*DECK DWNLSM
SUBROUTINE DWNLSM (W, MDW, MME, MA, N, L, PRGOPT, X, RNORM, MODE,
+ IPIVOT, ITYPE, WD, H, SCALE, Z, TEMP, D)
C***BEGIN PROLOGUE DWNLSM
C***SUBSIDIARY
C***PURPOSE Subsidiary to DWNNLS
C***LIBRARY SLATEC
C***TYPE DOUBLE PRECISION (WNLSM-S, DWNLSM-D)
C***AUTHOR Hanson, R. J., (SNLA)
C Haskell, K. H., (SNLA)
C***DESCRIPTION
C
C This is a companion subprogram to DWNNLS.
C The documentation for DWNNLS has complete usage instructions.
C
C In addition to the parameters discussed in the prologue to
C subroutine DWNNLS, the following work arrays are used in
C subroutine DWNLSM (they are passed through the calling
C sequence from DWNNLS for purposes of variable dimensioning).
C Their contents will in general be of no interest to the user.
C
C Variables of type REAL are DOUBLE PRECISION.
C
C IPIVOT(*)
C An array of length N. Upon completion it contains the
C pivoting information for the cols of W(*,*).
C
C ITYPE(*)
C An array of length M which is used to keep track
C of the classification of the equations. ITYPE(I)=0
C denotes equation I as an equality constraint.
C ITYPE(I)=1 denotes equation I as a least squares
C equation.
C
C WD(*)
C An array of length N. Upon completion it contains the
C dual solution vector.
C
C H(*)
C An array of length N. Upon completion it contains the
C pivot scalars of the Householder transformations performed
C in the case KRANK.LT.L.
C
C SCALE(*)
C An array of length M which is used by the subroutine
C to store the diagonal matrix of weights.
C These are used to apply the modified Givens
C transformations.
C
C Z(*),TEMP(*)
C Working arrays of length N.
C
C D(*)
C An array of length N that contains the
C column scaling for the matrix (E).
C (A)
C
C***SEE ALSO DWNNLS
C***ROUTINES CALLED D1MACH, DASUM, DAXPY, DCOPY, DH12, DNRM2, DROTM,
C DROTMG, DSCAL, DSWAP, DWNLIT, IDAMAX, XERMSG
C***REVISION HISTORY (YYMMDD)
C 790701 DATE WRITTEN
C 890531 Changed all specific intrinsics to generic. (WRB)
C 890618 Completely restructured and revised. (WRB & RWC)
C 891214 Prologue converted to Version 4.0 format. (BAB)
C 900315 CALLs to XERROR changed to CALLs to XERMSG. (THJ)
C 900328 Added TYPE section. (WRB)
C 900510 Fixed an error message. (RWC)
C 900604 DP version created from SP version. (RWC)
C 900911 Restriction on value of ALAMDA included. (WRB)
C***END PROLOGUE DWNLSM
INTEGER IPIVOT(*), ITYPE(*), L, MA, MDW, MME, MODE, N
DOUBLE PRECISION D(*), H(*), PRGOPT(*), RNORM, SCALE(*), TEMP(*),
* W(MDW,*), WD(*), X(*), Z(*)
C
EXTERNAL D1MACH, DASUM, DAXPY, DCOPY, DH12, DNRM2, DROTM, DROTMG,
* DSCAL, DSWAP, DWNLIT, IDAMAX, XERMSG
DOUBLE PRECISION D1MACH, DASUM, DNRM2
INTEGER IDAMAX
C
DOUBLE PRECISION ALAMDA, ALPHA, ALSQ, AMAX, BLOWUP, BNORM,
* DOPE(3), DRELPR, EANORM, FAC, SM, SPARAM(5), T, TAU, WMAX, Z2,
* ZZ
INTEGER I, IDOPE(3), IMAX, ISOL, ITEMP, ITER, ITMAX, IWMAX, J,
* JCON, JP, KEY, KRANK, L1, LAST, LINK, M, ME, NEXT, NIV, NLINK,
* NOPT, NSOLN, NTIMES
LOGICAL DONE, FEASBL, FIRST, HITCON, POS
C
SAVE DRELPR, FIRST
DATA FIRST /.TRUE./
C***FIRST EXECUTABLE STATEMENT DWNLSM
C
C Initialize variables.
