The TOP25 list of supercomputer sites is given in Table 1. This list has been established by simply adding the LINPACK performance in Gflop/s of all supercomputers installed at a given site. Generally under a ``site" we have combined supercomputers, which are installed in the same geographical location, and belong to the same organizational unit. Thus all machines belonging to a university on the same campus were added, even though they might be in different departments.
|1||1||National Aerospace Lab. (NAL), Tokyo||1, 116, 278||184.4|
|2||11||Oak Ridge National Laboratory||3, 54, 102, 405, 499||159.9|
|3||7||National Security Agency||4, 57, 74, 173, 193, 254, 334||156.5|
|4||2||Los Alamos National Laboratory||10, 16, 37, 119, 120||155.4|
|5||12||Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque||2||143.4|
|6||4||University of Minnesota||13, 17, 164, 227, 346, 347,||124.6|
|7||Natl. Lab. High Energy Physics, Japan||5||98.9|
|8||Cornell Theory Center||6, 285, 312||96.0|
|9||Tokyo University||15, 29, 361||83.8|
|10||Maui HPCC||8, 110, 402, 403||83.7|
|11||24||Japan Atomic Energy Commission||11, 142, 188, 274, 275||75.9|
|12||Tohuku University||41, 43, 83, 98||71.3|
|13||22||Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center||18, 81||64.5|
|14||6||NASA Ames Research Center||26, 78, 145, 163, 496||59.4|
|15||13||Atmospheric Env. Serv., Dorval, Canada||39, 45, 52||58.7|
|16||Nagoya University||12, 279||58.5|
|17||3||US Government, Classified||70, 71, 72, 73||54.8|
|18||18||National Genetics Res. Japan||14||52.1|
|19||10||Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory||36, 77, 221, 223, 446||51.9|
|20||US Government, Classified||123, 124, 130, 131, 132, 133||50.1|
|21||Angstrom Partnership, Japan||19, 135||50.1|
|22||5||NCSA, Univ. of Illinois||24, 146, 261, 262, 357||49.9|
|23||Jet Propulsion Laboratory||31, 139, 240, 470||40.5|
The list does not contain any of the vendor machines. Most of the supercomputer vendors have substantial compute capabilities, which would make the TOP25 centers list. However, the intent of this list is to give an indication where most compute power in terms of scientific and research applications is concentrated. Therefore we decided to list the vendors separately in Table 2.
Finally we note that there a no European sites among the TOP25. Details on the European Centers can be found in a companion article. Most of the top European centers are occupying ranks between 25 and 50 worldwide, starting with the University of Edinburgh at rank 28.
In all tables the column ``machines" lists the machines whose performance have been added to reach the total performance for a site. The integers refer to the ranking of these supercomputers on the TOP500 list. The performance column lists the aggregate performance of all the machines at the site in LINPACK -Gflop/s. An overview of many of the supercomputers in use is .
There are several intriguing observations one can make from Table 1. In order to qualify as a top supercomputer site, and installation must have at least a machine with more than 35 Gflop/s performance. Two years ago the cutoff was only 13.7 Gflop/s, and 35 Gflop/s would have placed an institution on rank seven. There has been a tremendous acceleration of available cycles at the top supercomputer centers.
Another significant change is in the geographical distribution. Whereas two years ago there were only four Japanese sites on the TOP25 list, there are now ten sites in 1995. This can be (in part) attributed to an agressive investment in supercomputing technology in Japanese research institutes and universities in early 1994, which led to a wave of supercomputer installations. On the other hand there are currently no European sites among the TOP25.
The list also shows how much U.S. government spending dominates the supercomputing world. All 14 U.S. sites directly or indirectly are funded by the U.S. government. There are 10 U.S. government laboratories/centers (4 Department of Energy, 3 classified, 2 NASA, 1 Dept. of Defense), and the four U.S. universities receive their support for supercomputers from the NSF or DoD (Minnesota). However, also the foreign sites are also all falling into the same category, and are government institutions in their countries.