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The computation of an inner product of two vectors can be easily parallelized; each processor computes the inner product of corresponding segments of each vector (local inner products or LIPs). On distributed-memory machines the LIPs then have to be sent to other processors to be combined for the global inner product. This can be done either with an all-to-all send where every processor performs the summation of the LIPs, or by a global accumulation in one processor, followed by a broadcast of the final result. Clearly, this step requires communication.
For shared-memory machines, the accumulation of LIPs can be implemented as a critical section where all processors add their local result in turn to the global result, or as a piece of serial code, where one processor performs the summations.