                 a simple setting, unencumbered by complexities of
                 production programming languages. The evolution of
                 languages from untyped universes to monomorphic and
                 then polymorphic type systems is reviewed. Mechanisms
                 for polymorphism such as overloading, coercion,
                 subtyping, and parameterization are examined. A
                 unifying framework for polymorphic type systems is
                 developed in terms of the typed $ \lambda $-calculus
                 augmented to include binding of types by quantification
                 as well as binding of values by abstraction. The typed
                 $ \lambda $-calculus is augmented by universal
                 quantification to model generic functions with type
                 parameters, existential quantification and packaging
                 (information hiding) to model abstract data types, and
                 bounded quantification to model subtypes and type
                 inheritance. In this way we obtain a simple and precise
                 characterization of a powerful type system that
                 includes abstract data types, parametric polymorphism,
                 and multiple inheritance in a single consistent
                 framework. The mechanisms for type checking for the
                 augmented $ \lambda $-calculus are discussed. The
                 augmented typed $ \lambda $-calculus is used as a
                 programming language for a variety of illustrative
                 examples. We christen this language Fun because fun
                 instead of $ \lambda $ is the functional abstraction
                 keyword and because it is pleasant to deal with. Fun is
                 mathematically simple and can serve as a basis for the
                 design and implementation of real programming languages
                 with type facilities that are more powerful and
                 expressive than those of existing programming
                 languages. In particular, it provides a basis for the
                 design of strongly typed object-oriented languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "AT\&T Bell Lab, Murray Hill, NJ, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "AT\&T Bell Lab, Murray Hill, NJ, USA",
  annote =       "Ada examples, full set of type inference rules.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer metatheory; computer programming languages;
                 data abstraction; lambda-calculus, languages;
                 polymorphism; Theory; theory; type",
  review =       "ACM CR 8703-0173",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Constructs and Features, Abstract data types. {\bf
                 F.3.3}: Theory of Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF
                 PROGRAMS, Studies of Program Constructs, Type
                 structure. {\bf F.4.1}: Theory of Computation,
                 MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES, Mathematical
                 Logic, Lambda calculus and related systems. {\bf
                 D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Constructs and Features, Data types and structures.",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1986:ATIa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 00:50:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1986:AAa,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 00:50:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Perrott:1986:SL,
  author =       "R. H. Perrott and A. Zarea-Aliabadi",
  title =        "Supercomputer Languages",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--22",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6462.6463",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6463.html",
  abstract =     "The high-level languages proposed for supercomputers,
                 such as vector and array processors, have been designed
                 using one of the following two approaches: (1) an
                 existing sequential language is adapted, (2) a new
                 language based on the hardware is developed. Recently,
                 there has emerged a third approach, which does not
                 require the programmer to be aware of the sequential
                 nature of the language or the hardware characteristics.
                 Examples of these language groups are examined to
                 illustrate their main features and what is required of
                 a programmer when using such languages. The study
                 therefore enables a comparison of the different
                 language approaches to be made.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Queen's Univ of Belfast, Belfast, North Irel",
  affiliationaddress = "Queen's Univ of Belfast, Belfast, North Irel",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages; computer systems,
                 digital --- Parallel Processing; Fortran; languages;
                 Pascal, design; supercomputer languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8703-0162",
  subject =      "{\bf C.1.2}: Computer Systems Organization, PROCESSOR
                 ARCHITECTURES, Multiple Data Stream Architectures
                 (Multiprocessors). {\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING
                 TECHNIQUES, Concurrent Programming. {\bf D.3.2}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, FORTRAN. {\bf D.3.3}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and
                 Features. {\bf C.5.1}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION, Large and Medium
                 (``Mainframe'') Computers, Super (very large)
                 computers. {\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING
                 LANGUAGES, Language Classifications, ACTUS.",
}

@Article{Galil:1986:EAF,
  author =       "Zvi Galil",
  title =        "Efficient Algorithms for Finding Maximum Matching in
                 Graphs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "23--38",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6462.6502",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6502.html",
  abstract =     "This paper surveys the techniques used for designing
                 the most efficient algorithms for finding a maximum
                 cardinality or weighted matching in (general or
                 bipartite) graphs. It also lists some open problems
                 concerning possible improvements in existing algorithms
                 and the existence of fast parallel algorithms for these
                 problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Columbia Univ, New York, NY, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Columbia Univ, New York, NY, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; computer programming; computer systems,
                 digital --- Parallel Processing; mathematical
                 techniques --- Graph Theory; maximum cardinality;
                 maximum matching; parallel algorithms, algorithms;
                 theory; verification; weighted matching",
  review =       "ACM CR 8702-0084",
  subject =      "{\bf F.2.2}: Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF
                 ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical
                 Algorithms and Problems, Computations on discrete
                 structures. {\bf G.2.2}: Mathematics of Computing,
                 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS, Graph Theory, Graph algorithms.",
}

@Article{Misra:1986:DDE,
  author =       "Jayadev Misra",
  title =        "Distributed Discrete-Event Simulation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--65",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6462.6485",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6485.html",
  abstract =     "Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an
                 inherently sequential algorithm. In practice,
                 simulations of large systems are limited by this
                 sequentiality, because only a modest number of events
                 can be simulated. Distributed discrete-event simulation
                 (carried out on a network of processors with
                 asynchronous message-communicating capabilities) is
                 proposed as an alternative; it may provide better
                 performance by partitioning the simulation among the
                 component processors. The basic distributed simulation
                 scheme, which uses time encoding, is described. Its
                 major shortcoming is a possibility of deadlock. Several
                 techniques for deadlock avoidance and deadlock
                 detection are suggested. The focus of this work is on
                 the theory of distributed discrete-event simulation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "codes, symbolic --- Encoding; computer programming ---
                 Algorithms; computer simulation; computer systems,
                 digital --- Distributed; deadlock detection and
                 recovery; deadlock prevention; distributed
                 discrete-event simulation; message communicating
                 processes, algorithms; theory; verification",
  review =       "ACM CR 8706-0513",
  subject =      "{\bf I.6.1}: Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND
                 MODELING, Simulation Theory. {\bf D.1.3}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Concurrent Programming. {\bf
                 D.4.1}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Process
                 Management, Deadlocks. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed applications.",
}

@Article{Chin:1986:MBR,
  author =       "Roland T. Chin and Charles R. Dyer",
  title =        "Model-Based Recognition in Robot Vision",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--108",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/6462.6464",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:35:52 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/6464.html",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a comparative study and survey of
                 model-based object-recognition algorithms for robot
                 vision. The goal of these algorithms is to recognize
                 the identity, position, and orientation of randomly
                 oriented industrial parts. In one form this is commonly
                 referred to as the 'bin-picking' problem, in which the
                 parts to be recognized are presented in a jumbled bin.
                 The paper is organized according to 2-D, $ 2 \frac
                 {1}{2} $-D, and 3-D object representations, which are
                 used as the basis for the recognition algorithms. Three
                 central issues common to each category, namely, feature
                 extraction, modeling, and matching, are examined in
                 detail. An evaluation and comparison of existing
                 industrial part-recognition systems and algorithms is
                 given, providing insights for progress toward future
                 robot vision systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Algorithms; computer vision;
                 design; industrial part recognition, algorithms;
                 model-based recognition; object recognition; pattern
                 recognition; performance; robot vision; robotics ---
                 Vision Systems; robots, industrial --- Vision Systems",
  review =       "ACM CR 8703-0210",
  subject =      "{\bf I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene Understanding, Modeling
                 and recovery of physical attributes. {\bf I.5.4}:
                 Computing Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION,
                 Applications, Computer vision. {\bf I.4.6}: Computing
                 Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Segmentation. {\bf
                 I.4.7}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING,
                 Feature Measurement. {\bf I.2.9}: Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Robotics,
                 Sensors. {\bf I.4.8}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE
                 PROCESSING, Scene Analysis.",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1986:ATIb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "113--114",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 00:50:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1986:AAb,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--116",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 00:50:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wasserman:1986:EP,
  author =       "Anthony I. Wasserman",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "117--124",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 00:50:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Leveson:1986:SSW,
  author =       "Nancy G. Leveson",
  title =        "Software Safety: Why, What, and How",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "125--163",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/7474.7528",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/7528.html",
  abstract =     "Software safety issues become important when computers
                 are used to control real-time, safety-critical
                 processes. This survey attempts to explain why there is
                 a problem, what the problem is, and what is known about
                 how to solve it. Since this is a relatively new
                 software research area, emphasis is placed on
                 delineating the outstanding issues and research
                 topics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California, Irvine, CA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of California, Irvine, CA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computers --- Applications; design; human factors;
                 measurement; real-time processes; reliability;
                 Reliability; safety-critical processes; security,
                 computer software; software safety",
  review =       "ACM CR 8706-0480",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.0}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, General.
                 {\bf K.4.2}: Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY,
                 Social Issues. {\bf J.7}: Computer Applications,
                 COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS. {\bf D.2.10}: Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design.",
}

@Article{Hirschheim:1986:EPV,
  author =       "R. A. Hirschheim",
  title =        "The Effect of {{\em A Priori\/}} Views on the Social
                 Implications of Computing: The Case of Office
                 Automation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "165--195",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/7474.7476",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/7476.html",
  abstract =     "Office automation impact has received considerable
                 attention in the literature recently. Unfortunately,
                 that which has appeared is diverse and contradictory.
                 The relevant literature is reviewed, summarized, and
                 placed in a framework containing three positions on
                 office automation impact: optimism, pessimism, and
                 relativism. The basic assumptions and empirical support
                 for each position are noted and analyzed. It is
                 proposed that these positions are based on a number of
                 a priori views which guide the reporting and beliefs
                 about technological impact.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Oxford, Oxford, Engl",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Oxford, Oxford, Engl",
  classification = "723; 901; 913",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "economics; human factors; information systems;
                 management; performance; privacy; productivity; quality
                 of work life; social implications of computing;
                 technology --- Economic and Sociological Effects;
                 theory, office automation",
  review =       "ACM CR 8706-0508",
  subject =      "{\bf H.4.1}: Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation. {\bf H.4.3}:
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS,
                 Communications Applications. {\bf K.4.3}: Computing
                 Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY, Organizational Impacts.
                 {\bf K.4.0}: Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY,
                 General.",
}

@Article{Teorey:1986:LDM,
  author =       "Toby J. Teorey and Dongqing Yang and James P. Fry",
  title =        "A Logical Design Methodology for Relational Databases
                 Using the Extended Entity-Relationship Model",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "197--222",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/7474.7475",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Segev:1987:SFT,Teorey:1987:SFT}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/7475.html",
  abstract =     "A database design methodology is defined for the
                 design of large relational databases. First, the data
                 requirements are conceptualized using an extended
                 entity-relationship model, with the extensions being
                 additional semantics such as ternary relationships,
                 optional relationships, and the generalization
                 abstraction. The extended entity-relationship model is
                 then decomposed according to a set of basic
                 entity-relationship constructs, and these are
                 transformed into candidate relations. A set of basic
                 transformations has been developed for the three types
                 of relations: entity relations, extended entity
                 relations, and relationship relations. Candidate
                 relations are further analyzed and modified to attain
                 the highest degree of normalization desired.\par

                 The methodology produces database designs that are not
                 only accurate representations of reality, but flexible
                 enough to accommodate future processing requirements.
                 It also reduces the number of data dependencies that
                 must be analyzed, using the extended ER model
                 conceptualization, and maintains data integrity through
                 normalization. This approach can be implemented
                 manually or in a simple software package as long as a
                 ``good'' solution is acceptable and absolute optimality
                 is not required.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "database design, databases; database systems; design;
                 entity-relationship model; extended entity-relationship
                 model; integrity; logical design; management;
                 Relational; relational databases",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Data models.",
}

@Article{March:1986:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "227--228",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:03:07 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1986:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "229--229",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:03:07 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Mili:1986:FMS,
  author =       "Ali Mili and Jules Desharnais and Jean Raymond
                 Gagn{\'e}",
  title =        "Formal Models of Stepwise Refinement of Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "231--276",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/27632.28054",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  MRclass =      "68N05",
  MRnumber =     "896 093",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Mili:1987:CFM}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/28054.html",
  abstract =     "Of the many ways to express program specifications,
                 three of the most common are: as a pair of assertions,
                 an input assertion and an output assertion; as a
                 function mapping legal inputs to correct outputs; or as
                 a relation containing the input\slash output pairs that
                 are considered correct. The construction of programs
                 consists of mapping a potentially complex specification
                 into a program by recursively decomposing complex
                 specifications into simpler ones. We show how this
                 decomposition takes place in all three modes of
                 specification and draw some conclusions on the nature
                 of programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer metatheory; decomposition of
                 specifications; design; languages; program
                 specifications; software specifications; stepwise
                 refinement; Theory; theory; verification, computer
                 programming",
  review =       "ACM CR 8805-0349",
  subject =      "{\bf F.3.1}: Theory of Computation, LOGICS AND
                 MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS, Specifying and Verifying and
                 Reasoning about Programs. {\bf D.1.4}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Sequential Programming. {\bf
                 D.2.1}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Requirements/Specifications. {\bf D.2.2}: Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques. {\bf
                 D.2.4}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Program
                 Verification. {\bf D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING
                 LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and Features. {\bf
                 F.3.3}: Theory of Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF
                 PROGRAMS, Studies of Program Constructs.",
}

@Article{Ryder:1986:EAD,
  author =       "Barbara G. Ryder and Marvin C. Paull",
  title =        "Elimination Algorithms for Data Flow Analysis",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--316",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/27632.27649",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:22 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/27649.html",
  abstract =     "A unified model of a family of data flow algorithms,
                 called elimination methods, is presented. The
                 algorithms, which gather information about the
                 definition and use of data in a program or a set of
                 programs, are characterized by the manner in which they
                 solve the systems of equations that describe data flow
                 problems of interest. The unified model provides
                 implementation-independent descriptions of the
                 algorithms to facilitate comparisons among them and
                 illustrate the sources of improvement in worst case
                 complexity bounds. This tutorial provides a study in
                 algorithm design, as well as a new view of these
                 algorithms and their interrelationships.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Rutgers Univ, New Brunswick, NJ, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Rutgers Univ, New Brunswick, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithm design; Algorithms; algorithms; computer
                 software --- Design; data flow algorithms; elimination
                 methods; languages, computer programming",
  review =       "ACM CR 8803-0190",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.4}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES,
                 Processors, Optimization. {\bf F.2.0}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, General.",
}

@Article{March:1986:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "319--319",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:06:07 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1986:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--321",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:06:07 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Batini:1986:CAM,
  author =       "C. Batini and M. Lenzerini and S. B. Navathe",
  title =        "A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database
                 Schema Integration",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--364",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/27633.27634",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/27634.html",
  abstract =     "One of the fundamental principles of the database
                 approach is that a database allows a nonredundant,
                 unified representation of all data managed in an
                 organization. This is achieved only when methodologies
                 are available to support integration across
                 organizational and application
                 boundaries.\par

                 Methodologies for database design usually perform the
                 design activity by separately producing several
                 schemas, representing parts of the application, which
                 are subsequently merged. Database schema integration is
                 the activity of integrating the schemas of existing or
                 proposed databases in a global, unified schema.\par

                 The aim of the paper is to provide first a unifying
                 framework for the problem of schema integration, then a
                 comparative review of the work done thus far in this
                 area. Such a framework, with the associated analysis of
                 the existing approaches, provides a basis for
                 identifying strengths and weaknesses of individual
                 methodologies, as well as general guidelines for future
                 improvements and extensions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Rome, Rome, Italy",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Rome, Rome, Italy",
  annote =       "Comparisons of 12 established schema integration
                 methodologies. Examples include relational, structural,
                 extended E-R model.",
  annote2 =      "A very good comparison of different approaches to
                 schema migration. Formal treatment of the semantics is
                 given. Definitions of concepts of equivalence of
                 schemas created. Categorization of problems in Schema
                 integration. Overview and metrics of existing
                 systems.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "conceptual database design, conceptual database
                 design; database integration; database management;
                 database schema integration; database systems; Design;
                 design; information systems; information systems
                 design; management; models; view integration",
  review =       "ACM CR 8802-0107",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Schema and subschema. {\bf H.2.1}:
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Logical
                 Design, Data models. {\bf D.2.1}: Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Requirements/Specifications,
                 Methodologies. {\bf H.2.5}: Information Systems,
                 DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Heterogeneous Databases.",
}

@Article{Veen:1986:DMA,
  author =       "Arthur H. Veen",
  title =        "Dataflow Machine Architecture",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "365--396",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/27633.28055",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/28055.html",
  abstract =     "Dataflow machines are programmable computers of which
                 the hardware is optimized for fine-grain data-driven
                 parallel computation. The principles and complications
                 of data-driven execution are explained, as well as the
                 advantages and costs of fine-grain parallelism. A
                 general model for a dataflow machine is presented and
                 the major design options are discussed.\par

                 Most dataflow machines described in the literature are
                 surveyed on the basis of this model and its associated
                 technology. For general-purpose computing the most
                 promising dataflow machines are those that employ
                 packet-switching communication and support general
                 recursion. Such a recursion mechanism requires an
                 extremely fast mechanism to map a sparsely occupied
                 virtual space to a physical space of realistic size. No
                 solution has yet proved fully satisfactory.\par

                 A working prototype of one processing element is
                 described in detail. On the basis of experience with
                 this prototype, some of the objections raised against
                 the dataflow approach are discussed. It appears that
                 the overhead due to fine-grain parallelism can be made
                 acceptable by sophisticated compiling and employing
                 special hardware for the storage of data structures.
                 Many computing-intensive programs show sufficient
                 parallelism. In fact, a major problem is to restrain
                 parallelism when machine resources tend to get
                 overloaded. Another issue that requires further
                 investigation is the distribution of computation and
                 data structures over the processing elements.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Cent for Mathematics \& Computer Science, Amsterdam,
                 Neth",
  affiliationaddress = "Cent for Mathematics \& Computer Science,
                 Amsterdam, Neth",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer architecture --- Reviews; data structure
                 storage; data-driven architectures; data-flow
                 computers; dataflow machines; design; packet-switching
                 communication; Parallel Processing; performance,
                 computer systems, digital; recursion mechanism",
  subject =      "{\bf C.1.3}: Computer Systems Organization, PROCESSOR
                 ARCHITECTURES, Other Architecture Styles, Data-flow
                 architectures. {\bf C.1.2}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES, Multiple Data
                 Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors),
                 Multiple-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream
                 processors (MIMD). {\bf C.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS, Design studies.",
}

