subroutine cocosp(m,x,y,w,n,t,e,maxtr,maxbin,c,sq,sx,bind,wrk,
* lwrk,iwrk,kwrk,ier)
c given the set of data points (x(i),y(i)) and the set of positive
c numbers w(i),i=1,2,...,m, subroutine cocosp determines the weighted
c least-squares cubic spline s(x) with given knots t(j),j=1,2,...,n
c which satisfies the following concavity/convexity conditions
c s''(t(j+3))*e(j) <= 0, j=1,2,...n-6
c the fit is given in the b-spline representation( b-spline coef-
c ficients c(j),j=1,2,...n-4) and can be evaluated by means of
c subroutine splev.
c
c calling sequence:
c call cocosp(m,x,y,w,n,t,e,maxtr,maxbin,c,sq,sx,bind,wrk,
c * lwrk,iwrk,kwrk,ier)
c
c parameters:
c m : integer. on entry m must specify the number of data points.
c m > 3. unchanged on exit.
c x : real array of dimension at least (m). before entry, x(i)
c must be set to the i-th value of the independent variable x,
c for i=1,2,...,m. these values must be supplied in strictly
c ascending order. unchanged on exit.
c y : real array of dimension at least (m). before entry, y(i)
c must be set to the i-th value of the dependent variable y,
c for i=1,2,...,m. unchanged on exit.
c w : real array of dimension at least (m). before entry, w(i)
c must be set to the i-th value in the set of weights. the
c w(i) must be strictly positive. unchanged on exit.
c n : integer. on entry n must contain the total number of knots
c of the cubic spline. m+4>=n>=8. unchanged on exit.
c t : real array of dimension at least (n). before entry, this
c array must contain the knots of the spline, i.e. the position
c of the interior knots t(5),t(6),...,t(n-4) as well as the
c position of the boundary knots t(1),t(2),t(3),t(4) and t(n-3)
c t(n-2),t(n-1),t(n) needed for the b-spline representation.
c unchanged on exit. see also the restrictions (ier=10).
c e : real array of dimension at least (n). before entry, e(j)
c must be set to 1 if s(x) must be locally concave at t(j+3),
c to (-1) if s(x) must be locally convex at t(j+3) and to 0
c if no convexity constraint is imposed at t(j+3),j=1,2,..,n-6.
c e(n-5),...,e(n) are not used. unchanged on exit.
c maxtr : integer. on entry maxtr must contain an over-estimate of the
c total number of records in the used tree structure, to indic-
c ate the storage space available to the routine. maxtr >=1
c in most practical situation maxtr=100 will be sufficient.
c always large enough is
c n-5 n-6
c maxtr = ( ) + ( ) with l the greatest
c l l+1
c integer <= (n-6)/2 . unchanged on exit.
c maxbin: integer. on entry maxbin must contain an over-estimate of the
c number of knots where s(x) will have a zero second derivative
c maxbin >=1. in most practical situation maxbin = 10 will be
c sufficient. always large enough is maxbin=n-6.
c unchanged on exit.
c c : real array of dimension at least (n).
c on succesful exit, this array will contain the coefficients
c c(1),c(2),..,c(n-4) in the b-spline representation of s(x)
c sq : real. on succesful exit, sq contains the weighted sum of
c squared residuals of the spline approximation returned.
c sx : real array of dimension at least m. on succesful exit
c this array will contain the spline values s(x(i)),i=1,...,m
c bind : logical array of dimension at least (n). on succesful exit
c this array will indicate the knots where s''(x)=0, i.e.
c s''(t(j+3)) .eq. 0 if bind(j) = .true.
c s''(t(j+3)) .ne. 0 if bind(j) = .false., j=1,2,...,n-6
c wrk : real array of dimension at least m*4+n*7+maxbin*(maxbin+n+1)
c used as working space.
c lwrk : integer. on entry,lwrk must specify the actual dimension of
c the array wrk as declared in the calling (sub)program.lwrk
c must not be too small (see wrk). unchanged on exit.
c iwrk : integer array of dimension at least (maxtr*4+2*(maxbin+1))
c used as working space.
c kwrk : integer. on entry,kwrk must specify the actual dimension of
c the array iwrk as declared in the calling (sub)program. kwrk
c must not be too small (see iwrk). unchanged on exit.