C DRELPR is the precision for the particular machine
C being used. This logic avoids resetting it every entry.
C
IF (FIRST) DRELPR = D1MACH(4)
FIRST = .FALSE.
C
C Set the nominal tolerance used in the code.
C
TAU = SQRT(DRELPR)
C
M = MA + MME
ME = MME
MODE = 2
C
C To process option vector
C
FAC = 1.D-4
C
C Set the nominal blow up factor used in the code.
C
BLOWUP = TAU
C
C The nominal column scaling used in the code is
C the identity scaling.
C
CALL DCOPY (N, 1.D0, 0, D, 1)
C
C Define bound for number of options to change.
C
NOPT = 1000
C
C Define bound for positive value of LINK.
C
NLINK = 100000
NTIMES = 0
LAST = 1
LINK = PRGOPT(1)
IF (LINK.LE.0 .OR. LINK.GT.NLINK) THEN
CALL XERMSG ('SLATEC', 'DWNLSM',
+ 'IN DWNNLS, THE OPTION VECTOR IS UNDEFINED', 3, 1)
RETURN
ENDIF
C
100 IF (LINK.GT.1) THEN
NTIMES = NTIMES + 1
IF (NTIMES.GT.NOPT) THEN
CALL XERMSG ('SLATEC', 'DWNLSM',
+ 'IN DWNNLS, THE LINKS IN THE OPTION VECTOR ARE CYCLING.',
+ 3, 1)
RETURN
ENDIF
C
KEY = PRGOPT(LAST+1)
IF (KEY.EQ.6 .AND. PRGOPT(LAST+2).NE.0.D0) THEN
DO 110 J = 1,N
T = DNRM2(M,W(1,J),1)
IF (T.NE.0.D0) T = 1.D0/T
D(J) = T
110 CONTINUE
ENDIF
C
IF (KEY.EQ.7) CALL DCOPY (N, PRGOPT(LAST+2), 1, D, 1)
IF (KEY.EQ.8) TAU = MAX(DRELPR,PRGOPT(LAST+2))
IF (KEY.EQ.9) BLOWUP = MAX(DRELPR,PRGOPT(LAST+2))
C
NEXT = PRGOPT(LINK)
IF (NEXT.LE.0 .OR. NEXT.GT.NLINK) THEN
CALL XERMSG ('SLATEC', 'DWNLSM',
+ 'IN DWNNLS, THE OPTION VECTOR IS UNDEFINED', 3, 1)
RETURN
ENDIF
C
LAST = LINK
LINK = NEXT
GO TO 100
ENDIF
C
DO 120 J = 1,N
CALL DSCAL (M, D(J), W(1,J), 1)
120 CONTINUE
C
C Process option vector
C
DONE = .FALSE.
ITER = 0
ITMAX = 3*(N-L)
MODE = 0
NSOLN = L
L1 = MIN(M,L)
C
C Compute scale factor to apply to equality constraint equations.
C
DO 130 J = 1,N
WD(J) = DASUM(M,W(1,J),1)
130 CONTINUE
C
IMAX = IDAMAX(N,WD,1)
EANORM = WD(IMAX)
BNORM = DASUM(M,W(1,N+1),1)
ALAMDA = EANORM/(DRELPR*FAC)
C
C On machines, such as the VAXes using D floating, with a very
C limited exponent range for double precision values, the previously
C computed value of ALAMDA may cause an overflow condition.
C Therefore, this code further limits the value of ALAMDA.
C
ALAMDA = MIN(ALAMDA,SQRT(D1MACH(2)))
C
C Define scaling diagonal matrix for modified Givens usage and
C classify equation types.