@Article{March:1987:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:09:13 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1987:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:09:13 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Lyytinen:1987:DPI,
  author =       "Kalle Lyytinen",
  title =        "Different Perspectives on Information Systems:
                 Problems and Solutions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--46",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/28865.28867",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:41 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/28867.html",
  abstract =     "The paper puts information systems (IS) research
                 dealing with IS problems into perspective. IS problems
                 are surveyed and classified. Using the IS research
                 framework suggested by Ives, Hamilton, and Davis,
                 research into IS problems is classified into several
                 perspectives whose relevance in coping with the
                 problems is discussed. Research perspectives focusing
                 on IS operations environment, IS development process,
                 IS development organization, IS development methods,
                 and IS theories are distinguished. The paper concludes
                 with suggestions for future research and how to deal
                 with IS problems in practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Model types for system specification.",
  classification = "723; 912",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer system measurement; data processing,
                 business; database systems; economics; human factors;
                 information systems; management, management",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.1}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Requirements/Specifications. {\bf D.2.2}: Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques. {\bf
                 D.2.6}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Programming
                 Environments. {\bf D.2.9}: Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Management. {\bf H.2.1}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Logical Design. {\bf
                 H.2.7}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Database Administration. {\bf K.4.3}: Computing
                 Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY, Organizational Impacts.
                 {\bf K.6.0}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING
                 AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, General. {\bf K.6.1}:
                 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Project and People Management.
                 {\bf K.6.3}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING
                 AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Software Management. {\bf
                 K.6.4}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, System Management.",
}

@Article{Kemper:1987:AGM,
  author =       "Alfons Kemper and Mechtild Wallrath",
  title =        "An Analysis of Geometric Modeling in Database
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--91",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/28865.28866",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:41 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/28866.html",
  abstract =     "The data-modeling and computational requirements for
                 integrated computer aided manufacturing (CAM) databases
                 are analyzed, and the most common representation
                 schemes for modeling solid geometric objects in a
                 computer are described. The primitive instancing model,
                 the boundary representation, and the constructive solid
                 geometry model are presented from the viewpoint of
                 database representation. Depending on the
                 representation scheme, one can apply geometric
                 transformations to the stored geometric objects. The
                 standard transformations, scaling, translation, and
                 rotation, are outlined with respect to the data
                 structure aspects. Some of the more recent developments
                 in the area of engineering databases with regard to
                 supporting these representation schemes are then
                 explored, and a classification scheme for technical
                 database management systems is presented that
                 distinguishes the systems according to their level of
                 object orientation: structural or behavioral object
                 orientation. First, several systems that are extensions
                 to the relational model are surveyed, then the
                 functional data model DAPLEX, the nonnormalized
                 relational model NF$^2$, and the database system R$^2$
                 D$^2$ that provides abstract data types in the NF$^2$
                 model are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "requirements for CAM. Functional, nested relations
                 (NFNF), RRDD models.",
  classification = "723; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "boundary representation; computer aided manufacturing;
                 constructive solid geometry, design; database systems;
                 geometric modeling; languages; mathematical models;
                 mathematical techniques --- Geometry; primitive
                 instancing model",
  review =       "ACM CR 8808-0605",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Constructs and Features, Abstract data types. {\bf
                 H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Data models. {\bf H.2.3}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages. {\bf J.6}:
                 Computer Applications, COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING. {\bf
                 I.3.5}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling, Hierarchy
                 and geometric transformations.",
}

@Article{March:1987:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "93--93",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:12:35 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1987:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "95--95",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:12:35 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1987:EP,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "97--104",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:12:35 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Atkinson:1987:TPD,
  author =       "Malcolm P. Atkinson and O. Peter Buneman",
  title =        "Types and Persistence in Database Programming
                 Languages",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "105--190",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62070.45066",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/45066.html",
  abstract =     "Traditionally, the interface between a programming
                 language and a database has either been through a set
                 of relatively low-level subroutine calls, or it has
                 required some form of embedding of one language in
                 another. Recently, the necessity of integrating
                 database and programming language techniques has
                 received some long-overdue recognition. In response, a
                 number of attempts have been made to construct
                 programming languages with completely integrated
                 database management systems. These languages, which we
                 term database programming languages, are the subject of
                 this review. The design of these languages is still in
                 its infancy, and the purpose of writing this review is
                 to identify the areas in which further research is
                 required. In particular, we focus on the problems of
                 providing a uniform type system and mechanisms for data
                 to persist. Of particular importance in solving these
                 problems are issues of polymorphism, type inheritance,
                 object identity, and the choice of structures to
                 represent sets of similar values. Our conclusion is
                 that there are areas of programming language research
                 --- modules, polymorphism, persistence, and inheritance
                 --- that must be developed and applied to achieve the
                 goal of a useful and consistent database programming
                 language. Other research areas of equal importance,
                 such as implementation, transaction handling, and
                 concurrency, are not examined here in any detail.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotl",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotl",
  annote =       "Illustrated with 4 tasks. Polymorphism, type
                 inheritance, object identity, and the choice of
                 structures to represent sets of similar values.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "data models; data types; database programming
                 languages; database systems; design; Design; languages,
                 computer programming languages; object-oriented
                 programming; type inheritance",
  review =       "ACM CR 8904-0224",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Specialized application languages.
                 {\bf D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Constructs and Features. {\bf H.2.3}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages.",
}

@Article{Segev:1987:SFT,
  author =       "Arie Segev",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Transitive Dependencies",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "191--192",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:12:35 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Teorey:1986:LDM,Teorey:1987:SFT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Teorey:1987:SFT,
  author =       "Toby J. Teorey",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Transitive Dependencies",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "193--193",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:12:35 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Teorey:1986:LDM,Segev:1987:SFT}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Mili:1987:CFM,
  author =       "Ali Mili and Jules Desharnais and Jean Raymond
                 Gagn{\'e}",
  title =        "Corrigendum: {``Formal Models of Stepwise Refinements
                 of Programs''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "195--195",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 22:25:51 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Mili:1986:FMS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1987:ATIc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--198",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:16:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1987:AAc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "199--199",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:16:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hull:1987:SDM,
  author =       "Richard Hull and Roger King",
  title =        "Semantic Database Modeling: Survey, Applications, and
                 Research Issues",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "201--260",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/45072.45073",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: USC, TR-CRI 87-20, March 1987
                 (revised) and USC, TR-CRI 86-21, March 1986.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/45073.html",
  abstract =     "Most common database management systems represent
                 information in a simple record-based format. Semantic
                 modeling provides richer data structuring capabilities
                 for database applications. In particular, research in
                 this area has articulated a number of constructs that
                 provide mechanisms for representing structurally
                 complex interrelations among data typically arising in
                 commercial applications. In general terms, semantic
                 modeling complements work on knowledge representation
                 (in artificial intelligence) and on the new generation
                 of database models based on the object-oriented
                 paradigm of programming languages. This paper presents
                 an in-depth discussion of semantic data modeling. It
                 reviews the philosophical motivations of semantic
                 models, including the need for high-level modeling
                 abstractions and the reduction of semantic overloading
                 of data type constructors. It then provides a tutorial
                 introduction to the primary components of semantic
                 models, which are the explicit representation of
                 objects, attributes of and relationships among objects,
                 type constructors for building complex types, ISA
                 relationships, and derived schema components. Next, a
                 survey of the prominent semantic models in the
                 literature is presented. Further, since a broad area of
                 research has developed around semantic modeling, a
                 number of related topics based on these models are
                 discussed, including data languages, graphical
                 interfaces, theoretical investigations, and physical
                 implementation strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "A good overview of semantics and data models. It draws
                 contrasts between different types of semantic models,
                 and between OO and semantic extensions to DBMS. A
                 tutorial on the basic concepts is also presented. Also
                 considered is the relations between semantic data
                 models and AI constructs. \ldots{} Hierarchic, network
                 and relational. Semantic data models. IFO model. Paper
                 difficult to read. The original developers'
                 presentations are the basis of discussion.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "design; languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8904-0250",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Data models. {\bf H.2.0}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, General. {\bf H.2.3}:
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages,
                 Data description languages (DDL). {\bf I.2.4}:
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods.",
}

@Article{Lelewer:1987:DC,
  author =       "Debra A. Lelewer and Daniel S. Hirschberg",
  title =        "Data Compression",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--296",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/45072.45074",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:36:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/45074.html",
  abstract =     "This paper surveys a variety of data compression
                 methods spanning almost 40 years of research, from the
                 work of Shannon, Fano, and Huffman in the late 1940s to
                 a technique developed in 1986. The aim of data
                 compression is to reduce redundancy in stored or
                 communicated data, thus increasing effective data
                 density. Data compression has important application in
                 the areas of file storage and distributed systems.
                 Concepts from information theory as they relate to the
                 goals and evaluation of data compression methods are
                 discussed briefly. A framework for evaluation and
                 comparison of methods is constructed and applied to the
                 algorithms presented. Comparisons of both theoretical
                 and empirical natures are reported, and possibilities
                 for future research are suggested.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Reviews techniques that are reversible.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "adaptive coding; algorithms; data compression; Huffman
                 coding; text compression; theory",
  review =       "ACM CR 8902-0069",
  subject =      "{\bf E.4}: Data, CODING AND INFORMATION THEORY, Data
                 compaction and compression. {\bf H.3.2}: Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information
                 Storage. {\bf D.4.3}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, File
                 Systems Management, Distributed file systems.",
}

@Article{March:1987:ATId,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "299--299",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:18:57 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1987:AAd,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "301--301",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:18:57 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Knapp:1987:DDD,
  author =       "Edgar Knapp",
  title =        "Deadlock Detection in Distributed Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "303--328",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/45075.46163",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/CCR.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/46163.html",
  abstract =     "The problem of deadlock detection in distributed
                 systems has undergone extensive study. An important
                 application relates to distributed database systems. A
                 uniform model in which published algorithms can be cast
                 is given, and the fundamental principles on which
                 distributed deadlock detection schemes are based are
                 presented. These principles represent mechanisms for
                 developing distributed algorithms in general and
                 deadlock detection schemes in particular. In addition,
                 a hierarchy of deadlock models is presented; each model
                 is characterized by the restrictions that are imposed
                 upon the form resource requests can assume. The
                 hierarchy includes the well-known models of resource
                 and communication deadlock. Algorithms are classified
                 according to both the underlying principles and the
                 generality of resource requests they permit. A number
                 of algorithms are discussed in detail, and their
                 complexity in terms of the number of messages employed
                 is compared. The point is made that correctness proofs
                 for such algorithms using operational arguments are
                 cumbersome and error prone and, therefore, that only
                 completely formal proofs are sufficient for
                 demonstrating correctness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA",
  annote =       "Four main types: 1. path-pushing algorithms, 2.
                 edge-chasing algorithms, 3. diffusing computations and
                 4. global state detection algorithms. Point about many
                 path-pushing were found to be incorrect. In
                 edge-chasing, a probe message is forwarded to all
                 processes that the receiving process waits for. A
                 deadlock exists if a probe message makes its way back
                 to the originating process.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer programming --- Algorithms;
                 correctness proofs; deadlock detection; design,
                 database systems; Distributed; hierarchy of deadlock
                 models; transaction processing",
  review =       "ACM CR 8902-0066",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.1}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Process
                 Management, Deadlocks. {\bf D.4.1}: Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Process Management, Concurrency. {\bf C.2.4}:
                 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION
                 NETWORKS, Distributed Systems. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer
                 Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed databases. {\bf
                 D.4.7}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Organization and
                 Design, Distributed systems. {\bf H.2.4}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems, Distributed
                 systems.",
}

@Article{Mills:1987:RTC,
  author =       "Carol Bergfeld Mills and Linda J. Weldon",
  title =        "Reading Text from Computer Screens",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "329--358",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/45075.46162",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:09 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/46162.html",
  abstract =     "This paper reviews empirical studies concerning the
                 readability of text from computer screens. The review
                 focuses on the form and physical attributes of complex,
                 realistic displays of text material. Most studies
                 comparing paper and computer screen readability show
                 that screens are less readable than paper. There are
                 many factors that could affect the readability of
                 computer screens. The factors explored in this review
                 are the features of characters, the formatting of the
                 screen, the contrast and color of the characters and
                 background, and dynamic aspects of the screen. Numerous
                 areas for future research are pinpointed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "722",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer screens; display devices --- Human Factors;
                 experimentation; Human Factors; human factors, computer
                 interfaces; readability of text; screen design; text
                 presentation",
  review =       "ACM CR 8907-0453",
  subject =      "{\bf B.4.2}: Hardware, INPUT/OUTPUT AND DATA
                 COMMUNICATIONS, Input/Output Devices, Image display.
                 {\bf H.1.2}: Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf
                 H.1.2}: Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human information processing.
                 {\bf H.4.3}: Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Communications Applications.",
}

@Article{March:1988:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:22:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1988:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 01:22:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Takagi:1988:QAP,
  author =       "Hideaki Takagi",
  title =        "Queuing Analysis of Polling Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--28",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62058.62059",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  MRclass =      "68-02 (68M10 68M20 90B22 90B35)",
  MRnumber =     "89f:68001",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1988.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/62059.html",
  abstract =     "A polling model is a system of multiple queues
                 accessed by a single server in cyclic order. Polling
                 models provide performance evaluation criteria for a
                 variety of demand-based, multiple-access schemes in
                 computer and communication systems. This paper presents
                 an overview of the state of the art of polling model
                 analysis, as well as an extensive list of references.
                 In particular, single-buffer systems and
                 infinite-buffer systems with exhaustive, gated, and
                 limited service disciplines are treated. There is also
                 some discussion of systems with a noncyclic order of
                 service and systems with priority. Applications to
                 computer networks are illustrated, and future research
                 topics are suggested.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Tokyo Research Lab, Tokyo, Jpn",
  affiliationaddress = "Tokyo Research Lab, Tokyo, Jpn",
  classification = "716; 717; 718; 723; 922",
  descriptors =  "Queueing system; polling; finite queue; LAN; modeling;
                 infinite queue; cyclic service; token ring; performance
                 evaluation; queueing theory;",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "computer networks --- Mathematical Models; cyclic
                 order; infinite-buffer systems; information theory;
                 multiple queues; performance, probability; polling
                 models; Queueing Theory; single server; single-buffer
                 systems; telecommunication systems --- Analysis",
  subject =      "{\bf C.2.5}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Local Networks. {\bf
                 C.4}: Computer Systems Organization, PERFORMANCE OF
                 SYSTEMS, Modeling techniques. {\bf D.4.8}: Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Performance, Queueing theory.",
}

@Article{Danforth:1988:TTO,
  author =       "Scott Danforth and Chris Tomlinson",
  title =        "Type Theories and Object-Oriented Programming",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "29--72",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62058.62060",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  MRclass =      "68-02 (68N15 68Q65)",
  MRnumber =     "958 779",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/62060.html",
  abstract =     "Object-oriented programming is becoming a popular
                 approach to the construction of complex software
                 systems. Benefits of object orientation include support
                 for modular design, code sharing, and extensibility. In
                 order to make the most of these advantages, a type
                 theory for objects and their interactions should be
                 developed to aid checking and controlled derivation of
                 programs and to support early binding of code bodies
                 for efficiency. As a step in this direction, this paper
                 surveys a number of existing type theories and examines
                 the manner and extent to which these theories are able
                 to represent the ideas found in object-oriented
                 programming. Of primary interest are the models
                 provided by type theories for abstract data types and
                 inheritance, and the major portion of this paper is
                 devoted to these topics. Code fragments illustrative of
                 the various approaches are provided and discussed. The
                 introduction provides an overview of object-oriented
                 programming and types in programming languages; the
                 summary provides a comparative evaluation of the
                 reviewed typing systems, along with suggestions for
                 future work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Systems Technology Lab, Austin, TX, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Systems Technology Lab, Austin, TX, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "abstract data types; code sharing; codes, symbolic;
                 computer metatheory --- Programming Theory; computer
                 programming; computer software; inheritance;
                 object-oriented programming; polymorphism, languages;
                 Theory; theory; type theories",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Constructs and Features, Data types and structures.
                 {\bf F.3.3}: Theory of Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS
                 OF PROGRAMS, Studies of Program Constructs, Type
                 structure. {\bf F.4.1}: Theory of Computation,
                 MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES, Mathematical
                 Logic, Lambda calculus and related systems.",
}

@Article{March:1988:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "73--73",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:24:23 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1988:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "75--75",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:24:23 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1988:EP,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "77--84",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:24:23 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Enbody:1988:DHS,
  author =       "R. J. Enbody and H. C. Du",
  title =        "Dynamic Hashing Schemes",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "85--113",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/46157.330532",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "A new type of dynamic file access called {\em dynamic
                 hashing\/} has recently emerged. It promises the
                 flexibility of handling dynamic files while preserving
                 the fast access times expected from hashing. Such a
                 fast, dynamic file access scheme is needed to support
                 modern database systems. This paper surveys dynamic
                 hashing schemes and examines their critical design
                 issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Michigan State Univ, East Lansing, MI, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Michigan State Univ, East Lansing, MI, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "database management; database systems; dynamic file
                 access; dynamic hashing; Dynamic hashing, data
                 processing; File Organization; hash-table
                 representations",
}