c ier : integer. error flag
c ier=0 : succesful exit.
c ier>0 : abnormal termination: no approximation is returned
c ier=1 : the number of knots where s''(x)=0 exceeds maxbin.
c probably causes : maxbin too small.
c ier=2 : the number of records in the tree structure exceeds
c maxtr.
c probably causes : maxtr too small.
c ier=3 : the algoritm finds no solution to the posed quadratic
c programming problem.
c probably causes : rounding errors.
c ier=10 : on entry, the input data are controlled on validity.
c the following restrictions must be satisfied
c m>3, maxtr>=1, maxbin>=1, 8<=n<=m+4,w(i) > 0,
c x(1)=maxtr*4+2*(maxbin+1),
c lwrk>=m*4+n*7+maxbin*(maxbin+n+1),
c the schoenberg-whitney conditions, i.e. there must
c be a subset of data points xx(j) such that
c t(j) < xx(j) < t(j+4), j=1,2,...,n-4
c if one of these restrictions is found to be violated
c control is immediately repassed to the calling program
c
c
c other subroutines required:
c fpcosp,fpbspl,fpadno,fpdeno,fpseno,fpfrno,fpchec
c
c references:
c dierckx p. : an algorithm for cubic spline fitting with convexity
c constraints, computing 24 (1980) 349-371.
c dierckx p. : an algorithm for least-squares cubic spline fitting
c with convexity and concavity constraints, report tw39,
c dept. computer science, k.u.leuven, 1978.
c dierckx p. : curve and surface fitting with splines, monographs on
c numerical analysis, oxford university press, 1993.
c
c author:
c p. dierckx
c dept. computer science, k.u.leuven
c celestijnenlaan 200a, b-3001 heverlee, belgium.
c e-mail : Paul.Dierckx@cs.kuleuven.ac.be
c
c creation date : march 1978
c latest update : march 1987.
c
c ..
c ..scalar arguments..
real sq
integer m,n,maxtr,maxbin,lwrk,kwrk,ier
c ..array arguments..
real x(m),y(m),w(m),t(n),e(n),c(n),sx(m),wrk(lwrk)
integer iwrk(kwrk)
logical bind(n)
c ..local scalars..
integer i,ia,ib,ic,iq,iu,iz,izz,ji,jib,jjb,jl,jr,ju,kwest,
* lwest,mb,nm,n6
real one
c ..
c set constant
one = 0.1e+01
c before starting computations a data check is made. if the input data
c are invalid, control is immediately repassed to the calling program.
ier = 10
if(m.lt.4 .or. n.lt.8) go to 40
if(maxtr.lt.1 .or. maxbin.lt.1) go to 40
lwest = 7*n+m*4+maxbin*(1+n+maxbin)
kwest = 4*maxtr+2*(maxbin+1)
if(lwrk.lt.lwest .or. kwrk.lt.kwest) go to 40
if(w(1).le.0.) go to 40
do 10 i=2,m
if(x(i-1).ge.x(i) .or. w(i).le.0.) go to 40
10 continue
call fpchec(x,m,t,n,3,ier)
if(ier) 40,20,40
c set numbers e(i)
20 n6 = n-6
do 30 i=1,n6
if(e(i).gt.0.) e(i) = one
if(e(i).lt.0.) e(i) = -one
30 continue
c we partition the working space and determine the spline approximation
nm = n+maxbin
mb = maxbin+1
ia = 1
ib = ia+4*n
ic = ib+nm*maxbin
iz = ic+n
izz = iz+n
iu = izz+n
iq = iu+maxbin
ji = 1
ju = ji+maxtr
jl = ju+maxtr
jr = jl+maxtr
jjb = jr+maxtr
jib = jjb+mb
call fpcosp(m,x,y,w,n,t,e,maxtr,maxbin,c,sq,sx,bind,nm,mb,wrk(ia),
* wrk(ib),wrk(ic),wrk(iz),wrk(izz),wrk(iu),wrk(iq),iwrk(ji),
* iwrk(ju),iwrk(jl),iwrk(jr),iwrk(jjb),iwrk(jib),ier)
40 return
end