C
ALSQ = ALAMDA**2
DO 140 I = 1,M
C
C When equation I is heavily weighted ITYPE(I)=0,
C else ITYPE(I)=1.
C
IF (I.LE.ME) THEN
T = ALSQ
ITEMP = 0
ELSE
T = 1.D0
ITEMP = 1
ENDIF
SCALE(I) = T
ITYPE(I) = ITEMP
140 CONTINUE
C
C Set the solution vector X(*) to zero and the column interchange
C matrix to the identity.
C
CALL DCOPY (N, 0.D0, 0, X, 1)
DO 150 I = 1,N
IPIVOT(I) = I
150 CONTINUE
C
C Perform initial triangularization in the submatrix
C corresponding to the unconstrained variables.
C Set first L components of dual vector to zero because
C these correspond to the unconstrained variables.
C
CALL DCOPY (L, 0.D0, 0, WD, 1)
C
C The arrays IDOPE(*) and DOPE(*) are used to pass
C information to DWNLIT(). This was done to avoid
C a long calling sequence or the use of COMMON.
C
IDOPE(1) = ME
IDOPE(2) = NSOLN
IDOPE(3) = L1
C
DOPE(1) = ALSQ
DOPE(2) = EANORM
DOPE(3) = TAU
CALL DWNLIT (W, MDW, M, N, L, IPIVOT, ITYPE, H, SCALE, RNORM,
+ IDOPE, DOPE, DONE)
ME = IDOPE(1)
KRANK = IDOPE(2)
NIV = IDOPE(3)
C
C Perform WNNLS algorithm using the following steps.
C
C Until(DONE)
C compute search direction and feasible point
C when (HITCON) add constraints
C else perform multiplier test and drop a constraint
C fin
C Compute-Final-Solution
C
C To compute search direction and feasible point,
C solve the triangular system of currently non-active
C variables and store the solution in Z(*).
C
C To solve system
C Copy right hand side into TEMP vector to use overwriting method.
C
160 IF (DONE) GO TO 330
ISOL = L + 1
IF (NSOLN.GE.ISOL) THEN
CALL DCOPY (NIV, W(1,N+1), 1, TEMP, 1)
DO 170 J = NSOLN,ISOL,-1
IF (J.GT.KRANK) THEN
I = NIV - NSOLN + J
ELSE
I = J
ENDIF
C
IF (J.GT.KRANK .AND. J.LE.L) THEN
Z(J) = 0.D0
ELSE
Z(J) = TEMP(I)/W(I,J)
CALL DAXPY (I-1, -Z(J), W(1,J), 1, TEMP, 1)
ENDIF
170 CONTINUE
ENDIF
C
C Increment iteration counter and check against maximum number
C of iterations.
C
ITER = ITER + 1
IF (ITER.GT.ITMAX) THEN
MODE = 1
DONE = .TRUE.
ENDIF
C
C Check to see if any constraints have become active.
C If so, calculate an interpolation factor so that all
C active constraints are removed from the basis.
C
ALPHA = 2.D0
HITCON = .FALSE.
DO 180 J = L+1,NSOLN
ZZ = Z(J)
IF (ZZ.LE.0.D0) THEN
T = X(J)/(X(J)-ZZ)
IF (T.LT.ALPHA) THEN
ALPHA = T
JCON = J
ENDIF
HITCON = .TRUE.
ENDIF
180 CONTINUE
C
C Compute search direction and feasible point
C
IF (HITCON) THEN
C
C To add constraints, use computed ALPHA to interpolate between
C last feasible solution X(*) and current unconstrained (and
C infeasible) solution Z(*).
C
DO 190 J = L+1,NSOLN
X(J) = X(J) + ALPHA*(Z(J)-X(J))
190 CONTINUE
FEASBL = .FALSE.
C
C Remove column JCON and shift columns JCON+1 through N to the
C left. Swap column JCON into the N th position. This achieves
C upper Hessenberg form for the nonactive constraints and
C leaves an upper Hessenberg matrix to retriangularize.