@Article{Kraemer:1988:CBS,
  author =       "Kenneth L. Kraemer and John Leslie King",
  title =        "Computer-Based Systems for Cooperative Work and Group
                 Decision Making",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--146",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/46157.46158",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/46158.html",
  abstract =     "Application of computer and communications technology
                 to cooperative work and group decision making has grown
                 out of three traditions: computer-based communications,
                 computer-based information service provision, and
                 computer-based decision support. This paper reviews the
                 group decision support systems (GDSSs) that have been
                 configured to meet the needs of groups at work, and
                 evaluates the experience to date with such systems.
                 Progress with GDSSs has proved to be slower than
                 originally anticipated because of shortcomings with
                 available technology, poor integration of the various
                 components of the computing `package,' and incomplete
                 understanding of the nature of group decision making.
                 Nevertheless, the field shows considerable promise with
                 respect to the creation of tools to aid in group
                 decision making and the development of sophisticated
                 means of studying the dynamics of decision making in
                 groups.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California, Irvine, CA, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of California, Irvine, CA, USA",
  classification = "722; 723; 901",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Applications; computer-based systems; cooperative
                 work; decision support; decision theory and analysis;
                 experimentation; group decision making; human factors;
                 management, computer systems, digital; technology ---
                 Economic and Sociological Effects; teleconferencing",
  subject =      "{\bf K.6.0}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF
                 COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, General. {\bf
                 K.4.3}: Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY,
                 Organizational Impacts. {\bf J.1}: Computer
                 Applications, ADMINISTRATIVE DATA PROCESSING. {\bf
                 J.7}: Computer Applications, COMPUTERS IN OTHER
                 SYSTEMS.",
}

@Article{March:1988:ATIc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "149--149",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:28:04 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1988:AAc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "151--151",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:28:04 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Peckham:1988:SDM,
  author =       "Joan Peckham and Fred Maryanski",
  title =        "Semantic Data Models",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "153--189",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62061.62062",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/62062.html",
  abstract =     "Semantic data models have emerged from a requirement
                 for more expressive conceptual data models. Current
                 generation data models lack direct support for
                 relationships, data abstraction, inheritance,
                 constraints, unstructured objects, and the dynamic
                 properties of an application. Although the need for
                 data models with richer semantics is widely recognized,
                 no single approach has won general acceptance. This
                 paper describes the generic properties of semantic data
                 models and presents a representative selection of
                 models that have been proposed since the mid-1970s. In
                 addition to explaining the features of the individual
                 models, guidelines are offered for the comparison of
                 models. The paper concludes with a discussion of future
                 directions in the area of conceptual data modeling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Connecticut",
  affiliationaddress = "Storrs, CT, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Conceptual Data Models; Database Languages; design;
                 languages, Database Systems; Logical Database Design;
                 Semantic Data Models",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.1}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Requirements/Specifications, Methodologies. {\bf
                 D.2.10}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design. {\bf
                 D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Design languages. {\bf H.2.1}:
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Logical
                 Design, Data models. {\bf H.2.3}: Information Systems,
                 DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages, Data description
                 languages (DDL). {\bf I.2.4}: Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Knowledge Representation
                 Formalisms and Methods, Semantic networks. {\bf K.6.3}:
                 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Software Management, Software
                 development.",
}

@Article{Mannino:1988:SPE,
  author =       "Michael V. Mannino and Paicheng Chu and Thomas Sager",
  title =        "Statistical Profile Estimation in Database Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "191--221",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62061.62063",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/62063.html",
  abstract =     "A statistical profile summarizes the instances of a
                 database. It describes aspects such as the number of
                 tuples, the number of values, the distribution of
                 values, the correlation between value sets, and the
                 distribution of tuples among secondary storage units.
                 Estimation of database profiles is critical in the
                 problems of query optimization, physical database
                 design, and database performance prediction. This paper
                 describes a model of a database of profile, relates
                 this model to estimating the cost of database
                 operations, and surveys methods of estimating profiles.
                 The operators and objects in the model include build
                 profile, estimate profile, and update profile. The
                 estimate operator is classified by the relational
                 algebra operator (select, project, join), the property
                 to be estimated (cardinality, distribution of values,
                 and other parameters), and the underlying method
                 (parametric, nonparametric, and ad-hoc). The accuracy,
                 overhead, and assumptions of methods are discussed in
                 detail. Relevant research in both the database and the
                 statistics disciplines is incorporated in the detailed
                 discussion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Texas at Austin",
  affiliationaddress = "Austin, TX, USA",
  annote =       "A statistical profile summarizes the number of tuples
                 and values, the distribution of values, the correlation
                 between value sets, and the distribution of tuples
                 among storage units.. This paper surveys methods of
                 estimating profiles (parametric, nonparametric and
                 ad-hoc methods).",
  classification = "723; 921; 922",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Boolean Expressions; Database Profile;
                 languages; Mathematical Techniques--Estimation;
                 performance, Database Systems; Relational; Statistical
                 Methods; Statistical Profile Estimation",
  subject =      "{\bf H.0}: Information Systems, GENERAL. {\bf H.2.2}:
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Physical
                 Design, Access methods. {\bf H.2.3}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages, Query
                 languages. {\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE
                 MANAGEMENT, Systems, Query processing. {\bf H.3.3}:
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL,
                 Information Search and Retrieval, Query formulation.",
}

@Article{March:1988:ATId,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "223--224",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:30:17 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1988:AAd,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "225--225",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:30:17 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Johnson:1988:SST,
  author =       "Allen M. {Johnson, Jr.} and Miroslaw Malek",
  title =        "Survey of Software Tools for Evaluating Reliability,
                 Availability, and Serviceability",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "227--269",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/50020.50062",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1988.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/50062.html",
  abstract =     "In computer design, it is essential to know the
                 effectiveness of different design options in improving
                 performance and dependability. Various software tools
                 have been created to evaluate these parameters,
                 applying both analytic and simulation techniques, and
                 this paper reviews those related primarily to
                 reliability, availability, and serviceability. The
                 purpose, type of models used, type of systems modeled,
                 inputs, and outputs are given for each package.
                 Examples of some of the key modeling elements such as
                 Markov chains, fault trees, and Petri nets are
                 discussed. The information is compiled to facilitate
                 recognition of similarities and differences between
                 various models and tools and can be used to aid in
                 selecting models and tools for a particular application
                 or designing tools for future needs. Tools included in
                 the evaluation are CARE-III, ARIES-82, SAVE, MARKl,
                 HARP, SHARPE, GRAMP, SURF, SURE, ASSIST, METASAN,
                 METFAC, ARM, and SUPER. Modeling tools, such as REL70,
                 RELCOMP, CARE, CARSRA, and CAST, that were forerunners
                 to some of the current tools are noted for their
                 contributions. Modeling elements that have gained
                 widespread use for general systems, as well as
                 fault-tolerant systems, are included. Tools capable of
                 modeling both repairable and nonrepairable systems,
                 accepting constant or time varying failure rates, and
                 predicting reliability, availability, and
                 serviceability parameters are surveyed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM",
  affiliationaddress = "Austin, TX, USA",
  classification = "722; 723; 913",
  descriptors =  "Reliability; method; survey; Petri net",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Availability; Computer Software; Maintainability;
                 measurement; Reliability; reliability, Computer
                 Systems, Digital; Serviceability; Software Tools",
  subject =      "{\bf C.4}: Computer Systems Organization, PERFORMANCE
                 OF SYSTEMS, Reliability, availability, and
                 serviceability. {\bf C.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS, Measurement
                 techniques. {\bf C.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS, Modeling techniques. {\bf
                 I.6.3}: Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND
                 MODELING, Applications.",
}

@Article{Samet:1988:HRC,
  author =       "Hanan Samet",
  title =        "Hierarchical Representations of Collections of Small
                 Rectangles",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "271--309",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/50020.50021",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:47 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/50021.html",
  abstract =     "A tutorial survey is presented of hierarchical data
                 structures for representing collections of small
                 rectangles. Rectangles are often used as an
                 approximation of shapes for which they serve as the
                 minimum rectilinear enclosing object. They arise in
                 applications in cartography as well as very large-scale
                 integration (VLSI) design rule checking. The different
                 data structures are discussed in terms of how they
                 support the execution of queries involving proximity
                 relations. The focus is on intersection and subset
                 queries. Several types of representations are
                 described. Some are designed for use with the
                 plane-sweep paradigm, which works well for static
                 collections of rectangles. Others are oriented toward
                 dynamic collections. In this case, one representation
                 reduces each rectangle to a point in a higher
                 multidimensional space and treats the problem as one
                 involving point data. The other representation is area
                 based --- that is, it depends on the physical extent of
                 each rectangle.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Maryland",
  affiliationaddress = "College Park, MD, USA",
  classification = "405; 714; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Cartography; Collections of Small
                 Rectangles; Data Structures; Design Rule Checking;
                 Hierarchical Representations; Image Processing;
                 Integrated Circuits, VLSI--Computer Aided Design; Maps
                 and Mapping--Computer Applications; theory, Data
                 Processing",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.5}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Computational Geometry and Object Modeling,
                 Curve, surface, solid, and object representations. {\bf
                 I.3.5}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling, Geometric
                 algorithms, languages, and systems. {\bf B.7.2}:
                 Hardware, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, Design Aids, Layout.
                 {\bf B.7.2}: Hardware, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, Design
                 Aids, Placement and routing. {\bf E.1}: Data, DATA
                 STRUCTURES, Trees. {\bf E.5}: Data, FILES,
                 Organization/structure. {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems,
                 Geometrical problems and computations. {\bf F.2.2}:
                 Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND
                 PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and
                 Problems, Routing and layout. {\bf H.2.2}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Physical Design, Access
                 methods. {\bf H.3.2}: Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information Storage, File
                 organization. {\bf I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene
                 Understanding, Representations, data structures, and
                 transforms. {\bf J.6}: Computer Applications,
                 COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING, Computer-aided design
                 (CAD).",
}

@Article{March:1989:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1989:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hartson:1989:HCI,
  author =       "H. Rex Hartson and Deborah Hix",
  title =        "Human-Computer Interface Development: Concepts and
                 Systems for Its Management",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--92",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62029.62031",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/62031.html",
  abstract =     "Human-computer interface management, from a computer
                 science viewpoint, focuses on the process of developing
                 quality human-computer interfaces, including their
                 representation, design, implementation, execution,
                 evaluation, and maintenance. This survey presents
                 important concepts of interface management: dialogue
                 independence, structural modeling, representation,
                 interactive tools, rapid prototyping, development
                 methodologies, and control structures. Dialogue
                 independence is the keystone concept upon which all the
                 other concepts depend. It is a characteristic that
                 separates design of the interface from design of the
                 computational component of an application system so
                 that modifications in either tend not to cause changes
                 in the other. The role of a dialogue developer, whose
                 main purpose is to create quality interfaces, is a
                 direct result of the dialogue independence concept.
                 Structural models of the human-computer interface serve
                 as frameworks for understanding the elements of
                 interfaces and for guiding the dialogue developer in
                 their construction. Representation of the
                 human-computer interface is accomplished by a variety
                 of notational schemes for describing the interface.
                 Numerous kinds of interactive tools for human-computer
                 interface development free the dialogue developer from
                 much of the tedium of 'coding' dialogue. The early
                 ability to observe behavior of the interface --- and
                 indeed that of the whole application system ---
                 provided by rapid prototyping increases communication
                 among system designers, implementors, evaluators, and
                 end-users. Methodologies for interactive system
                 development consider interface management to be an
                 integral part of the overall development process and
                 give emphasis to evaluation in the development life
                 cycle. Finally, several types of control structures
                 govern how sequencing among dialogue and computational
                 components is designed and executed. Numerous systems
                 for human-computer interface management are presented t
                 o illustrate these concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Virginia Polytechnic Inst \& State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Blacksburg, VA, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Computer Interfaces--Human Factors;
                 Computer Software--Software Engineering; design;
                 Dialogue Developer; Dialogue Independence; Human
                 Computer Interface; human factors; Interface
                 Management; Man Machine Systems; management; theory,
                 Systems Science and Cybernetics; User Interface",
  review =       "ACM CR 8911-0841",
  subject =      "{\bf K.6.1}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF
                 COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Project and People
                 Management. {\bf H.1.2}: Information Systems, MODELS
                 AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems. {\bf D.2.2}:
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques.
                 {\bf D.2.10}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design,
                 Methodologies.",
}

@Article{Knight:1989:UMS,
  author =       "Kevin Knight",
  title =        "Unification: a Multidisciplinary Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--124",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/62029.62030",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  MRclass =      "68T15 (03B35 03B70 68N17)",
  MRnumber =     "91g:68142",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:37:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/62030.html",
  abstract =     "The unification problem and several variants are
                 presented. Various algorithms and data structures are
                 discussed. Research on unification arising in several
                 areas of computer science is surveyed; these areas
                 include theorem proving, logic programming, and natural
                 language processing. Sections of the paper include
                 examples that highlight particular uses of unification
                 and the special problems encountered. Other topics
                 covered are resolution, higher order logic, the occur
                 check, infinite terms, feature structures, equational
                 theories, inheritance, parallel algorithms,
                 generalization, lattices, and other applications of
                 unification. The paper is intended for readers with a
                 general computer science background --- no specific
                 knowledge of any of the above topics is assumed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Carnegie-Mellon Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  classification = "721; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Artificial Intelligence; Computational
                 Complexity; Computer Metatheory; Equational Theories;
                 Feature Structures; Higher Order Logic; languages,
                 Automata Theory; Logic Programming; Natural Language
                 Processing; Theorem Proving",
  review =       "ACM CR 9005-0423",
  subject =      "{\bf I.2.3}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Deduction and Theorem Proving. {\bf
                 I.1.3}: Computing Methodologies, ALGEBRAIC
                 MANIPULATION, Languages and Systems, Substitution
                 mechanisms. {\bf E.1}: Data, DATA STRUCTURES, Graphs.
                 {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF
                 ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical
                 Algorithms and Problems, Pattern matching. {\bf I.2.7}:
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Natural Language Processing.",
}

@Article{March:1989:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "125--126",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1989:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "127--127",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1989:EP,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "129--136",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 29 23:55:40 1994",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/IMMD_IV.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Abramson:1989:CST,
  author =       "Bruce Abramson",
  title =        "Control Strategies for Two-Player Games",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "137--161",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/66443.66444",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  MRclass =      "90D05",
  MRnumber =     "1 072 799",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/66444.html",
  abstract =     "Computer games have been around for almost as long as
                 computers. Most of these games, however, have been
                 designed in a rather ad hoc manner because many of
                 their basic components have never been adequately
                 defined. In this paper some deficiencies in the
                 standard model of computer games, the minimax model,
                 are pointed out and the issues that a general theory
                 must address are outlined. Most of the discussion is
                 done in the context of control strategies, or sets of
                 criteria for move selection. A survey of control
                 strategies brings together results from two fields:
                 implementations of real games and theoretical
                 predictions derived on simplified game-trees. The
                 interplay between these results suggests a series of
                 open problems that have arisen during the course of
                 both analytic experimentation and practical experience
                 as the basis for a formal theory.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Southern California",
  affiliationaddress = "Los Angeles, CA, USA",
  classification = "723; 922",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Artificial Intelligence; Computer Games;
                 Computer Programming--Algorithms; Computer
                 Software--Applications; design; experimentation; Game
                 Theory; Mathematical Techniques--Trees; Minimax Model;
                 theory, Probability",
  review =       "ACM CR 9007-0605",
  subject =      "{\bf I.2.1}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Applications and Expert Systems, Games.
                 {\bf I.6.1}: Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND
                 MODELING, Simulation Theory, Model classification. {\bf
                 I.2.8}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Problem Solving, Control Methods, and
                 Search, Graph and tree search strategies.",
}

@Article{Ellman:1989:EBL,
  author =       "Thomas Ellman",
  title =        "Explanation-Based Learning: a Survey of Programs and
                 Perspectives",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "163--221",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/66443.66445",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/66445.html",
  abstract =     "Explanation-based learning (EBL) is a technique by
                 which an intelligent system can learn by observing
                 examples. EBL systems are characterized by the ability
                 to create justified generalizations from single
                 training instances. They are also distinguished by
                 their reliance on background knowledge of the domain
                 under study. Although EBL is usually viewed as a method
                 for performing generalization, it can be viewed in
                 other ways as well. In particular, EBL can be seen as a
                 method that performs four different learning tasks:
                 generalization, chunking, operationalization, and
                 analogy. This paper provides a general introduction to
                 the field of explanation-based learning. Considerable
                 emphasis is placed on showing how EBL combines the four
                 learning tasks mentioned above. The paper begins with a
                 presentation of an intuitive example of the EBL
                 technique. Subsequently EBL is placed in its historical
                 context and the relation between EBL and other areas of
                 machine learning is described. The major part of this
                 paper is a survey of selected EBL programs, which have
                 been chosen to show how EBL manifests each of the four
                 learning tasks. Attempts to formalize the EBL technique
                 are also briefly discussed. The paper concludes with a
                 discussion of the limitations of EBL and the major open
                 questions in the field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Columbia Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "New York, NY, USA",
  classification = "723; 731",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Applications; design; experimentation, Artificial
                 Intelligence; Explanation-Based Learning (EBL);
                 Knowledge Acquisition; Systems Science and
                 Cybernetics--Learning Systems",
  subject =      "{\bf I.2.6}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Learning.",
}

@Article{Colbourn:1989:ACD,
  author =       "Charles J. Colbourn and Paul C. {van Oorschot}",
  title =        "Applications of Combinatorial Designs in Computer
                 Science",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "223--250",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/66443.66446",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  MRclass =      "68Q25 (05B05 68P05 68R05 94A60)",
  MRnumber =     "91g:68078",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Mandl:1990:SF}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/66446.html",
  abstract =     "The theory of combinatorial designs has been used in
                 widely different areas of computation concerned with
                 the design and analysis of both algorithms and
                 hardware. Combinatorial designs capture a subtle
                 balancing property that is inherent in many difficult
                 problems and hence can provide a sophisticated tool for
                 addressing these problems. The role of combinatorial
                 designs in solving many problems that are basic to the
                 field of computing is explored in this paper. Case
                 studies of many applications of designs to computation
                 are given; these constitute a first survey, which
                 provides a representative sample of uses of designs.
                 More importantly, they suggest paradigms in which
                 designs can be used profitably in algorithm design and
                 analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Waterloo",
  affiliationaddress = "Waterloo, Ont, Can",
  classification = "722; 723; 921",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Combinatorial Design Theory, algorithms;
                 Computer Programming; Computer Science; Computer
                 Systems, Digital--Parallel Processing; Data
                 Processing--File Organization; design; Mathematical
                 Techniques--Combinatorial Mathematics; reliability;
                 security; theory",
  review =       "ACM CR 9006-0507",
  subject =      "{\bf G.2.1}: Mathematics of Computing, DISCRETE
                 MATHEMATICS, Combinatorics, Combinatorial algorithms.
                 {\bf G.2.2}: Mathematics of Computing, DISCRETE
                 MATHEMATICS, Graph Theory, Network problems. {\bf
                 B.6.1}: Hardware, LOGIC DESIGN, Design Styles,
                 Combinational logic. {\bf B.6.3}: Hardware, LOGIC
                 DESIGN, Design Aids. {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems,
                 Routing and layout. {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of Computation,
                 ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY,
                 Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems, Sorting and
                 searching.",
}

@Article{March:1989:ATIc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "251--251",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wegner:1989:ISI,
  author =       "Peter Wegner",
  title =        "{Guest Editor}'s Introduction to the Special Issue on
                 Programming Language Paradigms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "253--258",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:40:15 1994",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1989:AAc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "259--260",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Bal:1989:PLD,
  author =       "Henri E. Bal and Jennifer G. Steiner and Andrew S.
                 Tanenbaum",
  title =        "Programming Languages for Distributed Computing
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--322",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/72551.72552",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Parallel/par.misc.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/72552.html",
  abstract =     "When distributed systems first appeared, they were
                 programmed in traditional sequential languages, usually
                 with the addition of a few library procedures for
                 sending and receiving messages. As distributed
                 applications became more commonplace and more
                 sophisticated, this ad hoc approach became less
                 satisfactory. Researchers all over the world began
                 designing new programming languages specifically for
                 implementing distributed applications. These languages
                 and their history, their underlying principles, their
                 design, and their use are the subject of this paper. We
                 begin by giving our view of what a distributed system
                 is, illustrating with examples to avoid confusion on
                 this important and controversial point. We then
                 describe the three main characteristics that
                 distinguish distributed programming languages from
                 traditional sequential languages, namely, how they deal
                 with parallelism, communication, and partial failures.
                 Finally, we discuss 15 representative distributed
                 languages to give the flavor of each. These examples
                 include languages based on message passing, rendezvous,
                 remote procedure call, objects, and atomic
                 transactions, as well as functional languages, logic
                 languages, and distributed data structure languages.
                 The paper concludes with a comprehensive bibliography
                 listing over 200 papers on nearly 100 distributed
                 programming languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Vrije Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Amsterdam, Neth",
  annote =       "Not a great survey, but a good one. It does not
                 mention issues closer to what people think as operating
                 system issues. But, it represents a good reference
                 point with all these languages [a few of which I've
                 never heard]: ABCL/1, Act 1, Ada, Aeolus, ALPS, AMPL,
                 Argus, Avalon, Blaze, BNR Pascal, BRAVE, Camelot
                 Library, Cantor, [Concurrent CSP] CCSP, [Xerox] Cedar,
                 CLIX, Cluster 86, CMAY, Concurrent C [2], Concurrent
                 CLU, Concurrent LISP, Concurrent PROLOG, Concurrent
                 Smalltalk, CONIC, CSM, CSP-S, CSP/80, CSP, CSPS, CSSA,
                 Delta PROLOG, Dislang, Distributed Smalltalk, DP,
                 DPL-82, ECSP, Emerald, EPL, FRANK, FX-87, GDPL, GHC,
                 GYPSY, Hybrid, Joyce, LADY, LIMP, Linda, Lisptalk,
                 LYNX, MC, Mandala, Mentat, MENYMA/S, Multilisp, NIL,
                 Oc, Occam, OIL, Ondine, Orca, Orient84/K, P*, P-PROLOG,
                 ParAlfl, PARLOG, ParMod, Pascal+CSP, Pascal-FC,
                 Pascal-m, PCL, Planet, Platon, PLITS, PML, POOL, Port
                 Language, Pronet, Quty, QLISP, Raddle, RBCSP,
                 Relational Language, SDL, SINA, Sloop, SR, StarMod,
                 Symmetric LISP, Vulcan, ZENO. It still lacks, but it
                 depends on the definition of a distributed language. No
                 mention of atomicity.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Categories and Subject Descriptors: C.2.4
                 [Computer-Communications Networks]: Distributed Systems
                 - distributed applications; Computer Programming
                 Languages; Computer Systems, Digital--Distributed;
                 Concurrent Programming; D.1.3 [Programming Techniques]:
                 Concurrent Programming; D.3.3 [Programming Languages]:
                 Language constructs - concurrent programming
                 structures; D.4.7 [Operating Systems]: Organization and
                 Design - distributed systems General Terms: Languages;
                 design; Design Additional Key Words and Phrases:
                 Distributed data structures; distributed languages;
                 Distributed Programming; distributed programming;
                 Functional Programming; functional programming;
                 languages; languages for distributed programming;
                 languages for parallel programming; Logic Programming;
                 logic programming; Object Oriented Programming,
                 algorithms; object-oriented programming; Parallel
                 Programming; parallel programming; performance; special
                 issue on programming language paradigms",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Specialized application languages.
                 {\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES,
                 Concurrent Programming. {\bf D.3.3}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and
                 Features, Concurrent programming structures. {\bf
                 C.2.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed applications.",
}

@Article{Carriero:1989:HWP,
  author =       "Nicholas Carriero and David Gelernter",
  title =        "How to Write Parallel Programs: a Guide to the
                 Perplexed",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "323--357",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/72551.72553",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Parallel/par.misc.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/72553.html",
  abstract =     "We present a framework for parallel programming, based
                 on three conceptual classes for understanding
                 parallelism and three programming paradigms for
                 implementing parallel programs. The conceptual classes
                 are result parallelism, which centers on parallel
                 computation of all elements in a data structure; agenda
                 parallelism, which specifies an agenda of tasks for
                 parallel execution; and specialist parallelism, in
                 which specialist agents solve problems cooperatively.
                 The programming paradigms center on live data
                 structures that transform themselves into result data
                 structures; distributed data structures that are
                 accessible to many processes simultaneously; and
                 message passing, in which all data objects are
                 encapsulated within explicitly communicating processes.
                 There is a rough correspondence between the conceptual
                 classes and the programming methods, as we discuss. We
                 begin by outlining the basic conceptual classes and
                 programming paradigms, and by sketching an example
                 solution under each of the three paradigms. The final
                 section develops a simple example in greater detail,
                 presenting and explaining code and discussing its
                 performance on two commercial parallel computers, an
                 18-node shared-memory multiprocessor, and a 64-node
                 distributed-memory hypercube. The middle section
                 bridges the gap between the abstract and the practical
                 by giving an overview of how the basic paradigms are
                 implemented. We focus on the paradigms, not on machine
                 architecture or programming languages: The programming
                 methods we discuss are useful on many kinds of parallel
                 machine, and each can be expressed in several different
                 parallel programming languages. Our programming
                 discussion and the examples use the parallel language
                 C-Linda for several reasons: The main paradigms are all
                 simple to express in Linda; efficient Linda
                 implementations exist on a wide variety of parallel
                 machines; and a wide variety of parallel programs have
                 been written in Linda.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Yale Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "New Haven, CT, USA",
  annote =       "From page 326: It is nonetheless a subtle but
                 essential point that these approaches represent three
                 clearly separate ways of thinking about the problem:
                 Result parallelism focuses on the shape of the finished
                 product; specialist parallelism focuses on the makeup
                 of the work crew; and agenda parallelism focuses on the
                 list of tasks to be performed. Also the terms:
                 message-passing, distributed data structures or live
                 data structures. Notes that it does not deal with data
                 parallelism (ala CM) nor speculative parallelism
                 (OR-parallelism). Tries to be practical, but it does
                 admit distributed programs are harder and more complex.
                 The authors distinguish between three classes of
                 parallelism, result, agenda, and specialist, and
                 between three roughly corresponding methods for
                 implementation, live data structures, distributed
                 (shared) data structures, and message passing systems.
                 The Linda model is then introduced and related to each
                 class and method, it serves as a kind of universal
                 model for describing the essential parallelism, as
                 opposed to sequential processes. An example is treated
                 in some detail.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Additional Key Words and Phrases: Linda; ag;
                 Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.1.3 [Programming
                 Techniques]: Concurrent Programming; Computer
                 Programming; Computer Systems, Digital--Parallel
                 Processing; Concurrent Programming; D.3.2 [Programming
                 Languages]: Language classifications - parallel
                 languages; D.3.3 [Programming Languages]: Language
                 constructs - concurrent programming structures; design;
                 E.1.m [Data Structures]: Miscellaneous - distributed
                 data structures; General Terms: Algorithms;
                 grecommended91; hcc; languages; live data structures;
                 Parallel Programming; parallel programming methodology;
                 parallelism; performance; Program Design; Programming
                 Paradigms; special issue on programming language
                 paradigms, Computer Programming Languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 9006-0487",
  subject =      "{\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES,
                 Concurrent Programming. {\bf F.1.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Modes of
                 Computation, Parallelism and concurrency. {\bf D.3.3}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features, Concurrent programming structures. {\bf
                 D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Linda. {\bf D.3.2}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Classifications, C.",
}

@Article{Hudak:1989:CEA,
  author =       "Paul Hudak",
  title =        "Conception, Evolution, and Application of Functional
                 Programming Languages",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "359--411",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/72551.72554",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Parallel/par.misc.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/72554.html",
  abstract =     "The foundations of functional programming languages
                 are examined from both historical and technical
                 perspectives. Their evolution is traced through several
                 critical periods: early work on lambda calculus and
                 combinatory calculus, Lisp, Iswim, FP, ML, and modern
                 functional languages such as Miranda and Haskell. The
                 fundamental premises on which the functional
                 programming methodology stands are critically analyzed
                 with respect to philosophical, theoretical, and
                 pragmatic concerns. Particular attention is paid to the
                 main features that characterize modern functional
                 languages: higher-order functions, lazy evaluation,
                 equations and pattern matching, strong static typing
                 and type inference, and data abstraction. In addition,
                 current research areas --- such as parallelism,
                 nondeterminism, input\slash output, and state-oriented
                 computations --- are examined with the goal of
                 predicting the future development and application of
                 functional languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Yale Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "New Haven, CT, USA",
  annote =       "This is the second paper in the special issue which
                 has a section on non-determinism [along with Bal, et
                 al] which begins with a statement which would sound
                 bizarre to non-programmers or those not familiar with
                 the issues of determinacy.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "ag; APL; Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.1.1
                 [Programming Techniques]: Applicative (Functional)
                 Programming; Computer Programming Languages; D.3.2
                 [Programming Languages]: Language classifications -
                 applicative languages; Data Abstraction; data-flow
                 languages; denotative [declarative] language; F.4.1
                 [Mathematical Logic and Formal Languages]: Mathematical
                 Logic - lambda calculus and related systems; FL; FP;
                 Functional Programming Languages; grecommended91;
                 Haskell; higher-order functions; Hope; Iswim; K.2
                 [History of Computing]: software General Terms:
                 Languages; KRC; Lambda Calculus; Lambda Calculus,
                 Additional Key Words and Phrases: Data abstraction;
                 languages; lazy evaluation; Lisp; Miranda; ML;
                 non-procedural languages; referential transparency;
                 SASL; special issue on programming language paradigms;
                 types; very-high-level languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 9006-0486",
  subject =      "{\bf D.1.1}: Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES,
                 Applicative (Functional) Programming. {\bf F.4.1}:
                 Theory of Computation, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL
                 LANGUAGES, Mathematical Logic, Lambda calculus and
                 related systems. {\bf F.1.2}: Theory of Computation,
                 COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Modes of Computation,
                 Parallelism and concurrency. {\bf D.3.2}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Classifications,
                 Applicative languages.",
}

@Article{Shapiro:1989:FCL,
  author =       "Ehud Shapiro",
  title =        "The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "413--510",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/72551.72555",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:19 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Parallel/par.misc.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/72555.html",
  abstract =     "Concurrent logic languages are high-level programming
                 languages for parallel and distributed systems that
                 offer a wide range of both known and novel concurrent
                 programming techniques. Being logic programming
                 languages, they preserve many advantages of the
                 abstract logic programming model, including the logical
                 reading of programs and computations, the convenience
                 of representing data structures with logical terms and
                 manipulating them using unification, and the
                 amenability to metaprogramming. Operationally, their
                 model of computation consists of a dynamic set of
                 concurrent processes, communicating by instantiating
                 shared logical variables, synchronizing by waiting for
                 variables to be instantiated, and making
                 nondeterministic choices, possibly based on the
                 availability of values of variables. This paper surveys
                 the family of concurrent logic programming languages
                 within a uniform operational framework. It demonstrates
                 the expressive power of even the simplest language in
                 the family and investigates how varying the basic
                 synchronization and control constructs affect the
                 expressiveness and efficiency of the resulting
                 languages. In addition, the paper reports on techniques
                 for sequential and parallel implementation of languages
                 in this family, mentions their applications to date,
                 and relates these languages to the abstract logic
                 programming model, to the programming language PROLOG,
                 and to other concurrent computational models and
                 programming languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Weizmann Inst of Science",
  affiliationaddress = "Rehovot, Isr",
  annote =       "One of the best subsections and a reference [paper] is
                 entitled ``X = X Considered Harmful'' from a Japanese
                 paper not likely to be seen by many in the West [for
                 the Doc, distributed Oc, language]. Almost as good as
                 Backus' von Neumann liberation Turing lecture (1978).
                 Programming language types will understand the title.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Additional Key Words and Phrases: Atomic unification;
                 algorithms; Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.1.3
                 [Programming Techniques]: Concurrent Programming;
                 computational replay; Concurrent Logic Languages;
                 Concurrent Prolog; D.3.3 [Programming Languages]:
                 Language classification - ALPS; D.3.3 [Programming
                 Languages]: Language Constructs - concurrent
                 programming structures; D.4.1 [Operating Systems]:
                 Process management - concurrency; design; distributed
                 detection; Doc; don't-know and don't-care [latter
                 called indeterminism] non-determinism; F.1.2
                 [Computation by Abstract Devices]: Modes of Computation
                 - parallelism; F.3.2 [Logics and Meanings of Programs]:
                 Semantics of Programming Languages - operational
                 semantics; F.4.1 [Mathematical Logic and Formal
                 Languages]: Mathematical Logic - logic programming;
                 FCP; General Terms: Languages; guarded Horn Clauses;
                 incomplete messages; indeterminism; input matching;
                 language embedding; languages; Logic Programming; logic
                 variable; metainterpretation; mutual exclusion;
                 P-prolog; PARLOG; performance; process structures;
                 Prolog; short-circuit; snapshots; special issue on
                 programming language paradigms; streams;
                 synchronization; theory; transformational vs. reactive
                 languages, Computer Programming Languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES,
                 Concurrent Programming. {\bf D.3.2}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Classifications, Very
                 high-level languages. {\bf D.3.3}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and
                 Features, Concurrent programming structures. {\bf
                 D.3.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Constructs and Features, Control structures. {\bf
                 D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Prolog. {\bf F.3.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS, Semantics
                 of Programming Languages, Operational semantics. {\bf
                 F.4.1}: Theory of Computation, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND
                 FORMAL LANGUAGES, Mathematical Logic, Logic
                 programming. {\bf F.1.2}: Theory of Computation,
                 COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Modes of Computation,
                 Alternation and nondeterminism. {\bf F.1.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Modes of
                 Computation, Parallelism and concurrency. {\bf C.1.2}:
                 Computer Systems Organization, PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES,
                 Multiple Data Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors),
                 Parallel processors.",
}

@Article{March:1989:ATId,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "511--512",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1989:AAd,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "513--513",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Adam:1989:SCM,
  author =       "Nabil R. Adam and John C. Wortmann",
  title =        "Security-Control Methods for Statistical Databases:
                 {A} Comparative Study",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "515--556",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/76894.76895",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:50 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/76895.html",
  abstract =     "This paper considers the problem of providing security
                 to statistical databases against disclosure of
                 confidential information. Security-control methods
                 suggested in the literature are classified into four
                 general approaches: conceptual, query restriction, data
                 perturbation, and output perturbation. Criteria for
                 evaluating the performance of the various
                 security-control methods are identified.
                 Security-control methods that are based on each of the
                 four approaches are discussed, together with their
                 performance with respect to the identified evaluation
                 criteria. A detailed comparative analysis of the most
                 promising methods for protecting dynamic-online
                 statistical databases is also presented. To date no
                 single security-control method prevents both exact and
                 partial disclosures. There are, however, a few
                 perturbation-based methods that prevent exact
                 disclosure and enable the database administrator to
                 exercise 'statistical disclosure control.' Some of
                 these methods, however introduce bias into query
                 responses or suffer from the 0/1 query-set-size problem
                 (i.e., partial disclosure is possible in case of null
                 query set or a query set of size 1). We recommend
                 directing future research efforts toward developing new
                 methods that prevent exact disclosure and provide
                 statistical-disclosure control, while at the same time
                 do not suffer from the bias problem and the 0/1
                 query-set-size problem. Furthermore, efforts directed
                 toward developing a bias-correction mechanism and
                 solving the general problem of small query-set-size
                 would help salvage a few of the current
                 perturbation-based methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "State Univ of New Jersey",
  affiliationaddress = "Newark, NJ, USA",
  annote =       "Survey examines different approaches; no single method
                 is adequate.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Data Processing--Security of Data; Database Security;
                 design; performance; Protection; security, Database
                 Systems; Statistical Databases",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.0}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 General, Security, integrity, and protection. {\bf
                 H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Query processing.",
}