C
200 DO 210 I = 1,M
T = W(I,JCON)
CALL DCOPY (N-JCON, W(I, JCON+1), MDW, W(I, JCON), MDW)
W(I,N) = T
210 CONTINUE
C
C Update permuted index vector to reflect this shift and swap.
C
ITEMP = IPIVOT(JCON)
DO 220 I = JCON,N - 1
IPIVOT(I) = IPIVOT(I+1)
220 CONTINUE
IPIVOT(N) = ITEMP
C
C Similarly permute X(*) vector.
C
CALL DCOPY (N-JCON, X(JCON+1), 1, X(JCON), 1)
X(N) = 0.D0
NSOLN = NSOLN - 1
NIV = NIV - 1
C
C Retriangularize upper Hessenberg matrix after adding
C constraints.
C
I = KRANK + JCON - L
DO 230 J = JCON,NSOLN
IF (ITYPE(I).EQ.0 .AND. ITYPE(I+1).EQ.0) THEN
C
C Zero IP1 to I in column J
C
IF (W(I+1,J).NE.0.D0) THEN
CALL DROTMG (SCALE(I), SCALE(I+1), W(I,J), W(I+1,J),
+ SPARAM)
W(I+1,J) = 0.D0
CALL DROTM (N+1-J, W(I,J+1), MDW, W(I+1,J+1), MDW,
+ SPARAM)
ENDIF
ELSEIF (ITYPE(I).EQ.1 .AND. ITYPE(I+1).EQ.1) THEN
C
C Zero IP1 to I in column J
C
IF (W(I+1,J).NE.0.D0) THEN
CALL DROTMG (SCALE(I), SCALE(I+1), W(I,J), W(I+1,J),
+ SPARAM)
W(I+1,J) = 0.D0
CALL DROTM (N+1-J, W(I,J+1), MDW, W(I+1,J+1), MDW,
+ SPARAM)
ENDIF
ELSEIF (ITYPE(I).EQ.1 .AND. ITYPE(I+1).EQ.0) THEN
CALL DSWAP (N+1, W(I,1), MDW, W(I+1,1), MDW)
CALL DSWAP (1, SCALE(I), 1, SCALE(I+1), 1)
ITEMP = ITYPE(I+1)
ITYPE(I+1) = ITYPE(I)
ITYPE(I) = ITEMP
C
C Swapped row was formerly a pivot element, so it will
C be large enough to perform elimination.
C Zero IP1 to I in column J.
C
IF (W(I+1,J).NE.0.D0) THEN
CALL DROTMG (SCALE(I), SCALE(I+1), W(I,J), W(I+1,J),
+ SPARAM)
W(I+1,J) = 0.D0
CALL DROTM (N+1-J, W(I,J+1), MDW, W(I+1,J+1), MDW,
+ SPARAM)
ENDIF
ELSEIF (ITYPE(I).EQ.0 .AND. ITYPE(I+1).EQ.1) THEN
IF (SCALE(I)*W(I,J)**2/ALSQ.GT.(TAU*EANORM)**2) THEN
C
C Zero IP1 to I in column J
C
IF (W(I+1,J).NE.0.D0) THEN
CALL DROTMG (SCALE(I), SCALE(I+1), W(I,J),
+ W(I+1,J), SPARAM)
W(I+1,J) = 0.D0
CALL DROTM (N+1-J, W(I,J+1), MDW, W(I+1,J+1), MDW,
+ SPARAM)
ENDIF
ELSE
CALL DSWAP (N+1, W(I,1), MDW, W(I+1,1), MDW)
CALL DSWAP (1, SCALE(I), 1, SCALE(I+1), 1)
ITEMP = ITYPE(I+1)
ITYPE(I+1) = ITYPE(I)
ITYPE(I) = ITEMP
W(I+1,J) = 0.D0
ENDIF
ENDIF
I = I + 1
230 CONTINUE
C
C See if the remaining coefficients in the solution set are
C feasible. They should be because of the way ALPHA was
C determined. If any are infeasible, it is due to roundoff
C error. Any that are non-positive will be set to zero and
C removed from the solution set.