@Article{Bell:1989:MTC,
  author =       "Timothy Bell and Ian H. Witten and John G. Cleary",
  title =        "Modeling for Text Compression",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "557--591",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/76894.76896",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:50 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/76896.html",
  abstract =     "The best schemes for text compression use large models
                 to help them predict which characters will come next.
                 The actual next characters are coded with respect to
                 the prediction, resulting in compression of
                 information. Models are best formed adaptively, based
                 on the text seen so far. This paper surveys successful
                 strategies for adaptive modeling that are suitable for
                 use in practical text compression systems. The
                 strategies fall into three main classes: finite-context
                 modeling, in which the last few characters are used to
                 condition the probability distribution for the next
                 one; finite-state modeling, in which the distribution
                 is conditioned by the current state (and which subsumes
                 finite-context modeling as an important special case);
                 and dictionary modeling, in which strings of characters
                 are replaced by pointers into an evolving dictionary. A
                 comparison of different methods on the same sample
                 texts is included, along with an analysis of future
                 research directions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Canterbury",
  affiliationaddress = "Christchurch, NZ",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Arithmetic Coding; Encoding;
                 experimentation; measurement, Codes, Symbolic; Text
                 Compression",
  subject =      "{\bf E.4}: Data, CODING AND INFORMATION THEORY, Data
                 compaction and compression. {\bf H.1.1}: Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, Systems and Information
                 Theory, Information theory.",
}

@Article{McDowell:1989:DCP,
  author =       "Charles E. McDowell and David P. Helmbold",
  title =        "Debugging Concurrent Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "593--622",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/76894.76897",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:38:50 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ACM Computing Archive; Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Parallel/par.debug.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/76897.html",
  abstract =     "The main problems associated with debugging concurrent
                 programs are increased complexity, the `probe effect',
                 nonrepeatability, and the lack of a synchronized global
                 clock. The probe effect refers to the fact that any
                 attempt to observe the behavior of a distributed system
                 may change the behavior of that system. For some
                 parallel programs, different executions with the same
                 data will result in different results even without any
                 attempt to observe the behavior. Even when the behavior
                 can be observed, in many systems the lack of a
                 synchronized global clock makes the results of the
                 observation difficult to interpret. This paper
                 discusses these and other problems related to debugging
                 concurrent programs and presents a survey of current
                 techniques used in debugging concurrent programs.
                 Systems using three general techniques are described:
                 traditional or breakpoint style debuggers, event
                 monitoring systems, and static analysis systems. In
                 addition, techniques for limiting, organizing, and
                 displaying a large amount of data produced by the
                 debugging systems are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California at Santa Cruz",
  affiliationaddress = "Santa Cruz, CA, USA",
  annote =       "Good tables surveying the field in the Appendix.
                 Thanks Charlie.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Agora; algorithms; Amoeba; belvedere; BUGNET;
                 Categories and Subject Descriptors: A.1 [General
                 Literature]: Introductory and Survey; CBUG; cdbg;
                 Computer Systems, Digital--Distributed; Concurrent
                 Programs; D.1.3 [Programming Techniques]: Concurrent
                 Programming; D.2.4 [Software Engineering]: Program
                 Verification --assertion checkers; D.2.5 [Software
                 Engineering]: Testing and Debugging -- debugging aids;
                 dbxtool; defense; design; diagnostics; DISDEB; EDL;
                 event history; HARD; IDD; Instant; Jade; languages;
                 MAD; Meglos; monitors; mtdbx; Multibug; nondeterminism;
                 parallel processing; Parasight; pdbx; performance;
                 Pilgram; PPD; probe-effect; Program Debugging; program
                 replay; program visualization; Program Visualization;
                 RADAR; Recap; static analysis; symbolic execution;
                 tracing Additional Key Words and Phrases: Distributed
                 computing; Traveler; TSL; verification; Voyeur; YODA,
                 Computer Programming",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.5}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Testing
                 and Debugging. {\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING
                 TECHNIQUES, Concurrent Programming. {\bf D.2.4}:
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Program Verification,
                 Assertion checkers.",
}

@Article{March:1990:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1990:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{vandeGoor:1990:ODF,
  author =       "A. J. {van de Goor} and C. A. Verruijt",
  title =        "An Overview of Deterministic Functional {RAM} Chip
                 Testing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--33",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/78949.78950",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/78950.html",
  abstract =     "This paper presents an overview of deterministic
                 functional RAM chip testing. Instead of the traditional
                 ad-hoc approach toward developing memory test
                 algorithms, a hierarchy of functional faults and tests
                 is presented, which is shown to cover all likely
                 functional memory faults. This is done by presenting a
                 novel way of categorizing the faults. All (possible)
                 fault combinations are discussed. Requirements are put
                 forward under which conditions a fault combination can
                 be detected. Finally, memory test algorithms that
                 satisfy the given requirements are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Delft Univ of Technology",
  affiliationaddress = "Delft, Neth",
  classification = "713; 721; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Automatic Testing; Computer
                 Programming--Algorithms; design; experimentation; Fault
                 Detection; Functional ram Chip Testing; Integrated
                 Circuit Testing; Memory Testing; ram Chip Testing;
                 Random Access; reliability; Test Algorithms;
                 verification, Data Storage, Digital",
  subject =      "{\bf B.3.4}: Hardware, MEMORY STRUCTURES, Reliability,
                 Testing, and Fault-Tolerance, Test generation. {\bf
                 B.7.3}: Hardware, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, Reliability and
                 Testing, Test generation. {\bf D.4.2}: Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Storage Management, Main memory.
                 {\bf B.7.1}: Hardware, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, Types and
                 Design Styles, Memory technologies.",
}

@Article{Abbott:1990:RSF,
  author =       "Russell J. Abbott",
  title =        "Resourceful Systems for Fault Tolerance, Reliability,
                 and Safety",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--68",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/78949.78951",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Sankar:1991:SFR,Strigini:1991:SFR,Abbott:1991:SFR}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/78951.html",
  abstract =     "Above all, it is vital to recognize that completely
                 guaranteed behavior is impossible and that there are
                 inherent risks in relying on computer systems in
                 critical environments. The unforeseen consequences are
                 often the most disastrous [Neumann 1986]. Section 1 of
                 this survey reviews the current state of the art of
                 system reliability, safety, and fault tolerance. The
                 emphasis is on the contribution of software to these
                 areas. Section 2 reviews current approaches to software
                 fault tolerance. It discusses why some of the
                 assumptions underlying hardware fault tolerance do not
                 hold for software. It argues that the current software
                 fault tolerance techniques are more accurately thought
                 of as delayed debugging than as fault tolerance. It
                 goes on to show that in providing both backtracking and
                 executable specifications, logic programming offers
                 most of the tools currently used in software fault
                 tolerance. Section 3 presents a generalization of the
                 recovery block approach to software fault tolerance,
                 called resourceful systems. Systems are resourceful if
                 they are able to determine whether they have achieved
                 their goals or, if not, to develop and carry out
                 alternate plans. Section 3 develops an approach to
                 designing resourceful systems based upon a functionally
                 rich architecture and an explicit goal orientation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Aerospace Corp",
  affiliationaddress = "Los Angeles, CA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Computer Programming; design; Logic
                 Programming; N-Version Programming; Object-Oriented
                 Programming; Reliability; reliability, Computer
                 Software; Resourceful Systems; Software Fault
                 Tolerance; Software Safety",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.5}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Reliability,
                 Fault-tolerance. {\bf D.2.4}: Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Program Verification, Reliability.",
}

@Article{March:1990:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "69--70",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1990:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "71--71",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1990:EP,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "73--81",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Onvural:1990:SCQ,
  author =       "Raif O. Onvural",
  title =        "Survey of Closed Queueing Networks with Blocking",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "83--121",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/78919.78920",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1990.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/78920.html",
  abstract =     "Closed queueing networks are frequently used to model
                 complex service systems such as production systems,
                 communication systems, computer systems, and flexible
                 manufacturing systems. When limitations are imposed on
                 the queue sizes (i.e., finite queues), a phenomenon
                 called blocking occurs. Queueing networks with blocking
                 are, in general, difficult to treat. Exact closed form
                 solutions have been reported only in a few special
                 cases. Hence, most of the techniques that are used to
                 analyze such queueing networks are in the form of
                 approximations, numerical analysis, and simulation. In
                 this paper, we give a systematic presentation of the
                 literature related to closed queueing networks with
                 finite queues. The results are significant for both
                 researchers and practitioners.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "BNR",
  affiliationaddress = "Research Triangle Park, NC, USA",
  annote =       "In this paper we give a systematic presentation of the
                 literature related to closed queueing networks with
                 finite queues.",
  classification = "723; 922",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "06/08/90",
  descriptors =  "Closed queueing network; performance evaluation;
                 blocking; survey; finite capacity;",
  enum =         "3866",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Blocking; Closed Queueing Networks;
                 Computer Systems, Digital--Performance; design;
                 Industrial Plants--Flexible Manufacturing Systems;
                 Markov Models; measurement; performance; Production
                 Systems; Queueing Networks; Queueing Theory;
                 Telecommunication Systems--Performance; theory,
                 Probability",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "73",
  subject =      "{\bf G.m}: Mathematics of Computing, MISCELLANEOUS,
                 Queueing theory. {\bf D.4.8}: Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Performance, Queueing theory. {\bf D.4.8}:
                 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Performance, Simulation.
                 {\bf C.4}: Computer Systems Organization, PERFORMANCE
                 OF SYSTEMS, Modeling techniques.",
}

@Article{Pawlikowski:1990:SSS,
  author =       "Krzysztof Pawlikowski",
  title =        "Steady-State Simulation of Queueing Processes: a
                 Survey of Problems and Solutions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--170",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/78919.78921",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:17 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1990.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also \cite{Pawlikowski:1990:CSS}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/78921.html",
  abstract =     "For years computer-based stochastic simulation has
                 been a commonly used tool in the performance evaluation
                 of various systems. Unfortunately, the results of
                 simulation studies quite often have little credibility,
                 since they are presented without regard to their random
                 nature and the need for proper statistical analysis of
                 simulation output data. This paper discusses the main
                 factors that can affect the accuracy of stochastic
                 simulations designed to give insight into the
                 steady-state behavior of queuing processes. The
                 problems of correctly starting and stopping such
                 simulation experiments to obtain the required
                 statistical accuracy of the results are addressed. In
                 this survey of possible solutions, the emphasis is put
                 on possible applications in the sequential analysis of
                 output data, which adaptively decides about continuing
                 a simulation experiment until the required accuracy of
                 results is reached. A suitable solution for deciding
                 upon the starting point of a steady-state analysis and
                 two techniques for obtaining the final simulation
                 results to a required level of accuracy are presented,
                 together with pseudocode implementations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Canterbury",
  affiliationaddress = "Christchurch, NZ",
  annote =       "This paper discusses the main factors that can affect
                 the accuracy of stochastic simulations designed to get
                 insight into the steady-state behaviour of queueing
                 processes.",
  classification = "723; 922",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "06/08/90",
  descriptors =  "Simulation; queueing system; output analysis;
                 accuracy;",
  enum =         "3867",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Computer Simulation; design;
                 experimentation; performance; Queueing Theory; Steady
                 State Simulation; Stochastic Simulations; theory,
                 Probability",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "191",
  subject =      "{\bf I.6.4}: Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND
                 MODELING, Model Validation and Analysis. {\bf D.4.8}:
                 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Performance, Simulation.
                 {\bf D.4.8}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Performance,
                 Queueing theory. {\bf D.4.8}: Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Performance, Stochastic analysis. {\bf G.3}:
                 Mathematics of Computing, PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS,
                 Statistical computing. {\bf G.3}: Mathematics of
                 Computing, PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS, Statistical
                 software.",
}

@Article{Mandl:1990:SF,
  author =       "Robert Mandl",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {``Applications of Combinatorial
                 Designs in Computer Science''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--171",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Colbourn:1989:ACD}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1990:ATIc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "173--173",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Elmagarmid:1990:ISI,
  author =       "Ahmed K. Elmagarmid and Calton Pu",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on Heterogeneous
                 Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "175--178",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:52:12 1994",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "CTPu",
}

@Article{March:1990:AAc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "179--181",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:32:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Sheth:1990:FDS,
  author =       "Amit P. Sheth and James A. Larson",
  title =        "Federated Database Systems for Managing Distributed,
                 Heterogeneous, and Autonomous Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "183--236",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/96602.96604",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: Bellcore, TM-STS-016302,
                 Jun.1990.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/96604.html",
  abstract =     "A federated database system (FDBS) is a collection of
                 cooperating database systems that are autonomous and
                 possibly heterogeneous. In this paper, we define a
                 reference architecture for distributed database
                 management systems from system and schema viewpoints
                 and show how various FDBS architectures can be
                 developed. We then define a methodology for developing
                 one of the popular architectures of an FDBS. Finally,
                 we discuss critical issues related to developing and
                 operating an FDBS.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bellcore",
  affiliationaddress = "Piscataway, NJ, USA",
  annote =       "The paper reviews the various problem areas in
                 federated systems. Specifically schema translation,
                 access control, and schema integration. Also considered
                 are the issues of query translation for the various
                 nodes in the system. The paper also contains a good
                 introductory section on the federated model of DDBMS.
                 \ldots{} A good reference for federated database
                 systems architecture: a reference architecture,
                 customization to a specific architecture, system
                 development processes and tasks. Uses a reasonable
                 taxonomy of federated database systems. Contains many
                 bibliographic references.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "design; Distributed; Federated Database Systems;
                 Heterogeneous Database Systems; languages; management,
                 Database Systems",
  owner =        "curtis",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Distributed systems. {\bf H.2.1}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Logical Design, Schema
                 and subschema. {\bf D.2.10}: Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Design, Methodologies. {\bf H.2.4}:
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems. {\bf
                 H.2.5}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Heterogeneous Databases.",
}

@Article{Thomas:1990:HDD,
  author =       "Gomer Thomas and Glenn R. Thompson and Chin-Wan Chung
                 and Edward Barkmeyer and Fred Carter and Marjorie
                 Templeton and Stephen Fox and Berl Hartman",
  title =        "Heterogeneous Distributed Database Systems for
                 Production Use",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "237--266",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/96602.96607",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/96607.html",
  abstract =     "It is increasingly important for organizations to
                 achieve additional coordination of diverse computerized
                 operations. To do so, it is necessary to have database
                 systems that can operate over a distributed network and
                 can encompass a heterogeneous mix of computers,
                 operating systems, communications links, and local
                 database management systems. This paper outlines
                 approaches to various aspects of heterogeneous
                 distributed data management and describes the
                 characteristics and architectures of seven existing
                 heterogeneous distributed database systems developed
                 for production use. The objective is a survey of the
                 state of the art in systems targeted for production
                 environments as opposed to research prototypes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bellcore",
  affiliationaddress = "Piscataway, NJ, USA",
  annote =       "Review of ADDS (AMOCO), DATAPLEX (GM), IMDAS (NTST),
                 INGRES, STAR, MERMAID, MULTIBASE, SYBASE",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Database Systems; Distributed; Heterogeneous
                 Databases; management; Production Environments, design;
                 standardization",
  review =       "ACM CR 9211-0889",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.5}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Heterogeneous Databases. {\bf H.2.4}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems, Distributed
                 systems. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed databases.",
}

@Article{Litwin:1990:IMA,
  author =       "Witold Litwin and Leo Mark and Nick Roussopoulos",
  title =        "Interoperability of Multiple Autonomous Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "267--293",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/96602.96608",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "Also published in/as: University of Maryland, Systems
                 Research Center, TR-89-12 and CS TR-2188, March 1989.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/96608.html",
  abstract =     "Database systems were a solution to the problem of
                 shared access to heterogeneous files created by
                 multiple autonomous applications in a centralized
                 environment. To make data usage easier, the files were
                 replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large
                 extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are
                 now accessible through local and long-haul networks.
                 Unavoidably, users now need shared access to multiple
                 autonomous databases. The question is what the
                 corresponding methodology should be. Should one reapply
                 the database approach to create globally integrated
                 distributed database systems or should a new approach
                 be introduced?\par

                 We argue for a new approach to solving such data
                 management system problems, called {\em multidatabase}
                 or {\em federated} systems. These systems make
                 databases interoperable, that is, usable without a
                 globally integrated schema. They preserve the autonomy
                 of each database yet support shared access.\par

                 Systems of this type will be of major importance in the
                 future. This paper first discusses why this is the
                 case. Then, it presents methodologies for their design.
                 It further shows that major commercial relational
                 database systems are evolving toward multidatabase
                 systems. The paper discusses their capabilities and
                 limitations, presents and discusses a set of
                 prototypes, and, finally, presents some current
                 research issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "INRIA",
  affiliationaddress = "Fr",
  annote =       "Survey of existing federated databases, and example of
                 update transformation using MACSYMA.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "design; Interoperability; languages; management,
                 Database Systems; Multiple Autonomous Databases",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.5}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Heterogeneous Databases. {\bf H.2.2}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Physical Design, Access
                 methods. {\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE
                 MANAGEMENT, Logical Design, Schema and subschema. {\bf
                 C.2.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed databases. {\bf H.3.4}: Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Systems and
                 Software, Information networks.",
}

@Article{March:1990:ATId,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "295--296",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:55:17 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1990:AAd,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "297--297",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:55:17 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Schneider:1990:IFT,
  author =       "Fred B. Schneider",
  title =        "Implementing Fault-Tolerant Services Using the State
                 Machine Approach: a Tutorial",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "299--319",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/98163.98167",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/98167.html",
  abstract =     "The state machine approach is a general method for
                 implementing fault-tolerant services in distributed
                 systems. This paper reviews the approach and describes
                 protocols for two different failure models ---
                 Byzantine and fail stop. Systems reconfiguration
                 techniques for removing faulty components and
                 integrating repaired components are also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Cornell Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Ithaca, NY, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Computer Networks --- Reliability; design;
                 Distributed Computing; Fault Tolerant Capability;
                 performance; Reconfiguration; reliability, Computer
                 Systems, Digital",
  subject =      "{\bf C.4}: Computer Systems Organization, PERFORMANCE
                 OF SYSTEMS, Reliability, availability, and
                 serviceability. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems. {\bf C.2.2}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Network
                 Protocols. {\bf D.4.5}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Reliability, Fault-tolerance. {\bf D.4.7}: Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Organization and Design, Real-time
                 and embedded systems.",
}

@Article{Levy:1990:DFS,
  author =       "Eliezer Levy and Abraham Silberschatz",
  title =        "Distributed File Systems: Concepts and Examples",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--374",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/98163.98169",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/98169.html",
  abstract =     "The purpose of a distributed file system (DFS) is to
                 allow users of physically distributed computers to
                 share data and storage resources by using a common file
                 system. A typical configuration for a DFS is a
                 collection of workstations and mainframes connected by
                 a local area network (LAN). A DFS is implemented as
                 part of the operating system of each of the connected
                 computers. This paper establishes a viewpoint that
                 emphasizes the dispersed structure and decentralization
                 of both data and control in the design of such systems.
                 It defines the concepts of transparency, fault
                 tolerance, and scalability and discusses them in the
                 context of DFSs. The paper claims that the principle of
                 distributed operation is fundamental for a fault
                 tolerant and scalable DFS design. It also presents
                 alternatives for the semantics of sharing and methods
                 for providing access to remote files. A survey of
                 contemporary UNIX-based systems, namely, UNIX United,
                 Locus, Sprite, Sun's Network File System, and ITC's
                 Andrew, illustrates the concepts and demonstrates
                 various implementations and design alternatives. Based
                 on the assessment of these systems, the paper makes the
                 point that a departure from the approach of extending
                 centralized file systems over a communication network
                 is necessary to accomplish sound distributed file
                 system design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Texas at Austin",
  affiliationaddress = "Austin, TX, USA",
  annote =       "UNIX United, Locus, Sprite, SNFS, ITC's Andrew, a
                 departure is necessary to accomplish sound distributed
                 file system design; topics: location transparency and
                 independence, naming, caching, stateful vs stateless
                 service, availability, replication, scalability,
                 lightweight processes",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Computer Operating Systems; design; Distributed;
                 Distributed File Systems; reliability, Computer
                 Systems, Digital; Shared Data; Shared Storage",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.3}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, File Systems
                 Management, Distributed file systems. {\bf C.2.5}:
                 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION
                 NETWORKS, Local Networks. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Network operating systems. {\bf
                 D.4.2}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Storage
                 Management. {\bf D.4.4}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Communications Management, Network communication.",
}

@Article{Katz:1990:TUF,
  author =       "Randy H. Katz",
  title =        "Toward a Unified Framework for Version Modeling in
                 Engineering Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--408",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/98163.98172",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:39:57 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/98172.html",
  abstract =     "Support for unusual applications such as
                 computer-aided design data has been of increasing
                 interest to database system architects. In this survey,
                 we concentrate on one aspect of such support, namely,
                 {\em version modeling}. By this, we mean the concepts
                 suitable for structuring a database of complex
                 engineering artifacts that evolve across multiple
                 representations and over time and the operations
                 through which such artifact descriptions are created
                 and modified. There have been many proposals for new
                 models and mechanisms to support such concepts within
                 database data models in general and engineering data
                 models in particular; here we not only describe such
                 proposals; we also unify them. We do not propose yet
                 another model but provide a common terminology and
                 collection of mechanisms that underlie any approach for
                 representing engineering design information in a
                 database. The key remaining challenge is to construct a
                 single framework, based on these mechanisms, which can
                 be tailored for the needs of a given version
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California",
  affiliationaddress = "Berkeley, CA, USA",
  annote =       "component hierarchies (PART-OF), version histories
                 (IS-DERIVED FROM), configurations, equivalencies of
                 multifaceted data, a variety of representations are
                 needed to describe a design artifact fully",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "cad Databases; Computer Aided Design; design;
                 Engineering Databases; performance; theory, Database
                 Systems; Version Modeling",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Data models. {\bf J.6}: Computer
                 Applications, COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING,
                 Computer-aided design (CAD). {\bf H.2.8}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Database applications.
                 {\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Object-oriented languages.",
}

@Article{Pawlikowski:1990:CSS,
  author =       "Krzysztof Pawlikowski",
  title =        "Corrigenda: {``Steady-State Simulation of Queueing
                 Processes: A Survey of Problems and Solutions''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "409--409",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 22:33:58 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Pawlikowski:1990:SSS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1991:WEC,
  author =       "David Goldberg",
  title =        "What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About
                 Floating-Point Arithmetic",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--48",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/103162.103163",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://garbo.uwasa.fi/pc/doc-soft/fpbibl18.zip;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Goldberg:1991:CWE,Dunham:1992:SFW,Wichmann:1992:SFW}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/103163.html",
  abstract =     "Floating-point arithmetic is considered an esoteric
                 subject by many people. This is rather surprising,
                 because floating-point is ubiquitous in computer
                 systems: almost every language has a floating-point
                 datatype; computers from PCs to supercomputers have
                 floating-point accelerators; most compilers will be
                 called upon to compile floating-point algorithms from
                 time to time; and virtually every operating system must
                 respond to floating-point exceptions such as overflow.
                 This paper presents a tutorial on the aspects of
                 floating-point that have a direct impact on designers
                 of computer systems. It begins with background on
                 floating-point representation and rounding error,
                 continues with a discussion of the IEEE floating-point
                 standard, and concludes with examples of how computer
                 system builders can better support floating point.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb # " and " # ack-nj,
  affiliation =  "Xerox Palo Alto Res. Center, CA, USA",
  classification = "C5230 (Digital arithmetic methods)",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; compilers; computer scientist; computer
                 systems; denormalized number; design; exception;
                 floating-point; floating-point accelerators;
                 floating-point algorithms; floating-point datatype;
                 floating-point exceptions; floating-point
                 representation; floating-point standard; gradual
                 underflow; guard digit; IEEE floating-point standard;
                 languages; NaN; operating system; overflow; PCs;
                 relative error; rounding error; rounding mode;
                 standardization; supercomputers; ulp; underflow",
  subject =      "{\bf G.1.0}: Mathematics of Computing, NUMERICAL
                 ANALYSIS, General, Computer arithmetic. {\bf K.1}:
                 Computing Milieux, THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY, Standards.
                 {\bf C.0}: Computer Systems Organization, GENERAL,
                 Instruction set design. {\bf G.1.0}: Mathematics of
                 Computing, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, General, Numerical
                 algorithms.",
  thesaurus =    "digital arithmetic; roundoff errors",
}

@Article{Andrews:1991:PPI,
  author =       "Gregory R. Andrews",
  title =        "Paradigms for Process Interaction in Distributed
                 Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--90",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/103162.103164",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Ai/cmubib.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/103164.html",
  abstract =     "Distributed computations are concurrent programs in
                 which processes communicate by message passing. Such
                 programs typically execute on network architectures
                 such as networks of workstations or distributed memory
                 parallel machines (i.e., multicomputers such as
                 hypercubes). Several paradigms --- examples or models
                 --- for process interaction in distributed computations
                 are described. These include networks of filters,
                 clients, and servers, heartbeat algorithms, probe/echo
                 algorithms, broadcast algorithms, token-passing
                 algorithms, decentralized servers, and bags of tasks.
                 These paradigms are appliable to numerous practical
                 problems. They are illustrated by solving problems,
                 including parallel sorting, file servers, computing the
                 topology of a network, distributed termination
                 detection, replicated databases, and parallel adaptive
                 quadrature. Solutions to all problems are derived in a
                 step-wise fashion from a general specification of the
                 problem to a concrete solution. The derivations
                 illustrate techniques for developing distributed
                 algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; clients and servers; design; distributed
                 and parallel algorithms; distributed programming;
                 distributed programming methods; heartbeat algorithms;
                 networks of filters; patterns for interprocess
                 communication; probe/echo algorithms; replicated
                 servers; token-passing algorithms",
  subject =      "{\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed applications. {\bf C.1.2}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES, Multiple Data
                 Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors),
                 Multiple-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream
                 processors (MIMD). {\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING
                 TECHNIQUES, Concurrent Programming, Distributed
                 programming. {\bf D.4.4}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Communications Management, Message sending. {\bf
                 D.4.1}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Process
                 Management, Concurrency.",
}

@Article{Chin:1991:DOB,
  author =       "Roger S. Chin and Samuel T. Chanson",
  title =        "Distributed, object-based programming systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--124",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/103162.103165",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/IMMD_IV.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/103165.html",
  abstract =     "The development of distributed operating systems and
                 object-based programming languages makes possible an
                 environment in which programs consisting of a set of
                 interacting modules, or objects, may execute
                 concurrently on a collection of loosely coupled
                 processors. An object-based programming language
                 encourages a methodology for designing and creating a
                 program as a set of autonomous components, whereas a
                 distributed operating system permits a collection of
                 workstations or personal computers to be treated as a
                 single entity. The amalgamation of these two concepts
                 has resulted in systems that shall be referred to as
                 {\em distributed}, {\em object-based programming
                 systems}.\par

                 This paper discusses issues in the design and
                 implementation of such systems. Following the
                 presentation of fundamental concepts and various object
                 models, issues in object management, object interaction
                 management, and physical resource management are
                 discussed. Extensive examples are drawn from existing
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "capability scheme; design; distributed operating
                 systems; error recovery; languages; method invocation;
                 nested transaction; object model; object reliability;
                 object-based programming languages; processor
                 allocation; resource management; synchronization;
                 transaction",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Object-oriented languages. {\bf
                 D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Concurrent
                 Programming, Distributed programming. {\bf C.2.4}:
                 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION
                 NETWORKS, Distributed Systems. {\bf D.3.3}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and
                 Features, Concurrent programming structures.",
}

@Article{Sankar:1991:SFR,
  author =       "S. Sankar and D. S. Rosenblum",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: Runtime Checking and Debugging of
                 Formally Specified Programs",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "125--127",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/103162.103166",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:16 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Abbott:1990:RSF,Abbott:1991:SFR,Strigini:1991:SFR}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/103166.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.5}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Testing
                 and Debugging, Debugging aids. {\bf D.3.4}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Processors, Run-time
                 environments. {\bf F.3.1}: Theory of Computation,
                 LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS, Specifying and
                 Verifying and Reasoning about Programs.",
}

@Article{March:1991:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "129--129",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "131--131",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:EP,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--141",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Shahookar:1991:VCP,
  author =       "K. Shahookar and P. Mazumder",
  title =        "{VLSI} Cell Placement Techniques",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "143--220",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/103724.103725",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:41 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/IMMD_IV.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/103725.html",
  abstract =     "VLSI cell placement problem is known to be NP
                 complete. A wide repertoire of heuristic algorithms
                 exists in the literature for efficiently arranging the
                 logic cells on a VLSI chip. The objective of this paper
                 is to present a comprehensive survey of the various
                 cell placement techniques, with emphasis on standard
                 cell and macro placement. Five major algorithms for
                 placement are discussed: simulated annealing,
                 force-directed placement, min-cut placement, placement
                 by numerical optimization, and evolution-based
                 placement. The first two classes of algorithms owe
                 their origin to physical laws, the third and fourth are
                 analytical techniques, and the fifth class of
                 algorithms is derived from biological phenomena. In
                 each category, the basic algorithm is explained with
                 appropriate examples. Also discussed are the different
                 implementations done by researchers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; floor planning; force-directed
                 placement; gate array; genetic algorithm; integrated
                 circuits; layout; min-cut; performance; physical
                 design; placement; simulated annealing; standard cell;
                 VLSI",
  subject =      "{\bf B.7.2}: Hardware, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, Design
                 Aids, Placement and routing. {\bf B.7.1}: Hardware,
                 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, Types and Design Styles, VLSI
                 (very large scale integration). {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems,
                 Routing and layout.",
}

@Article{Abeysundara:1991:HSL,
  author =       "Bandula W. Abeysundara and Ahmed E. Kamal",
  title =        "High-Speed Local Area Networks and Their Performance:
                 {A} Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "221--264",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/103724.103726",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:41 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1991.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/103726.html",
  abstract =     "At high data transmission rates, the packet
                 transmission time of a local area network (LAN) could
                 become comparable to or less than the medium
                 propagation delay. The performance of many LAN schemes
                 degrades rapidly when the packet transmission time
                 becomes small comparative to the medium propagation
                 delay. This paper introduces LANs and discusses the
                 performance degradation of LANs at high speeds. It
                 surveys recently proposed LAN schemes designed to
                 operate at high data rates, including their performance
                 characteristics desirable in LAN medium access
                 protocols are identified and discussed. The paper
                 serves as a tutorial for readers less familiar with
                 local computer communication networks. It also serves
                 as a survey of the state-of-the-art LANs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "This paper introduces LANs and discusses the
                 performance degradation of LANs at high speeds. It
                 surveys recently proposed LAN schemes designed to
                 operate at high data rates, including their
                 performances characteristics.",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "18/08/91",
  descriptors =  "HSLAN; survey; performance evaluation;",
  enum =         "4260",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "access schemes; computer networks; data communication;
                 design; medium access protocols; optical fiber
                 networks; performance",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "122",
  subject =      "{\bf C.2.5}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Local Networks. {\bf
                 C.2.2}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Network Protocols.
                 {\bf C.2.0}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, General, Data
                 communications. {\bf C.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS, Performance
                 attributes.",
}

@Article{March:1991:ATIc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--266",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:AAc,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "267--267",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Barghouti:1991:CCA,
  author =       "Naser S. Barghouti and Gail E. Kaiser",
  title =        "Concurrency Control in Advanced Database
                 Applications",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "269--317",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/116873.116875",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/116875.html",
  abstract =     "Concurrency control has been thoroughly studied in the
                 context of traditional database applications such as
                 banking and airline reservations systems. There are
                 relatively few studies, however, that address the
                 concurrency control issues of advanced database
                 applications such as CAD/CAM and software development
                 environments. The concurrency control requirements in
                 such applications are different from those in
                 conventional database applications; in particular,
                 there is a need to support nonserializable cooperation
                 among users whose transactions are long-lived and
                 interactive and to integrate concurrency control
                 mechanisms with version and configuration control. This
                 paper outlines the characteristics of data and
                 operations in some advanced database applications,
                 discusses their concurrency control requirements, and
                 surveys the mechanisms proposed to address these
                 requirements.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "advanced database applications; algorithms;
                 concurrency control; cooperative transactions; design;
                 design environments; extended transaction models; long
                 transactions; management; object-oriented databases;
                 relaxing serializability",
  owner =        "soo",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Concurrency. {\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems,
                 DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems, Transaction processing.
                 {\bf H.2.8}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Database applications.",
}

@Article{Galil:1991:DSA,
  author =       "Zvi Galil and Giuseppe F. Italiano",
  title =        "Data Structures and Algorithms for Disjoint Set Union
                 Problems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "319--344",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/116873.116878",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/116878.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; equivalence algorithm; find and union
                 operations algorithm design analysis; partition; set
                 union; theory; time complexity",
  subject =      "{\bf E.1}: Data, DATA STRUCTURES. {\bf F.2.2}: Theory
                 of Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems,
                 Computations on discrete structures.",
}

@Article{Aurenhammer:1991:VDS,
  author =       "Franz Aurenhammer",
  title =        "{Voronoi} Diagrams: a Survey of a Fundamental
                 Geometric Data Structure",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "345--405",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/116873.116880",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:40:54 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/116880.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; arrangements; cell complex; cluster
                 analysis; clustering; combinatorial complexity; convex
                 hull; crystal structure; Delaunay triangulations;
                 divide-and-conquer; geometric data structure; growth
                 model; higher dimensional embedding; hyperplane
                 arrangement; hyperplanes; k-set; minimum spanning
                 trees; motion planning; neighbor searching; object
                 modeling; parallel computation; plane sweep;
                 plane-sweep; proximity; randomized insertion; spanning
                 tree; survey paper; theory; triangulation; Voronoi
                 diagrams",
  oldlabel =     "geom-2467.3",
  subject =      "{\bf F.2.2}: Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF
                 ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical
                 Algorithms and Problems, Geometrical problems and
                 computations. {\bf E.1}: Data, DATA STRUCTURES.",
  succeeds =     "a-vdsfg-90",
}

@Article{Strigini:1991:SFR,
  author =       "Lorenzo Strigini",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {``Resourceful Systems for Fault
                 Tolerance, Reliability, and Safety''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "407--409",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Abbott:1990:RSF,Sankar:1991:SFR,Abbott:1991:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Abbott:1991:SFR,
  author =       "Russell Abbott",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {``Resourceful Systems for Fault
                 Tolerance, Reliability, and Safety''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "409--411",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Abbott:1990:RSF,Sankar:1991:SFR,Strigini:1991:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1991:CWE,
  author =       "David Goldberg",
  title =        "Corrigendum: {``What Every Computer Scientist Should
                 Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "413--413",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 09:58:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Goldberg:1991:WEC,Dunham:1992:SFW,Wichmann:1992:SFW}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:ATId,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "417--418",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:12:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1991:AAd,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "419--419",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:12:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Stytz:1991:TDM,
  author =       "M. R. Stytz and G. Frieder and O. Frieder",
  title =        "Three-Dimensional Medical Imaging: Algorithms and
                 Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "421--499",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/125137.125155",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:41:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/125155.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Computer graphics; data model processing
                 shading antialiasing hidden-surface removal ray tracing
                 image segmentation surface tracking; design;
                 experimentation; medical imaging; performance; surface
                 rendering; three-dimensional imaging; volume
                 rendering",
  subject =      "{\bf J.3}: Computer Applications, LIFE AND MEDICAL
                 SCIENCES. {\bf I.3.7}: Computing Methodologies,
                 COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Three-Dimensional Graphics and
                 Realism. {\bf I.3.2}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Graphics Systems. {\bf C.5.0}: Computer
                 Systems Organization, COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION,
                 General. {\bf C.1.0}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES, General.",
}

@Article{McKenzie:1991:ERA,
  author =       "L. Edwin {McKenzie, Jr.} and Richard Thomas
                 Snodgrass",
  title =        "Evaluation of Relational Algebras Incorporating the
                 Time Dimension in Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "501--543",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/125137.125166",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:41:25 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/125166.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "aggregate; chronon; design; historical relation;
                 homogeneity; languages; performance; query
                 optimization; snapshot relation; Temporal Query
                 Languages 26 Criteria; transaction time; valid time",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Logical Design, Data models. {\bf H.2.1}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Logical Design, Normal
                 forms. {\bf H.2.1}: Information Systems, DATABASE
                 MANAGEMENT, Logical Design, Schema and subschema. {\bf
                 H.2.3}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Languages, Data manipulation languages (DML). {\bf
                 H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Query processing. {\bf H.2.4}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems, Transaction
                 processing. {\bf H.4.1}: Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation.
                 {\bf F.4.1}: Theory of Computation, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
                 AND FORMAL LANGUAGES, Mathematical Logic.",
}