C
DO 240 JCON = L+1,NSOLN
IF (X(JCON).LE.0.D0) GO TO 250
240 CONTINUE
FEASBL = .TRUE.
250 IF (.NOT.FEASBL) GO TO 200
ELSE
C
C To perform multiplier test and drop a constraint.
C
CALL DCOPY (NSOLN, Z, 1, X, 1)
IF (NSOLN.LT.N) CALL DCOPY (N-NSOLN, 0.D0, 0, X(NSOLN+1), 1)
C
C Reclassify least squares equations as equalities as necessary.
C
I = NIV + 1
260 IF (I.LE.ME) THEN
IF (ITYPE(I).EQ.0) THEN
I = I + 1
ELSE
CALL DSWAP (N+1, W(I,1), MDW, W(ME,1), MDW)
CALL DSWAP (1, SCALE(I), 1, SCALE(ME), 1)
ITEMP = ITYPE(I)
ITYPE(I) = ITYPE(ME)
ITYPE(ME) = ITEMP
ME = ME - 1
ENDIF
GO TO 260
ENDIF
C
C Form inner product vector WD(*) of dual coefficients.
C
DO 280 J = NSOLN+1,N
SM = 0.D0
DO 270 I = NSOLN+1,M
SM = SM + SCALE(I)*W(I,J)*W(I,N+1)
270 CONTINUE
WD(J) = SM
280 CONTINUE
C
C Find J such that WD(J)=WMAX is maximum. This determines
C that the incoming column J will reduce the residual vector
C and be positive.
C
290 WMAX = 0.D0
IWMAX = NSOLN + 1
DO 300 J = NSOLN+1,N
IF (WD(J).GT.WMAX) THEN
WMAX = WD(J)
IWMAX = J
ENDIF
300 CONTINUE
IF (WMAX.LE.0.D0) GO TO 330
C
C Set dual coefficients to zero for incoming column.
C
WD(IWMAX) = 0.D0
C
C WMAX .GT. 0.D0, so okay to move column IWMAX to solution set.
C Perform transformation to retriangularize, and test for near
C linear dependence.
C
C Swap column IWMAX into NSOLN-th position to maintain upper
C Hessenberg form of adjacent columns, and add new column to
C triangular decomposition.
C
NSOLN = NSOLN + 1
NIV = NIV + 1
IF (NSOLN.NE.IWMAX) THEN
CALL DSWAP (M, W(1,NSOLN), 1, W(1,IWMAX), 1)
WD(IWMAX) = WD(NSOLN)
WD(NSOLN) = 0.D0
ITEMP = IPIVOT(NSOLN)
IPIVOT(NSOLN) = IPIVOT(IWMAX)
IPIVOT(IWMAX) = ITEMP
ENDIF
C
C Reduce column NSOLN so that the matrix of nonactive constraints
C variables is triangular.
C
DO 320 J = M,NIV+1,-1
JP = J - 1
C
C When operating near the ME line, test to see if the pivot
C element is near zero. If so, use the largest element above
C it as the pivot. This is to maintain the sharp interface
C between weighted and non-weighted rows in all cases.
C
IF (J.EQ.ME+1) THEN
IMAX = ME
AMAX = SCALE(ME)*W(ME,NSOLN)**2
DO 310 JP = J - 1,NIV,-1
T = SCALE(JP)*W(JP,NSOLN)**2
IF (T.GT.AMAX) THEN
IMAX = JP
AMAX = T
ENDIF
310 CONTINUE
JP = IMAX
ENDIF
C
IF (W(J,NSOLN).NE.0.D0) THEN
CALL DROTMG (SCALE(JP), SCALE(J), W(JP,NSOLN),
+ W(J,NSOLN), SPARAM)
W(J,NSOLN) = 0.D0
CALL DROTM (N+1-NSOLN, W(JP,NSOLN+1), MDW, W(J,NSOLN+1),
+ MDW, SPARAM)
ENDIF
320 CONTINUE
C
C Solve for Z(NSOLN)=proposed new value for X(NSOLN). Test if
C this is nonpositive or too large. If this was true or if the
C pivot term was zero, reject the column as dependent.