@Article{March:1992:ATIa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1992:AAa,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Suetens:1992:CSO,
  author =       "Paul Suetens and Pascal Fua and Andrew J. Hanson",
  title =        "Computational Strategies for Object Recognition",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--61",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/128762.128763",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:41:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/128763.html",
  abstract =     "This article reviews the available methods for
                 automated identification of objects in digital images.
                 The techniques are classified into groups according to
                 the nature of the computational strategy used. Four
                 classes are proposed: (1) the simplest strategies,
                 which work on data appropriate for feature vector
                 classification, (2) methods that match models to
                 symbolic data structures for situations involving
                 reliable data and complex models, (3) approaches that
                 fit models to the photometry and are appropriate for
                 noisy data and simple models, and (4) combinations of
                 these strategies, which must be adopted in complex
                 situations. Representative examples of various methods
                 are summarized, and the classes of strategies with
                 respect to their appropriateness for particular
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; experimentation; image
                 understanding; model-based vision; object recognition;
                 theory",
  subject =      "{\bf I.5.4}: Computing Methodologies, PATTERN
                 RECOGNITION, Applications, Computer vision. {\bf
                 I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene Understanding,
                 Architecture and control structures. {\bf I.2.10}:
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Vision and Scene Understanding, Modeling and recovery
                 of physical attributes. {\bf I.2.10}: Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Vision and
                 Scene Understanding, Representations, data structures,
                 and transforms. {\bf I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene
                 Understanding, Shape. {\bf I.4.8}: Computing
                 Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Scene Analysis. {\bf
                 I.4.7}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING,
                 Feature Measurement.",
}

@Article{Mishra:1992:JPR,
  author =       "Priti Mishra and Margaret H. Eich",
  title =        "Join Processing in Relational Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--113",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/128762.128764",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:41:49 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/128764.html",
  abstract =     "The join operation is one of the fundamental
                 relational database query operations. It facilitates
                 the retrieval of information from two different
                 relations based on a Cartesian product of the two
                 relations. The join is one of the most difficult
                 operations to implement efficiently, as no predefined
                 links between relations are required to exist (as they
                 are with network and hierarchical systems). The join is
                 the only relational algebra operation that allows the
                 combining of related tuples from relations on different
                 attribute schemes. Since it is executed frequently and
                 is expensive, much research effort has been applied to
                 the optimization of join processing. In this paper, the
                 different kinds of joins and the various implementation
                 techniques are surveyed. These different methods are
                 classified based on how they partition tuples from
                 different relations. Some require that all tuples from
                 one be compared to all tuples from another; other
                 algorithms only compare some tuples from each. In
                 addition, some techniques perform an explicit
                 partitioning, whereas others are implicit.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; database machines; design; distributed
                 processing; join; outer joins; parallel processing;
                 performance; query execution; relational algebra;
                 semi-join; theory",
  owner =        "soo",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Query processing. {\bf H.2.1}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Logical Design, Data
                 models.",
}

@Article{March:1992:EP,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "Editorial Policy",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "117--125",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1992:ATIb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "127--128",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{March:1992:AAb,
  author =       "Salvatore T. March",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "129--129",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Krueger:1992:SR,
  author =       "Charles W. Krueger",
  title =        "Software Reuse",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "131--183",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/130844.130856",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:42:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Theory/obscure.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/130856.html",
  abstract =     "Software reuse is the process of creating software
                 systems from existing software rather than building
                 software systems from scratch. This simple yet powerful
                 vision was introduced in 1968. Software reuse has,
                 however, failed to become a standard software
                 engineering practice. In an attempt to understand why,
                 researchers have renewed their interest in software
                 reuse and in the obstacles to implementing it.\par

                 This paper surveys the different approaches to software
                 reuse found in the research literature. It uses a
                 taxonomy to describe and compare the different
                 approaches and make generalizations about the field of
                 software reuse. The taxonomy characterizes each reuse
                 approach in terms of its reusable {\em artifacts} and
                 the way these artifacts are {\em abstracted, selected,
                 specialized,} and {\em integrated}.\par

                 Abstraction plays a central role in software reuse.
                 Concise and expressive abstractions are essential if
                 software artifacts are to be effectively reused. The
                 effectiveness of a reuse technique can be evaluated in
                 terms of {\em cognitive distance}---an intuitive gauge
                 of the intellectual effort required to use the
                 technique. Cognitive distance is reduced in two ways:
                 (1) Higher level abstractions in a reuse technique
                 reduce the effort required to go from the initial
                 concept of a software system to representations in the
                 reuse technique, and (2) automation reduces the effort
                 required to go from abstractions in a reuse technique
                 to an executable implementation.\par

                 This survey will help answer the following questions:
                 What is software reuse? Why reuse software? What are
                 the different approaches to reusing software? How
                 effective are the different approaches? What is
                 required to implement a software reuse technology? Why
                 is software reuse difficult? What are the open areas
                 for research in software reuse?",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "abstraction; cognitive distance; design; economics;
                 languages; software reuse",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.m}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Miscellaneous, Reusable software. {\bf D.1.0}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, General. {\bf D.2.2}:
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques,
                 Modules and interfaces. {\bf D.2.2}: Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques, Programmer
                 workbench. {\bf D.2.2}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Tools and Techniques, Software libraries. {\bf D.3.2}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Specialized application languages.
                 {\bf D.3.2}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Very high-level languages. {\bf
                 D.3.4}: Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Processors.
                 {\bf H.3.1}: Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing,
                 Abstracting methods. {\bf H.3.1}: Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and
                 Indexing, Indexing methods. {\bf D.2.1}: Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Requirements/Specifications. {\bf
                 H.3.3}: Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval. {\bf A.1}:
                 General Literature, INTRODUCTORY AND SURVEY.",
}

@Article{BrinchHansen:1992:HRL,
  author =       "Per {Brinch Hansen}",
  title =        "{Householder} Reduction of Linear Equations",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "185--194",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/130844.130851",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:42:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/130851.html",
  abstract =     "This tutorial discusses Householder reduction of n
                 linear equations to a triangular form which can be
                 solved by back substitution. The main strength of the
                 method is its unconditional numerical stability. We
                 explain how Householder reduction can be derived from
                 elementary-matrix algebra. The method is illustrated by
                 a numerical example and a Pascal procedure. We assume
                 that the reader has a general knowledge of vector and
                 matrix algebra but is less familiar with linear
                 transformation of a vector space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Householder reduction",
  subject =      "{\bf G.1.3}: Mathematics of Computing, NUMERICAL
                 ANALYSIS, Numerical Linear Algebra, Linear systems
                 (direct and iterative methods).",
}

@Article{McGeoch:1992:AAS,
  author =       "Catherine McGeoch",
  title =        "Analyzing Algorithms by Simulation: Variance Reduction
                 Techniques and Simulation Speedups",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "195--212",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/130844.130853",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:42:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1992.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/130853.html",
  abstract =     "Although experimental studies have been widely applied
                 to the investigation of algorithm performance, very
                 little attention has been given to experimental method
                 in this area. This is unfortunate, since much can be
                 done to improve the quality of the data obtained;
                 often, much improvement may be needed for the data to
                 be useful. This paper gives a tutorial discussion of
                 two aspects of good experimental technique: the use of
                 {\em variance reduction techniques} and {\em simulation
                 speedups} in algorithm studies.\par

                 In an illustrative study, application of variance
                 reduction techniques produces a decrease in variance by
                 a factor 1000 in one case, giving a dramatic
                 improvement in the precision of experimental results.
                 Furthermore, the complexity of the simulation program
                 is improved from $ \Theta (m n / H_n) $ to $ \Theta (m
                 + n \log n) $ (where $m$ is typically much larger than
                 $n$ ), giving a much faster simulation program and
                 therefore more data per unit of computation time. The
                 general application of variance reduction techniques is
                 also discussed for a variety of algorithm problem
                 domains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "This paper documents the power of variance reduction
                 techniques for algorithm problems and provides tutorial
                 discussion. Since even complex heuristic algorithms
                 tend to have precise mathematical specifications and a
                 great deal of structure, there is much potential for
                 exploiting partial understanding of the underlying
                 model.",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "09/12/92",
  descriptors =  "Analysis; algorithm; simulation; variance reduction;
                 variance; speedup;",
  enum =         "5196",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; experimental analysis of algorithms;
                 experimentation; move-to-front rule; performance;
                 self-organizing sequential search; statistical analysis
                 of algorithms; transpose rule; variance reduction
                 techniques",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "42",
  subject =      "{\bf I.6.8}: Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND
                 MODELING, Types of Simulation, Discrete event. {\bf
                 I.6.3}: Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND
                 MODELING, Applications. {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems,
                 Sorting and searching. {\bf G.3}: Mathematics of
                 Computing, PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS.",
}

@Article{Muntz:1992:PN,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "A Personal Note",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "213--214",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1992:ATIa,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "215--215",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1992:AAa,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "217--217",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Hwang:1992:GMP,
  author =       "Yong K. Hwang and Narendra Ahuja",
  title =        "Gross Motion Planning --- a Survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "219--291",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/136035.136037",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:42:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/136037.html",
  abstract =     "Motion planning is one of the most important areas of
                 robotics research. The complexity of the
                 motion-planning problem has hindered the development of
                 practical algorithms. This paper surveys the work on
                 gross-motion planning, including motion planners for
                 point robots, rigid robots, and manipulators in
                 stationary, time-varying, constrained, and
                 movable-object environments. The general issues in
                 motion planning are explained. Recent approaches and
                 their performances are briefly described, and possible
                 future research directions are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; collision detection; computational
                 geometry; implementation; motion planning; obstacle
                 avoidance; path planning; spatial representation;
                 theory",
  subject =      "{\bf I.2.9}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Robotics, Manipulators. {\bf I.2.10}:
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Vision and Scene Understanding, Motion. {\bf I.2.8}:
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search, Graph and
                 tree search strategies. {\bf I.2.8}: Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Problem
                 Solving, Control Methods, and Search, Heuristic
                 methods.",
}

@Article{Bryant:1992:SBM,
  author =       "Randal E. Bryant",
  title =        "Symbolic {Boolean} Manipulation with Ordered
                 Binary-Decision Diagrams",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "293--318",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/136035.136043",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:42:45 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/136043.html",
  abstract =     "Ordered Binary-Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) represent
                 Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form
                 a canonical representation, making testing of
                 functional properties such as satisfiability and
                 equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on
                 Boolean functions can be implemented as graph
                 algorithms on OBDD data structures. Using OBDDs, a wide
                 variety of problems can be solved through {\em symbolic
                 analysis}. First, the possible variations in system
                 parameters and operating conditions are encoded with
                 Boolean variables. Then the system is evaluated for all
                 variations by a sequence of OBDD operations.
                 Researchers have thus solved a number of problems in
                 digital-system design, finite-state system analysis,
                 artificial intelligence, and mathematical logic. This
                 paper describes the OBDD data structure and surveys a
                 number of applications that have been solved by
                 OBDD-based symbolic analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; binary-decision diagrams; Boolean algebra;
                 Boolean functions; branching programs; symbolic
                 analysis; symbolic manipulation; verification",
  subject =      "{\bf B.6.0}: Hardware, LOGIC DESIGN, General. {\bf
                 I.1.m}: Computing Methodologies, ALGEBRAIC
                 MANIPULATION, Miscellaneous. {\bf F.1.1}: Theory of
                 Computation, COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Models of
                 Computation, Automata. {\bf F.2.2}: Theory of
                 Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM
                 COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems.",
}

@Article{Dunham:1992:SFW,
  author =       "Charles B. Dunham",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {``What Every Computer Scientist
                 Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "319--319",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Goldberg:1991:WEC,Goldberg:1991:CWE,Wichmann:1992:SFW}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Wichmann:1992:SFW,
  author =       "Brian A. Wichmann",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {``What Every Computer Scientist
                 Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic''}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "319--319",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:14:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Goldberg:1991:WEC,Goldberg:1991:CWE,Dunham:1992:SFW}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1992:ATIb,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--322",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:24:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1992:AAb,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--323",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:24:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Brown:1992:SIR,
  author =       "Lisa Gottesfeld Brown",
  title =        "A Survey of Image Registration Techniques",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "325--376",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/146370.146374",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Ai/cmubib.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/146374.html",
  abstract =     "Registration is a fundamental task in image processing
                 used to match two or more pictures taken, for example,
                 at different times, from different sensors, or from
                 different viewpoints. Virtually all large systems which
                 evaluate images require the registration of images, or
                 a closely related operation, as an intermediate step.
                 Specific examples of systems where image registration
                 is a significant component include matching a target
                 with a real-time image of a scene for target
                 recognition, monitoring global land usage using
                 satellite images, matching stereo images to recover
                 shape for autonomous navigation, and aligning images
                 from different medical modalities for
                 diagnosis.\par

                 Over the years, a broad range of techniques has been
                 developed for various types of data and problems. These
                 techniques have been independently studied for several
                 different applications, resulting in a large body of
                 research. This paper organizes this material by
                 establishing the relationship between the variations in
                 the images and the type of registration techniques
                 which can most appropriately be applied. Three major
                 types of variations are distinguished. The first type
                 are the variations due to the differences in
                 acquisition which cause the images to be misaligned. To
                 register images, a spatial transformation is found
                 which will remove these variations. The class of
                 transformations which must be searched to find the
                 optimal transformation is determined by knowledge about
                 the variations of this type. The transformation class
                 in turn influences the general technique that should be
                 taken. The second type of variations are those which
                 are also due to differences in acquisition, but cannot
                 be modeled easily such as lighting and atmospheric
                 conditions. This type usually effects intensity values,
                 but they may also be spatial, such as perspective
                 distortions. The third type of variations are
                 differences in the images that are of interest such as
                 object movements, growths, or other scene changes.
                 Variations of the second and third type are not
                 directly removed by registration, but they make
                 registration more difficult since an exact match is no
                 longer possible. In particular, it is critical that
                 variations of the third type are not removed. Knowledge
                 about the characteristics of each type of variation
                 effect the choice of feature space, similarity measure,
                 search space, and search strategy which will make up
                 the final technique. All registration techniques can be
                 viewed as different combinations of these choices. This
                 framework is useful for understanding the merits and
                 relationships between the wide variety of existing
                 techniques and for assisting in the selection of the
                 most suitable technique for a specific problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; image registration; image warping;
                 measurement; performance; rectification; template
                 matching",
  subject =      "{\bf I.4.3}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE
                 PROCESSING, Enhancement, Registration. {\bf A.1}:
                 General Literature, INTRODUCTORY AND SURVEY. {\bf
                 I.2.10}: Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Vision and Scene Understanding. {\bf
                 I.5.0}: Computing Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION,
                 General. {\bf I.4.8}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE
                 PROCESSING, Scene Analysis, Sensor fusion.",
}

@Article{Kukich:1992:TAC,
  author =       "Karen Kukich",
  title =        "Techniques for Automatically Correcting Words in
                 Text",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--439",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/146370.146380",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Ai/cmubib.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/146380.html",
  abstract =     "Research aimed at correcting words in text has focused
                 on three progressively more difficult problems: (1)
                 nonword error detection; (2) isolated-word error
                 correction; and (3) context-dependent word correction.
                 In response to the first problem, efficient pattern
                 matching and $n$-gram analysis techniques have been
                 developed for detecting strings that do not appear in a
                 given word list. In response to the second problem, a
                 variety of general and application-specific spelling
                 correction techniques have been developed. Some of them
                 were based on detailed studies of spelling error
                 patterns. In response to the third problem, a few
                 experiments using natural-language-processing tools or
                 statistical-language models have been carried out. This
                 article surveys documented findings on spelling error
                 patterns, provides descriptions of various nonword
                 detection and isolated-word error correction
                 techniques, reviews the state of the art of
                 context-dependent word correction techniques, and
                 discusses research issues related to all three areas of
                 automatic error correction in text.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "$n$-gram analysis; algorithms; context-dependent
                 spelling correction; experimentation; grammar checking;
                 human factors; n-gram analysis;
                 natural-language-processing models; neural net
                 classifiers; Optical Character Recognition (OCR);
                 performance; spell checking; spelling error detection;
                 spelling error patterns; statistical-language models;
                 theory; word recognition and correction",
  subject =      "I.2.6 [Artificial Intelligence]: Learning ---
                 connectionism and neural nets; I.2.7 [Artificial
                 Intelligence]: Natural Language Processing --- language
                 models; language parsing and understanding; text
                 analysis; I.5.1 [Pattern Recognition]: Models ---
                 neural nets; statistical; I.5.4 [Pattern Recognition]:
                 Applications --- text processing; I.7.1 [Text
                 Processing]: Text Editing --- spelling",
}

@Article{Estivill-Castro:1992:SAS,
  author =       "Vladimir Estivill-Castro and Derick Wood",
  title =        "A Survey of Adaptive Sorting Algorithms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "441--476",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/146370.146381",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Distributed/QLD/1992.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/146381.html",
  abstract =     "The design and analysis of adaptive sorting algorithms
                 has made important contributions to both theory and
                 practice. The main contributions from the theoretical
                 point of view are: the description of the complexity of
                 a sorting algorithm not only in terms of the size of a
                 problem instance but also in terms of the disorder of
                 the given problem instance; the establishment of new
                 relationships among measures of disorder; the
                 introduction of new sorting algorithms that take
                 advantage of the existing order in the input sequence;
                 and, the proofs that several of the new sorting
                 algorithms achieve maximal (optimal) adaptivity with
                 respect to several measures of disorder. The main
                 contributions from the practical point of view are: the
                 demonstration that several algorithms currently in use
                 are adaptive; and, the development of new algorithms,
                 similar to currently used algorithms that perform
                 competitively on random sequences and are significantly
                 faster on nearly sorted sequences. In this survey, we
                 present the basic notions and concepts of adaptive
                 sorting and the state of the art of adaptive sorting
                 algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "In this survey the basic notions and concepts of
                 adaptive sorting and the state of the art of adaptive
                 sorting algorithm are presented. It gives the
                 description of the complexity of a sorting algorithm
                 not only in term of a size of a problem but also in
                 terms of the disorder of a given problem instance and
                 the introduction od new sorting algorithms that take
                 advantage of the existing order in the input
                 sequence.",
  country =      "USA",
  date =         "09/02/94",
  descriptors =  "Algorithm; Sorting; Search Tree;",
  enum =         "8478",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "adaptive sorting algorithms; algorithms; comparison
                 trees; design; measures of disorder; nearly sorted
                 sequences; randomized algorithms; theory",
  language =     "English",
  references =   "76",
  subject =      "{\bf F.2.2}: Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF
                 ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical
                 Algorithms and Problems, Sorting and searching. {\bf
                 G.3}: Mathematics of Computing, PROBABILITY AND
                 STATISTICS, Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte
                 Carlo). {\bf E.5}: Data, FILES, Sorting/searching. {\bf
                 E.2}: Data, DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS, Composite
                 structures.",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:ATIa,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:24:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:AAa,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:24:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Arman:1993:MBO,
  author =       "Farshid Arman and J. K. Aggarwal",
  title =        "Model-Based Object Recognition in Dense-Range Images
                 --- a Review",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--43",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/151254.151255",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/151255.html",
  abstract =     "The goal in computer vision systems is to analyze data
                 collected from the environment and derive an
                 interpretation to complete a specified task. Vision
                 system tasks may be divided into data acquisition,
                 low-level processing, representation, model
                 construction, and matching subtasks. This paper
                 presents a comprehensive survey of model-based vision
                 systems using dense-range images. A comprehensive
                 survey of the recent publications in each subtask
                 pertaining to dense-range image object recognition is
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "3D object recognition; 3D representations; algorithms;
                 CAD-based vision; dense-range images; design;
                 experimentation; image understanding",
  subject =      "{\bf I.5.4}: Computing Methodologies, PATTERN
                 RECOGNITION, Applications, Computer vision. {\bf J.6}:
                 Computer Applications, COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING,
                 Computer-aided design (CAD). {\bf A.1}: General
                 Literature, INTRODUCTORY AND SURVEY. {\bf I.4.8}:
                 Computing Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Scene
                 Analysis, Range data. {\bf I.2.10}: Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Vision and
                 Scene Understanding. {\bf I.2.9}: Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Robotics,
                 Sensors. {\bf I.3.5}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Computational Geometry and Object Modeling,
                 Curve, surface, solid, and object representations. {\bf
                 I.3.5}: Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling, Modeling
                 packages. {\bf I.4.9}: Computing Methodologies, IMAGE
                 PROCESSING, Applications. {\bf I.5.2}: Computing
                 Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION, Design Methodology,
                 Feature evaluation and selection. {\bf I.5.3}:
                 Computing Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION,
                 Clustering, Similarity measures. {\bf I.4.6}: Computing
                 Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Segmentation, Region
                 growing, partitioning. {\bf I.4.6}: Computing
                 Methodologies, IMAGE PROCESSING, Segmentation, Pixel
                 classification.",
}

@Article{Schneider:1993:SS,
  author =       "Marco Schneider",
  title =        "Self-Sta\-bi\-li\-za\-tion",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "45--67",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/151254.151256",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/151256.html",
  abstract =     "In 1973 Dijkstra introduced to computer science the
                 notion of self-stabilization in the context of
                 distributed systems. He defined a system as {\em
                 self-stabilizing} when ``regardless of its initial
                 state, it is guaranteed to arrive at a legitimate state
                 in a finite number of steps.'' A system which is not
                 self-stabilizing may stay in an illegitimate state
                 forever. Dijkstra's notion of self-stabilization, which
                 originally had a very narrow scope of application, is
                 proving to encompass a formal and unified approach to
                 fault tolerance under a model of transient failures for
                 distributed systems. In this paper we define
                 self-stabilization, examine its significance in the
                 context of fault tolerance, define the important
                 research themes that have arisen from it, and discuss
                 the relevant results. In addition to the issues arising
                 from Dijkstra's original presentation as well as
                 several related issues, we discuss methodologies for
                 designing self-stabilizing systems, the role of
                 compilers with respect to self-stabilization, and some
                 of the factors that prevent self-stabilization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; convergence; design; distributed systems
                 legal illegal states fault tolerance; fault tolerance;
                 reliability; self-stabilization; self-stabilizing
                 systems; stabilization; transient errors; transient
                 failures; verification",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.5}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Reliability,
                 Fault-tolerance. {\bf D.4.1}: Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Process Management. {\bf F.3.1}: Theory of
                 Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS,
                 Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs.
                 {\bf D.1.3}: Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES,
                 Concurrent Programming. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed applications.",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:ATIb,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "69--70",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:24:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:AAb,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "71--72",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 25 10:24:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Graefe:1993:QET,
  author =       "Goetz Graefe",
  title =        "Query Evaluation Techniques for Large Databases",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "73--170",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/152610.152611",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:58 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/152611.html",
  abstract =     "Database management systems will continue to manage
                 large data volumes. Thus, efficient algorithms for
                 accessing and manipulating large sets and sequences
                 will be required to provide acceptable performance. The
                 advent of object-oriented and extensible database
                 systems will not solve this problem. On the contrary,
                 modern data models exacerbate the problem: In order to
                 manipulate large sets of complex objects as efficiently
                 as today's database systems manipulate simple records,
                 query-processing algorithms and software will become
                 more complex, and a solid understanding of algorithm
                 and architectural issues is essential for the designer
                 of database management software.\par

                 This survey provides a foundation for the design and
                 implementation of query execution facilities in new
                 database management systems. It describes a wide array
                 of practical query evaluation techniques for both
                 relational and postrelational database systems,
                 including iterative execution of complex query
                 evaluation plans, the duality of sort- and hash-based
                 set-matching algorithms, types of parallel query
                 execution and their implementation, and special
                 operators for emerging database application domains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; complex query evaluation plans; dynamic
                 query evaluation plans; extensible database systems;
                 iterators; object-oriented database systems; operator
                 model of parallelization; parallel algorithms;
                 performance; processing execution iterators algorithms
                 parallelism logical physical algebra level of
                 abstraction performance meta-operator extensible
                 object-oriented scientific operators sort sorting hash
                 hashing duality; relational database systems;
                 set-matching algorithms; sort-hash duality",
  subject =      "{\bf E.5}: Data, FILES. {\bf H.2.4}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems, Query
                 processing. {\bf A.1}: General Literature, INTRODUCTORY
                 AND SURVEY.",
}

@Article{Barborak:1993:CPF,
  author =       "Michael Barborak and Miroslaw Malek and Anton
                 Dahbura",
  title =        "The Consensus Problem in Fault-Tolerant Computing",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--220",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/152610.152612",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:43:58 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/152612.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Byzantine agreement; consensus problem;
                 decision theory; design; processor membership;
                 reliability; system diagnosis",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.5}: Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Reliability,
                 Fault-tolerance. {\bf C.2.3}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Network
                 Operations, Network management. {\bf C.2.3}: Computer
                 Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Network Operations, Network monitoring. {\bf C.2.4}:
                 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION
                 NETWORKS, Distributed Systems, Distributed
                 applications. {\bf C.2.4}: Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Network operating systems.",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:ATIc,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "221--222",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 31 23:28:59 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:AAc,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "223--223",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 31 23:29:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Shankar:1993:IAR,
  author =       "A. Udaya Shankar",
  title =        "An Introduction to Assertional Reasoning for
                 Concurrent Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "225--262",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/158439.158441",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/158441.html",
  abstract =     "This is a tutorial introduction to assertional
                 reasoning based on temporal logic. The objective is to
                 provide a working familiarity with the technique. We
                 use a simple system model and a simple proof system,
                 and we keep to a minimum the treatment of issues such
                 as soundness, completeness, compositionality, and
                 abstraction. We model a concurrent system by a state
                 transition system and fairness requirements. We reason
                 about such systems using Hoare logic and a subset of
                 linear-time temporal logic, specifically, invariant
                 assertions and leads-to assertions. We apply the method
                 to several examples.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "assertional reasoning; generation of preconditions;
                 Hoare logic; invariants; leads-to; progress properties;
                 safety properties; state transition systems;
                 verification; weakest preconditions",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.4}: Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Program
                 Verification, Correctness proofs. {\bf D.3.3}:
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features. {\bf F.3.1}: Theory of Computation,
                 LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS, Specifying and
                 Verifying and Reasoning about Programs, Assertions.
                 {\bf F.3.1}: Theory of Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS
                 OF PROGRAMS, Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning
                 about Programs, Invariants. {\bf F.3.1}: Theory of
                 Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS,
                 Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs,
                 Logics of programs. {\bf F.3.1}: Theory of Computation,
                 LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS, Specifying and
                 Verifying and Reasoning about Programs, Pre- and
                 post-conditions.",
}

@Article{Norman:1993:MMC,
  author =       "Michael G. Norman and Peter Thanisch",
  title =        "Models of Machines and Computation for Mapping in
                 Multicomputers",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "263--302",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/158439.158908",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/158908.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "design; mapping; multicomputer load balancing;
                 multicomputers; partitioning; performance; scheduling",
  subject =      "{\bf C.1.2}: Computer Systems Organization, PROCESSOR
                 ARCHITECTURES, Multiple Data Stream Architectures
                 (Multiprocessors), Multiple-instruction-stream,
                 multiple-data-stream processors (MIMD).",
}

@Article{Lilja:1993:CCL,
  author =       "David J. Lilja",
  title =        "Cache Coherence in Large-Scale Shared-Memory
                 Multiprocessors: Issues and Comparisons",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "303--338",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/158439.158907",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/158907.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  subject =      "{\bf B.3.2}: Hardware, MEMORY STRUCTURES, Design
                 Styles, Cache memories.",
}

@Article{Nelson:1993:MPF,
  author =       "Randolph D. Nelson",
  title =        "The Mathematics of Product Form Queuing Networks",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "339--369",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/158439.158906",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/158906.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "partial balance; performance; product form;
                 quasireversibility; queuing theory; reversibility",
  subject =      "{\bf G.3}: Mathematics of Computing, PROBABILITY AND
                 STATISTICS. {\bf C.4}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS, Modeling techniques.",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:ATId,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About This Issue \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "371--372",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 31 23:29:38 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Muntz:1993:AAd,
  author =       "Richard R. Muntz",
  title =        "About the Authors \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--373",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 31 23:29:47 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Baskerville:1993:ISS,
  author =       "Richard Baskerville",
  title =        "Information Systems Security Design Methods:
                 Implications for Information Systems Development",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--414",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/162124.162127",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/162127.html",
  abstract =     "The security of information systems is a serious issue
                 because computer abuse is increasing. It is important,
                 therefore, that systems analysts and designers develop
                 expertise in methods for specifying information systems
                 security. The characteristics found in three
                 generations of general information system design
                 methods provide a framework for comparing and
                 understanding current security design methods. These
                 methods include approaches that use checklists of
                 controls, divide functional requirements into
                 engineering partitions, and create abstract models of
                 both the problem and the solution. Comparisons and
                 contrasts reveal that advances in security methods lag
                 behind advances in general systems development methods.
                 This analysis also reveals that more general methods
                 fail to consider security specifications rigorously.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "checklists; control; integrity; management; risk
                 analysis; safety; security; structured systems analysis
                 and design; system modeling",
  subject =      "{\bf C.0}: Computer Systems Organization, GENERAL,
                 Systems specification methodology. {\bf H.1.1}:
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, Systems and
                 Information Theory, Value of information. {\bf H.1.2}:
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf K.6.1}:
                 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Project and People Management,
                 Systems analysis and design. {\bf K.6.5}: Computing
                 Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS, Security and Protection, Authentication. {\bf
                 K.6.5}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Security and Protection,
                 Insurance. {\bf K.6.5}: Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT
                 OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Security and
                 Protection, Invasive software. {\bf K.6.5}: Computing
                 Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS, Security and Protection, Physical security.",
}

@Article{Eschermann:1993:SAH,
  author =       "Bernhard Eschermann",
  title =        "State Assignment for Hardwired {VLSI} Control Units",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "415--436",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/162124.162132",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/162132.html",
  abstract =     "Finding a binary encoding of symbolic control states,
                 such that the implementation area of a digital control
                 unit is minimized is well known to be NP-complete. Many
                 heuristic algorithms have been proposed for this state
                 assignment problem. The objective of this article is to
                 present a comprehensive survey and systematic
                 categorization of the various techniques, in
                 particular, for synchronous sequential circuits with
                 nonmicroprogrammed implementations. The problem is
                 partitioned into the generation and the satisfaction of
                 coding constraints. Three types of coding constraints
                 --- adjacency, covering, and disjunctive constraints
                 --- are widely used. The constraint satisfaction
                 algorithms are classified into column-based, row-based,
                 tree-based, dichotomy-based, and global minimization
                 approaches. All of them are illustrated with examples.
                 Special coding requirements and testability-related
                 aspects of state assignment are considered in a
                 separate section. Different implementations of the
                 algorithms presented are also compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; built-in tests; coding constraints;
                 computer-aided design; control design; design;
                 finite-state machines; integrated circuits; logic
                 design; sequential circuits; state assignment;
                 synthesis; testability; VLSI",
  subject =      "{\bf B.1.2}: Hardware, CONTROL STRUCTURES AND
                 MICROPROGRAMMING, Control Structure Performance
                 Analysis and Design Aids, Automatic synthesis.",
}

@Article{Brancheau:1993:MEU,
  author =       "James C. Brancheau and Carol V. Brown",
  title =        "The Management of End-User Computing: Status and
                 Directions",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "437--482",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/162124.162138",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:44:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/162138.html",
  abstract =     "The development of computing applications by the
                 people who have direct need for them in their work has
                 become commonplace. During the 1980s, development of
                 applications by ``end users'' accelerated and became a
                 key management and research concern. Known as
                 ``end-user computing,'' the phenomena and research
                 associated with this trend cross a variety of
                 disciplines. This article critically surveys the
                 published literature on end-user computing (EUC)
                 management according to a comprehensive research model.
                 The article introduces the EUC management research
                 model, identifies prior research contributions, and
                 offers guideline for the future. The focal points of
                 the model are two EUC management components which
                 represent two different levels of theorizing found in
                 the literature. The first level focuses on the
                 organization factors of strategy, technology, and
                 management action. The second level focuses on the
                 individual factors of end user, task, tool, and
                 end-user action. The remainder of the model includes
                 factors typically investigated as the antecedents
                 (context) and consequences (outcomes) of EUC. More than
                 90 English-language articles published from 1983-1990
                 are mapped into the model. Specific variables for each
                 factor are identified; research streams are
                 interpreted; findings are synthesized; and gaps in our
                 knowledge are highlighted. We then raise a number of
                 substantive and methodological issues that need to be
                 addressed and suggest two themes we envision as
                 important for EUC management research in the 1990s: EUC
                 as an extension of organizational computing and EUC as
                 a social learning phenomenon. Guidance is offered for
                 using these theme to inform future research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "desktop computing; end-user computing; human factors;
                 information center; information technology management;
                 management; personal computing",
  subject =      "{\bf H.4.1}: Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation. {\bf K.6.1}: Computing
                 Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS, Project and People Management.",
}

@Article{Gupta:1994:RSD,
  author =       "Rajiv Gupta and Scott A. Smolka and Shaji Bhaskar",
  title =        "On Randomization in Sequential and Distributed
                 Algorithms",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--86",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/174666.174667",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:45:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/174667.html",
  abstract =     "Probabilistic, or randomized, algorithms are fast
                 becoming as commonplace as conventional deterministic
                 algorithms. This survey presents five techniques that
                 have been widely used in the design of randomized
                 algorithms. These techniques are illustrated using 12
                 randomized algorithms---both sequential and
                 distributed--- that span a wide range of applications,
                 including:{\em primality testing} (a classical problem
                 in number theory), {\em interactive probabilistic proof
                 systems} (a new method of program testing), {\em dining
                 philosophers} (a classical problem in distributed
                 computing), and {\em Byzantine agreement} (reaching
                 agreement in the presence of malicious processors).
                 Included with each algorithm is a discussion of its
                 correctness and its computational complexity. Several
                 related topics of interest are also addressed,
                 including the theory of probabilistic automata,
                 probabilistic analysis of conventional algorithms,
                 deterministic amplification, and derandomization of
                 randomized algorithms. Finally, a comprehensive
                 annotated bibliography is given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "algorithms; analysis of algorithms; Byzantine
                 agreement; computational complexity; CSP; dining
                 philosophers problem; distributed algorithms; graph
                 isomorphism; hashing; interactive probabilistic proof
                 systems; leader election; message routing;
                 nearest-neighbors problem; perfect hashing; primality
                 testing; probabilistic techniques; randomized or
                 probabilistic algorithms; randomized quicksort;
                 sequential algorithms; transitive tournaments;
                 universal hashing",
  subject =      "{\bf G.3}: Mathematics of Computing, PROBABILITY AND
                 STATISTICS, Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte
                 Carlo). {\bf F.1.2}: Theory of Computation, COMPUTATION
                 BY ABSTRACT DEVICES, Modes of Computation,
                 Probabilistic computation. {\bf D.1.0}: Software,
                 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, General.",
}

@Article{Malone:1994:ISC,
  author =       "Thomas W. Malone and Kevin Crowston",
  title =        "The Interdisciplinary Study of Coordination",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "87--119",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/174666.174668",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:45:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0360-0300/174668.html",
  abstract =     "This survey characterizes an emerging research area,
                 sometimes called {\em coordination theory}, that
                 focuses on the interdisciplinary study of coordination.
                 Research in this area uses and extends ideas about
                 coordination from disciplines such as computer science,
                 organization theory, operations research, economics,
                 linguistics, and psychology.\par

                 A key insight of the framework presente