C
IF (W(NIV,NSOLN).NE.0.D0) THEN
ISOL = NIV
Z2 = W(ISOL,N+1)/W(ISOL,NSOLN)
Z(NSOLN) = Z2
POS = Z2 .GT. 0.D0
IF (Z2*EANORM.GE.BNORM .AND. POS) THEN
POS = .NOT. (BLOWUP*Z2*EANORM.GE.BNORM)
ENDIF
C
C Try to add row ME+1 as an additional equality constraint.
C Check size of proposed new solution component.
C Reject it if it is too large.
C
ELSEIF (NIV.LE.ME .AND. W(ME+1,NSOLN).NE.0.D0) THEN
ISOL = ME + 1
IF (POS) THEN
C
C Swap rows ME+1 and NIV, and scale factors for these rows.
C
CALL DSWAP (N+1, W(ME+1,1), MDW, W(NIV,1), MDW)
CALL DSWAP (1, SCALE(ME+1), 1, SCALE(NIV), 1)
ITEMP = ITYPE(ME+1)
ITYPE(ME+1) = ITYPE(NIV)
ITYPE(NIV) = ITEMP
ME = ME + 1
ENDIF
ELSE
POS = .FALSE.
ENDIF
C
IF (.NOT.POS) THEN
NSOLN = NSOLN - 1
NIV = NIV - 1
ENDIF
IF (.NOT.(POS.OR.DONE)) GO TO 290
ENDIF
GO TO 160
C
C Else perform multiplier test and drop a constraint. To compute
C final solution. Solve system, store results in X(*).
C
C Copy right hand side into TEMP vector to use overwriting method.
C
330 ISOL = 1
IF (NSOLN.GE.ISOL) THEN
CALL DCOPY (NIV, W(1,N+1), 1, TEMP, 1)
DO 340 J = NSOLN,ISOL,-1
IF (J.GT.KRANK) THEN
I = NIV - NSOLN + J
ELSE
I = J
ENDIF
C
IF (J.GT.KRANK .AND. J.LE.L) THEN
Z(J) = 0.D0
ELSE
Z(J) = TEMP(I)/W(I,J)
CALL DAXPY (I-1, -Z(J), W(1,J), 1, TEMP, 1)
ENDIF
340 CONTINUE
ENDIF
C
C Solve system.
C
CALL DCOPY (NSOLN, Z, 1, X, 1)
C
C Apply Householder transformations to X(*) if KRANK.LT.L
C
IF (KRANK.LT.L) THEN
DO 350 I = 1,KRANK
CALL DH12 (2, I, KRANK+1, L, W(I,1), MDW, H(I), X, 1, 1, 1)
350 CONTINUE
ENDIF
C
C Fill in trailing zeroes for constrained variables not in solution.
C
IF (NSOLN.LT.N) CALL DCOPY (N-NSOLN, 0.D0, 0, X(NSOLN+1), 1)
C
C Permute solution vector to natural order.
C
DO 380 I = 1,N
J = I
360 IF (IPIVOT(J).EQ.I) GO TO 370
J = J + 1
GO TO 360
C
370 IPIVOT(J) = IPIVOT(I)
IPIVOT(I) = J
CALL DSWAP (1, X(J), 1, X(I), 1)
380 CONTINUE
C
C Rescale the solution using the column scaling.
C
DO 390 J = 1,N
X(J) = X(J)*D(J)
390 CONTINUE
C
DO 400 I = NSOLN+1,M
T = W(I,N+1)
IF (I.LE.ME) T = T/ALAMDA
T = (SCALE(I)*T)*T
RNORM = RNORM + T
400 CONTINUE
C
RNORM = SQRT(RNORM)
RETURN
END